549,814 results match your criteria Evolution & Development [Journal]


Utilization of the CRISPR-Cas9 Gene Editing System to Dissect Neuroinflammatory and Neuropharmacological Mechanisms in Parkinson's Disease.

J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Parkinson's Disorder Research Laboratory, Iowa Center for Advanced Neurotoxicology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 50011, USA.

Chronic and debilitating neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), impose an immense medical, emotional, and economic burden on patients and society. Due to a complex interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors, the etiology of PD remains elusive. However, the cumulative evidence emerging from clinical and experimental research over the last several decades has identified mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and dysregulated protein degradation as the main drivers of PD neurodegeneration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11481-019-09844-3DOI Listing

Phylogenetic Studies on the Prodigiosin Biosynthetic Operon.

Curr Microbiol 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Centre for Biotechnology, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, 600 025, India.

Prodigiosin and undecylprodigiosin are tripyrrolic red pigmented antibiotics produced by certain bacteria. Many strains of Serratia and certain other Gammaproteobacteria produce prodigiosin and undecylprodigiosin is produced by certain strains of Streptomyces. This is a multistage process which involves the synthesis of a bipyrrolic compound from L-proline and its subsequent condensation with a mono pyrrole synthesized from 2-octenal in the case of prodigiosin and malonyl-CoA in the case of undecylprodigiosin respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-019-01665-0DOI Listing

A new set of eyes: development of a novel microangioscope for neurointerventional surgery.

J Neurointerv Surg 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Background: Endovascular technological advances have revolutionized the field of neurovascular surgery and have become the mainstay of treatment for many cerebrovascular pathologies. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is the 'gold standard' for visualization of the vasculature and deployment of endovascular devices. Nonetheless, with recent technological advances in optics, angioscopy has emerged as a potentially important adjunct to DSA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2018-014610DOI Listing

Fate and transport of nanoplastics in complex natural aquifer media: Effect of particle size and surface functionalization.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Mar 8;669:120-128. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Key Lab of Eco-restoration of Regional Contaminated Environment (Shenyang University), Ministry of Education, Shenyang 110044, China.

Environmental processes of nanoplastics in heterogeneous natural groundwater systems remain unclear. In this study, the control of particle size and surface functional groups on the fate and transport of nanoplastics in an organic matter (OM) rich aquifer was explored using batch and column tests. The carboxyl-modified 200 nm (200CNP), carboxyl-modified 50 nm (50CNP), and amino-modified 50 nm (50ANP) polystyrene latex beads were used as surrogates for nanoplastics of contrasting sizes and surface functional groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.102DOI Listing

Degradation of antibiotics in multi-component systems with novel ternary AgBr/AgPO@natural hematite heterojunction photocatalyst under simulated solar light.

J Hazard Mater 2019 Mar 8;371:566-575. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

Abatement of antibiotics from aquatic systems is of great importance but remains a challenge. Herein, we prepared ternary AgBr/AgPO@natural hematite (AgBr/AgPO@NH) heterojunction composite via a simple route for the photocatalytic degradation of antibiotic pollutants. By adjusting the dose of Ag species, four products with different Ag content (denoted as AgBrPFe, AgBrPFe, AgBrPFe, and AgBrPFe) were developed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.03.038DOI Listing

Effects of copper on the dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum and its allelochemical potency.

Aquat Toxicol 2019 Mar 8;210:251-261. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

School of Chemistry, University of Wollongong, NSW, 2522, Australia.

The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum produces toxic compounds, including paralytic shellfish toxins, but also some unknown extracellular toxins. Although copper (Cu) is an essential element, it can impair microalgal physiology and increase their toxic potency. This study investigated the effect of different concentrations of dissolved Cu (7 nM, 79 nM and 164 nM) on A. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2019.03.006DOI Listing

Relationship Between Surgical Difficulty of Third Molar Extraction Under Local Anesthesia and the Postoperative Evolution of Clinical and Blood Parameters.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Associate Professor, Department of Stomatology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Purpose: To determine whether the Pederson scale is a good predictor of the surgical difficulty of third molar extraction and establish whether such surgical difficulty is directly related to the postoperative course as assessed from clinical (pain, inflammation, and trismus) and blood (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 [IL-6], and fibrinogen) parameters.

