249,872 results match your criteria Exercise Physiology


Combined All-Extremity High-Intensity Interval Training Regulates Immunometabolic Responses through Toll-Like Receptor 4 Adaptors and A20 Downregulation in Obese Young Females.

Obes Facts 2020 Jul 2:1-17. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran,

Metainflammation and malfunctions of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are related to obesity-induced immunometabolic morbidities. There are almost no studies relating exercise training to the TLR4 pathway and its adaptors and negative regulators. Thirty young women with obesity (exercise group and control group) were included in a 10-week all-extremity combined high-intensity interval training program. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000509132DOI Listing

Skeletal muscle microvascular insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes is not improved by eight weeks of regular walking.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology, University of Missouri, United States.

We aimed to examine if individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) exhibit suppressed leg vascular conductance and skeletal muscle capillary perfusion in response to a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and to test whether these two variables are positively correlated. Subsequently, we examined if T2D-associated skeletal muscle microvascular insulin resistance, as well as overall vascular dysfunction, would be ameliorated by an eight-week walking intervention (45 minutes at 60% of heart rate reserve, 5 sessions/week). We report that, relative to healthy subjects, overweight and obese individuals with T2D exhibit depressed insulin-stimulated increases in leg vascular conductance, skeletal muscle capillary perfusion, and Akt phosphorylation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00174.2020DOI Listing

Effect of aerobic fitness on the relation between age and whole-body heat exchange during exercise-heat stress: A retrospective analysis.

Exp Physiol 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Human and Environmental Physiology Research Unit, School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Does higher aerobic fitness, indexed by peak oxygen uptake (V̇O peak), attenuate the age-related decline in thermoregulatory function during exercise in the heat? What is the main finding and its importance? When assessed in aerobically fit and less fit adults (V̇O peak: ∼30 vs. ∼50 mL/kg/min) aged 18-66 years, a steeper decline in whole-body total heat loss (evaporative + dry heat exchange) was observed with increasing age in less aerobically fit adults. These outcomes indicate that increased aerobic fitness may attenuate the age-related decline in thermoregulatory function during exercise-heat stress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP088783DOI Listing

Relative Proximity of Critical Power and Metabolic/Ventilatory Thresholds: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Sports Med 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Sport Training Lab, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Castilla la Mancha, Avenida Carlos III s/n, 45071, Toledo, Spain.

Background: Critical power (CP) has been redefined as the new 'gold standard' that represents the boundary between the heavy- and severe-exercise intensity domains and hence the maximal metabolic steady state (MMSS). However, several other "thresholds", for instance, the maximal lactate steady state [MLSS], ventilatory thresholds [VT, VT] and respiratory compensation point [RCP]) have been considered synonymous with CP.

Objective: This study aimed to systematically review the scientific literature and perform a meta-analysis to determine the degree of correspondence/difference between CP and MLSS, VT, VT and RCP. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40279-020-01314-8DOI Listing

Intervertebral disc herniation effects on multifidus muscle composition and resident stem cell populations.

JOR Spine 2020 Jun 6;3(2):e1091. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery University of California San Francisco California USA.

Background: Paraspinal muscles are crucial for vertebral stabilization and movement. These muscles are prone to develop fatty infiltration (FI), fibrosis, and atrophy in many spine conditions. Fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs), a resident muscle stem cell population, are the main contributors of muscle fibrosis and FI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsp2.1091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7323461PMC

Clinical teams' experiences of crowding in public emergency centres in Cape Town, South Africa.

Afr J Emerg Med 2020 Jun 18;10(2):52-57. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Division of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, Cape Town, South Africa.

Introduction: Crowding is a significant challenge for emergency centres (ECs) globally. While South Africa is not alone in reckoning with high patient demand and insufficient resources to treat these patients; staff-to-patient ratios are generally lower than in the Global North. The study of crowding and its consequences for patient care is a key research priority for strengthening the quality and efficacy of emergency care in South Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.afjem.2019.12.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320195PMC

The feasibility of implementing high-intensity interval training in cardiac rehabilitation settings: a retrospective analysis.

BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil 2020 29;12:38. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Exercise Physiology and Cardiovascular Health Lab, Division of Cardiac Prevention and Rehabilitation, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Canada.

Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Notwithstanding the well-known benefits of cardiac rehabilitation (CR), adherence to CR remains low, particularly in women. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has received specific attention as an emerging exercise-training paradigm that addresses frequently cited barriers to CR (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13102-020-00186-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325048PMC

Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals a Novel Association Between MYBPC3 Gene Polymorphism, Endurance Athlete Status, Aerobic Capacity and Steroid Metabolism.

Front Genet 2020 16;11:595. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Biomedical Research Institute (BRC), Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.

Background: The genetic predisposition to elite athletic performance has been a controversial subject due to the underpowered studies and the small effect size of identified genetic variants. The aims of this study were to investigate the association of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with endurance athlete status in a large cohort of elite European athletes using GWAS approach, followed by replication studies in Russian and Japanese elite athletes and functional validation using metabolomics analysis.

Results: The association of 476,728 SNPs of Illumina DrugCore Gene chip and endurance athlete status was investigated in 796 European international-level athletes (645 males, 151 females) by comparing allelic frequencies between athletes specialized in sports with high ( = 662) and low/moderate ( = 134) aerobic component. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.00595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308547PMC

Avocado (Persea americana) pulp improves cardiovascular and autonomic recovery following submaximal running: a crossover, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 1;10(1):10703. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Morphology and Physiology, University Health Center ABC, Santo Andre, SP, Brazil.

Previous studies have demonstrated that regular avocado consumption presents advantageous effects on cardiovascular system. However, little attention has been paid to the use of avocado as a dietary supplement, in particular, for individuals involved in physical exercise training. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effect of acute avocado pulp intake on cardiovascular and autonomic recovery subsequent to moderate exercise. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67577-3DOI Listing

[Roles of p38 MAPK signaling in the skeletal muscle formation, regeneration, and pathology].

Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi 2020 ;155(4):241-247

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Toho University.

Sarcopenia and frailty in aging, or cancer cachexia shows an abnormal decrease in skeletal muscle mass and muscle strength. However, the underlying mechanisms are not clear, and the promising drug seeds have not been discovered. The formation of skeletal muscle occurs not only during embryonic development but also in adulthood, and the muscle can be regenerated even if it is damaged by exercise overload or physical injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1254/fpj20030DOI Listing
January 2020

Secular trends in cardiovascular risk factors among women aged 45-54 years in Gothenburg, Sweden, from 1980 to 2014.

BMC Public Health 2020 Jul 1;20(1):1042. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: A declining trend in mean cholesterol levels and smoking has been observed in high-income western countries during the last few decades, whereas obesity rates have increased. Simultaneously, mortality from coronary heart disease has decreased. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the trends in cardiovascular risk factors have continued in successive cohorts of middle-aged women over a period of 34 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09098-2DOI Listing

Oral vitamin C treatment increases polymorphonuclear cell functions in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with poor glycemic control.

Nutr Res 2020 May 23;79:50-59. Epub 2020 May 23.

Exercise and Sport Sciences Development and Research Group, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand; Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand. Electronic address:

This study investigated the effect of vitamin C on polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell functions in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with poor glycemic control. We hypothesized that oral vitamin C treatment improves PMN cell functions. Patients (14) received either a vitamin C (1000 mg/d) or placebo (anhydrous calcium hydrogen phosphate) tablet for 6 weeks and were subjected to a 6-week washout period followed by a 6-week treatment crossover period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2020.05.010DOI Listing

Exercise dose affects the circulating microRNA profile in response to acute endurance exercise in male amateur runners.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Laboratory of Epigenetics of Lipid Metabolism, IMDEA Food Institute, CEI UAM + CSIC, Madrid, Spain.

The systemic response to exercise is dose-dependent and involves a complex gene expression regulation and crosstalk between tissues. In this context, emerge the need for analyzing the influence of exercise dose on the profile of circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs), as emerging posttranscriptional regulators and intercellular communicators. Thus, we hypothesized that different exercise doses will determine specific c-miRNA signatures that will highlight its potential as exercise dose biomarker. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.13759DOI Listing

MicroRNA-99b-5p downregulates protein synthesis in human primary myotubes.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of cellular homeostasis and exert their effect by directly controlling protein expression. We have previously reported an age-dependent, negative association between microRNA-99b (miR-99b-5p) expression and muscle protein synthesis in human muscle in vivo. Here we investigated the role of miR-99b-5p as a potential negative regulator of protein synthesis via inhibition of MTOR signalling in human primary myocytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00172.2020DOI Listing

Injuries and functional performance status in young elite football players: a prospective 2-year monitoring.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Sports Medicine and Exercise Physiology, Goethe University Frankfurt/Main, Frankfurt, Germany.

