5,306 results match your criteria European journal of applied physiology[Journal]


Neuromuscular evaluation of arm-cycling repeated sprints under hypoxia and/or blood flow restriction.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Laboratoire Interuniversitaire de Biologie de la Motricité (EA 7424 LIBM Chambéry), Université Savoie Mont Blanc, Campus Scientifique Technolac, 73376, Chambéry, Le Bourget Du Lac Cedex, France.

Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effects of hypoxia and/or blood flow restriction (BFR) on an arm-cycling repeated sprint ability test (aRSA) and its impact on elbow flexor neuromuscular function.

Methods: Fourteen volunteers performed an aRSA (10 s sprint/20 s recovery) to exhaustion in four randomized conditions: normoxia (NOR), normoxia plus BFR (N), hypoxia (FiO = 0.13, HYP) and hypoxia plus BFR (H). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04143-4DOI Listing

RR interval signal quality of a heart rate monitor and an ECG Holter at rest and during exercise.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Swiss Federal Institute of Sport Magglingen SFISM, Hauptstrasse 247, 2532, Magglingen, Switzerland.

This study was designed to examine the RR interval signal qualities of a Holter device and a heart rate chest belt monitor at rest and during exercise. Ten healthy individuals completed five low- to high-intensity activities while simultaneously using the medilog AR12plus  Holter monitor and the Polar H10 heart rate monitor. The RR interval signal quality was based on the quantification of the missing RR intervals and RR interval detection errors. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00421-019-04142-5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04142-5DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Correction to: Inert gas narcosis in scuba diving, different gases different reactions.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Surgical and Medical Science and Translational Medicine, Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04140-7DOI Listing

Correction to: Suspension syndrome: a potentially fatal vagally mediated circulatory collapse-an experimental randomized crossover trial.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Brothers of St. John of God Hospital, Paracelsus Medical University, Kajetanerplatz 1, 5010, Salzburg, Austria.

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. Information was missing in the acknowledgements section. The correct information is given below. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00421-019-04141-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04141-6DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Four weeks of probiotic supplementation reduces GI symptoms during a marathon race.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Tom Reilly Building, Byrom St Campus, Liverpool, L3 3AF, UK.

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of probiotic supplementation on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, circulatory markers of GI permeability, damage, and markers of immune response during a marathon race.

Methods: Twenty-four recreational runners were randomly assigned to either supplement with a probiotic (PRO) capsule [25 billion CFU Lactobacillus acidophilus (CUL60 and CUL21), Bifidobacterium bifidum (CUL20), and Bifidobacterium animalis subs p. Lactis (CUL34)] or placebo (PLC) for 28 days prior to a marathon race. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04136-3DOI Listing

Combining supervised run interval training or moderate-intensity continuous training with the diabetes prevention program on clinical outcomes.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Kinesiology, James Madison University, 261 Bluestone Drive MSC 2302, Harrisonburg, VA, 22807, USA.

Purpose: The present study was designed to evaluate the 16 weeks diabetes prevention program (DPP) combined with instructed run sprint interval training (INT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on glycemic control, body composition, fitness, exercise adherence, and perceived exercise enjoyment in sedentary, adults with prediabetes.

Methods: Participants completed three weekly supervised sessions of INT (4-10 bouts of 30 s maximal sprints followed by a 4 min active recovery) or MICT (30-60 min at 45-55% HRR) exercise coupled with the DPP for 16 weeks. At baseline, 8 and 16 weeks, participants completed fitness and clinical assessments as well as questionnaires to assess group and time differences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04137-2DOI Listing

Sprint running: from fundamental mechanics to practice-a review.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Centre for Elite Sports Research, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

In this review, we examine the literature in light of the mechanical principles that govern linear accelerated running. While the scientific literature concerning sprint mechanics is comprehensive, these principles of fundamental mechanics present some pitfalls which can (and does) lead to misinterpretations of findings. Various models of sprint mechanics, most of which build on the spring-mass paradigm, are discussed with reference to both the insight they provide and their limitations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04139-0DOI Listing

Acute cardiopulmonary responses to strength training, high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Institute of Sport Medicine and Prevention, University of Leipzig, Marschnerstraße 29a, 04109, Leipzig, Germany.

Purpose: Long-term effects of exercise training are well studied. Acute hemodynamic responses to various training modalities, in particularly strength training (ST), have only been described in a few studies. This study examines the acute responses to ST, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MCT). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04138-1DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Acute effects of different set configurations during a strength-oriented resistance training session on barbell velocity and the force-velocity relationship in resistance-trained males and females.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Apr 6. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.

Purpose: This study explored the acute effects of strength-oriented resistance training sessions performed using three different set configurations on barbell velocity and the force-velocity (F-v) relationship of upper-body muscles in men and women.

