540,100 results match your criteria Evolution; international journal of organic evolution[Journal]


Activation of peroxymonosulfate by magnetic catalysts derived from drinking water treatment residuals for the degradation of atrazine.

J Hazard Mater 2018 Dec 5;366:402-412. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, China.

Magnetic catalysts (MCs) derived from iron-rich drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) were prepared through pyrolysis treatment and introduced as activators of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for refractory atrazine (ATZ) degradation. Comprehensive characterization analysis indicated that pyrolytic temperature could manipulate the crystalline structure evolution of the MCs and influence their physicochemical and catalytic properties. The catalytic performances of the as-prepared samples pyrolyzed at 600 °C (MC-600) and 1000 °C (MC-1000) were evaluated, and MC-1000 exhibited far more excellent catalytic reactivity than MC-600 in PMS oxidation system. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Bundle payment model in spine surgery: Current challenges and opportunities, a systematic review.

World Neurosurg 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Louisville, 200 Abraham Flexner Hwy, Louisville, KY, U.S.A- 40202. Electronic address:

Introduction: Bundled payments offer a lump sum for management of particular conditions over a specified time period that has the potential to reduce healthcare payments. Additionally, bundled payments represent a shift toward patient-centered reimbursement that has the upside of improved care coordination among providers and may lead to improved outcomes.

Aim: To review the challenges and sources of payment variation and opportunities for restructuring bundled payments plans in context of spine surgery. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Genome-wide identification, characterization and expression analysis of the MITF gene in Yesso scallops (Patinopecten yessoensis) with different shell colors.

Gene 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Key Laboratory of Mariculture & Stock Enhancement in North China's Sea, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian, China. Electronic address:

The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is the center of the regulator network of melanin synthesis in vertebrates. However, the role of MITF in shell color formation is poorly studied in mollusks. In the present study, an MITF gene, PyMITF, was first identified at the whole-genome level in Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis), an evolutionarily and economically important species, the shell color of which shows polymorphism. Read More

View Article
December 2018

TiS2 Monolayer Emerging as Ultrathin Bifunctional Catalyst: Influence of Defect and Functionalization.

Chemphyschem 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science,Jadavpur, Kolkata-700032,India., INDIA.

We have envisaged the hydrogen evolution and oxygen evolution reaction (HER and OER) on two-dimensional (2D) noble metal free titanium disulfide TiS2 monolayer, which belongs to the exciting family of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). Our theoretical investigation to probe HER and OER on both H- and T- phase of 2D TiS2 is based on the electronic structure calculations witihin the framework of Density Functional Theory (DFT). Since TiS2 is the lightest element among the group IV transition metal dichalocogenides, it is worth exploring the catalytic activity of TiS2 monolayer through the functionalization at the anion (S) site substituting with P, N and C dopants as well as by incorporating single sulfur vacancy defect. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Regression of human immunodeficiency virus-associated oral Kaposi sarcoma with combined antiretroviral therapy: A case report and literature review.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Oral Pathology, Department of Stomatology, University of Sao Paulo School of Dentistry, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most prevalent malignant neoplasia in human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) patients for which the primary mode of management was chemotherapy.

Methods: We have presented the case of a newly diagnosed HIV+ male patient who was diagnosed with a pedunculated nodule in the anterior region of the hard palate, measuring 3.5 cm in diameter and with 2 months of evolution. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Mosaic modularity: an updated perspective and research agenda for the evolution of vascular cambial growth.

New Phytol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Pacific Southwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Davis, CA, 95618.

Secondary growth from a vascular cambium, present today only in seed plants and isoetalean lycophytes, has a 400-million-year evolutionary history that involves considerably broader taxonomic diversity, most of it hidden in the fossil record. Approaching vascular cambial growth as a complex developmental process, we review data from living plants and fossils that reveal diverse modes of secondary growth. These are consistent with a modular nature of secondary growth, when considered as a tracheophyte-wide structural feature. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Primate neocortex development and evolution - conserved versus evolved folding.

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Dresden, Germany.