Background: Motor function, such as strength asymmetries of the lower extremities and impaired dynamic stability, have a predictive value for the risk of injury. The present study aimed to reveal potential associations between injury and motor performance.

Methods: Two hundred five (205) male youth elite (association) football (soccer) players (mean ± standard deviation: 13. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.20.10886-7DOI Listing

Breaking the athletics world record in the 100 and 400 meters: an alternative method for assessment.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Medbase St. Gallen Am Vadianplatz, St. Gallen, Switzerland -

Background: The top 10 athletes in the (IAAF) in 100m and 400m ranking for each sex were assessed for their history of race times before achieving their personal record (PR). The main goal of this study was to create a new method for optimal performance improvement rate assessment for coaches and athletes aiming the World Record.

Methods: The difference between PR ('actual' season) and the best race time in the last season was defined as the 1st season improvement rate (1-SIR), whereas the average improvement rate in the last and preceding seasons was the multi-season improvement rate (M-SIR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.20.10753-9DOI Listing

Determination of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from a commercial dairy farm with an exercise yard and the health-related impact for residents.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

WG Environmental Health, Unit for Physiology and Biophysics, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria.

Airborne emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have the potential to pose a risk to human health and the environment. Here, we present an assessment of the emission, dispersion, and health-related impact of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emitted from a 300-head, full-scale dairy farm with an exercise yard in Beijing, China. By monitoring the referred gas emissions with a dynamic flux chamber for seven consecutive days, we examined their emission rates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09858-yDOI Listing

Computational evidence for nonlinear feedforward modulation of fusimotor drive to antagonistic co-contracting muscles.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 30;10(1):10625. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Neural Engineering and Rehabilitation Laboratory, Division of Physical Therapy, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA.

The sensorimotor integration during unconstrained reaching movements in the presence of variable environmental forces remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to quantify how much the primary afferent activity of muscle spindles can contribute to shaping muscle coactivation patterns during reaching movements with complex dynamics. To achieve this objective, we designed a virtual reality task that guided healthy human participants through a set of planar reaching movements with controlled kinematic and dynamic conditions that were accompanied by variable muscle co-contraction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67403-wDOI Listing

A 90 min Daytime Nap Opportunity Is Better Than 40 min for Cognitive and Physical Performance.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Jun 28;17(13). Epub 2020 Jun 28.

"Physical Activity, Sport and Health" Research Unit, UR18JS01, National Sport Observatory, Tunis 1003, Tunisia.

This study examined the effects of different nap durations on attention and physical performance as well as mood states, sleepiness, perceived exertion (RPE), recovery (PRS), and muscle soreness (DOMS) in trained men. Fourteen amateur team sport players (age: 20.3 ± 3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134650DOI Listing

Astaxanthin Counteracts Excitotoxicity and Reduces the Ensuing Increases in Calcium Levels and Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Generation.

Mar Drugs 2020 Jun 26;18(6). Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Plasticity, Department of Pathology and Physiology, Medical School, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso 2341386, Chile.

Astaxanthin (ASX) is a carotenoid pigment with strong antioxidant properties. We have reported previously that ASX protects neurons from the noxious effects of amyloid-β peptide oligomers, which promote excessive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) production and induce a sustained increase in cytoplasmic Ca concentration. These properties make ASX a promising therapeutic agent against pathological conditions that entail oxidative and Ca dysregulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md18060335DOI Listing

The Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention at 40 yr and Its Role in Promoting Preventive Cardiology: Part 2.

J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev 2020 Jul;40(4):209-214

Beaumont Health, Preventive Cardiology and Cardiac Rehabilitation, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (Dr Franklin); Departments of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina (Dr Brubaker); Clinical Exercise Physiology Program, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana (Dr Harber); Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, John Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute, Ochsner Clinical School, The University of Queensland School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana (Dr Lavie); VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Cardiology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California (Dr Myers); and Fisher Institute of Health and Well-Being, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana (Dr Kaminsky).