Method: Thirteen men (age: 23.8 ± 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04131-8DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Stretch-shortening cycle exercise produces acute and prolonged impairments on endurance performance: is the peripheral fatigue a single answer?

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Endurance Sports Research Group (GEDAE-USP), Department of Sport, School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello de Moraes, 65, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo, SP, CEP 05508-030, Brazil.

Objective: This study aimed to verify the acute and prolonged effects of stretch-shortening cycle exercise (SSC) on performance and neuromuscular function following a 4-km cycling time trial (4-km TT).

Methods: On separate days, individuals performed a 4-km TT without any previous exercise (CON), immediately (ACUTE) and 48 h after (PROL) SSC protocol (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04135-4DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Impact of 8 weeks of repeated ischemic preconditioning on running performance.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, ANNU Building, 50 Stone Rd East, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada.

Purpose: To examine if repeated exposure to IPC treatment prior to training sessions improves oxygen uptake and 1-km running performance in highly trained middle-distance runners.

Methods: Fourteen highly trained endurance runners (11 male/3 female, 19 ± 2 years, 64 ± 5 ml kg min) completed a baseline maximal oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) test and 1-km running performance test before random assignment to an IPC or control group. Both groups were prescribed identical endurance training over an 8-week varsity season; however, the IPC group performed an IPC protocol (5 min ischemia, repeated 3 times, each separated by 5 min reperfusion) before every training session. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04133-6DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Blood flow restriction increases myoelectric activity and metabolic accumulation during whole-body vibration.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Sport and Sport Science, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Purpose: Whole-body vibration (WBV) training is frequently applied in sports and rehabilitation with the aim of inducing beneficial functional and structural adaptations. In the past decades, blood flow restriction (BFR) training has received increasing attention by enhancing the effectiveness of several low-load exercise regimens. The objective of this study was to evaluate the additional effect of BFR on myoelectric activity and metabolic accumulation during WBV training. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04134-5DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The time course of cross-education during short-term isometric strength training.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Applied Neuromuscular Physiology Laboratory, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA.

Purpose: This study examined the time course of contralateral adaptations in maximal isometric strength (MVC), rate of force development (RFD), and rate of electromyographic (EMG) rise (RER) during 4 weeks of unilateral isometric strength training with the non-dominant elbow flexors.

Methods: Twenty participants were allocated to strength training (n = 10, three female, two left hand dominant) or control (n = 10, three female, two left hand dominant) groups. Both groups completed testing at baseline and following each week of training to evaluate MVC strength, EMG amplitude, RFD and RER at early (RFD, RER) and late (RFD, RER) contraction phases for the dominant 'untrained' elbow flexors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04130-9DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Investigating circadian clock gene expression in human tendon biopsies from acute exercise and immobilization studies.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen, Bispebjerg Hospital, Building 8, Nielsine Nielsens Vej 11, 2400, Copenhagen NV, Denmark.

Purpose: The discovery of musculoskeletal tissues, including muscle, tendons, and cartilage, as peripheral circadian clocks strongly implicates their role in tissue-specific homeostasis. Age-related dampening and misalignment of the tendon circadian rhythm and its outputs may be responsible for the decline in tendon homeostasis. It is unknown which entrainment signals are responsible for the synchronization of the tendon clock to the light-dark cycle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04129-2DOI Listing

Physiological comparison between non-athletes, endurance, power and team athletes.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Institute of Sport Science and Innovations, Lithuanian Sports University, Kaunas, Lithuania.

We hypothesized that endurance athletes have lower muscle power than power athletes due to a combination of weaker and slower muscles, while their higher endurance is attributable to better oxygen extraction, reflecting a higher muscle oxidative capacity and larger stroke volume. Endurance (n = 87; distance runners, road cyclists, paddlers, skiers), power (n = 77; sprinters, throwers, combat sport athletes, body builders), team (n = 64; basketball, soccer, volleyball) and non-athletes (n = 223) performed a countermovement jump and an incremental running test to estimate their maximal anaerobic and aerobic power (VOmax), respectively. Dynamometry and M-mode echocardiography were used to measure muscle strength and stroke volume. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04128-3DOI Listing

Lower body negative pressure enhances oxygen availability in the knee extensor muscles during intense resistive exercise in supine position.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Space Physiology Department, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Cologne, Germany.

Purpose: During exercise in supine posture or under microgravity in space, the gravity-dependent component of local blood pressure in leg muscles at upright posture can be simulated by lower body negative pressure (LBNP). We hypothesized that during resistive exercise LBNP favors oxygen availability in lower extremities, benefiting energy levels and performance of working muscles.

