229,603 results match your criteria Exercise Physiology


Effects of aerobic exercise on molecular aspects of asthma: involvement of SOCS-JAK-STAT.

Exerc Immunol Rev 2019 ;25:50-62

Universidade Brasil, Post-graduation Program in Bioengineering and in Biomedical Engineering, Campus Itaquera, Rua Carolina Fonseca 235, São Paulo - SP, Brazil, 08230-030. Brazilian Institute of Teaching and Research in Pulmonary and Exercise Immunology (IBEPIPE). Rua Pedro Ernesto 240, São José dos Campos - SP, Brazil, 12245-520. Post-Graduation Program in Sciences of Human Movement and Rehabilitation, Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Campus Baixada Santista, Av. Ana Costa, 95 - Vila Mathias - Santos/SP - CEP: 11060-001.

Background: Aerobic training (AT) decreases airway inflammation in asthma, but the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. Thus, this study evaluated the participation of SOCS-JAK-STAT signaling in the effects of AT on airway inflammation, remodeling and hyperresponsiveness in a model of allergic airway inflammation.

Methods: C57Bl/6 mice were divided into Control (Co), Exercise (Ex), HDM (HDM), and HDM+Exercise (HDM+ Ex). Read More

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January 2019

Effects of maternal dietary nitrate supplementation on farrowing and placental characteristics, level of asphyxiation at birth and piglet vitality.

Theriogenology 2019 Feb 12;129:1-7. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Adaptation Physiology Group, Wageningen University & Research, PO Box 338, NL-6700AH, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

We investigated whether maternal dietary nitrate supplementation, leading to nitric oxide (NO) formation, would affect duration of farrowing, levels of asphyxiation, vitality of piglets at birth and/or loss of potential viable piglets in the form of stillbirth and pre-weaning mortality. Data were collected from 190 crossbred (Yorkshire x Dutch Landrace) sows, which were allocated, balanced for parity, to six dietary nitrate levels (0, 0.03, 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2019.01.033DOI Listing
February 2019

Influence of a physical exercise until exhaustion in normothermic and hyperthermic conditions on serum, erythrocyte and urinary concentrations of magnesium and phosphorus.

J Therm Biol 2019 Feb 25;80:1-6. Epub 2018 Dec 25.

Department of Physiology, School of Sport Sciences, University of Extremadura, Spain.

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the performance of a maximal exercise test until exhaustion in normothermic and hyperthermic conditions on body concentrations of magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P).

Methods: 19 adult males (age: 22.58 ± 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2018.12.020DOI Listing
February 2019

The role of omega-3 in the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia.

Aging Clin Exp Res 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Division of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Department of Chronic Diseases, Metabolism and Ageing (CHROMETA), KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome with increasing importance due to the aging of the population. It is known to impose a major burden in terms of morbidity, mortality and socio-economic costs. Therefore, adequate preventive and treatment strategies are required. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s40520-019-01146-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40520-019-01146-1DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Clinical practice guideline for renal hypouricemia (1st edition).

Hum Cell 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Integrative Physiology and Bio-Nano Medicine, National Defense Medical College, 3-2 Namiki, Tokorozawa, Saitama, 359-8513, Japan.

Renal hypouricemia (RHUC) is a disease caused by dysfunction of renal urate reabsorption transporters; however, diagnostic guidance and guidelines for RHUC have been lacking, partly due to the low evidence level of studies on RHUC. This review describes a world-first clinical practice guideline (CPG) and its first version in English for this condition. It was developed following the "MINDS Manual for Guideline Development" methodology, which prioritizes evidence-based medicine. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13577-019-00239-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13577-019-00239-3DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Exercise physiology: future opportunities and challenges.

Pflugers Arch 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Section for Cell Biology and Physiology, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 13, 2100, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00424-019-02263-6DOI Listing
February 2019

Effects of exercise in normobaric hypoxia on hemodynamics during muscle metaboreflex activation in normoxia.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Medical Sciences and Public Health, Sports Physiology Lab, University of Cagliari, Via Porcell 4, 09124, Cagliari, Italy.

Purpose: Little is known about the cardiovascular effects of the transition from exercise in hypoxia (EH) to normoxia. This investigation aimed to assess hemodynamics during the metaboreflex elicited in normoxia after EH.

