232,165 results match your criteria Exercise Physiology


Association of Exercise and Swimming Goggles With Modulation of Cerebro-ocular Hemodynamics and Pressures in a Model of Spaceflight-Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Integrated Cardiovascular Exercise Physiology and Rehabilitation Laboratory, College of Nursing and Health Innovation, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington.

Importance: Astronauts on International Space Station missions demonstrate adverse neuro-ocular changes. Reversing a negative translaminar pressure gradient (TLPG) by modulating cerebral blood flow, decreasing intracranial pressure, or increasing intraocular pressure (IOP) has been proposed as potential intervention for spaceflight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS).

Objective: To examine whether exercise (resistance, moderate-intensity aerobic, and high-intensity aerobic) or artificially increasing IOP is associated with modulated cerebro-ocular hemodynamic and pressure changes during head-down tilt (HDT), an analogue of spaceflight, in healthy adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2019.0459DOI Listing

Endurance Exercise Prevents Metabolic Distress-induced Senescence in the Hippocampus.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Molecular and Cellular Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Movement Sciences and Health, Usha Kundu, MD College of Health, University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL.

Purpose: Metabolic disorder such as obesity and type 2 diabetes caused by excess caloric intake is associated with an increased risk of neurodegenerative diseases. Endurance exercise (EXE) has been suggested to exert neuroprotective effects against the metabolic distress. However, the exact underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the exercise-induced neuroprotection has not been fully elucidated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002011DOI Listing

Revisiting the influence of individual factors on heat exchange during exercise in dry heat using direct calorimetry.

Exp Physiol 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Human and Environmental Physiology Research Unit, School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? To identify the greatest contributor(s) to the variation in whole-body heat exchange, as assessed using direct calorimetry, among young men and women with heterogeneous characteristics during exercise at increasing metabolic heat production rates in dry-heat. What is the main finding and its importance? The evaporative heat loss requirement, body morphology and aerobic fitness contributed greatest to the individual variation in evaporative and dry heat exchange, with the variance explained being exercise intensity-dependent. These findings provide a foundation to build our ability to explain the individual variation in heat exchange during exercise-heat stress. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1113/EP087666
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087666DOI Listing
April 2019
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Effect of high polyphenol extra virgin olive oil on markers of cardiovascular disease risk in healthy Australian adults (OLIVAUS): A protocol for a double-blind randomised, controlled, cross-over study.

Nutr Diet 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Dietetics, Nutrition and Sport, School of Allied Health, Human Services and Sport, College of Science, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Previous clinical studies have suggested that high polyphenol extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) provides a superior cardioprotective effect compared to low polyphenol olive oil. However, further studies are required to replicate these results in non-Mediterranean populations.

Aim: To investigate the effect of high polyphenol EVOO versus low polyphenol olive oil with known polyphenol composition on markers of cardiovascular disease risk in a healthy non-Mediterranean cohort. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1747-0080.12
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1747-0080.12531DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Strength training and running elicit different neuroprotective outcomes in a β-amyloid peptide-mediated Alzheimer's disease model.

Physiol Behav 2019 Apr 14. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

Applied Neuromechanics Group, Federal University of Pampa, Uruguaiana, 97501-970, Brazil. Electronic address:

Aerobic exercise induces neuroprotection, but few studies investigated whether strength training has similar potential. Here we examine whether effects of strength training differ from those of running training concerning cognitive symptomatology, oxidative stress and cholinergic status in a model of AD-like cognitive impairment induced by intrahippocampal infusion of a mix of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) in rats. Male Wistar rats were submitted to 8 weeks of running exercise (RunEx; 40 min sessions at 70% of indirect VO max, 3 times/week) or strength exercise (StrEx; 3 sessions/week, 12 repetitions in 8 sets, 2 sets with repetitions at 50%, 2 at 75%, 2 at 90% and 2 at 100% of the maximum load), followed by Aβ infusion in the dorsal hippocampus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.04.012DOI Listing

Skeletal Muscle mRNA Response to Hypobaric and Normobaric Hypoxia After Normoxic Endurance Exercise.

High Alt Med Biol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

1 Exercise Physiology Lab, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, Nebraska.

Ross, Caleb I., Robert J. Shute, Brent C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ham.2018.0147DOI Listing

Higher amounts of Sedentary Time are Associated with Short Sleep Duration and Poor Sleep Quality in Postmenopausal Women.

