277,899 results match your criteria Exercise Physiology


Reliability of biological maturation analyses performed by equations predicting skeletal age and peak height velocity with hand and wrist X-ray results.

Am J Hum Biol 2022 Jun 25:e23775. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil.

Background: Hand-wrist radiography is the gold standard for the assessment of skeletal age (SA) and the assignment of biological maturation (BM) status. However, its practical use in the field is questioned, prompting the development of anthropometric equations to estimate BM. However, there is no consensus on the reliability of these equations in relation to hand-wrist X-rays. Read More

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Association between dietary acid load and metabolic health status in overweight and obese adolescents.

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 24;12(1):10799. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, PO Box 81745-151, Isfahan, Iran.

The relationship between dietary acid load (DAL) and metabolic health status in adolescents has not been studied yet. We aimed to examine the association between DAL and metabolic health status in Iranian overweight/obese adolescents. This cross-sectional study included 203 overweight/obese adolescents selected by a multistage cluster random sampling method. Read More

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Translational Significance of the LINE-1 Jumping Gene in Skeletal Muscle.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Center on the Biology of Aging, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.

Abstract: Retrotransposons are gene segments that proliferate in the genome, and the Long INterspersed Element 1 (LINE-1, or L1) retrotransposon is active in humans. Although older mammals show enhanced skeletal muscle L1 expression, exercise generally reverses this trend. We hypothesize skeletal muscle L1 expression affects muscle physiology, and additional innovative investigations are needed to confirm this hypothesis. Read More

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Sympathetic vasomotor outflow during low-intensity leg cycling in healthy older males.

Exp Physiol 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Toyo University, Kawagoe, Japan.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Sympathetic vasomotor outflow is reduced during low-intensity dynamic leg exercise in younger individuals. Does aging influence the sympathoinhibitory effect during low-intensity leg cycling? What is the main finding and its importance? Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during low-intensity cycling decreased in older males, as seen in young males. It is possible that cardiopulmonary baroreflex-mediated inhibition of sympathetic vasomotor outflow during dynamic leg exercise is preserved in healthy older males. Read More

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Biomechanics of running: A special reference to the comparisons of wearing boots and running shoes.

PLoS One 2022 24;17(6):e0270496. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Boots are often used in sports, occupations, and rehabilitation. However, there are few studies on the biomechanical alterations after wearing boots. The current study aimed to compare the effects of running shoes and boots on running biomechanics. Read More

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Biomarkers Predictive for In-Hospital Mortality in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and Prediabetes Hospitalized for COVID-19 in Austria: An Analysis of COVID-19 in Diabetes Registry.

Viruses 2022 Jun 13;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Interdisciplinary Metabolic Medicine Trials Unit, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical University of Graz, 8036 Graz, Austria.

Background: This study assessed the predictive performance of inflammatory, hepatic, coagulation, and cardiac biomarkers in patients with prediabetes and diabetes mellitus hospitalized for COVID-19 in Austria.

Methods: This was an analysis of a multicenter cohort study of 747 patients with diabetes mellitus or prediabetes hospitalized for COVID-19 in 11 hospitals in Austria. The primary outcome of this study was in-hospital mortality. Read More

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Glucose-Lowering Therapy beyond Insulin in Type 1 Diabetes: A Narrative Review on Existing Evidence from Randomized Controlled Trials and Clinical Perspective.

Pharmaceutics 2022 May 31;14(6). Epub 2022 May 31.

Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, 8036 Graz, Austria.

In Type 1 diabetes (T1D), according to the most recent guidelines, the everyday glucose-lowering treatment is still restricted to the use of subcutaneous insulin, while multiple therapeutic options exist for Type 2 diabetes (T2D). For this narrative review we unsystematically screened PubMed and Embase to identify clinical trials which investigated glucose-lowering agents as an adjunct to insulin treatment in people with T1D. Published studies up to March 2022 were included. Read More

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Diet Is a Stronger Covariate than Exercise in Determining Gut Microbial Richness and Diversity.

Nutrients 2022 Jun 16;14(12). Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Molecular Metabolism in Health & Disease, Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Sport Science Research Institute, Inha University, Incheon 22212, Korea.