Methods: Ten trained athletes (four females and six males, age 35. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04103-yDOI Listing
February 2019

Platelet indices and function response to two types of high intensity interval exercise and comparison with moderate intensity continuous exercise among men after coronary artery bypass graft: A randomized trial.

ARYA Atheroscler 2018 Sep;14(5):188-195

Associate Professor, Atherosclerosis Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: It has been indicated that the acute exercise increases the thrombotic events that stem from platelet hyper-reactivity. The present randomized controlled trial study was carried out with the aim to compare high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) with moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICE) in terms of platelet indices and function in patients who had undergone post coronary artery bypass graft (CABG).

Methods: 30 men with a history of CABG were recruited and divided into 3 groups (MICE, HIIE-1, and HIIE-2). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22122/arya.v14i5.1780DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6368198PMC
September 2018

Metabolomic and lipidomic plasma profile changes in human participants ascending to Everest Base Camp.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 19;9(1):2297. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Centre for Human and Applied Physiological Sciences, King's College London, London, UK.

At high altitude oxygen delivery to the tissues is impaired leading to oxygen insufficiency (hypoxia). Acclimatisation requires adjustment to tissue metabolism, the details of which remain incompletely understood. Here, metabolic responses to progressive environmental hypoxia were assessed through metabolomic and lipidomic profiling of human plasma taken from 198 human participants before and during an ascent to Everest Base Camp (5,300 m). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38832-zDOI Listing
February 2019

Psychophysiological concomitants of burnout: Evidence for different subtypes.

J Psychosom Res 2019 Mar 18;118:41-48. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Institute of Psychology, Health Psychology Unit, University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Background: There is evidence that chronic stress and emotional exhaustion are related to physiological dysregulations, which could negatively impact physical and mental health. This study aimed to identify the specific physiological clusters which are most reliable and prominently associated with burnout. Emphasis was placed on variables of the autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2019.01.009DOI Listing

Linking aerobic fitness, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the metabolic syndrome.

Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 2009 Jul;4(4):299-301

b Harry S Truman Memorial VA Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine - Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65201, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/eem.09.17DOI Listing

Association of copeptin, a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin secretion, with insulin resistance: influence of adolescence and psychological stress.

Peptides 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Department of Medicine, Amager and Hvidovre Hospital in Glostrup, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup, Denmark; Department of Medicine O, Endocrine Unit, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev, Denmark.

In middle-aged and elderly individuals, circulating copeptin concentrations, a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion, associates with insulin resistance (IR). Whether this association is present in adolescents and young adults is unclear. Because psychological stress associates with higher circulating copeptin concentrations and IR, it has been speculated that increased AVP secretion could be a link between psychological stress and IR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2019.02.005DOI Listing
February 2019

Impaired Thermoregulatory Function during Dynamic Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2019 Mar;51(3):395-404

Applied Physiology and Wellness, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX.

Introduction: Impairments in sudomotor function during passive whole-body heating have been reported in multiple sclerosis (MS), a demyelinating disease of the CNS that disrupts autonomic function. However, the capability of the thermoregulatory system to control body temperature during exercise has never been assessed in MS. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that thermoregulatory function is impaired in MS patients compared with healthy controls (CON) exercising at similar rates of metabolic heat production. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001821DOI Listing

Contractile activity-specific transcriptome response to acute endurance exercise and training in human skeletal muscle.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, Institute of Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Faculty of Fundamental Medicine, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia.

Reduction in daily activity leads to dramatic metabolic disorders, while regular aerobic exercise training is effective for preventing this problem. The purpose of this study was to identify genes that are directly related to contractile activity in human skeletal muscle, regardless of the level of fitness. Transcriptome changes after the one-legged knee extension exercise in exercised and contralateral non-exercised vastus lateralis muscle of 7 males were evaluated by RNA-seq. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00449.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Time Course of Recovery is Similar for the Back Squat, Bench Press, and Deadlift in Well-Trained Males.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Florida Atlantic University, Exercise Science and Health Promotion, Muscle Physiology Laboratory, Boca Raton, Florida, United States ;

This study examined the time course of recovery following resistance exercise sessions in the back squat, bench press, and deadlift. Twelve well-trained males (age: 24.5±3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2019-0004DOI Listing
February 2019

A Case for Promoting Movement Medicine: Preventing Disability in the LIFE Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC USA.

Background: The movement profile of older adults with compromised function is unknown, as is the relationship between these profiles and the development of major mobility disability (MMD)-a critical clinical outcome. We first describe the dimensions of movement in older adults with compromised function and then examine whether these dimensions predict the onset of MMD.