Sleep 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO.

Study Objectives: To evaluate the associations between sedentary time, total (total-PA), light (light-PA), moderate (MOD-PA), and vigorous (VIG-PA) physical activity with indices of sleep in postmenopausal women.

Methods: Baseline self-reported data from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (n=75,074) were used in this cross-sectional analysis. Total-PA, light-PA, MOD-PA, and VIG-PA were categorized by metabolic equivalents of the activity [MET-hour (hr)/week (wk)] and were estimated using validated questionnaires. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsz093DOI Listing

HbA1c and retinal arteriolar narrowing in children with type 1 diabetes: the DEAR-Kids study.

Pediatr Diabetes 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of General Paediatrics, Adolescent Medicine and Neonatology, Medical Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Background/objective: Microvascular alterations play a key role in the development of diabetes complications. Retinal vessel analysis is a unique method to examine microvascular changes in brain derived vessels.

Subjects/methods: 67 pediatric and adolescent type 1 diabetes patients and 58 healthy control persons (mean age 12. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/pedi.12858
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pedi.12858DOI Listing
April 2019
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Scaling of cardiac morphology is interrupted by birth in the developing sheep Ovis aries.

J Anat 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Zoological Sciences, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Scaling of the heart across development can reveal the degree to which variation in cardiac morphology depends on body mass. In this study, we assessed the scaling of heart mass, left and right ventricular masses, and ventricular mass ratio, as a function of eviscerated body mass across fetal and postnatal development in Horro sheep Ovis aries (~50-fold body mass range; N = 21). Whole hearts were extracted from carcasses, cleaned, dissected into chambers and weighed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.12990DOI Listing

Changes in biomarker levels and myofiber constitution in rat soleus muscle at different exercise intensities.

Mol Cell Biochem 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Integrative Physiology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma, 371-8511, Japan.

Although exercise affects the function and structure of skeletal muscle, our knowledge regarding the biomedical alterations induced by different intensities of exercise is incomplete. Here we report on the changes in biomarker levels and myofiber constitution in the rat soleus muscle induced by exercise intensity. Male adult rats at 7 weeks of age were divided into 3 groups by exercise intensity, which was set based on the accumulated lactate levels in the blood using a treadmill: stationary control (0 m/min), aerobic exercise (15 m/min), and anaerobic exercise (25 m/min). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-019-03532-9DOI Listing

A Twin Study of Genetic Influences on Nephrolithiasis in Women and Men.

Kidney Int Rep 2019 Apr 29;4(4):535-540. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Background: Nephrolithiasis is a complex phenotype influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Previously we found a genetic component to stone disease using a sample of male twin pairs. We now report on the genetic contribution to stones in a sample of female and male twin pairs. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S24680249183031
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2018.11.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451147PMC
April 2019
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Health need assessment in female adolescents, in Qom: A cross sectional study.

J Educ Health Promot 2019 15;8:39. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Background And Objective: Due to the young population of Iran, a significant number of teenagers in our country and the importance of the health of adolescents, especially teenage girls who are the mothers and the future-makers of the society, we designed this study to determine the health needs of adolescent girls living in the city of Qom.

Methodology: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, the research population included 853 student girls in the middle and high secondary grades in the city of Qom selected and participated in the study through a randomized multistage cluster sampling method. Data were collected by completing the demographic information questionnaire, and the adolescent girls' health needs questionnaire. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_11_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6432813PMC
February 2019
1 Read

The six-minute stepper test is related to muscle strength but cannot substitute for the one repetition maximum to prescribe strength training in patients with COPD.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2019 29;14:767-774. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Normandie University, UNIROUEN, UPRES EA 3830, Rouen University Hospital, Haute Normandie Research and Biomedical Innovation, Rouen, France,

Purpose: There are many barriers to pulmonary rehabilitation, including a limited access to evaluation centers. To cope with these difficulties, field tests are often used to prescribe endurance training. As field tests are related to muscle strength, they could also be used to prescribe strength training and increase the access to pulmonary rehabilitation in rural area. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S193585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445245PMC

RNA-sequencing reveals altered skeletal muscle contraction, E3 ligases, autophagy, apoptosis, and chaperone expression in patients with critical illness myopathy.