Materials And Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted of 2 groups of patients who underwent simple or surgical third molar extraction under local anesthesia. Clinical and blood parameters and possible complications were recorded for 1 week after extraction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joms.2019.02.020DOI Listing
February 2019

Fighting rheumatoid arthritis: Kv1.3 as a therapeutic target.

Biochem Pharmacol 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Molecular Physiology Laboratory, Departament de Bioquímica i Biomedicina Molecular, Institut de Biomedicina Universitat de Barcelona (IBUB), Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a serious autoimmune disease that has severe impacts on both the wellbeing of patients and the economy of the health system. Similar to many autoimmune diseases, RA concurs with a long evolution, which eventually results in highly debilitating symptoms. Therapeutic treatments last for long periods during RA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2019.03.016DOI Listing

Evolution of Hierarchy in Bacterial Metabolic Networks.

Biosystems 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Flow hierarchy is a useful way to characterize the movement of information and matter throughout a network. Hierarchical network organizations are shown to arise when there is a cost of maintaining links in the network. A similar constraint exists in metabolic networks, where costs come from reduced efficiency of nonspecific enzymes or from producing unnecessary enzymes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystems.2019.02.012DOI Listing

Novel Discoveries in Acid-base Regulation and Osmoregulation: A Review of Selected Hormonal Actions in Zebrafish and Medaka.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Maintenance of internal ionic and acid-base homeostasis is critical for survival in all biological systems. Similar to mammals, aquatic fishes have developed sophisticated homeostatic mechanisms to mitigate metabolic or environmental disruptions in ionic and acid-base status of systemic body fluids via hormone-controlled transport of ions or acid equivalents. The present review summarizes newly discovered actions of several hormones in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) that have greatly contributed to our overall understanding of ionic/acid-base regulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2019.03.007DOI Listing

Efficacy and risk of harms of repeat ivermectin mass drug administrations for control of malaria (RIMDAMAL): a cluster-randomised trial.

Lancet 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Institute of Research in Health Sciences, Western Regional Direction, National Center for Scientific and Technological Research, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso; International Mixed Laboratory on Vector Diseases, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

Background: Ivermectin is widely used in mass drug administrations for controlling neglected parasitic diseases, and can be lethal to malaria vectors that bite treated humans. Therefore, it could be a new tool to reduce plasmodium transmission. We tested the hypothesis that frequently repeated mass administrations of ivermectin to village residents would reduce clinical malaria episodes in children and would be well tolerated with minimal harms. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01406736183232
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32321-3DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

ALK rearrangements: Biology, detection and opportunities of therapy in non-small cell lung cancer.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2019 Apr 16;136:48-55. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Unidad de Investigación Básica y Traslacional, Oncosalud-AUNA, Av. Guardia Civil 571, San Borja, Lima 41-Peru; Departamento de Medicina Oncológica, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas, Av. Angamos Este, 2520, Surquillo, Lima 34-Peru. Electronic address:

The ALK receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK) gene encodes a transmembrane protein rearranged in 2-7% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases. This gene has become the second most studied therapeutic target after EGFR due to the implied therapeutic opportunities. While the diagnostic of ALK rearrangements is well established, small molecules targeting ALK are in constant evolution because tumor cells eventually will develop mechanisms of resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2019.02.006DOI Listing

Can Aging be Programmed?

Authors:
J Mitteldorf

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Dec;83(12):1524-1533

National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing, 102206, China.

Aging diminishes individual fitness, and aging could never evolve as an adaptive program according to the most prevalent model of evolutionary theory. On the other hand, some mechanisms of aging have been found to be conserved since the Cambrian explosion, and the physiology of aging sometimes looks like programmed self-destruction. Biostatisticians find evidence of an epigenetic aging clock, extending the clock that controls the growth and development into a realm of inexorably increasing mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918120106DOI Listing
December 2018

Can Aging Develop as an Adaptation to Optimize Natural Selection? (Application of Computer Modeling for Searching Conditions When the "Fable of Hares" Can Explain the Evolution of Aging).