The neocortex, the seat of higher cognitive functions, exhibits a key feature across mammalian species - a highly variable degree of folding. Within the neocortex, two distinct subtypes of cortical areas can be distinguished, the isocortex and the proisocortex. Here, we have compared specific spatiotemporal aspects of folding between the proisocortex and the isocortex in 13 primates, including human, chimpanzee, and various Old World and New World monkeys. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Cortical interlaminar astrocytes across the therian mammal radiation.

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, UC Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA.

Interlaminar astrocytes (ILA) in the cerebral cortex possess a soma in layer I and extend an interlaminar process that runs perpendicular to the pia into deeper cortical layers. We examined cerebral cortex from 46 species that encompassed most orders of therian mammalians, including 22 primate species. We described two distinct cell types with interlaminar processes that have been referred to as ILA, that we termed pial ILA and supial ILA. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Sympatric diploid and tetraploid cytotypes of Centaurea stoebe s.l. do not differ in arbuscular mycorrhizal communities and mycorrhizal growth response.

Am J Bot 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Benátská 2, CZ-128 01, Prague, Czech Republic.

Premise Of The Study: Genome duplication is associated with multiple changes at different levels, including interactions with pollinators and herbivores. Yet little is known whether polyploidy may also shape belowground interactions.

Methods: To elucidate potential ploidy-specific interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), we compared mycorrhizal colonization and assembly of AMF communities in roots of diploid and tetraploid Centaurea stoebe s. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Stochastic Modeling and Simulation of Viral Evolution.

Bull Math Biol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Departamento de Informática em Saúde, Laboratório de Biocomplexidade e Genômica Evolutiva, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

RNA viruses comprise vast populations of closely related, but highly genetically diverse, entities known as quasispecies. Understanding the mechanisms by which this extreme diversity is generated and maintained is fundamental when approaching viral persistence and pathobiology in infected hosts. In this paper, we access quasispecies theory through a mathematical model based on the theory of multitype branching processes, to better understand the roles of mechanisms resulting in viral diversity, persistence and extinction. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Foraging Performance, Prosociality, and Kin Presence Do Not Predict Lifetime Reproductive Success in Batek Hunter-Gatherers.

Hum Nat 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Anthropology, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, 03755, USA.

Identifying the determinants of reproductive success in small-scale societies is critical for understanding how natural selection has shaped human evolution and behavior. The available evidence suggests that status-accruing behaviors such as hunting and prosociality are pathways to reproductive success, but social egalitarianism may diminish this pathway. Here we introduce a mixed longitudinal/cross-sectional dataset based on 45 years of research with the Batek, a population of egalitarian rain forest hunter-gatherers in Peninsular Malaysia, and use it to test the effects of four predictors of lifetime reproductive success: (i) foraging return rate, (ii) sharing proclivity, (iii) cooperative foraging tendency, and (iv) kin presence. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Full plastome sequence of the fern Vandenboschia speciosa (Hymenophyllales): structural singularities and evolutionary insights.

J Plant Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Departamento de Genética, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain.

We provide here the first full chloroplast genome sequence, i.e., the plastome, for a species belonging to the fern order Hymenophyllales. Read More

View Article
December 2018

A note on evolution of pressure and flow within an evaporating capillary bridge.

Eur Phys J E Soft Matter 2018 Dec 5;41(12):140. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Duke University, Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science Dept., Durham, NC, USA.

Experiments with evaporation of capillary bridges between two glass spheres show that the bridge gorge radius decreases much faster than the contact radius, distorting the original constant mean curvature bridge shape. In addition, the Laplace pressure calculated from local principal curvatures exhibits high gradients along the bridge moving external surface, most commonly with a high suction near the triple phase contact and positive pressure near the gorge. The high suction results from a negative external curvature at contact. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Surface-enhanced infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy via carbon nanodots for small molecules in aqueous solution.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute of Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Ulm University, 89081, Ulm, Germany.

In this study, carbon nanodots (CNDs) with excellent aqueous dispersibility, narrow size distribution, and oxygen-rich functional groups have been prepared via a green electrochemical method. Graphite electrodes were directly electrolyzed at ambient temperatures to form uniform CNDs in deionized water, which is free from additional oxidant/reductant. As-synthesized CNDs have been applied to coat an attenuated total reflection (ATR) waveguide enabling surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopic studies for detecting a variety of analytes in aqueous phase with remarkably enhanced IR band intensities. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Winged forelimbs of the small theropod dinosaur Caudipteryx could have generated small aerodynamic forces during rapid terrestrial locomotion.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 14;8(1):17854. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100044, P. R. China.