Skelet Muscle 2019 Apr 16;9(1). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Bioclinicum, J8:30, SE-171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Critical illness myopathy (CIM) is associated with severe skeletal muscle wasting and impaired function in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The mechanisms underlying CIM remain incompletely understood. To elucidate the biological activities occurring at the transcriptional level in the skeletal muscle of ICU patients with CIM, the gene expression profiles, potential upstream regulators, and enrichment pathways were characterized using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Read More

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https://skeletalmusclejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13395-019-0194-1DOI Listing
April 2019
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The Effects of Acute and Chronic Aerobic Activity on the Signaling Pathway of the Inflammasome NLRP3 Complex in Young Men.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2019 Apr 15;55(4). Epub 2019 Apr 15.

IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Laboratory of Experimental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, via Riccardo Galeazzi 4, 20161 Milano, Italia.

: The results of the studies show that the intensity and volume of aerobic exercise activity produce different responses of the immune system. This study aims to show how the signaling pathway of the inflammatory NLRP3 complex is influenced by the acute and chronic effects of moderate and high-intensity aerobic exercises in young men. : Accordingly, 60 healthy (BMI = 23. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/1010-660X/55/4/105
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina55040105DOI Listing
April 2019
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The Relationship of Age and BMI with Physical Fitness in Futsal Players.

Sports (Basel) 2019 Apr 15;7(4). Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland.

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of age and body mass status with field and laboratory measures of physical fitness in futsal players. Futsal players ( = 65, age 12.9 ± 2. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2075-4663/7/4/87
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/sports7040087DOI Listing
April 2019
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EFFECTS OF TRAINING, DETRAINING, AND RETRAINING ON STRENGTH, HYPERTROPHY, AND MYONUCLEAR NUMBER IN HUMAN SKELETAL MUSCLE.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, Norway, Norway.

Previously trained mouse muscles acquire strength and volume faster than naïve muscles; it has been suggested that this is related to increased myonuclear density. The present study aimed to determine whether a previously strength-trained leg (mem-leg) would respond better to a period of strength training than a previously untrained leg (con-leg). Nine men and 10 women performed unilateral strength training (T1) for 10 weeks, followed by 20 weeks of detraining (DT) and a 5-week bilateral retraining period (T2). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00917.2018DOI Listing

micro(RNA)-managing muscle wasting.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

IACD, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Progressive skeletal muscle wasting is a natural consequence of aging and is common in chronic and acute diseases. Loss of skeletal muscle mass and function (strength) often leads to frailty, decreased independence and increased risk of hospitalization. Despite progress made in our understanding of mechanisms underlying muscle wasting, there is still no treatment available, with exercise training and dietary supplementation improving, but not restoring muscle mass and/or function. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/japplphysiol.00961.20
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00961.2018DOI Listing
April 2019
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Mitochondrial Theory of Skeletal Muscle Ageing - New Facts, New Doubts.

J Vet Res 2019 Mar 22;63(1):149-160. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Animal Physiology, Physiotherapy and Nutrition, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology, UTP University of Science and Technology, 85-084 Bydgoszcz, Poland.

For many years, scientists have been pursuing research on skeletal muscle ageing both in humans and animals. Studies on animal models have extended our knowledge of this mechanism in humans. Most researchers agree that the major processes of muscle ageing occur in the mitochondria as the major energy production centres in muscle cells. Read More

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https://content.sciendo.com/view/journals/jvetres/63/1/artic
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jvetres-2019-0015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458556PMC
March 2019
1 Read

The Differences in Pacing Among Age Groups of Amateur Cross-Country Skiers Depend on Performance.

J Hum Kinet 2019 Mar 27;66:165-173. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Pacing strategies have mainly been investigated for runners, but little is known for cross-country skiers. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of performance and age on pacing strategies in cross-country skiing. All finishers (women, n = 19,375; men, n = 86,190) in the 'Engadin Ski Marathon' (42 km) between 1998 and 2016 were analysed for the percentage change of speed at 10 km (Change A), 20 km (Change B) and 35 km (Change C). Read More

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http://content.sciendo.com/view/journals/hukin/66/1/article-
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2018-0055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458588PMC
March 2019
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Characterization of the Weekly External Load Profile of Professional Soccer Teams from Portugal and the Netherlands.

J Hum Kinet 2019 Mar 27;66:155-164. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Benfica Lab, Sport Lisboa e Benfica, Lisbon, Portugal.