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Dec;83(12):1504-1516

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Biological Faculty, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

There are two points of view on the evolution of aging. The classical theory of aging suggests that natural selection does not efficiently eliminate mutations or alleles that are harmful to organisms at later age. Another hypothesis is that the genetic program of aging has evolved as an adaptation that contributes to the optimization of the evolutionary process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918120088DOI Listing
December 2018

Ants as Object of Gerontological Research.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Dec;83(12):1489-1503

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

Social insects with identical genotype that form castes with radically different lifespans are a promising model system for studying the mechanisms underlying longevity. The main direction of progressive evolution of social insects, in particular, ants, is the development of the social way of life inextricably linked with the increase in the colony size. Only in a large colony, it is possible to have a developed polyethism, create large food reserves, and actively regulate the nest microclimate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918120076DOI Listing
December 2018

Promoting solar-to-hydrogen evolution on Schottky interface with mesoporous TiO-Cu hybrid nanostructures.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2019 Mar 6;545:116-127. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW 2500, Australia.

Developing a highly efficient photocatalysis system based on a photocatalyst-cocatalyst host for the hydrogen evolution reaction has potential but is still challenging. Herein, we report enhanced splitting of water achieved by loading copper metal particles on mesoporous TiO microrods through involving of dual ligand agents into the reaction system. The composition, structure, and surface characteristics of the TiO-Cu hybrid were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2019.03.007DOI Listing

Impact of drying and wetting cycles on Cs ageing in forest soils contaminated with different input forms.

J Environ Radioact 2019 Mar 13;203:93-97. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Institute of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), PSE-ENV, SRTE, LR2T, CE Cadarache, 13115, Saint Paul les Durance Cedex, France. Electronic address:

Water and acetate extractable radiocesium (Cs) concentrations were monitored for >400 days in soils that were amended with aqueous Cs or solid organic sources of Cs (plant litter or fragmented organic materials) and subjected to a series of wet-dry cycles. The soils were collected from broadleaf and cedar forests in Fukushima, Japan. In soils amended with aqueous Cs, the water extractable Cs fraction was very low (<1%) and decreased over time while it was below the detection limit in soils amended with solid organic sources of Cs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2019.03.007DOI Listing

Premotor Cortex Provides a Substrate for the Temporal Transformation of Information During the Planning of Gait Modifications.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Département de Neurosciences, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

We tested the hypothesis that the premotor cortex (PMC) in the cat contributes to the planning and execution of visually guided gait modifications. We analyzed single unit activity from 136 cells localized within layer V of cytoarchitectonic areas 6iffu and that part of 4δ within the ventral bank of the cruciate sulcus while cats walked on a treadmill and stepped over an obstacle that advanced toward them. We found a rich variety of discharge patterns, ranging from limb-independent cells that discharged several steps in front of the obstacle to step-related cells that discharged either during steps over the obstacle or in the steps leading up to that step. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cercor/advance-article/doi/10.1093/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz039DOI Listing
March 2019
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Why Should We Become Posthuman? The Beneficence Argument Questioned.

J Med Philos 2019 Mar;44(2):192-219

Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Why should we become posthuman? There is only one morally compelling answer to this question: because posthumanity will be a more beneficial state, better than present humanity. This is the Posthuman Beneficence Argument (PBA), the centerpiece of the liberal transhumanist defense of "directed evolution." In this article, I examine PBA and find it deficient on a number of lethal counts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmp/jhy041DOI Listing

Neighboring genes are closely related to whole genome duplications after their separation.

Interdiscip Sci 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

College of Life Sciences, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang, China.

Background: The gene order in a eukaryotic genome is not random. Some neighboring genes show specific similarities, while others become separated during evolution. Whole genome duplication events (WGDs) have been recognized as an important evolutionary force. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12539-019-00321-2DOI Listing

Headache attributed to IIH: clinical evolution in IHS criteria through the years.

Neurol Sci 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Casa di Cura del Policlinico, Igea Headache Center, Via Marcona, 69, Milan, Italy.

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition characterized by increased intracranial pressure without a detectable cause. The most common symptom of IIH is a headache, which occurs in almost all cases at the time of diagnosis with various headache phenotypes. In clinical practice, diagnosis of headache attributed to IIH is given referring to the International Headache Society (IHS) criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-019-03795-6DOI Listing

Spatial structure develops early in forest herb populations, controlled by dispersal and life cycle.

Oecologia 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Porter Hall, Ohio University, Athens, OH, 45701, USA.