Obesity is a common metabolic disorder caused by a sedentary lifestyle, and a high-fat and a high-glucose diet in the form of fast foods. High-fat diet-induced obesity is a major cause of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, whereas exercise and physical activity can ameliorate these disorders. Moreover, exercise and the gut microbiota are known to be interconnected, since exercise can increase the gut microbial diversity and contribute to the beneficial health effects. Read More

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Muscle Recovery and Nutrition.

Nutrients 2022 Jun 10;14(12). Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, GIR Physical Exercise and Aging, Campus Duques de Soria, University of Valladolid, 42004 Soria, Spain.

Recovery strategies, both in the general population and in athletes, must be aimed at the main causes of fatigue [... Read More

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Dipeptide Extract Modulates the Oxi-Antioxidant Response to Intense Physical Exercise.

Nutrients 2022 Jun 9;14(12). Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Biological and Medical Basis of Sport, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Wrocław University of Sport and Health Sciences, 51-612 Wrocław, Poland.

Exposure to intense physical exercise increases reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production. The process can be modulated by dipeptide bioavailability with antioxidant scavenger properties. The effects of dipeptide intake in combination with physical exercise on the oxi-antioxidant response were examined in a randomized and placebo-controlled trial. Read More

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Improving Dietary Intake of Essential Nutrients Can Ameliorate Inflammation in Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

Nutrients 2022 Jun 9;14(12). Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Nutrition and Integrative Physiology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA.

Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are classified as chronic wounds and are one of the most common complications of diabetes. In chronic wounds, management of inflammation is a key step in treatment. Nutrition plays an important role in managing and controlling inflammation. Read More

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Physical Activity and Post-Transcriptional Regulation of Aging Decay: Modulation of Pathways in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2022 Jun 6;58(6). Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Dental Sciences and Morpho-Functional Imaging, University of Messina, AOU "G. Martino", 98125 Messina, Italy.

: Bones and the skeletal muscle play a key role in human physiology as regulators of metabolism in the whole organism. Bone tissue is identified as a complex and dynamic living unit that could react to physical activity. Hormones, growth factors, signaling factors, and environmental factors control osteogenesis, and it could be regulated at a post-transcriptional level. Read More

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Supply of Antioxidants vs. Recruit Firefighters' Cellular Immune Status: A Randomized Double-Blinded Placebo-Controlled Parallel-Group Trial.

Life (Basel) 2022 May 30;12(6). Epub 2022 May 30.

Research Center in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure (CIAFEL), Faculty of Sports (FADEUP), University of Porto, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal.

Background: Physical exercise can affect the immune system. We studied the effect of antioxidants on hematological and immune biomarkers after heavy training.

Methods: 24 well-trained and well-fed male firefighters were randomly divided into supplemented and placebo groups, and tested for immunology-related variables using venous blood samples in the fasting state, pre- (M1) and post- (M2) five weeks of daily micronutrient supplementation (15 mg of beta-carotene, 200 mg of vitamin C, 136 mg of vitamin E, 200 μg of selenium, 15 mg of zinc, 100 mg of magnesium). Read More

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The Greek Collaborative Long COVID Study: Non-Hospitalized and Hospitalized Patients Share Similar Symptom Patterns.

J Pers Med 2022 Jun 17;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15784 Athens, Greece.

Long COVID-19 syndrome refers to persisting symptoms (>12 weeks) after the initial coronavirus infection and is estimated to affect 3% to 12% of people diagnosed with the disease globally.

Aim: We conducted a collaborative study with the Long COVID patient organization in Greece, in order to estimate the characteristics, symptoms, and challenges these patients confront.

Methods: Data were collected from 208 patients using unstructured qualitative free-text entries in an anonymized online questionnaire. Read More

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The Effect of Endurance Training on Serum BDNF Levels in the Chronic Post-Stroke Phase: Current Evidence and Qualitative Systematic Review.

J Clin Med 2022 Jun 20;11(12). Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Poznan University of Physical Education, 61-871 Poznań, Poland.

