264,454 results match your criteria Exercise Physiology


Hormonal stress responses of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I in highly resistance trained women and men.

Growth Horm IGF Res 2021 Jun 6;59:101407. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

The purpose of this study was to examine the responses of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGFI) to intense heavy resistance exercise in highly trained men and women to determine what sex-dependent responses may exist. Subjects were highly resistance trained men (N = 8, Mean ± SD; age, yrs., 21 ± 1, height, cm, 175. Read More

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Exercise of high intensity ameliorates hepatic inflammation and the progression of NASH.

Mol Metab 2021 Jun 9:101270. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Integrative Biology & Physiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA; Center for Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a wide spectrum of liver pathology ranging from simple fatty liver to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Notably, immune cell-driven inflammation is a key mechanism in the transition from fatty liver to the more serious NASH. Although exercise training is effective at ameliorating obesity-related diseases, the underlying mechanisms of the beneficial effects of exercise remain unclear. Read More

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Prenatal exercise reprograms the development of hypertension progress and improves vascular health in SHR offspring.

Vascul Pharmacol 2021 Jun 8:106885. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Exercise Physiology, Beijing Sport University, Beijing 100084, China; Key Laboratory of Physical Fitness and Exercise, Ministry of Education, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Upregulation of L-type voltage-gated Ca (Ca1.2) channel in the arterial myocytes is a hallmark feature of hypertension. However, whether maternal exercise during pregnancy has a sustained beneficial effect on the offspring of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) through epigenetic regulation of Ca1. Read More

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Regular Resistance Training Enhances Fibrinolytic Potential but Does Not Affect Coagulation.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Integrative Exercise Physiology Laboratory Clinical Exercise Physiology Program, Ball State University, Muncie, IN.

Elevated coagulation and/or lowered fibrinolytic activity increases risk of a thrombotic event, which affects more than 2 million people each year. Resistance training (RT) produces various adaptations that are theorized to influence hemostasis, but research in this area is limited.

Purpose: Identify effects of an eight-week, whole-body RT program on coagulation and fibrinolysis. Read More

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Isokinetic Muscular Strength and Aerobic Physical Fitness in Recreational Long-Distance Runners: A Cross-Sectional Study.

J Strength Cond Res 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Physiology, Federal University of Sa∼Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Human Physiology and Exercise Sector, Human Movement Assessment Laboratory, Faculty of Physical Education and Dance, Federal University of Goia's, Goiânia, Brazil; Center for Physical Education and Sports, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Vitória, Brazil; Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Nikaia, Greece; Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich; and Medbase St. Gallen Am Vadianplatz, St. Gallen, Switzerland.

Abstract: Andrade, MS, Silva, WA, de Lira, CAB, Mascarin, NC, Vancini, RL, Nikolaidis, PT, and Knechtle, B. Isokinetic muscular strength and aerobic physical fitness in recreational long-distance runners: A cross-sectional study. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-Muscular strength, bilateral asymmetry, and imbalance between antagonist muscles have been considered as risk factors for knee injuries. Read More

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Effects of physical exercise on memory in type 2 diabetes: a brief review.

Metab Brain Dis 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Multicenter Post Graduation Program in Physiological Sciences, Brazilian Society of Physiology, Federal University of the Valleys of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disorder that can lead to memory impairment. T2D main features are insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Physical exercise is a non-pharmacological intervention that can regulate glycemic levels and fight insulin resistance in T2D, but whether it influences memory has been discussed. Read More

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Type 2 diabetes impairs vascular responsiveness to nitric oxide, but not the venoarteriolar reflex or post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia in forearm skin.

Exp Dermatol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Human and Environmental Physiology Research Unit, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.

The venoarteriolar reflex (VAR) is a local mechanism by which vasoconstriction is mediated in response to venous congestion. This response may minimize tissue overperfusion, preventing capillary damage and edema. Post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia (PORH) is used to appraise microvascular function performed by a brief local arterial occlusion resulting in a subsequent rapid transient vasodilation. Read More

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Efficiency of an Optimized Care Organization in Fibromyalgia Patients: The From Intent to Move (FIMOUV) Study Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Front Public Health 2021 25;9:554291. Epub 2021 May 25.

University Lyon, UJM-Saint-Etienne Sainbiose Laboratory, INSERM U1059, Saint-Étienne, France.

Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by multiple symptoms including pain, fatigue, and sleep disorders, altering patient's quality of life. In the absence of effective pharmacological therapy, the last European guidelines recommend a multidisciplinary management based on exercise and education. Thus, our main objective was to measure the effectiveness of a healthcare organization offering a specific program of adapted physical activity combined with a therapeutic education program for FM patients. Read More

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Acute kidney disease in hospitalized acute kidney injury patients.

PeerJ 2021 24;9:e11400. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Nephrology, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University; Hunan Key Laboratory of Kidney Disease and Blood Purification, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have become worldwide public health problems, but little information is known about the epidemiology of acute kidney disease (AKD)-a state in between AKI and CKD. We aimed to explore the incidence and outcomes of hospitalized patients with AKD after AKI, and investigate the prognostic value of AKD in predicting 30-day and one-year adverse outcomes.

Methods: A total of 2,556 hospitalized AKI patients were identified from three tertiary hospitals in China in 2015 and followed up for one year. Read More

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Comparison of Predicted Cardiovascular Risk Profiles by Different CVD Risk-Scoring Algorithms between HIV-1-Infected and Uninfected Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study in Tanzania.

HIV AIDS (Auckl) 2021 3;13:605-615. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

High Altitude Exercise Physiology, Western Colorado University, Gunnison, CO, USA.

Purpose: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment is a suitable way to differentiate between high-risk individuals requiring intervention and risk modification, and those at low risk. However, concerns have been raised when adopting a CVD-risk prediction algorithm for HIV-infected patients in sub-Saharan Africa.

Patients And Methods: We compared cardiovascular risk profiles between HIV-infected (with and without antiretroviral therapy (ART)) and HIV-uninfected adults as predicted by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ASCVD) and the Framingham cardiovascular risk score (FRS) algorithms and assessed the concordance of the algorithms in predicting 10-year CVD risk separately in HIV-infected and uninfected groups in a hospital-based cross-sectional study in Tanzania. Read More

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How to Assess Breathlessness in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2021 3;16:1581-1598. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Activity-related breathlessness is the most problematic symptom of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), arising from complex interactions between peripheral pathophysiology (both pulmonary and non-pulmonary) and central perceptual processing. To capture information on the breathlessness experienced by people with COPD, many different instruments exist, which vary in applicability depending on the purpose and context of assessment. We reviewed common breathlessness assessment instruments, providing recommendations around how to assess the severity of, or change in, breathlessness in people with COPD in daily life or in response to exercise provocation. Read More

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Deciphering the constrained total energy expenditure model in humans by associating accelerometer-measured physical activity from wrist and hip.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 10;11(1):12302. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

PROFITH "PROmoting FITness and Health Through Physical Activity" Research Group, Sport and Health University Research Institute (iMUDS), Department of Physical and Sports Education, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Crta Alfcar s/n, 18011, Granada, Spain.

The constrained total energy expenditure (TEE) model posits that progressive increases in physical activity (PA) lead to increases in TEE; but after certain PA threshold, TEE plateaus. Then, a compensatory reduction in the expenditure of non-essential activities constrains the TEE. We hypothesized that high PA levels as locomotion associate with a compensatory attenuation in arm movements. Read More

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Exercise Is Key to Sustaining Metabolic Gains After Bariatric Surgery.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2021 Jul;49(3):197-204

Applied Physiology and Nutrition Research Group, School of Physical Education and Sport, Faculdade de Medicina FMUSP, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

The extent to which the benefits of bariatric surgery may be maintained by lifestyle changes after surgery is unclear. Our hypothesis is that exercise may sustain some metabolic benefits and counteract some of the adverse effects of surgery. In this review, we present findings supporting the proposition that exercise is key to improving overall health in patients after bariatric surgery. Read More

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Exercisers' Affective and Enjoyment Responses: A Meta-Analytic and Meta-Regression Review.

Percept Mot Skills 2021 Jun 10:315125211024212. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Discipline of Exercise and Sports Science, Sydney School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia.

Affective responses and enjoyment of exercise mediate exercise adherence, but previous research findings have failed to examine nuances that may moderate this relationship. We examined the effects of exercise on affective and enjoyment responses during and post exercise through a systematic literature review and meta-regression analysis. We searched major databases up to July 9, 2020 for studies evaluating healthy adults' acute and chronic responses to exercise, using either of The Feeling Scale or Physical Activity Enjoyment Scales. Read More

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Exogenous parathyroid hormone attenuates ovariectomy-induced skeletal muscle weakness in vivo.

Bone 2021 Jun 7:116029. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi, Japan, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi, Japan.