Fine-scale spatial structure is an essential feature of plant populations, controlling pollination, herbivory, pathogen spread, and resource partitioning. Origins of spatial distribution are often obscure in long-established forests, but successional stands offer insight through their physical and compositional simplicity. We tested the hypothesis that spatial structure in forest herb populations arises through a nucleation process in which colonizing species transition from random to clustered distributions through clonal expansion, seed dispersal, and conformity to environmental gradients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-019-04380-6DOI Listing

Epidemiology, control, and prevention of Newcastle disease in endemic regions: Latin America.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Disease Research Unit, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, United States National Poultry Research Center, USDA/ARS, Athens, GA, 30605, USA.

Newcastle disease (ND) infects wild birds and poultry species worldwide, severely impacting the economics of the poultry industry. ND is especially problematic in Latin America (Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, and Peru) where it is either endemic or re-emerging. The disease is caused by infections with one of the different strains of virulent avian Newcastle disease virus (NDV), recently renamed Avian avulavirus 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-019-01843-zDOI Listing

A novel Australian flying-fox retrovirus shares an evolutionary ancestor with Koala, Gibbon and Melomys gamma-retroviruses.

Virus Genes 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Health and Food Science Precinct, Biosecurity Sciences Laboratory, Biosecurity Queensland, 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plains, QLD, 4108, Australia.

A novel gamma-retroviral sequence (7912 bp), inclusive of both partial 5' and 3' long terminal repeat regions, was identified from the brain of a black flying-fox (Pteropus alecto), Queensland, Australia. The sequence was distinct from other retroviral sequences identified in bats and showed greater identity to Koala, Gibbon ape leukaemia, Melomys burtoni and Woolly monkey retroviruses, forming their own phylogenetic clade. This finding suggests that these retroviruses may have an unknown common ancestor and that further investigation into the diversity of gamma-retroviruses in Australian Pteropus species may elucidate their evolutionary origins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11262-019-01653-3DOI Listing

Proteins with calmodulin-like domains: structures and functional roles.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, 13 Universitetsparken, 2100, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The appearance of modular proteins is a widespread phenomenon during the evolution of proteins. The combinatorial arrangement of different functional and/or structural domains within a single polypeptide chain yields a wide variety of activities and regulatory properties to the modular proteins. In this review, we will discuss proteins, that in addition to their catalytic, transport, structure, localization or adaptor functions, also have segments resembling the helix-loop-helix EF-hand motifs found in Ca-binding proteins, such as calmodulin (CaM). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00018-019-03062-zDOI Listing

Molecular host mimicry and manipulation in bacterial symbionts.

Authors:
A Carolin Frank

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2019 Feb;366(4)

Life and Environmental Sciences, 5200 North Lake Rd, University of California Merced, Merced, CA 95343, USA.

It is common among intracellular bacterial pathogens to use eukaryotic-like proteins that mimic and manipulate host cellular processes to promote colonization and intracellular survival. Eukaryotic-like proteins are bacterial proteins with domains that are rare in bacteria, and known to function in the context of a eukaryotic cell. Such proteins can originate through horizontal gene transfer from eukaryotes or, in the case of simple repeat proteins, through convergent evolution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnz038DOI Listing
February 2019

Applied Epidemiology Training Needs for the Modern Epidemiologist.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Emergency Response and Recovery Branch, Division of Global Health Protection, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Applied epidemiology training occurs throughout an epidemiologist's career, beginning with academic instruction before workforce entry, continuing as professional development while working, and culminating with mentoring the next generation. Epidemiologists need ongoing training on advancements and relevant topics (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz052DOI Listing

Adaptations and evolution of a heritable leaf nodule symbiosis between Dioscorea sansibarensis and Orrella dioscoreae.

ISME J 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Laboratory of Microbiology, Ghent University, B-9000, Ghent, Belgium.