Research in modern neurorehabilitation focusses on cognitive and motor recovery programmes tailored to each stroke patient, with particular emphasis on physiological parameters. The objectives of this review were to determine whether a single bout of endurance activity or long-term endurance activity regulates exercise-dependent serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and to evaluate the methodological quality of the studies. To assess the effectiveness of endurance exercise among patients in the chronic post-stroke phase, a systematic review was performed, including searching EBSCOhost, PEDro, PubMed, and Scopus for articles published up to the end of October 2021. Read More

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The Association of Menstruation and Leisure-Time Physical Activity among Korean Female University Students: A Preliminary Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 Jun 18;19(12). Epub 2022 Jun 18.

Laboratory of Sport Sociology, Department of Marine Sports, Pukyong National University, Busan 48513, Korea.

An active lifestyle elicits many health benefits. This study's aim is to understand the actual of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) of female university students in Korea who are experiencing stress due to, e.g. Read More

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Effects of Sex, Training, and Maturity Status on the Cardiopulmonary and Muscle Deoxygenation Responses during Incremental Ramp Exercise.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 Jun 16;19(12). Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Applied Sports Technology Exercise and Medicine Research Centre (A-STEM), Swansea University, Swansea SA1 8EN, UK.

Whilst participation in regular exercise and sport has generally increased over recent decades globally, fundamental questions remain regarding the influence of growth, maturation, and sex on the magnitude of training response throughout adolescence. Trained (108 participants, 43 girls; age: 14.3 ± 1. Read More

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Relationship between Family Racial/Ethnic Backgrounds, Parenting Practices and Styles, and Adolescent Eating Behaviors.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 Jun 16;19(12). Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Howard University, Washington, DC 20059, USA.

Obesity is more prevalent among racial minority children in the United States, as compared to White children. Parenting practices can impact the development of children's eating behaviors and habits. In this study, we investigated the relationships among racial/ethnic backgrounds, parenting practices and styles, and eating behaviors in adolescents. Read More

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Acute Supplementation with Cannabidiol Does Not Attenuate Inflammation or Improve Measures of Performance following Strenuous Exercise.

Healthcare (Basel) 2022 Jun 17;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Exercise Physiology Laboratory, School of Health Promotion and Kinesiology, Texas Woman's University, Denton, TX 76204, USA.

Supplementation with cannabidiol (CBD) may expedite recovery when consumed after exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if supplementation with CBD reduces inflammation and enhances performance following strenuous eccentric exercise in collegiate athletes. Twenty-four well-trained females (age = 21. Read More

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The Effect of Resistance Training on Bone Mineral Density in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Healthcare (Basel) 2022 Jun 17;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Graduate Programme in Human Development and Technology, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Rio Claro 13506-900, SP, Brazil.

Resistance training (RT) has been considered an intervention with effective stimulus on bone mineral formation and is, therefore, recommended to decrease the rate of bone morpho-functional proprieties loss with aging. Thus, this meta-analysis aimed to analyze the effectiveness of RT protocols in promoting changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in older adults. The systematic reviews and meta-analysis followed the PRISMA guidelines (PROSPERO CRD42020170859). Read More

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Comparison of Measurements of External Load between Professional Soccer Players.

Healthcare (Basel) 2022 Jun 15;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Sepahan Football Club, Isfahan 81887-78473, Iran.

Background: The excessive and rapid increases in training load (TL) may be responsible for most non-contact injuries in soccer. This study's aims were to describe, week(w)-by-week, the acute (AW), chronic (CW), acute:chronic workload ratio (wACWR), total distance (wTD), duration training (wDT), sprint total distance (wSTD), repeat sprint (wRS), and maximum speed (wMS) between starter and non-starter professional soccer players based on different periods (i.e. Read More

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Uric Acid and Cortisol Levels in Plasma Correlate with Pre-Competition Anxiety in Novice Athletes of Combat Sports.

Brain Sci 2022 May 31;12(6). Epub 2022 May 31.

Institute of Physical Activity and Sports Science (ICAFE), Cruzeiro do Sul University, Rua Galvão Bueno 868, São Paulo 01506-000, SP, Brazil.

Pre-competition anxiety is very prevalent in novice athletes, causing stress and drastic decreases in their performances. Cortisol plays a central role in the psychosomatic responses to stress and also in the physiology of strenuous exercise. Growing evidence links uric acid, an endogenous antioxidant, with oxidative stress and anxiety, as observed in many depressive-related disorders. Read More

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Effects of High-Intensity Resistance Training on Physical Fitness, Hormonal and Antioxidant Factors: A Randomized Controlled Study Conducted on Young Adult Male Soccer Players.