Osteoporosis commonly affects the elderly and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Loss of bone mineral density induces muscle atrophy and increases fracture risk. However, muscle lipid content and droplet size are increased by aging and mobility impairments, inversely correlated with muscle function, and a cause of reduced motor function. Read More

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Relationship between insulin sensitivity and menstrual cycle is modified by BMI, fitness and physical activity in NHANES.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Physiology, Exercise and Nutrition Research Group, University of Stirling, Scotland, UK.

Context: There is evidence demonstrating variation in insulin sensitivity across the menstrual cycle. However, to date, research has yielded inconsistent results.

Objective: This study investigated variation in insulin sensitivity across the menstrual cycle and associations with BMI, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. Read More

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Performing arts as a health resource? An umbrella review of the health impacts of music and dance participation.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(6):e0252956. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Institute for Music Physiology and Musicians' Medicine, Hannover University for Music, Drama and Media, Hannover, Germany.

An increasing body of evidence notes the health benefits of arts engagement and participation. However, specific health effects and optimal modes and 'doses' of arts participation remain unclear, limiting evidence-based recommendations and prescriptions. The performing arts are the most popular form of arts participation, presenting substantial scope for established interest to be leveraged into positive health outcomes. Read More

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Prevalence and factors related to obesity and fast food consumption among Mutah University students, Jordan.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Jun;71(6):1608-1612

4th Year MBBS Student, Mutah University, Al Karak, Jordan.

Objective: To identify the prevalence and factors related to obesity and fast food consumption among university students.

Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Mutah University, Al-Karak governorate in southern Jordan, from January to April, 2019, and comprised students recruited from different faculties. Data was collected using a structured, validated questionnaire. Read More

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Walking Exercise Therapy Effects on Lower Extremity Skeletal Muscle in Peripheral Artery Disease.

Circ Res 2021 Jun 10;128(12):1851-1867. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Division of Intramural Research, National Institute on Aging (L.H., L.F.).

Walking exercise is the most effective noninvasive therapy that improves walking ability in peripheral artery disease (PAD). Biologic mechanisms by which exercise improves walking in PAD are unclear. This review summarizes evidence regarding effects of walking exercise on lower extremity skeletal muscle in PAD. Read More

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Effects of physical exercise on natural killer cell activity during (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy: A randomized pilot study.

Physiol Rep 2021 Jun;9(11):e14919

Department of Physiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Natural killer (NK) cells are a population of innate immune cells known to play a pivotal role against tumor spread. In multiple murine models, it was shown that physical exercise had the potential to increase NK cell antitumor activity through their mobilization and tissue redistribution in an interleukin (IL)-6 and epinephrine-dependent manner. The translation of this finding to patients is unclear. Read More

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Astaxanthin supplementation enhances metabolic adaptation with aerobic training in the elderly.

Physiol Rep 2021 Jun;9(11):e14887

Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Endurance training (ET) is recommended for the elderly to improve metabolic health and aerobic capacity. However, ET-induced adaptations may be suboptimal due to oxidative stress and exaggerated inflammatory response to ET. The natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory dietary supplement astaxanthin (AX) has been found to increase endurance performance among young athletes, but limited investigations have focused on the elderly. Read More

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Increased body fat content in horses alters metabolic and physiological exercise response, decreases performance, and increases locomotion asymmetry.

Physiol Rep 2021 Jun;9(11):e14824

Department of Equine Science, Hólar University, Sauðárkrókur, Iceland.

This study examined the effect of altered body weight (BW) and body fat content on exercise performance and recovery. Nine horses were divided into two groups, and changes in BW and fat content were induced by feeding a high (HA) or restricted (RA) energy allowance for 36 days in a cross-over design. In the last week of each treatment, BW and body condition score (BCS) were recorded, body fat percentage was estimated using ultrasound, and a standardized incremental treadmill exercise test (SET) and competition-like field test were performed (scored by judges blinded to treatments). Read More

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Acute Exercise-Induced Changes in Cardiac Function Relates to Right Ventricular Remodeling Following 12-weeks Hypoxic Exercise Training.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 06 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom.

Repeated ventricular exposure to alterations in workload may relate to subsequent cardiac remodeling. We examined whether baseline acute changes in right (RV) and left ventricular (LV) function relate to chronic cardiac adaptation to 12-week exercise training. Twenty-one healthy individuals performed 12-week high-intensity endurance running training under hypoxia (fraction of inspired oxygen: 14. Read More

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Short term intensified training temporarily impairs mitochondrial respiratory capacity in elite endurance athletes.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 06 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics, Åstrand Laboratory, Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.