Pennaceous feathers capable of forming aerodynamic surfaces are characteristic of Pennaraptora, the group comprising birds and their closest relatives among non-avian dinosaurs. However, members of the basal pennaraptoran lineage Oviraptorosauria were clearly flightless, and the function of pennaceous feathers on the forelimb in oviraptorosaurs is still uncertain. In the basal oviraptorosaur Caudipteryx both the skeleton and the plumage, which includes pennaceous feathers forming wing-like arrangements on the forelimbs, are well known. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Miniscule differences between sex chromosomes in the giant genome of a salamander.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 14;8(1):17882. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

In the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), sex is determined by a single Mendelian factor, yet its sex chromosomes do not exhibit morphological differentiation typical of many vertebrate taxa that possess a single sex-determining locus. As sex chromosomes are theorized to differentiate rapidly, species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes provide the opportunity to reconstruct early events in sex chromosome evolution. Whole genome sequencing of 48 salamanders, targeted chromosome sequencing and in situ hybridization were used to identify the homomorphic sex chromosome that carries an A. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Avian Toll-like receptor allelic diversity far exceeds human polymorphism: an insight from domestic chicken breeds.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 14;8(1):17878. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Charles University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Viničná 7, Prague, 12843, Czech Republic.

Immune genes show remarkable levels of adaptive variation shaped by pathogen-mediated selection. Compared to humans, however, population polymorphism in animals has been understudied. To provide an insight into immunogenetic diversity in birds, we sequenced complete protein-coding regions of all Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes with direct orthology between mammals and birds (TLR3, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR7) in 110 domestic chickens from 25 breeds and compared their variability with a corresponding human dataset. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Overall water splitting by graphdiyne-exfoliated and -sandwiched layered double-hydroxide nanosheet arrays.

Nat Commun 2018 Dec 14;9(1):5309. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Key Laboratory of Organic Solids, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, P. R. China.

It is of great urgency to develop efficient, cost-effective, stable and industrially applicable electrocatalysts for renewable energy systems. But there are still few candidate materials. Here we show a bifunctional electrocatalyst, comprising graphdiyne-exfoliated and -sandwiched iron/cobalt layered double-hydroxide nanosheet arrays grown on nickel foam, for the oxygen and hydrogen evolution reactions. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Constructing exact representations of quantum many-body systems with deep neural networks.

Nat Commun 2018 Dec 14;9(1):5322. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Applied Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656, Japan.

Obtaining accurate properties of many-body interacting quantum matter is a long-standing challenge in theoretical physics and chemistry, rooting into the complexity of the many-body wave-function. Classical representations of many-body states constitute a key tool for both analytical and numerical approaches to interacting quantum problems. Here, we introduce a technique to construct classical representations of many-body quantum systems based on artificial neural networks. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Characterizing Activity and Thermostability of GH5 Endoglucanase Chimeras from Mesophilic and Thermophilic Parents.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

From the Key Laboratory for Feed Biotechnology of the Ministry of Agriculture, Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, People's Republic of China

Cellulases from glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5 are key endoglucanase enzymes in the degradation of diverse polysaccharide substrates and are used in industrial enzyme cocktails to break down biomass. The GH5 family shares a canonical (βα)-barrel structure, where each (βα) module is essential for the enzyme stability and activity. Despite their shared topology, the thermostability of GH5 endoglucanase enzymes can vary significantly, and highly thermostable variants are often sought for industrial applications. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Aging of Antiviral CD8 Memory T Cells Fosters Increased Survival, Metabolic Adaptations, and Lymphoid Tissue Homing.