Aggressive risk factor modification, including smoking cessation, blood pressure management, and more intensive efforts to control hyperlipidemia, as well as stress management training, are associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes and impressive mortality reductions. This commentary addresses these topics, with specific reference to lifestyle modification and complementary cardioprotective medications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HCR.0000000000000523DOI Listing

Total and regional bone mineral density are associated with cellular health in older men and women.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2020 Jun 15;90:104156. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Exercise and Health Laboratory, CIPER, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal. Electronic address:

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between crude bioimpedance variables with bone mineral density (BMD) in older adults.

Method: One hundred eighty-four older men and women (≥ 60 years old) composed the sample. BMD (whole-body) was measured through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2020.104156DOI Listing

Integrative crosstalk between hypoxia and the cold: Old data and new opportunities.

Exp Physiol 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

University of Innsbruck, Department of Sport Science, Innsbruck, Austria.

New Findings: What is the topic of this review? The aim is to examine the influence of hypoxia on thermoregulatory and cardiovascular control in the cold. What advances does it highlight? Exposure to hypoxia seems to alter both thermoregulatory and cardiovascular control, but these conclusions are based on limited data and this review highlights the need for future research in this area.

Abstract: Cold stress and hypoxia have been the subject of research for decades; however, humans often encounter these stressors together, such as in the alpine environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP088512DOI Listing

Myosin heavy chain isoform composition in the deltoid and vastus lateralis muscles of elite handball players.

J Sports Sci 2020 Jun 30:1-6. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Laboratory of Exercise Physiology & Biochemistry, Department of Physical Education and Sports Science at Serres, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki , Thessaloniki, Greece.

The purpose of the present study was to compare the myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition of the deltoid and vastus lateralis muscles of the dominant and non-dominant limbs in handball players. Eleven male Greek elite handball players (age 22.6 ± 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2020.1788284DOI Listing

Effect of Listening to Music on Wingate Anaerobic Test Performance. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Jun 24;17(12). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Valladolid, 42004 Soria, Spain.

: There are many athletes who like to listen to music while making a high intensity effort. However, research into the effects of listening to music on athletic performance has provided controversial results, and it is suggested that the timing and type of music might affect the anaerobic performance response. : The main aim of the current systematic review and meta-analysis was to analyze the effects while listening to music tasks via the 30 s Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) on absolute performance and relative peak power (APP and RPP), absolute and relative mean power (AMP and RMP), and fatigue index (FI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124564DOI Listing

Muscle contractile properties of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: assessment of feasibility and exercise effects.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Public and Occupational health and Amsterdam Public Health research institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: This pilot trial explores the feasibility of measuring muscle contractile properties in patients with cancer, effects of exercise during chemotherapy on muscle contractile properties and the association between changes in contractile muscle properties and perceived fatigue.

Method: Patients who received (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy for breast or colon cancer were randomized to a 9-12 week exercise intervention or a waitlist-control group. At baseline and follow-up, we measured knee extensor strength using maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), contractile muscle properties of the quadriceps muscle using electrical stimulation, and perceived fatigue using the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.13758DOI Listing

Concurrent Exercise Interventions in Breast Cancer Survivors with Cancer-related Fatigue.

Int J Sports Med 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Medical Oncology, Puerta de Hierro University Hospital of Majadahonda, Majadahonda, Spain.

This study compared the effects of two supervised concurrent training interventions in breast cancer survivors with cancer-related fatigue at baseline. Twenty-three female breast cancer survivors (50±8 years) were randomized to a high- (n=13) or a moderate-intensity (n=10) training program. Both interventions lasted 16 weeks and included the same resistance exercises, but the aerobic component was supervised and more intense in the former (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1147-1513DOI Listing

Advances in understanding mechanisms and therapeutic targets to treat comorbid depression and cardiovascular disease.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Neuroscience, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC, 29209, United States; William Jennings Bryan Dorn Veterans Administration Medical Center, Columbia, SC, 29209, United States. Electronic address:

Chronic or repeated social stress exposure often precipitates the onset of depression and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite a clear clinical association between CVD and depression, the pathophysiology underlying these comorbid conditions is unclear. Chronic exposure to social stress can lead to immune system dysregulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and vagal withdrawal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2020.06.031DOI Listing

Comparative study of the protective effects of crocin and exercise on long-term potentiation of CA1 in rats under chronic unpredictable stress.