Methods: Older adults at risk for MMD (N=1,022, mean age=78. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/biomedgerontology/advance-article/d
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glz050DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Protein-coding variants implicate novel genes related to lipid homeostasis contributing to body-fat distribution.

Authors:
Anne E Justice Tugce Karaderi Heather M Highland Kristin L Young Mariaelisa Graff Yingchang Lu Valérie Turcot Paul L Auer Rebecca S Fine Xiuqing Guo Claudia Schurmann Adelheid Lempradl Eirini Marouli Anubha Mahajan Thomas W Winkler Adam E Locke Carolina Medina-Gomez Tõnu Esko Sailaja Vedantam Ayush Giri Ken Sin Lo Tamuno Alfred Poorva Mudgal Maggie C Y Ng Nancy L Heard-Costa Mary F Feitosa Alisa K Manning Sara M Willems Suthesh Sivapalaratnam Goncalo Abecasis Dewan S Alam Matthew Allison Philippe Amouyel Zorayr Arzumanyan Beverley Balkau Lisa Bastarache Sven Bergmann Lawrence F Bielak Matthias Blüher Michael Boehnke Heiner Boeing Eric Boerwinkle Carsten A Böger Jette Bork-Jensen Erwin P Bottinger Donald W Bowden Ivan Brandslund Linda Broer Amber A Burt Adam S Butterworth Mark J Caulfield Giancarlo Cesana John C Chambers Daniel I Chasman Yii-Der Ida Chen Rajiv Chowdhury Cramer Christensen Audrey Y Chu Francis S Collins James P Cook Amanda J Cox David S Crosslin John Danesh Paul I W de Bakker Simon de Denus Renée de Mutsert George Dedoussis Ellen W Demerath Joe G Dennis Josh C Denny Emanuele Di Angelantonio Marcus Dörr Fotios Drenos Marie-Pierre Dubé Alison M Dunning Douglas F Easton Paul Elliott Evangelos Evangelou Aliki-Eleni Farmaki Shuang Feng Ele Ferrannini Jean Ferrieres Jose C Florez Myriam Fornage Caroline S Fox Paul W Franks Nele Friedrich Wei Gan Ilaria Gandin Paolo Gasparini Vilmantas Giedraitis Giorgia Girotto Mathias Gorski Harald Grallert Niels Grarup Megan L Grove Stefan Gustafsson Jeff Haessler Torben Hansen Andrew T Hattersley Caroline Hayward Iris M Heid Oddgeir L Holmen G Kees Hovingh Joanna M M Howson Yao Hu Yi-Jen Hung Kristian Hveem M Arfan Ikram Erik Ingelsson Anne U Jackson Gail P Jarvik Yucheng Jia Torben Jørgensen Pekka Jousilahti Johanne M Justesen Bratati Kahali Maria Karaleftheri Sharon L R Kardia Fredrik Karpe Frank Kee Hidetoshi Kitajima Pirjo Komulainen Jaspal S Kooner Peter Kovacs Bernhard K Krämer Kari Kuulasmaa Johanna Kuusisto Markku Laakso Timo A Lakka David Lamparter Leslie A Lange Claudia Langenberg Eric B Larson Nanette R Lee Wen-Jane Lee Terho Lehtimäki Cora E Lewis Huaixing Li Jin Li Ruifang Li-Gao Li-An Lin Xu Lin Lars Lind Jaana Lindström Allan Linneberg Ching-Ti Liu Dajiang J Liu Jian'an Luan Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen Stuart MacGregor Reedik Mägi Satu Männistö Gaëlle Marenne Jonathan Marten Nicholas G D Masca Mark I McCarthy Karina Meidtner Evelin Mihailov Leena Moilanen Marie Moitry Dennis O Mook-Kanamori Anna Morgan Andrew P Morris Martina Müller-Nurasyid Patricia B Munroe Narisu Narisu Christopher P Nelson Matt Neville Ioanna Ntalla Jeffrey R O'Connell Katharine R Owen Oluf Pedersen Gina M Peloso Craig E Pennell Markus Perola James A Perry John R B Perry Tune H Pers Ailith Ewing Ozren Polasek Olli T Raitakari Asif Rasheed Chelsea K Raulerson Rainer Rauramaa Dermot F Reilly Alex P Reiner Paul M Ridker Manuel A Rivas Neil R Robertson Antonietta Robino Igor Rudan Katherine S Ruth Danish Saleheen Veikko Salomaa Nilesh J Samani Pamela J Schreiner Matthias B Schulze Robert A Scott Marcelo Segura-Lepe Xueling Sim Andrew J Slater Kerrin S Small Blair H Smith Jennifer A Smith Lorraine Southam Timothy D Spector Elizabeth K Speliotes Kari Stefansson Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir Kathleen E Stirrups Konstantin Strauch Heather M Stringham Michael Stumvoll Liang Sun Praveen Surendran Karin M A Swart Jean-Claude Tardif Kent D Taylor Alexander Teumer Deborah J Thompson Gudmar Thorleifsson Unnur Thorsteinsdottir Betina H Thuesen Anke Tönjes Mina Torres Emmanouil Tsafantakis Jaakko Tuomilehto André G Uitterlinden Matti Uusitupa Cornelia M van Duijn Mauno Vanhala Rohit Varma Sita H Vermeulen Henrik Vestergaard Veronique Vitart Thomas F Vogt Dragana Vuckovic Lynne E Wagenknecht Mark Walker Lars Wallentin Feijie Wang Carol A Wang Shuai Wang Nicholas J Wareham Helen R Warren Dawn M Waterworth Jennifer Wessel Harvey D White Cristen J Willer James G Wilson Andrew R Wood Ying Wu Hanieh Yaghootkar Jie Yao Laura M Yerges-Armstrong Robin Young Eleftheria Zeggini Xiaowei Zhan Weihua Zhang Jing Hua Zhao Wei Zhao He Zheng Wei Zhou M Carola Zillikens Fernando Rivadeneira Ingrid B Borecki J Andrew Pospisilik Panos Deloukas Timothy M Frayling Guillaume Lettre Karen L Mohlke Jerome I Rotter Zoltán Kutalik Joel N Hirschhorn L Adrienne Cupples Ruth J F Loos Kari E North Cecilia M Lindgren