J Immunol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045;

Aging of established antiviral T cell memory can foster a series of progressive adaptations that paradoxically improve rather than compromise protective CD8 T cell immunity. We now provide evidence that this gradual evolution, the pace of which is contingent on the precise context of the primary response, also impinges on the molecular mechanisms that regulate CD8 memory T cell (T) homeostasis. Over time, CD8 T generated in the wake of an acute infection with the natural murine pathogen lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus become more resistant to apoptosis and acquire enhanced cytokine responsiveness without adjusting their homeostatic proliferation rates; concurrent metabolic adaptations promote increased CD8 T quiescence and fitness but also impart the reacquisition of a partial effector-like metabolic profile; and a gradual redistribution of aging CD8 T from blood and nonlymphoid tissues to lymphatic organs results in CD8 T accumulations in bone marrow, splenic white pulp, and, particularly, lymph nodes. Read More

View Article
December 2018

A Notch-regulated proliferative stem cell zone in the developing spinal cord is an ancestral vertebrate trait.

Development 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, 11a Mansfield Road, Oxford, OX1 3SZ, UK

Vertebrates have evolved the most sophisticated nervous systems we know. These differ from the nervous systems of invertebrates in several ways, including the evolution of new cell types, and the emergence and elaboration of patterning mechanisms to organise cells in time and space. Vertebrates also generally have many more cells in their central nervous systems than invertebrates, and an increase in neural cell number may have contributed to the sophisticated anatomy of the brain and spinal cord. Read More

View Article
December 2018

A quantitative framework for characterizing the evolutionary history of mammalian gene expression.

Genome Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden.

The evolutionary history of a gene helps predict its function and relationship to phenotypic traits. Although sequence conservation is commonly used to decipher gene function and assess medical relevance, methods for functional inference from comparative expression data are lacking. Here, we use RNA-seq across seven tissues from 17 mammalian species to show that expression evolution across mammals is accurately modeled by the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, a commonly proposed model of continuous trait evolution. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Inference of the HIV-1 VRC01 Antibody Lineage Unmutated Common Ancestor Reveals Alternative Pathways to Overcome a Key Glycan Barrier.

Immunity 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; Department of Immunology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Elicitation of VRC01-class broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is an appealing approach for a preventative HIV-1 vaccine. Despite extensive investigations, strategies to induce VRC01-class bnAbs and overcome the barrier posed by the envelope N276 glycan have not been successful. Here, we inferred a high-probability unmutated common ancestor (UCA) of the VRC01 lineage and reconstructed the stages of lineage maturation. Read More

View Article
December 2018

The Rear Tip Extender for Inflatable Penile Prostheses: Introduction of "Rigidity Factor" and Review of the Literature.

Sex Med Rev 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Advanced Urological Care, New York, NY, USA.

Introduction: Rear tip extenders (RTEs) are often used in penile prosthesis surgery, and their value and use have varied with the evolution of penile prostheses.

Aim: To review the literature addressing RTEs and to introduce a new term, rigidity factor, which quantifies the ratio of inflatable to non-inflatable component of the cylinders.

Methods: The urologic literature was reviewed for all mention of RTEs. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Endoscopic management of dysplasia and early oesophageal cancer.

Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2018 Oct - Dec;36-37:27-36. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Dept of Gastroenterology, Guy's & St Thomas' Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Westminster Bridge Road, London, SE1 7EH, United Kingdom.

In the past decade there have been technological advances in Endoscopic Eradication Therapy (EET) for the management of patients with oesophageal neoplasia and early cancer. Multiple endoscopic techniques now exist for both squamous and Barrett's oesophagus associated neoplasia or early cancer. A fundamental aspect of endotherapy is removal of the target lesion by endoscopic mucosal resection, or endosopic submucosal dissection. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Rapid evolution of insects to global environmental change: conceptual issues and empirical gaps.

Authors:
Jeff R Garnas

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Oct 25;29:93-101. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

University of New Hampshire, Department of Natural Resources and the Environment, South Africa; Department of Zoology and Entomology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria, South Africa. Electronic address:

Understanding how insects will respond both ecologically and evolutionarily to complex and interacting factors linked to global change is an important challenge that underpins our ability to produce better predictive models and to anticipate and manage ecosystem-scale disruption in the Anthropocene. Insects have the capacity to rapidly adapt to changing conditions via a variety of mechanisms which include both phenotypically plastic and evolutionary responses that interact in important ways. This short review comments on the current state of knowledge surrounding rapid evolution in insects and highlights conceptual and empirical gaps. Read More