The purpose of this study was to analyze the day-to-day variance of a typical weekly external training workload of two professional soccer teams from different countries. Twenty-nine players from two professional teams from Portugal and the Netherlands participated in this study. The players' external load was monitored for 7 weeks, by means of portable GPS devices (10 Hz, JOHAN, Noordwijk, Netherlands). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2018-0054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458578PMC

Unilateral Knee and Ankle Joint Fatigue Induce Similar Impairment to Bipedal Balance in Judo Athletes.

J Hum Kinet 2019 Mar 27;66:7-18. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

School of Human Kinetics and Recreation, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada, A1M 3L8.

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of unilateral ankle fatigue versus the knee muscles with and without vision on bipedal postural control. Elite judo athletes who competed at the national level with at least 10 years of training experience, were randomised into KNEE (n = 10; 20 ± 2 years) and ANKLE (n = 9; 20 ± 3 years) groups, who performed dynamic isokinetic fatiguing contractions (force decreased to 50% of initial peak torque for three consecutive movements) of the knee flexors and extensors or ankle dorsiflexors and plantar flexors, respectively. Static bipedal postural control (French Posturology Association normative standards) with eyes open and eyes closed was examined before and immediately after the fatiguing task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2018-0063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458584PMC

Kettlebell Exercise as an Alternative to Improve Aerobic Power and Muscle Strength.

J Hum Kinet 2019 Mar 27;66:5-6. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Centro de Educação Física e Desportos (CEFD), Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES), Vitória/ES, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2018-0062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458586PMC

Association of ACE gene polymorphism with cardiovascular determinants of trained and untrained Iranian men.

Genes Environ 2019 4;41. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

2Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Guilan, P.O. Box: 41635-1438, Rasht, Iran.

Background: The insertion (I) rather than deletion (D) of human angiotensin converting enzyme gene (ACE) is associated with lower circulating ACE activity and with endurance performance among Caucasians. The frequency of the ACE gene I/D allele in Iranian sample seems to be more similar to the Caucasians. To assess the possible relationship between I/D polymorphism of ACE gene with athletic status and selected cardiovascular indices and VO in an Iranian population, DNA samples were obtained from 57 trained and untrained men, with soccer as their main training modality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41021-019-0126-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448307PMC

Aspects of exercise with person-centred guidance influencing the transition to independent exercise: a qualitative interview study among older adults with rheumatoid arthritis.

Eur Rev Aging Phys Act 2019 5;16. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

1Department of Health and Rehabilitation, Unit of Physiotherapy, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Box 455, 405 30 Göteborg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Besides being health enhancing and disease preventing, exercise is also an important part of the management of chronic conditions, including the inflammatory joint disease rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, older adults with RA present a lower level of physical activity than healthy older adults. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore aspects of participation in moderate- to high-intensity exercise with person-centred guidance influencing the transition to independent exercise for older adults with RA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11556-019-0211-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449916PMC

Effects of combined swimming exercise and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on inflammatory nociception in rats.

Exp Ther Med 2019 May 20;17(5):4303-4311. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Anatomy and Histology, School of Medicine, University of Jordan, Irbid 22110, Jordan.

Pain is a growing health problem with an increasing prevalence, and represents a large burden worldwide. Pain control can be achieved through pharmacological and non-pharmacological (such as exercise) interventions. The prolonged use of analgesics, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), is accompanied by numerous side effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2019.7413DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447921PMC

Changes in Jumping and Throwing Performances in Age-Group Athletes Competing in the European Masters Athletics Championships between 1978 and 2017.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 Apr 3;16(7). Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, 8006 Zurich, Switzerland.

The results of master athletes have been used previously to examine the age-related differences in aerobic capacity, however, less research has been conducted on the variation of jumping and throwing performances with aging. Therefore, the aim of the present study of elite master athletes was to investigate (a) the age-related differences in throwing (i.e. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/7/1200
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071200DOI Listing
April 2019
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Differing Water Intake and Hydration Status in Three European Countries-A Day-to-Day Analysis.

Nutrients 2019 Apr 3;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Institute of Biochemistry, German Sport University Cologne, 50933 Cologne, Germany.