Nat Genet 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Body-fat distribution is a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular health consequences. We analyzed the association of body-fat distribution, assessed by waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index, with 228,985 predicted coding and splice site variants available on exome arrays in up to 344,369 individuals from five major ancestries (discovery) and 132,177 European-ancestry individuals (validation). We identified 15 common (minor allele frequency, MAF ≥5%) and nine low-frequency or rare (MAF <5%) coding novel variants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0334-2DOI Listing
February 2019
29.352 Impact Factor

Exercise and Hippocampal Memory Systems.

Trends Cogn Sci 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Biomedical Science, Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, and Brain Institute, Florida Atlantic University, Jupiter, FL 33458, USA.

No medications prevent or reverse age-related cognitive decline. Physical activity (PA) enhances memory in rodents, but findings are mixed in human studies. As a result, exercise guidelines specific for brain health are absent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2019.01.006DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Bone turnover increases during supervised treadmill walking in Thai postmenopausal women.

Osteoporos Sarcopenia 2016 Mar 21;2(1):41-44. Epub 2016 Mar 21.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Introduction: Treadmill walking is a cheap and attainable form of exercise, which carries a low injury risk and confers other health benefit. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of 3-month treadmill walking on biochemical bone markers in Thai postmenopausal women.

Material And Methods: Thai postmenopausal women participated in a 3-month supervised treadmill walking program. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.afos.2016.02.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6372725PMC

Resistance Exercise-Induced Responses in Physiological Factors Linked with Cognitive Health.

J Alzheimers Dis 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

School of Psychology and Exercise Science, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

The global population is aging at an unprecedented rate giving rise to a greater prevalence of age-related illnesses such as dementia and vascular disease. Dementia affects approximately 47 million individuals globally with projections of 130 million by the year 2050. Late-onset Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia, accounting for approximately 75% of all cases and is characterized by a progressive decline in cognitive function, memory, and cerebral volume. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-181079DOI Listing
February 2019

Assessment of fatigue in patients with a permanent cardiac pacemaker: prevalence and associated factors.

Arch Med Sci Atheroscler Dis 2018 20;3:e166-e173. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Laboratory of Physiology and Pharmacology, Department of Nursing, Faculty of Human Movement and Quality of Life Sciences, University of Peloponnese, Sparta Lakonias, Greece.