Life Sci 2020 Jun 26:118018. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Aim While stress causes brain dysfunction, crocin (as an active component of saffron) and exercise (as part of a healthy lifestyle) improve stress-induced memory impairment. The present study investigated the protective effects of crocin administration, exercise, and crocin-accompanied exercise on neuronal excitability and long-term potentiation (LTP) at the CA1 of hippocampus as well as serum corticosterone and glucose levels in rats subjected to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS).

Main Methods: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to six groups: Control, Sham, CUS, CUS-Crocin30, CUS-Exercise, and CUS-Crocin30-Exercise. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118018DOI Listing

Letter to the Editor from Allard et al: Exercise training adaptations in metabolic syndrome individuals on chronic statin treatment.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Human and Animal Physiology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa416DOI Listing

Effect of 12 Weeks of Endurance Training Combined with Creatine Supplement, Photobiomodulation Therapy, or Both on Performance and Muscle Damage in Rats.

Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Post-Graduate Program in Movement Sciences, Laboratory of Physiology and Sport Performance (LAFIDE), Department of Physical Education, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Bauru, Brazil.

Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) and creatine (Cr) intake have been used in conjunction with heavy training, but little is known about their possible effects during a long-term training program. We assessed long-term use of PBMT and Cr in an exercise training program. Twenty-five male Wistar rats weighing ∼300 g were randomly allocated to one of five groups: a nontraining control group, a training group, a training group receiving Cr, a training group receiving PBMT, and a training group receiving both PBMT and Cr. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/photob.2019.4793DOI Listing

Effects of statins and exercise on postprandial lipoproteins in metabolic syndrome vs metabolically healthy individuals.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Exercise Physiology Lab at Toledo, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain.

Aim: To determine if the combination of exercise and statin could normalize postprandial triglyceridemia (PPTG) in hypercholesteraemic individuals.

Methods: Eight hypercholesteraemic (blood cholesterol 182±38 mg·dL ; LDL-c 102±32 mg·dL ) overweight (BMI 30±4 kg·m ) individuals with metabolic syndrome (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14447DOI Listing

Effects of acute cooling on cycling anaerobic exercise performance and neuromuscular activity: a randomized crossover study.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Integrative Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju-si, Jeollabuk-do South Korea -

Background: While cryotherapy is known for its favorable long-term recovery effects on muscle-damaging eccentric and plyometric exercises, studies showed that cryotherapy when used as an acute recovery mode (same day) had a negligible or negative effect on high-intensity and explosive exercises. However, there is lack of evidence regarding the mechanisms underlying the detrimental effect of acute cooling on the anaerobic performance. We hypothesized that acute cooling for the lower body would reduce anaerobic power output during a subsequent WAnT, which is at least in part due to decreased neuromuscular firing rate as indexed by mean frequency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.20.11044-2DOI Listing

The p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2), but not PAK1, regulates contraction-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose transport.

Physiol Rep 2020 Jun;8(12):e14460

Section of Molecular Physiology, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Aim: Muscle contraction stimulates skeletal muscle glucose transport. Since it occurs independently of insulin, it is an important alternative pathway to increase glucose transport in insulin-resistant states, but the intracellular signaling mechanisms are not fully understood. Muscle contraction activates group I p21-activated kinases (PAKs) in mouse and human skeletal muscle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14814/phy2.14460DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322983PMC

A Hydrogel Drink With High Fructose Content Generates Higher Exogenous Carbohydrate Oxidation and Lower Dental Biofilm pH Compared to Two Other, Commercially Available, Carbohydrate Sports Drinks.

Front Nutr 2020 12;7:88. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the substrate oxidation of three commercially available, 14%-carbohydrate sports drinks with different compositions, osmolality, and pH for their impact on dental exposure to low pH. In a cross-over, randomized double-blinded design, 12 endurance athletes (age 31. 2 ± 7. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2020.00088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303329PMC

Effects of Unilateral Arm Warming or Cooling on the Modulation of Brachial Artery Shear Stress and Endothelial Function during Leg Exercise in Humans.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Exercise Science and Physiology, School of Health Sciences, Prefectural University of Hiroshima.