Adequate hydration is essential for maintaining health and functionality of the human body. Studies assessing both daily water intake and hydration status are lacking. This study explored data from the European Hydration Research Study (EHRS) and focused on total water intake (TWI), 24 h hydration status, and day-to-day variations in a sample of 573 healthy adults. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/11/4/773
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11040773DOI Listing
April 2019
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Validity of Self-Reported Body Mass, Height, and Body Mass Index in Female Students: The Role of Physical Activity Level, Menstrual Cycle Phase, and Time of Day.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 Apr 3;16(7). Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Gesundheitszentrum St. Gallen, 9001 St. Gallen, Switzerland.

A large part of research using questionnaires for female university students relies on self-reported body mass, height, and body mass index (BMI) data; however, the validity of these data in this population group is unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine the validity of self-reported body mass, height, and BMI in female students. Female students of biomedical sciences ( = 93, age 21. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071192DOI Listing

Exercise-Induced Mitophagy in Skeletal Muscle and Heart.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Departments of Medicine.

Regular exercise enhances mitochondrial function by promoting healthy mitochondrial remodeling, but the underlying mechanisms are not thoroughly understood. An emerging hypothesis suggests that, in addition to anabolic events such as mitochondria biogenesis, the selective degradation of dysfunctional mitochondria (i.e. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00003677-900000000-9974
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000192DOI Listing
April 2019
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Exercise-induced myokine FNDC5/irisin functions in cardiovascular protection and intracerebral retrieval of synaptic plasticity.

Cell Biosci 2019 3;9:32. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

1Laboratory of Cell Biology, Genetics and Developmental Biology, Shaanxi Normal University College of Life Sciences, Xi'an, 710062 China.

Physical exercise is well known to benefit human health at every age. However, the exact mechanism through which physical exercise improves health remains unknown. Recent studies into exercise-induced myokine FNDC5/irisin, a newly discovered hormone, have begun to shed light on this mystery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13578-019-0294-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446275PMC

Incorporation of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Into Human Skeletal Muscle Sarcolemmal and Mitochondrial Membranes Following 12 Weeks of Fish Oil Supplementation.

Front Physiol 2019 29;10:348. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.

Fish oil (FO) supplementation in humans results in the incorporation of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C20:6) into skeletal muscle membranes. However, despite the importance of membrane composition in structure-function relationships, a paucity of information exists regarding how different muscle membranes/organelles respond to FO supplementation. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the effects 12 weeks of FO supplementation (3g EPA/2g DHA daily) on the phospholipid composition of sarcolemmal and mitochondrial fractions, as well as whole muscle responses, in healthy young males. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449797PMC

Nutritional Ketoacidosis During Incremental Exercise in Healthy Athletes.

Front Physiol 2019 29;10:290. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Ketosis, achieved through ingestion of ketone esters, may influence endurance exercise capacity by altering substrate metabolism. However, the effects of ketone consumption on acid-base status and subsequent metabolic and respiratory compensations are poorly described. Twelve athletically trained individuals completed an incremental bicycle ergometer exercise test to exhaustion following the consumption of either a ketone ester [-3-hydroxybutyrate--1,3-butanediol] or a taste-matched control drink (bitter flavoured water) in a blinded, cross-over study. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fphys.2019.00290
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450328PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Effects of Ongoing Feedback During a 12-Month Maintenance Walking Program on Daily Physical Activity in People with COPD.

Lung 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia.

This multi-centred, randomised controlled trial explored the effects of adding ongoing feedback to a 12-month unsupervised maintenance walking program, on daily physical activity (PA) in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Participants were randomised to either an intervention group (IG) or a usual care group (UCG). During the maintenance program, the IG received ongoing feedback (telephone calls, biofeedback provided via pedometer and progressive goal setting) and the UCG received no feedback. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00408-019-00216-5DOI Listing

Effect of prehabilitation on ventilatory efficiency in non-small cell lung cancer patients: A cohort study.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Respiratory and Exercise Physiology and CIC-CRB 1404, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, France.

Objective: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) for patients awaiting lung resection for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has developed considerably in recent years. Pulmonary rehabilitation before surgery (prehabilitation) improves postoperative risk factors such as forced expiratory volume in 1 second and peak oxygen consumption (VO). Ventilatory inefficiency assessed according to the linear regression of the ratio between the increase in minute ventilation and the expired carbon dioxide flow during CPET (VE/VCO slope) >35, is a high-risk factor for postoperative complications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2019.02.016DOI Listing
February 2019

Cardiomyocyte PKA Ablation Enhances Basal Contractility While Eliminates Cardiac β-Adrenergic Response Without Adverse Effects on the Heart.