Introduction: Fatigue is a debilitating symptom of subjective nature which lacks effective therapy. The aim of the study was to assess levels of fatigue and the associated factors among patients with permanent cardiac pacemaker (PCM).

Material And Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Athens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/amsad.2018.81085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6374640PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Acute Effects Using Light-Emitting Diode Therapy (LEDT) for Muscle Function during Isometric Exercise in Asthma Patients: A Pilot Study.

Biomed Res Int 2019 16;2019:7501870. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Post-Graduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Nove de Julho University (UNINOVE), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of acute application of LEDT in improving peripheral muscle performance during isometric exercise in patients with asthma. Eleven patients, with a mean age 38 ± 10, underwent a single LEDT and sham application in the femoral quadriceps' dominant member (cluster with 50 LED = 850 nm, 50 mW, 15 s; 37.5 J), 48 h apart in a randomized crossover design. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/7501870DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6354134PMC
January 2019

Accumulated or continuous exercise for glycaemic regulation and control: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med 2018 17;4(1):e000470. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Discipline of Exercise Physiology, La Trobe Rural Health School, La Trobe University, Bendigo, Victoria, Australia.

Objective: To compare the effectiveness of accumulating exercise in multiple bouts of at least 10 min throughout a day with exercise completed in a single bout (continuous or interval), or no exercise, on glycaemic control and regulation in inactive people without diagnosed glycaemic dysfunction.

Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Data Sources: Seven electronic databases were searched: CINAHL (EBSCO), Cochrane Library, EMBASE (Ovid), MEDLINE 1948-(Ovid), SCOPUS (Elsevier), SPORTDiscus (EBSCO) and Web of Science (ISI) with no restrictions on date and included all titles indexed up to February 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjsem-2018-000470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6350746PMC
December 2018

Exercise and Arterial Modulation in Children: The EXAMIN YOUTH Study.

Front Physiol 2019 1;10:43. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Medical Faculty, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains to be one of the most frequent causes of death worldwide. Cardiovascular (CV) risk factors such as hypertension and obesity often manifest in childhood. The study examines the associations of blood pressure, body mass index and physical activity with cardiopulmonary, metabolic, and psychosocial health of children in a systems physiology approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367232PMC
February 2019

25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels and its relation to muscle strength, maximal oxygen consumption, and body mass index in young and middle adulthood women.

Int J Womens Health 2019 23;11:57-64. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Islamic Republic of Iran,

Introduction: Vitamin D is a potent secosteroid hormone that provides many health benefits. The ubiquitous nature of vitamin D receptor (VDR) suggests widespread effect.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels and muscle strength, maximal oxygen consumption (VOmax), and body mass index (BMI) in Iranian young and middle adulthood women. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S188914DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6350636PMC
January 2019

Effect of concentric and eccentric hamstring training on sprint recovery, strength and muscle architecture in inexperienced athletes.

J Sci Med Sport 2019 Jan 26. Epub 2019 Jan 26.

School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Australia.

Objectives: To investigate whether five-weeks of concentric (CON) or eccentric (ECC) hamstring strength training have different effects on recovery from sprint running, eccentric strength and architecture of the biceps femoris long head (BF).

Design: Cohort study.

Methods: Thirty males (age, 22. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2019.01.010DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Motor unit action potential amplitudes and firing rates during repetitive muscle actions of the first dorsal interosseous in children and adults.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Neuromechanics Laboratory, Department of Health, Sport, and Exercise Sciences, University of Kansas, 1301 Sunnyside Ave, Room 101BE, Lawrence, KS, 66045, USA.

Purpose: Previous research has indicated greater muscle activation is needed for children (CH) to match relative intensity submaximal contractions in comparison with adults (AD). However, no study has compared motor unit (MU) firing and recruitment patterns between children and adults. Therefore, MU action potential amplitudes (MUAP) and firing rates were examined during two repetitive submaximal contractions of the first dorsal interosseous in children and adults. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00421-019-04090-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04090-0DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Author Correction: Data visualisation to support obesity policy: case studies of data tools for planning and transport policy in the UK.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

UKCRC Centre for Diet and Activity Research (CEDAR), MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK.

In the original version of this Article the following funding details were omitted from the Acknowledgements section. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41366-019-0337-9DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Greek Graviera Cheese Assessment through Elemental Metabolomics-Implications for Authentication, Safety and Nutrition.

Molecules 2019 Feb 14;24(4). Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, 11855 Athens, Greece.