Various plant species establish intimate symbioses with bacteria within their aerial organs. The bacteria are contained within nodules or glands often present in distinctive patterns on the leaves in what is commonly referred to as leaf nodule symbiosis. We describe here a highly specific symbiosis between a wild yam species from Madagascar, Dioscorea sansibarensis and bacteria of the species Orrella dioscoreae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41396-019-0398-8DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Genomes of skipper butterflies reveal extensive convergence of wing patterns.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Biophysics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9050;

For centuries, biologists have used phenotypes to infer evolution. For decades, a handful of gene markers have given us a glimpse of the genotype to combine with phenotypic traits. Today, we can sequence entire genomes from hundreds of species and gain yet closer scrutiny. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1821304116DOI Listing

Networks of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions modulate the complex folding free energy surface of a designed βα protein.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605;

The successful de novo design of proteins can provide insights into the physical chemical basis of stability, the role of evolution in constraining amino acid sequences, and the production of customizable platforms for engineering applications. Previous guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl; an ionic denaturant) experiments of a designed, naturally occurring βα fold, Di-III_14, revealed a cooperative, two-state unfolding transition and a modest stability. Continuous-flow mixing experiments in our laboratory revealed a simple two-state reaction in the microsecond to millisecond time range and consistent with the thermodynamic results. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1818744116DOI Listing

Implications of the local haemodynamic forces on the phenotype of coronary plaques.

Heart 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Cardiology, Bern University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland.

Aim: To examine the effect of endothelial shear stress (ESS) on the dynamic changes in plaque phenotype.

Methods: Patients with myocardial infarction that had intravascular ultrasound-virtual histology (IVUS-VH) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) at baseline and 13-month follow-up were studied. The IVUS-VH data were used to reconstruct the nonculprit vessels, and in the obtained models the ESS was estimated in 3 mm segments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2018-314086DOI Listing

Review of the scientific evolution of gene therapy for the treatment of homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia: past, present and future perspectives.

J Med Genet 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Vascular Medicine and Metabolism Unit, Research Unit on Lipids and Atherosclerosis, 'Sant Joan' University Hospital, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Institut de Investigació Sanitaria Pere Virgili (IISPV), Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Disorders (CIBERDEM), Reus, Spain.

Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a devastating genetic disease that leads to extremely high cholesterol levels and severe cardiovascular disease, mainly caused by mutations in any of the main genes involved in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) uptake. Among these genes, mutations in the LDL receptor () are responsible for 80%-90% of the FH cases. The severe homozygous variety (HoFH) is not successfully treated with standard cholesterol-lowering therapies, and more aggressive strategies must be considered to mitigate the effects of this disease, such as weekly/biweekly LDL apheresis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2018-105713DOI Listing

Structural and functional analysis of glycoside hydrolase 138 enzymes targeting chain A galacturonic acid in the complex pectin rhamnogalacturonan II.

J Biol Chem 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Newcastle University, United Kingdom.

The metabolism of carbohydrate polymers drives microbial diversity in the human gut microbiome. The selection pressures in this environment have spurred the evolution of a complex reservoir of microbial genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). Previously, we have shown that the human gut bacterium () can depolymerize the most structurally complex glycan, the plant pectin rhamnogalacturonan II (RGII), commonly found in the human diet. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA118.006626DOI Listing

Spatial heterogeneity of spp. in sediments of Chinese marginal seas.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

MOE Key Laboratory of Marine Genetics and Breeding, College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China

spp. are ubiquitous marine bacteria with high metabolism flexibility and genome plasticity. Previous studies have revealed dynamics of planktonic vibrios in relation to environmental forces such as temperature and salinity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.03064-18DOI Listing

Bacterial analogs of plant tetrahydropyridine alkaloids mediate microbial interactions in a rhizosphere model system.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Wisconsin Institute for Discovery and Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Plants expend significant resources to select and maintain rhizosphere communities that benefit their growth and protect them from pathogens. A better understanding of assembly and function of rhizosphere microbial communities will provide new avenues for improving crop production. Secretion of antibiotics is one means by which bacteria interact with neighboring microbes and sometimes change community composition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.03058-18DOI Listing

Transposition of IS Family Insertion Sequences IS, IS and IS into Operon Disrupts Arginine Deiminase System in .

Appl Environ Microbiol 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Manufacturing Division, Yamasa Corporation, 2-10-1, Araoi-cho, Choshi, Chiba 288-0056, Japan.