View Article
October 2018

Evolution of geographic variation in thermal performance curves in the face of climate change and implications for biotic interactions.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Oct 11;29:78-84. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Evolutionary Stress Ecology and Ecotoxicology, University of Leuven, Deberiotstraat 32, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

We review the recent literature on geographic variation in insect thermal performance curves (TPCs). Despite strong thermal differences, there is often no change in TPCs across geographic gradients. When shifts occur, these are mostly vertical (indicating an overall shift in performance across temperatures, that is, countergradient or cogradient variation) and less horizontal (reflecting thermal adaptation). Read More

View Article
October 2018

Eco-evolutionary feedbacks following changes in spatial connectedness.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Oct 27;29:64-70. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Ghent University, Dept. of Biology, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.

Humans are drastically changing the spatial configuration of habitats. The associated changes in habitat connectedness impose strong selection on dispersal, and dispersal related traits. Evolutionary responses do, however, strongly feedback on the metapopulation dynamics, by further constraining or improving connectivity and impacting local population and food web dynamics. Read More

View Article
October 2018

Crop domestication: anthropogenic effects on insect-plant interactions in agroecosystems.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Oct 28;29:56-63. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Department of Plant and Soil Science, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA.

Although crop domestication is considered a model system for understanding evolution, the eco-evolutionary effects of domesticated crops on higher trophic levels have rarely been discussed. Changes in size, shape, quality, or timing of plant traits during domestication can influence entire arthropod communities. The plant traits specific to crop plants can be rare in nature. Read More

View Article
October 2018

The functional decoupling of processes in alpine ecosystems under climate change.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Oct 17;29:126-132. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Laboratory of Functional Ecology, Institute of Biology, University of Neuchâtel, Rue Emile-Argand 11, 2000 Neuchâtel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Climate change may promote the decoupling of the different above-ground and below-ground compartments of high elevation ecosystems. Along elevation gradients, a trade-off between species tolerance to cold climates and metabolic rates dictates that cold adapted organisms display a lower efficiency in decomposition, growth or herbivory. As a consequence, if dispersal or evolution under climate change is systematically faster for agents of one compartment (e. Read More

View Article
October 2018

Tritrophic niches of insect herbivores in an era of rapid environmental change.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Oct 23;29:117-125. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

Department of Biology, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459, USA.

A multi-trophic perspective improves understanding of the ecological and evolutionary consequences of rapid environmental change on insect herbivores. Loss of specialized enemies due to human impacts is predicted to dramatically reduce the number of tritrophic niches of herbivores compared to a bitrophic niche perspective. Habitat fragmentation and climate change promote the loss of both specialist enemies and herbivores, favoring ecological generalism across trophic levels. Read More

View Article
October 2018

Global change and the importance of fire for the ecology and evolution of insects.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Oct 31;29:110-116. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Denver, 2050 E Iliff Ave, Boettcher West, Denver, CO 80210, USA. Electronic address:

Climate change is drastically altering global fire regimes, which may affect the structure and function of insect communities. Insect responses to fire are strongly tied to fire history, plant responses, and changes in species interactions. Many insects already possess adaptive traits to survive fire or benefit from post-fire resources, which may result in community composition shifting toward habitat and dietary generalists as well as species with high dispersal abilities. Read More

View Article
October 2018

Saliva of hematophagous insects: a multifaceted toolkit.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Oct 24;29:102-109. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 12735 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville, MD 20852, USA.

Transcriptomic, proteomic and genomic studies significantly improved our understanding of the complexity of blood feeding insect saliva providing unparalleled evolutionary insights. Salivary genes appeared to be under strong selective pressure with gene duplication and functional diversification being a powerful driver in the evolution of novel salivary genes/functions. The first insect salivary proteins responsible for complement inhibition were identified and a widespread mechanism of action shared by unrelated salivary protein families was recognized and named kratagonism. Read More

View Article
October 2018

Recent advances in antimicrobial and bacterial resistance.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2018 Dec;52(6):869-870

Laboratoire Neurophysiologie, Physiopathologie Cellulaire et Valorisation des BioMolécules, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université de Tunis El-Manar, Campus Universitaire, 2098 El-Manar II, Tunisia.