This study presents the comprehensive elemental profile of Greek Graviera (Gruyère) cheeses. In total, 105 samples from nine different geographic regions produced from sheep, goat and cow milk and their mixtures were assessed. Elemental signatures of 61 elements were investigated for determination of geographic origin and milk type. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24040670DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Effectiveness of Tai Ji Quan vs Multimodal and Stretching Exercise Interventions for Reducing Injurious Falls in Older Adults at High Risk of Falling: Follow-up Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 Feb 1;2(2):e188280. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

School of Kinesiology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, China.

Importance: Exercise has been shown to reduce injurious falls in older adults. Evidence, however, is lacking regarding the types of intervention that are most effective in preventing injurious falls among older adults at high risk of falling.

Objective: To determine the longer-term effectiveness of therapeutic tai ji quan intervention vs multimodal exercise and stretching exercise in decreasing injurious falls among older adults at high risk of falling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.8280DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Use of medicinal doses of zinc as a safe and efficient coadjutant in the treatment of male hypogonadism.

Aging Male 2019 Feb 15:1-10. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

b Laboratory of Physiology and Biochemistry of Exercise Faculty of Human Kinetics , Universidade de Lisboa , Cruz Quebrada , Portugal.

Hypogonadism affects an extensive part of the male population, especially among the elderly. The quest for treatment regarding low levels of serum testosterone and male infertility has, therefore, worldwide relevance. Zinc has important biological actions insofar as the male reproductive physiology and endocrine system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13685538.2019.1573220DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy & surgical menopause for inherited risks of cancer: the need to identify biomarkers to assess the theoretical risk of premature coronary artery disease.

Womens Midlife Health 2018 27;4. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

1Department of Cardiac Sciences, Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta, University of Calgary, Health Research Innovation Centre, GB42, 3280 Hospital Dr NW, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6 Canada.

Background: Some women with genetic risk of breast and/or ovarian cancer (e.g., BRCA1/2) opt to undergo prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy (PSO, or surgical removal of the ovaries & fallopian tubes) in order to reduce their risk of cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40695-018-0037-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6297996PMC
April 2018
1 Read

Effects of six weeks of resistance-endurance training on microRNA-29 expression in the heart of ovariectomised rats.

Prz Menopauzalny 2018 Dec 30;17(4):155-160. Epub 2018 Dec 30.

Nutrition and Physical Activity Laboratory, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Introduction: Heart disease risk rises with age. However, women's symptoms become more pronounced following the onset of menopause. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of six weeks of combined resistance-endurance (RE) training on microRNA-29 expression in the heart of ovariectomised rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/pm.2018.81737DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6372852PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Vibration effect on ball score test in international vs. national level table tennis.

Biol Sport 2018 Dec 31;35(4):329-334. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split, Split, Croatia.

In table tennis, motor skills are crucial for discriminating player level. However, there is a dearth of studies exploring the impact of a vibrational stimulus on performance. Thirty-four male players (age 25±2 years; body mass index, BMI 23. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/biolsport.2018.78051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6358531PMC
December 2018
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Exercise intolerance in comorbid COPD-heart failure: the role of impaired aerobic function.

Eur Respir J 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Laboratory of Clinical Exercise Physiology and Respiratory Investigation Unit, Queen's University & Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, ON, Canada.

Impaired aerobic function is a potential mechanism of exercise intolerance in patients with combined cardiorespiratory disease. We investigated the pathophysiological and sensory consequences of a low Δ O uptake (V̇O)/Δ work rate (WR) relationship during incremental exercise in patients with coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and systolic heart failure (HF).After clinical stabilisation, 51 COPD-HF patients performed an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test to symptom limitation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.02386-2018DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Relationship Between Endothelial Function and the Eliciting Shear Stress Stimulus in Women: Changes Across the Lifespan Differ to Men.

J Am Heart Assoc 2019 Feb;8(4):e010994

5 School of Human Sciences (Exercise and Sport Science) The University of Western Australia Crawley Western Australia Australia.

Background Premenopausal women have a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease, which may partly be due to a protective effect of estrogen on endothelial function. Animal studies suggest that estrogen may also improve the relationship between shear rate ( SR ) and endothelial function. We aimed to explore the relationship between endothelial function (ie, flow-mediated dilation [ FMD ]) and SR (ie, SR area under the curve [ SRAUC ]) in women versus men, and between pre- versus postmenopausal women. Read More

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https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/JAHA.118.010994
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.118.010994DOI Listing
February 2019
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Chondroitin sulfate attenuates acid-induced augmentation of the mechanical response in rat thin-fiber muscle afferents in vitro.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Physiology, Nihon University School of Dentistry, Japan.