, a halophilic lactic acid bacterium, is often used as a starter culture in the manufacturing of soy sauce. possesses an arginine deiminase system, which is responsible for the accumulation of citrulline, the main precursor of the potential carcinogen ethyl carbamate. In this study, we generated five derivatives lacking arginine deiminase activity from NBRC 12172 by UV irradiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00208-19DOI Listing

MRI Imaging of the Hemodynamic Vasculature of Neuroblastoma Predicts Response to Anti-angiogenic Treatment.

Cancer Res 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, The Institute of Cancer Research, London

Childhood neuroblastoma is a hypervascular tumor of neural origin for which antiangiogenic drugs are currently being evaluated; however, predictive biomarkers of treatment response, crucial for successful delivery of precision therapeutics, are lacking. We describe a MRI-pathological cross-correlative approach using intrinsic susceptibility (IS-) and susceptibility contrast (SC-) MRI to non-invasively map the vascular phenotype in neuroblastoma Th-MYCN transgenic mice treated with the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor cediranib. We showed that the transverse MRI relaxation rate R2* (s-1) and fractional blood volume fBV (%) were sensitive imaging biomarkers of hemorrhage and vascular density, respectively, and were also predictive biomarkers of response to cediranib. Read More

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http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/lookup/doi/10.1158/0008-54
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-3412DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Intratumoral genetic and functional heterogeneity in pediatric glioblastoma.

Cancer Res 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Physiology & Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Calgary

Pediatric glioblastoma (pGBM) is a lethal cancer with no effective therapies. To understand the mechanisms of tumor evolution in this cancer, we performed whole genome sequencing with linked reads on longitudinally resected pGBM samples. Our analyses showed that all diagnostic and recurrent samples were collections of genetically diverse subclones. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-3441DOI Listing

Streamlining Detection of Fusion Genes in Colorectal Cancer: Having "Faith" in Precision Oncology in the (Tissue) "Agnostic" Era.

Authors:
Nicola Valeri

Cancer Res 2019 Mar;79(6):1041-1043

Division of Molecular Pathology, The Institute of Cancer Research, London, United Kingdom.

The FDA recently granted tissue-agnostic approval for the first-in-class TRK inhibitor larotrectinib for patients whose tumors harbor fusions in neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinases. These fusion genes have a frequency of less than 1% in unselected patients with colorectal cancer. Using a multiomics approach and a clinically annotated cohort of patients with colorectal cancer, Cocco and colleagues showed that patients with sporadic, / wild-type, mismatch repair-deficient colorectal cancer tumors with MLH1 promoter methylation present fusions in kinase genes in 42% of cases and suggested a diagnostic framework to improve the selection of patients eligible for gene fusion testing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-0305DOI Listing

Characterization of the Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotides (NAD and NADP) Binding Sites of the Monomeric Isocitrate Dehydrogenases from Campylobacter species.

Biochimie 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology and the Research Center of Life Omics and Health, College of Life Sciences, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, 241000, Anhui, China. Electronic address:

Monomeric isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs) have once been proposed to be exclusively NADP-specific. Intriguingly, we recently have reported an NAD-specific monomeric IDH from Campylobacter sp. FOBRC14 (CaIDH). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2019.03.007DOI Listing

Hepatovirus 3ABC proteases and evolution of mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS).

J Hepatol 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA; Department of Medicine, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA; Department of Microbiology & Immunology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Unlike other hepatitis viruses that have infected primates for millions of years, hepatitis A virus (HAV) likely entered human populations only 10-12 thousand years ago after jumping from a rodent host. The phylogeny of modern hepatoviruses infecting rodents and bats suggest multiple similar host shifts have occurred in the past. The factors determining such shifts are unknown, but the capacity to overcome innate antiviral responses in a foreign species is likely key. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2019.02.020DOI Listing

Shannon's Information, Bernal's Biopoiesis and Bernoulli Distribution as Pillars for Building a Definition of Life.

J Theor Biol 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address:

The quest for defining life has lasted since the beginning of modern science. During the last century, we have reached a lot of milestones toward the understanding of life and its molecular basis. Also, as living creatures, we have imprinted awareness about what is life and what is not. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2019.03.009DOI Listing

Unstable coupling of body sway with imposed motion precedes visually induced motion sickness.