View Article
December 2018

Editorial overview: Beyond eusocial insects: studying the other social insects to better understand social evolution.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Aug 19;28:vi-viii. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Institute of Insect Biotechnology, University of Gießen, 35392 Gießen, Germany.

View Article

Social nutrition: an emerging field in insect science.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Aug 18;28:73-80. Epub 2018 May 18.

School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, Southern Australia 5005, Australia.

Nutrition is thought to be a major driver of social evolution, yet empirical support for this hypothesis is scarce. Here we illustrate how conceptual advances in nutritional ecology illuminate some of the mechanisms by which nutrition mediates social interactions in insects. We focus on experiments and models of nutritional geometry and argue that they provide a powerful means for comparing nutritional phenomena across species exhibiting various social ecologies. Read More

View Article
August 2018
1 Read

Transmission of mutualistic bacteria in social and gregarious insects.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Aug 14;28:50-58. Epub 2018 May 14.

Department of Evolutionary Ecology, Institute of Organismic and Molecular Evolution, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Johann-Joachim-Becher-Weg 13, 55128 Mainz, Germany. Electronic address:

Symbiotic microbes can confer a range of benefits to social, sub-social, and gregarious insects that include contributions to nutrition, digestion, and defense. Transmission of beneficial symbionts to the next generation in these insects sometimes occurs transovarially as in many solitary insects, but primarily through social contact such as coprophagy in gregarious taxa, and trophallaxis in eusocial insects. While these behaviors benefit reliable transmission of multi-microbial assemblages, they may also come at the cost of inviting the spread of parasites and pathogens. Read More

View Article

The other insect societies: overview and new directions.

Authors:
James T Costa

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Aug 7;28:40-49. Epub 2018 May 7.

Highlands Biological Station, 265 N. Sixth Street, Highlands, NC 28741, USA; Department of Biology, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC 28723, USA. Electronic address:

The diversity of societies and forms of social interaction across the Arthropoda is commensurate with the great taxonomic diversity within this pylum. Social evolution research has, however, largely focused on a small subset of social forms; namely, those deemed to be 'eusocial'-groups exhibiting overlapping generations, cooperative brood care, and reproductive division of labor. Here I provide a brief overview of the 'other', non-eusocial, societies of insects and allies, defining the main social traits of interest and summarizing recent work. Read More

View Article

Back to the roots: the importance of using simple insect societies to understand the molecular basis of complex social life.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Aug 12;28:33-39. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Institute of Organismic and Molecular Evolution, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany. Electronic address:

The evolutionary trajectories toward insect eusociality come in two broad forms. In species like wasps, bees, and ants, the first helpers remained at the nest primarily to help with brood care. In species like aphids and termites, on the other hand, nest defense was initially the primary ecological driving force. Read More

View Article

Social wasps as models to study the major evolutionary transition to superorganismality.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Aug 11;28:26-32. Epub 2018 Apr 11.

Centre for Biodiversity & Environment Research, Department of Genetics, Evolution & Environment, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The major evolutionary transition to superorganismality has taken place several times in the insects. Although there has been much consideration of the ultimate evolutionary explanations for superorganismality, we know relatively little about what proximate mechanisms constrain or promote this major transition. Here, we propose that Vespid wasps represent an understudied, but potentially very useful, model system for studying the mechanisms underpinning superorganismality. Read More

View Article
August 2018
1 Read

Sociality and communicative complexity: insights from the other insect societies.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Aug 10;28:19-25. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Institute of Insect Biotechnology, University of Gießen, 35392 Gießen, Germany. Electronic address:

Recognition and communication are essential processes when it comes to interaction of organisms with their biotic environment. As especially social interactions are coordinated by communication, it has been predicted that social evolution drives communicative complexity. However, studies comparing olfactory signals or receptor repertoires of solitary and eusocial insects found only mixed evidence for the social complexity hypothesis. Read More

View Article

Juvenile hormone and parental care in subsocial insects: implications for the role of juvenile hormone in the evolution of sociality.

Authors:
Stephen T Trumbo

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Aug 7;28:13-18. Epub 2018 Apr 7.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Waterbury, CT 06710, USA.