Aim: We examined the effect of modulating the shear stress (SS) profile using forearm warming and cooling on subsequent endothelial function in the brachial artery (BA) during exercise.

Methods: Twelve healthy young subjects immersed their right forearm in water (15℃ or 42℃) during a leg cycling exercise at 120-130 bpm for 60 min. The same exercise without water immersion served as a control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.55731DOI Listing

LIMK (LIM Kinase) Inhibition Prevents Vasoconstriction- and Hypertension-Induced Arterial Stiffening and Remodeling.

Hypertension 2020 Jun 29:HYPERTENSIONAHA12015203. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

From the Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO (M.M.-Q., F.I.R.-P., C.A.F., T.G., L.F.-S., C.M.-A., J.P., L.A.M.-L.).

Increased arterial stiffness and vascular remodeling precede and are consequences of hypertension. They also contribute to the development and progression of life-threatening cardiovascular diseases. Yet, there are currently no agents specifically aimed at preventing or treating arterial stiffening and remodeling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.15203DOI Listing

Variations of estimated maximal aerobic speed in children soccer players and its associations with the accumulated training load: Comparisons between non, low and high responders.

Physiol Behav 2020 Jun 25;224:113030. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland; Medbase St. Gallen Am Vadianplatz, 9001 St. Gallen, Switzerland. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to examine the variations of estimated maximal aerobic speed between non, low and high responders and (ii) to analyze the relationships between accumulated training load parameters and variations of maximal aerobic speed in children soccer players. Forty-four male soccer players were assessed three times during the early and mid-season (second to fifth month of the season) and were monitored daily over the period of analysis using the rating of perceived exertion (RPE), recording the training duration (in min) and calculating the session-RPE (sRPE). Pairwise comparisons revealed that maximal aerobic speed (MAS) was greater for the third assessment than the first (p-value [p] = 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2020.113030DOI Listing

Physiologic effects and functional outcome after treatment of dysfunctional right ventricular outflow tract in congenital heart disease using a two-stage intervention.

Int J Cardiol 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Heart Center Leipzig at University Leipzig, Department of Internal Medicine/Cardiology, Germany. Electronic address:

Background Pathophysiological differences in relief of pulmonary stenosis (PS) as opposed to pulmonary regurgitation (PR) by percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation (PPVI) remain elusive, but might impact current assessment of procedural success and ultimately indications. Methods Invasive pressure measurements, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and cardiopulmonary exercise testing were performed before pre-stenting (BMS), after BMS and after PPVI in patients with either PS or PR. Results In PS (n = 14), BMS reduced the right ventricular (RV) to systemic pressure ratio (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2020.06.026DOI Listing

Is population's cardiorespiratory fitness really declining?

Cent Eur J Public Health 2020 Jun;28(2):120-123

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic.

Objective: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is defined as the capacity of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems to meet the oxygen demands of the body during physical work. Poor CRF is connected with a higher risk for the development of various noninfectious diseases such as cardiovascular disease or malignancies. The standard test for the assessment of CRF is exercise testing with the measurement of maximal oxygen consumption (VO max). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21101/cejph.a5912DOI Listing

Evidence for age-related differences in heat acclimatization responsiveness.

Exp Physiol 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Human and Environmental Physiology Research Unit, School of Human Kinetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Canada.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Repeated heat exposure during the summer months can enhance heat loss in humans (seasonal heat acclimatization), but does the magnitude of that enhancement differ between young and older adults when assessed during passive heat exposure? What is the main finding and its importance? While seasonal heat acclimatization enhanced evaporative heat loss (i.e., sweating) in both young and older adults, those improvements led to a greater reduction in body heat storage in older adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP088728DOI Listing
June 2020
2.669 Impact Factor

Monitoring Matches and Small-sided Games in Elite Young Soccer Players.

Int J Sports Med 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Exercise Physiology, Canadian Sports Institute Pacific, Vancouver, Canada.