Hum Mov Sci 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota, USA. Electronic address:

Motion sickness is preceded by differences in the quantitative kinematics of body sway between individuals who (later) become sick and those who do not. In existing research, this effect has been demonstrated only in measures of body sway, relative to the earth. However, body sway can become coupled with imposed oscillatory motion of the illuminated environment, and the nature of this coupling may differ between individuals who become sick and those who do not. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2019.03.006DOI Listing

Analysis of the retention of tetracyclines on reversed-phase columns: Chemometrics, design of experiments and quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) study for interpretation and optimization.

Talanta 2019 Jun 11;198:550-559. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

CNRS UMR 5623, UPS Laboratoire IMRCP, Université de Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse, France. Electronic address:

In this study, design of experiments was applied for the analysis of 6 reversed phase U-HPLC columns used for the separation of four tetracyclines (TCs): tetracycline, doxycycline, chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline in different elution conditions. In a first part, a fractional factorial design (2) was used to study the influence of four chromatographic parameters: column temperature, pH, flow rate and composition of the mobile phase (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2019.02.051DOI Listing

Population genomic and evolutionary modelling analyses reveal a single major QTL for ivermectin drug resistance in the pathogenic nematode, Haemonchus contortus.

BMC Genomics 2019 Mar 15;20(1):218. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Comparative Biology and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Background: Infections with helminths cause an enormous disease burden in billions of animals and plants worldwide. Large scale use of anthelmintics has driven the evolution of resistance in a number of species that infect livestock and companion animals, and there are growing concerns regarding the reduced efficacy in some human-infective helminths. Understanding the mechanisms by which resistance evolves is the focus of increasing interest; robust genetic analysis of helminths is challenging, and although many candidate genes have been proposed, the genetic basis of resistance remains poorly resolved. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-019-5592-6DOI Listing

Engineering of L-amino acid deaminases for the production of α-keto acids from L-amino acids.

Bioengineered 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

a Key Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education , Jiangnan University , Wuxi 214122 , China.

α-keto acids are organic compounds that contain an acid group and a ketone group. L-amino acid deaminases are enzymes that catalyze the oxidative deamination of amino acids for the formation of their corresponding α-keto acids and ammonia. α-keto acids are synthesized industrially via chemical processes that are costly and use harsh chemicals. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21655979.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2019.1595990DOI Listing
March 2019
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Bifunctional mechanism of N, P co-doped graphene for catalyzing oxygen reduction and evolution reactions.

J Chem Phys 2019 Mar;150(10):104701

School of Physics and Electronics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, People's Republic of China.

The development of bifunctional catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is highly desirable for fuel cells and rechargeable metal-air batteries. Till now, it is still challenging to achieve both efficient activities on a single commercial noble-metal catalyst. Recently, N, P co-doped graphene has shown good bifunctional evidence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5082996DOI Listing

Fast and robust quantum control for multimode interactions using shortcuts to adiabaticity.

Opt Express 2019 Mar;27(5):7384-7392

Adiabatic quantum control is a very important approach for quantum physics and quantum information processing (QIP). It holds the advantage with robustness to experimental imperfections but accumulates more decoherence due to the long evolution time. Here, we propose a universal protocol for fast and robust quantum control in multimode interactions of a quantum system by using shortcuts to adiabaticity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.27.007384DOI Listing

On-chip plasmon-induced transparency in THz metamaterial on a LiNbO subwavelength planar waveguide.

Opt Express 2019 Mar;27(5):7373-7383

We experimentally demonstrate on-chip plasmon-induced transparency at THz frequencies using a meta-structure deposited on a 50 μm-thick dielectric subwavelength waveguide. The obvious plasmon-induced transparency results from strong coupling between the respective modes of a cut wire and a double-gap split ring resonator. The simulation and experimental results are consistent. Read More

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https://www.osapublishing.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-27-5-7373
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.27.007373DOI Listing
March 2019
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Experimental electric field visualisation of multi-mode dynamics in a short cavity swept laser designed for OCT applications.

Opt Express 2019 Mar;27(5):7307-7318

An experimental study into the modal dynamics of a short cavity, fast frequency-swept laser is presented. This commercially available external cavity swept source is designed for use in optical coherence tomography (OCT) applications and displays a number of dynamic lasing regimes during the course of the wavelength sweep. Interferometric full electric field reconstruction is employed, allowing for measurement of the laser operation in a time-resolved, single-shot manner. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.27.007307DOI Listing
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