Biology (Basel) 2022 Jun 13;11(6). Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, University School of Physical Education, 51-612 Wrocław, Poland.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to test the effects of high-intensity resistance training (HIRT) intervention on the physical fitness, hormonal and antioxidant factors of adult male soccer players.

Methods: A randomized controlled study design was implemented. Eighteen soccer players (age: 20. Read More

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Airflow Obstruction in Adults with Williams Syndrome and Mice with Elastin Insufficiency.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2022 Jun 10;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 10.

National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Williams-Beuren syndrome (WS) results from the deletion of 25-27 coding genes, including elastin (), on human chromosome 7q11.23. Elastin provides recoil to tissues; emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have been linked to its destruction. Read More

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Feasibility of Cell-Free DNA Measurement from the Earlobe during Physiological Exercise Testing.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2022 Jun 2;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Department of Sports Medicine, Rehabilitation and Disease Prevention, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, 55099 Mainz, Germany.

Circulating, cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has been discussed as an upcoming blood-based biomarker in exercise physiology, reflecting important aspects of exercise load. cfDNA blood sampling has evolved from elaborate venous to efficient capillary sampling from the fingertips. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the principal feasibility of cfDNA blood sampling from the earlobe. Read More

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Athletes' Mesenchymal Stem Cells Could Be the Best Choice for Cell Therapy in Omicron-Infected Patients.

Cells 2022 Jun 14;11(12). Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Tokorozawa 359-1192, Saitama, Japan.

New severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant, Omicron, contains 32 mutations that have caused a high incidence of breakthrough infections or re-infections. These mutations have reduced vaccine protection against Omicron and other new emerging variants. This highlights the need to find effective treatment, which is suggested to be stem cell-based therapy. Read More

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Evolution of determinant factors of maximal sprinting and repeated sprint ability in women soccer players.

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 23;12(1):10633. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Motor Performance, Faculty of Physical Education and Mountain Sports, Transilvania University of Braşov, 500068, Braşov, Romania.

The present study aimed to determine the influence of force-power-velocity, vertical and horizontal jumps, and repeated sprint ability on the sprinting performance of adult women soccer players. Eighteen women soccer players from one team participating in the first female national Spanish soccer league were analyzed. Fitness assessments were performed twice in a period of three months. Read More

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Efficacy, efficiency and safety of a cardiac telerehabilitation programme using wearable sensors in patients with coronary heart disease: the TELEWEAR-CR study protocol.

BMJ Open 2022 Jun 23;12(6):e059945. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Clinical Exercise Physiology and Rehabilitation Research Laboratory, Physiotherapy Department, University of Thessaly School of Health Sciences, Lamia, Greece

Introduction: Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a beneficial tool for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases with, however, low participation rates. Telerehabilitation, intergrading mobile technologies and wireless sensors may advance the cardiac patients' adherence. This study will investigate the efficacy, efficiency, safety and cost-effectiveness of a telerehabilitation programme based on objective exercise telemonitoring and evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness. Read More

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Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the brain: What is stimulated? - A consensus and critical position paper.

Clin Neurophysiol 2022 May 18;140:59-97. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Neurology, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan; Fukushima Global Medical Science Centre, Advanced Clinical Research Centre, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan.

Transcranial (electro)magnetic stimulation (TMS) is currently the method of choice to non-invasively induce neural activity in the human brain. A single transcranial stimulus induces a time-varying electric field in the brain that may evoke action potentials in cortical neurons. The spatial relationship between the locally induced electric field and the stimulated neurons determines axonal depolarization. Read More

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The role of resistance exercise training for improving cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Age Ageing 2022 Jun;51(6)

Centre of Metabolism, Ageing and Physiology (COMAP), School of Medicine, Royal Derby Hospital Centre, University of Nottingham, Derby DE22 3DT, UK.

Background: Declines in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and muscle mass are both associated with advancing age and each of these declines is associated with worse health outcomes. Resistance exercise training (RET) has previously been shown to improve muscle mass and function in the older population. If RET is also able to improve CRF, as it has been shown to do in younger populations, it has the potential to improve multiple health outcomes in the expanding older population. Read More

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