Juvenile hormone (JH) has both gonadotropic and non-gonadotropic roles in eusocial insects. There is controversy over whether the non-gonadotropic role is novel, related specifically to social evolution, or is a second conserved role. Study of subsocial insects suggests that when JH is non-gonadotropic, the specific associations of high JH, low vitellogenin, suppressed ovarian development and elevated metabolism may parallel those in workers of eusocial insects. Read More

View Article

Social immunity: why we should study its nature, evolution and functions across all social systems.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Aug 10;28:1-7. Epub 2018 Mar 10.

Institut de Recherche sur la Biologie de l'Insecte, UMR 7261, CNRS, University of Tours, Tours, France. Electronic address:

Mounting defences against pathogens is a necessity for all animals. Although these defences have long been known to rely on individual processes such as the immune system, recent studies have emphasized the importance of social defences for group-living hosts. These defences, called social immunity, have been mostly studied in eusocial insects such as bees, termites and ants, and include, for instance, mutual cleaning and waste management. Read More

View Article
August 2018
1 Read

Neural Network Evolving Algorithm Based on the Triplet Codon Encoding Method.

Genes (Basel) 2018 Dec 13;9(12). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

School of Computer Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China.

Artificial intelligence research received more and more attention nowadays. Neural Evolution (NE) is one very important branch of AI, which waves the power of evolutionary algorithms to generate Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). How to use the evolutionary advantages of network topology and weights to solve the application of Artificial Neural Networks is the main problem in the field of NE. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Targeting Cancer Stem Cells to Overcome Chemoresistance.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 13;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U1165, F-75010 Paris, France.

Cancers are heterogeneous at the cell level, and the mechanisms leading to cancer heterogeneity could be clonal evolution or cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are resistant to most anti-cancer treatments and could be preferential targets to reverse this resistance, either targeting stemness pathways or cancer stem cell surface markers. Gold nanoparticles have emerged as innovative tools, particularly for photo-thermal therapy since they can be excited by laser to induce hyperthermia. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Preserved Microarrays for Simultaneous Detection and Identification of Six Fungal Potato Pathogens with the Use of Real-Time PCR in Matrix Format.

Biosensors (Basel) 2018 Dec 13;8(4). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

GenBit LLC, Nauchny pr., 20, Bld. 4, Moscow 117246, Russia.

Fungal diseases of plants are of great economic importance causing 70⁻80% of crop losses associated with microbial plant pathogens. Advanced on-site disease diagnostics is very important to maximize crop productivity. In this study, diagnostic systems have been developed for simultaneous detection and identification of six fungal pathogens using 48-well microarrays (micromatrices) for qPCR. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Estimating Pore Water Electrical Conductivity of Sandy Soil from Time Domain Reflectometry Records Using a Time-Varying Dynamic Linear Model.

Sensors (Basel) 2018 Dec 13;18(12). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Ecology, Technische Universität Berlin Ernst-Reuter Platz 1, 10587 Berlin, Germany.

Despite the importance of computing soil pore water electrical conductivity () from soil bulk electrical conductivity () in ecological and hydrological applications, a good method of doing so remains elusive. The Hilhorst concept offers a theoretical model describing a linear relationship between , and relative dielectric permittivity () in moist soil. The reciprocal of pore water electrical conductivity (1/) appears as a slope of the Hilhorst model and the ordinary least squares (OLS) of this linear relationship yields a single estimate ( 1 / σ p ^ ) of the regression parameter vector () for the entire data. Read More

View Article
December 2018

The bio-interface between functionalized Au NR@GO nanoplatforms with protein corona and their impact on delivery and release system.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2019 Jan 17;173:891-898. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Nanotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, P.O. Box 1417614411, Iran. Electronic address:

Interaction of nanoplatforms with biomolecules in biological fluids alters nanoplatforms approach to target tissue and deliver their cargo. Here in, three nanoplatforms were utilized as a carrier to detect the effects of subsequent biomolecules on gene delivery using NIR thermal therapy. Nanoplatforms included; graphene oxide coated gold nanorods (NR@GO), PEGylated NR@GO (NR@GO-PEG) and poly L arginine functionalized NR@GO-PEG (NR@GO-PEG-PLArg). Read More

View Article
January 2019
  • Page 1 of 10802