Circ Res 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Cardiovascular Research Center, Temple University School of Medicine.

Rationale: Protein Kinase A (PKA) is a major mediator of β-adrenergic (βAR) regulation of cardiac function but other mediators have also been suggested. Reduced PKA basal activity and activation are linked to cardiac diseases. However, how complete loss of PKA activity impacts on cardiac physiology and if it causes cardiac dysfunction have never been determined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.118.313417DOI Listing

Exercise as a potential modulator of inflammation in patients with Alzheimer's disease measured in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma.

Exp Gerontol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Danish Dementia Research Centre, Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

Background: Neuroinflammation is recognized as part of the pathological progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the molecular mechanisms are still not entirely clear. Systemically, physical exercise has shown to have a positive modulating effect on markers of inflammation. It is not known if this general effect also takes place in the central nervous system in AD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2019.04.003DOI Listing

Morphing mitochondria: Understanding the development of the mitochondrial reticulum in skeletal muscle.

Authors:
Terence E Ryan

J Physiol 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/JP278057DOI Listing

Resistance training as a treatment for older persons with peripheral artery disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Br J Sports Med 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Physical Activity, Lifestyle, Ageing and Wellbeing Faculty Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales, Australia.

Objective: Resistance training (RT) improves walking ability in persons with peripheral artery disease. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of RT on peripheral artery disease (as measured by walking ability).

Design: We included RCTs that investigated the effect of RT on treadmill and/or 6 min walk (6-MWT) distances. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2018-100205DOI Listing

Fibre Intake Is Independently Associated with Increased Circulating Interleukin-22 in Individuals with Metabolic Syndrome.

Nutrients 2019 Apr 11;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 11.

School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia.

The positive effects of dietary fibre on gut barrier function and inflammation have not been completely elucidated. Mice studies show gut barrier disruption and diet-induced insulin resistance can be alleviated by cytokine interleukin-22 (IL-22). However, little is known about IL-22 in humans and its association with gut-beneficial nutrients like fibre. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11040815DOI Listing

Effect of heart rate on shooting performance in elite archers.

Heliyon 2019 Mar 29;5(3):e01428. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Near East University, Sport Sciences Faculty, Nicosia, North Cyprus, Mersin 10, Turkey.

Aim: The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of heart rate on shooting performance in elite archers.

Methods: Regularly trained 13 (7 female, 6 male) international level elite archers performed a (specific) protocol twice with 3 days interval in an indoor area. In order to raise the heart rate (HR) and related physiological stress the archers performed 4 sets of steady pace shuttle runs (males 10 km h; females 8 km h) for 3 minutes in a 20 m course following with 1 minute stop during which they performed 3 shots to 18 meter distance indoor target, and followed by 1 minute rest, where blood sample was collected from ear lobe for blood lactate (BL) analysis. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S24058440183697
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01428DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441821PMC
March 2019
7 Reads

Defective fatty acid oxidation in mice with muscle-specific acyl-CoA synthetase 1-deficiency increases amino acid use and impairs muscle function.

J Biol Chem 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

University of North Carolina, United States.

Loss of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase isoform-1 (ACSL1) in mouse skeletal muscle (Acsl1M-/-) severely reduces acyl-CoA synthetase activity and fatty acid oxidation. However, the effects of decreased fatty acid oxidation on skeletal muscle function, histology, use of alternative fuels, and mitochondrial function and morphology are unclear. We observed that Acsl1M-/- mice have impaired voluntary running capacity and muscle grip strength and that their gastrocnemius muscle contains myocytes with central nuclei, indicating muscle regeneration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA118.006790DOI Listing
April 2019
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Effects of exercise preconditioning and HSP72 on diaphragm muscle function during mechanical ventilation.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA.

Background: Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving measure for patients in respiratory failure. However, prolonged MV results in significant diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction, a condition referred to as ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction (VIDD). While there are currently no clinically approved countermeasures to prevent VIDD, increased expression of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) has been demonstrated to attenuate inactivity-induced muscle wasting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12427DOI Listing
April 2019
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7.413 Impact Factor

Assessment of Muscle Function and Physical Performance in Daily Clinical Practice : A position paper endorsed by the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ESCEO).

Calcif Tissue Int 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Nutrition, Exercise Physiology and Sarcopenia Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, USA.