The aim of this study was to compare the distances at various intensity in matches and small-sided games in elite-young soccer players using the metabolic power approach and running speed methods through fixed and individual speed zones. The second aim was to investigate the difference in high intensity external workload (% of total distances covered > 16 km/h or > 20 W/kg) between matches and small-sided games. Global positioning system data from 14 elite-youth players were analyzed during 13 matches and two types of small sided-games. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1165-1916DOI Listing

Manuscript Clarification.

J Strength Cond Res 2020 Jul;34(7):e268-e269

Human Performance and Sports Research Group, Department of Sport Sciences, Institute of Health Sciences, Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003709DOI Listing

Manuscript Clarification for Ischemic Preconditioning Improves Resistance Training Session Performance.

J Strength Cond Res 2020 Jul;34(7):e266-e267

Human Performance and Sports Research Group, Department of Sport Sciences, Institute of Health Sciences, Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003708DOI Listing

Effect of Individual Environmental Heat-Stress Variables on Training and Recovery in Professional Team Sport.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2020 Jun 26:1-7. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Context: Exercise in hot environments increases body temperature and thermoregulatory strain. However, little is known regarding the magnitude of effect that ambient temperature (Ta), relative humidity (RH), and solar radiation individually have on team-sport athletes.

Purpose: To determine the effect of these individual heat-stress variables on team-sport training performance and recovery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2019-0837DOI Listing

"Exercise with facemask; Are we handling a devil's sword?" - A physiological hypothesis.

Med Hypotheses 2020 Jun 22;144:110002. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Exercise and Sports Sciences, Manipal College of Health Professions, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, India. Electronic address:

Straying away from a sedentary lifestyle is essential, especially in these troubled times of a global pandemic to reverse the ill effects associated with the health risks as mentioned earlier. In the view of anticipated effects on immune system and prevention against influenza and Covid-19, globally moderate to vigorous exercises are advocated wearing protective equipment such as facemasks. Though WHO supports facemasks only for Covid-19 patients, healthy "social exercisers" too exercise strenuously with customized facemasks or N95 which hypothesized to pose more significant health risks and tax various physiological systems especially pulmonary, circulatory and immune systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.110002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7306735PMC

Adenosine/A2B Receptor Signaling Ameliorates the Effects of Aging and Counteracts Obesity.

Cell Metab 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University Hospital, University of Bonn, 53127 Bonn, Germany. Electronic address:

The combination of aging populations with the obesity pandemic results in an alarming rise in non-communicable diseases. Here, we show that the enigmatic adenosine A2B receptor (A2B) is abundantly expressed in skeletal muscle (SKM) as well as brown adipose tissue (BAT) and might be targeted to counteract age-related muscle atrophy (sarcopenia) as well as obesity. Mice with SKM-specific deletion of A2B exhibited sarcopenia, diminished muscle strength, and reduced energy expenditure (EE), whereas pharmacological A2B activation counteracted these processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2020.06.006DOI Listing

Effects of ACEi and ARB on post-exercise hypotension induced by exercises conducted at different times of day in hypertensive men.

Clin Exp Hypertens 2020 Jun 26:1-6. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Exercise Hemodynamic Laboratory, School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, São Paulo , Brazil.

Background: Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) is greater after evening than morning exercise, but antihypertensive drugs may affect the evening potentiation of PEH. Objective: To compare morning and evening PEH in hypertensives receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB).

Methods: Hypertensive men receiving ACEi (n = 14) or ARB (n = 15) underwent, in a random order, two maximal exercise tests (cycle ergometer, 15 watts/min until exhaustion) with one conducted in the morning (7 and 9 a. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10641963.2020.1783546DOI Listing

Skeletal muscle AMPK is not activated during 2 hours of moderate intensity exercise at ∼65% VO peak in endurance trained men.

J Physiol 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Physiology, University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010, Australia.

Key Points: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is considered a major regulator of skeletal muscle metabolism during exercise. However, we previously showed that although AMPK activity increases 8-10 fold during ∼120 min of exercise at ∼65% VO peak in untrained individuals, there is no increase in these individuals after only 10 days of exercise training (longitudinal study). In a cross-sectional study we show that there is also a lack of activation of skeletal muscle AMPK during 120 min of cycling exercise at 65% VO peak in endurance-trained individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/JP277619DOI Listing