Exercise-induced tissue acidosis augments the exercise pressor reflex (EPR). One reason for this may be acid-induced mechanical sensitization in thin-fiber muscle afferents, which is presumably related to EPR. Acid-induced sensitization to mechanical stimulation has been reported to be attenuated in cultured primary-sensory neurons by exogenous chondroitin sulfate (CS) and chondroitinase ABC, suggesting that the extracellular-matrix CS proteoglycan is involved in this sensitization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00633.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
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Submaximal heart rate seems inadequate to prescribe and monitor intensified training.

Eur J Sport Sci 2019 Feb 14:1-10. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

a Department of Human Movement Sciences, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences , Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam , Amsterdam , Netherlands.

The aim of this study is to investigate whether the change in (sub)maximal heart rate after intensified training is associated with the change in performance. Thirty subjects were recruited who performed cardiopulmonary exercise tests to exhaustion 2 weeks before (pre), 1 week after (post) and 5 weeks after (follow-up) an 8-day non-competitive amateur cycling event (TFL). The exercise volume during the TFL was 7. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2019.1571112DOI Listing
February 2019
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Deleterious Effects of Cold Air Inhalation on Coronary Physiological Indices in Patients With Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease.

J Am Heart Assoc 2018 Jul;7(14):e008837

1 Cardiovascular Division Rayne Institute St Thomas' Hospital King's College London London United Kingdom.

Background Cold air inhalation during exercise increases cardiac mortality, but the pathophysiology is unclear. During cold and exercise, dual-sensor intracoronary wires measured coronary microvascular resistance ( MVR ) and blood flow velocity ( CBF ), and cardiac magnetic resonance measured subendocardial perfusion. Methods and Results Forty-two patients (62±9 years) undergoing cardiac catheterization, 32 with obstructive coronary stenoses and 10 without, performed either (1) 5 minutes of cold air inhalation (5°F) or (2) two 5-minute supine-cycling periods: 1 at room temperature and 1 during cold air inhalation (5°F) (randomized order). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.118.008837DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6064824PMC
July 2018
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Agreement among Six Methods of Predicting the Anaerobic Lactate Threshold in Elite Cross-Country Skiers.

Int J Exerc Sci 2019 1;12(2):155-172. Epub 2019 Jan 1.

School of Kinesiology, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, ONTARIO, CANADA.

The anaerobic lactate threshold (LTan) is used to prescribe training intensity and measure endurance capacity. The LTan identifies a critical point where small increases in workload result in large increases in blood lactate concentration. LTan is usually predicted through visual inspection of a blood lactate (bLa) vs workload plot. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6355128PMC
January 2019
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Heart Rate Acquisition and Threshold-Based Training Increases Oxygen Uptake at Metabolic Threshold in Triathletes: A Pilot Study.

Int J Exerc Sci 2019 1;12(2):144-154. Epub 2019 Jan 1.

Department of Medicine and Physiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Exercise intensity is a critical component of the exercise prescription model. However, current research employing various non-specific exercise intensity protocols have reported wide variability in maximum oxygen uptake (VO) improvement after training, suggesting a present lack of consensus regarding optimal heart rate (f) training zones for maximal athletic performance. This study examined the relationship between percentage of time (%time) spent training between the metabolic (VOθ) and ventilatory thresholds (Vθ), and the resultant change in markers of aerobic performance. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6355121PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

High-Low Impact Exercise Program Including Pelvic Floor Muscle Exercises Improves Pelvic Floor Muscle Function in Healthy Pregnant Women - A Randomized Control Trial.

Front Physiol 2018 30;9:1867. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Gdańsk, Poland.

Pregnancy and high-impact activity are considered as risk factors for pelvic floor dysfunctions, including urinary incontinence. To investigate whether a structured exercise program, including high- and low-impact aerobics and supported by pelvic floor muscle exercises, improves the neuromuscular activity of the pelvic floor and does not reduce the quality of life in terms of urinary incontinence in healthy pregnant women. This was a randomized control trial among 97 Caucasian healthy nulliparas in uncomplicated pregnancies (age 30 ± 4 years, 21 ± 5 weeks of gestation; mean ± SD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.01867DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6363702PMC
January 2019
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Brown and Brite: The Fat Soldiers in the Anti-obesity Fight.