It is well recognized that poor muscle function and poor physical performance are strong predictors of clinically relevant adverse events in older people. Given the large number of approaches to measure muscle function and physical performance, clinicians often struggle to choose a tool that is appropriate and validated for the population of older people they deal with. In this paper, an overview of different methods available and applicable in clinical settings is proposed. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00223-019-00545-w
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00223-019-00545-wDOI Listing
April 2019
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Oxygen Availability in Respiratory Muscles During Exercise in Children Following Fontan Operation.

Front Pediatr 2019 26;7:96. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Congenital Heart Defects, German Heart Centre, Munich, Germany.

As survival of previously considered as lethal congenital heart disease forms is the case in our days, issues regarding quality of life including sport and daily activities emerge. In patients with Fontan circulation, there is no pump to propel blood into the pulmonary arteries since the systemic veins are directly connected to the pulmonary arteries. The complex hemodynamics of Fontan circulation include atrial function, peripheral muscle pump, integrity of the atrioventricular valve, absence of restrictive, or obstructive pulmonary lung function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2019.00096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443956PMC
March 2019
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Pre-training Skeletal Muscle Fiber Size and Predominant Fiber Type Best Predict Hypertrophic Responses to 6 Weeks of Resistance Training in Previously Trained Young Men.

Front Physiol 2019 26;10:297. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, United States.

Limited evidence exists regarding differentially expressed biomarkers between previously-trained low versus high hypertrophic responders in response to resistance training. Herein, 30 college-aged males (training age 5 ± 3 years; mean ± SD) partook in 6 weeks of high-volume resistance training. Body composition, right leg vastus lateralis (VL) biopsies, and blood were obtained prior to training (PRE) and at the 3-week (W3) and 6-week time points (W6). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445136PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Treadmill Exercise Ameliorates Depression-Like Behavior in the Rats With Prenatal Dexamethasone Exposure: The Role of Hippocampal Mitochondria.

Front Neurosci 2019 26;13:264. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Physiology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Prenatal exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids (sGCs) can increase the risk of affective disorders, such as depression, in adulthood. Given that exercise training can ameliorate depression and improve mitochondrial function, we sought to investigate whether exercise can ameliorate depression-like behavior induced by prenatal sGC exposure and mitochondria function contributes to that behavior. At first, we confirmed that prenatal dexamethasone (Dex) administration in late pregnancy resulted in depression-like behavior and elevated level of circulatory corticosterone in adult offspring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2019.00264DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443890PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Strategies for optimising musculoskeletal health in the 21 century.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2019 Apr 11;20(1):164. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.

We live in a world with an ever-increasing ageing population. Studying healthy ageing and reducing the socioeconomic impact of age-related diseases is a key research priority for the industrialised and developing countries, along with a better mechanistic understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of ageing that occurs in a number of age-related musculoskeletal disorders. Arthritis and musculoskeletal disorders constitute a major cause of disability and morbidity globally and result in enormous costs for our health and social-care systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-019-2510-7DOI Listing
April 2019
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Skeletal muscle signaling responses to resistance exercise of the elbow extensors are not compromised by a preceding bout of aerobic exercise.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.

The current study examined the effects of a preceding bout of aerobic exercise (AE) on subsequent molecular signaling to resistance exercise (RE) of the elbow extensors. Eleven men performed unilateral elbow-extensor AE (~45 min at 70% peak workload) followed by unilateral RE (4×7 maximal repetitions) for both arms. Thus, one arm performed AE+RE interspersed by 15 min recovery, whereas the other arm conducted RE alone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00022.2019DOI Listing
April 2019
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Measuring and regulating oxygen levels in microphysiological systems: design, material, and sensor considerations.

Analyst 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 911 Oval Dr., Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 911 Oval Dr., Raleigh, NC 27695, USA.

As microfabrication techniques and tissue engineering methods improve, microphysiological systems (MPS) are being engineered that recapitulate complex physiological and pathophysiological states to supplement and challenge traditional animal models. Although MPS provide unique microenvironments that transcend common 2D cell culture, without proper regulation of oxygen content, MPS often fail to provide the biomimetic environment necessary to activate and investigate fundamental pathways of cellular metabolism and sub-cellular level. Oxygen exists in the human body in various concentrations and partial pressures; moreover, it fluctuates dramatically depending on fasting, exercise, and sleep patterns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8an02201aDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read