Aim: The maintenance of healthy and functional mitochondria is the result of a complex mitochondrial turnover and herein quality-control program which includes both mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy of mitochondria. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an intensified training load on skeletal muscle mitochondrial quality control in relation to changes in mitochondrial oxidative capacity, maximal oxygen consumption and performance in highly trained endurance athletes.

Methods: 27 elite endurance athletes performed high intensity interval exercise followed by moderate intensity continuous exercise 3 days per week for 4 weeks in addition to their usual volume of training. Read More

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Satellite Cell Depletion Disrupts Transcriptional Coordination and Muscle Adaptation to Exercise.

Function (Oxf) 2021 23;2(1):zqaa033. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Physical Therapy, College of Health Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

Satellite cells are required for postnatal development, skeletal muscle regeneration across the lifespan, and skeletal muscle hypertrophy prior to maturity. Our group has aimed to address whether satellite cells are required for hypertrophic growth in mature skeletal muscle. Here, we generated a comprehensive characterization and transcriptome-wide profiling of skeletal muscle during adaptation to exercise in the presence or absence of satellite cells in order to identify distinct phenotypes and gene networks influenced by satellite cell content. Read More

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November 2020

Time trajectories in the transcriptomic response to exercise - a meta-analysis.

Nat Commun 2021 06 9;12(1):3471. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Center for Inherited Cardiovascular Disease, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

Exercise training prevents multiple diseases, yet the molecular mechanisms that drive exercise adaptation are incompletely understood. To address this, we create a computational framework comprising data from skeletal muscle or blood from 43 studies, including 739 individuals before and after exercise or training. Using linear mixed effects meta-regression, we detect specific time patterns and regulatory modulators of the exercise response. Read More

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The role of age in the physiological adaptations and psychological responses in bikini-physique competitor contest preparation: a case series.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2021 Jun 9;18(1):45. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Kinesiology, Exercise Physiology and Biochemistry Lab, Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, TX, 78412, USA.

The increased popularity of the bikini-physique competitions has not translated to greater research identifying the influence of age on adaptations during contest preparation. The purpose of this case series was to observe how age may influence the adaptations normally seen during preparation and the exploration of newer protocols to address adaptations more relative to the judging standards. Over a 16-week pre-contest preparation, a 32-y bikini competitor (BC) and 44-y master's bikini competitor (MBC) visited the laboratory bi-weekly to observe changes in body fat mass (BF), lean body mass (LBM), bone mineral density (BMD), total body water (TBW); exploratory measures of deltoid cross-sectional area (Delt), gluteus maximus muscle thickness (GM), and subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness (SAT); reproductive hormones estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), and energy balance hormones triiodothyronine (T), leptin and ghrelin; hydration status during contest preparation and the week of competition; resting metabolic rate (RMR); psychometric data related to perceived anxiety, stress, and body image were assessed. Read More

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10-Weeks of resistance training improves sleep quality and cardiac autonomic control in persons with multiple sclerosis.

Disabil Rehabil 2021 Jun 9:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Health and Human Performance, Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Science-INEF, LFE Research Group, Madrid, Spain.

Purpose: To examine the acute and chronic effects of 10-weeks of progressive resistance training on sleep quality and sleeping heart rate variability in persons with Multiple Sclerosis (pwMS).

Methods: Eighteen pwMS (age = 44.8 ± 10. Read More

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COVID-19 lockdown consequences on body mass index and perceived fragility related to physical activity: A worldwide cohort study.

Health Expect 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Physiological and Psychosocial Stress, LaPSCo, CNRS, Preventive and Occupational Medicine, WittyFit, University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Université Clermont Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Background: This paper is a follow-up study continuing the COVISTRESS network previous research regarding health-related determinants.

Objective: The aim was to identify the main consequences of COVID-19 lockdown on Body Mass Index and Perceived Fragility, related to Physical Activity (PA), for different categories of populations, worldwide.

Design: The study design included an online survey, during the first wave of COVID-19 lockdown, across different world regions. Read More

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The effect of water-based rhythmic exercise training on glucose homeostasis and thyroid hormones in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.

Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Humanities, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran.

Objectives: The present study aimed to explore the effect of water-based rhythmic exercise training on fasting blood sugar (FBS), homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and T4 in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.

Methods: In this clinical trial, 31 postmenopausal woman with metabolic syndrome aged 69.16 ± 2. Read More

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