Front Physiol 2019 30;10:38. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Laboratory of Metabolic Control, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, United States.

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is proposed to maintain thermal homeostasis through dissipation of chemical energy as heat by the uncoupling proteins (UCPs) present in their mitochondria. The recent demonstration of the presence of BAT in humans has invigorated research in this area. The research has provided many new insights into the biology and functioning of this tissue and the biological implications of its altered activities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6363669PMC
January 2019
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Effects of running on adiponectin, insulin and cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid in healthy young individuals.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 13;9(1):1959. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, Biomedical Research Center, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 94505, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Exercise can prevent the sedentary lifestyle-related risk of metabolic and cognitive decline, but mechanisms and mediators of exercise effects on human brain are relatively unexplored. We measured acute exercise-induced changes in adiponectin, insulin and other bioactive molecules in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum from young lean individuals. Samples of serum and CSF were obtained before and 1-h after the 90-min run (75-80% HRmax; maximal heart rate), additional serum was taken at finish-line. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-38201-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6374465PMC
February 2019
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Expert's Choice: 2018's Most Exciting Research in the Field of Pediatric Exercise Science.

Pediatr Exerc Sci 2019 Feb 13;31(1):1-27. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

13 University of Leicester.

This commentary highlights 23 noteworthy publications from 2018, selected by leading scientists in pediatric exercise science. These publications have been deemed as significant or exciting in the field as they (a) reveal a new mechanism, (b) highlight a new measurement tool, (c) discuss a new concept or interpretation/application of an existing concept, or (d) describe a new therapeutic approach or clinical tool in youth. In some cases, findings in adults are highlighted, as they may have important implications in youth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/pes.2019-0010DOI Listing
February 2019
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Cold and Exercise: Therapeutic Tools to Activate Brown Adipose Tissue and Combat Obesity.

Biology (Basel) 2019 Feb 12;8(1). Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Dorothy M. Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

The rise in obesity over the last several decades has reached pandemic proportions. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic organ that is involved in energy expenditure and represents an attractive target to combat both obesity and type 2 diabetes. Cold exposure and exercise training are two stimuli that have been investigated with respect to BAT activation, metabolism, and the contribution of BAT to metabolic health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology8010009DOI Listing
February 2019
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Hopping in hypogravity-A rationale for a plyometric exercise countermeasure in planetary exploration missions.

PLoS One 2019 13;14(2):e0211263. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Cologne, Germany.

Moon and Mars are considered to be future targets for human space explorations. The gravity level on the Moon and Mars amount to 16% and 38%, respectively, of Earth's gravity. Mechanical loading during the anticipated habitual activities in these hypogravity environments will most likely not be sufficient to maintain physiological integrity of astronauts unless additional exercise countermeasures are performed. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211263PLOS
February 2019
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Effects of therapeutic exercise on sea sand on pain, fatigue, and balance in patients with chronic ankle instability: a feasibility study.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Physical Therapy, Gachon University, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Background: Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is a common disease following ankle sprain and appears balance and gait problems, pain, and fatigue. This study aimed to examine the effect of therapeutic exercise performed on sea sand on pain, fatigue, and balance ability in patients with CAI.

Methods: This study was designed as a randomized controlled trial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.19.09405-2DOI Listing
February 2019
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Aerobic capacity and exercise performance in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Betty and Guy Beatty Center for Integrated Research, Inova Health System, Falls Church, VA, USA.

Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the leading causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Exercise has proven effective in treating NAFLD, and many clinical initiatives seek to increase uptake of exercise in this population. This study aimed to elucidate the physiological responses of individuals with NAFLD to graded exercise testing. Read More

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https://www.minervamedica.it/index2.php?show=R40Y9999N00A190
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.19.09231-4DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Assessment of the physical fitness of road cyclists in the step and ramp protocols of the incremental test.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Physical Education, University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland.

Background: The incremental test (with increasing load) is a method commonly used to evaluate the aerobic capacity in laboratory conditions. The aim of the study was to show the differences in maximal and sub-maximal values of physiological and biochemical parameters obtained in the ramp and step protocols of the incremental test on a cycle ergometer in road cyclist.

Methods: 57 road cyclists took part in the experiment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.19.09126-6DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read