Methods: In permutated crossover design, nine subjects performed a series of fifteen slow-paced concentric (4 s) and eccentric contractions (4 s) without or with 40 mmHg LBNP and 4 s pause between repetitions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04113-wDOI Listing

Reply to the Letter to the Editor: Utility of lacrimal caruncle infrared thermography when monitoring alterations in autonomic activity in healthy humans.

Authors:
Mark Rakobowchuk

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Extracellular Vesicles and the Endothelium Dynamics Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops, BC, V2C 0C8, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04122-9DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Response to Armstrong and Bergeron.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Nutrition, Dietetics and Food, Monash University, Victoria, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04121-wDOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Aqua cycling for immunological recovery after intensive, eccentric exercise.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Sport Medicine, Institute of Cardiovascular Research and Sport Medicine, German Sport University Cologne, Am Sportpark Müngersdorf 6, 50933, Cologne, Germany.

Purpose: Alterations in immunological homeostasis induced by acute exercise have been frequently reported. In view of the growing amount of repetitive exercise stimuli in competitive sports, quick recovery plays a superior role. Therefore, we examined whether aqua cycling affects cellular immunological recovery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04127-4DOI Listing

Suspension syndrome: a potentially fatal vagally mediated circulatory collapse-an experimental randomized crossover trial.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Brothers of St. John of God Hospital, Paracelsus Medical University, Kajetanerplatz 1, 5010, Salzburg, Austria.

Purpose: Suspension syndrome describes a potentially life-threatening event during passive suspension on a rope. The pathophysiological mechanism is not fully understood and optimal treatment unknown. We aimed to elucidate the pathophysiology and to give treatment recommendations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04126-5DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Is reaction time altered by mental or physical exertion?

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Laboratory Movement, Interactions, Performance (EA4334), Faculty of Sport Sciences, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France.

Purpose: Reaction time, classically divided into premotor time and electromechanical delay (EMD), can be determinant in daily life or sport situations. While some previous studies reported a negative impact of both muscle and mental fatigue on reaction time, the respective contributions of premotor time and EMD to the changes of reaction time remains unclear. The aim of the study was, therefore, to assess the effects of both muscle and mental effort on reaction time and its components. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04124-7DOI Listing

Combined effects of very short "all out" efforts during sprint and resistance training on physical and physiological adaptations after 2 weeks of training.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Sport and Exercise Science, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the combined effects of resistance and sprint training, with very short efforts (5 s), on aerobic and anaerobic performances, and cardiometabolic health-related parameters in young healthy adults.

Methods: Thirty young physically active individuals were randomly allocated into four groups: resistance training (RTG), sprint interval training (SITG), concurrent training (CTG), and control (CONG). Participants trained 3 days/week for 2 weeks in the high-intensity interventions that consisted of 6-12 "all out" efforts of 5 s separated by 24 s of recovery, totalizing ~ 13 min per session, with 48-72 h of recovery between sessions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04125-6DOI Listing

Hoffman MD, Snipe RM, Costa RJ (2018) Ad libitum drinking adequately supports hydration during 2 h of running in different ambient temperatures. Eur J Appl Physiol 118:2687-2697.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

SIVOTEC Analytics, Boca Raton Innovation Campus, 4800 T-Rex Avenue, Suite 315, Boca Raton, FL, 33431, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04119-4DOI Listing

Cross-education: effects of age on rapid and maximal voluntary contractile characteristics in males.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Applied Neuromuscular Physiology Laboratory, Oklahoma State University, 192 CRC, Stillwater, OK, 74078, USA.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of age on the cross-education of rapid and maximal contractile properties for the knee extensors.

Methods: Young (n = 10; age = 21.1 ± 1. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00421-019-04123-8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04123-8DOI Listing
March 2019
16 Reads

Utility of infrared thermography when monitoring autonomic activity.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

European Association of Thermology Board Member, Vienna, Austria.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04120-xDOI Listing

Paraspinal muscle function and pain sensitivity following exercise-induced delayed-onset muscle soreness.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Département des Sciences de l'Activité Physique, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Canada.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an exercise protocol designed to induce delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in paraspinal muscles and its effects on low back functional capacities.

Methods: Twenty-four healthy participants were asked to perform four series of 25 trunk flexion-extension in a prone position (45° inclined Roman chair). The protocol was performed using loads corresponding to participant's trunk weight plus 10% of their trunk extension maximal voluntary contraction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04117-6DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Prediction of maximal oxygen consumption using the Young Men's Christian Association-step test in Korean adults.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 May 8;119(5):1245-1252. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Sports Culture Department, Dongguk University, 101-492, 30, Pildong-ro 1 gil, Jung-gu, Seoul, 04620, South Korea.

Purpose: To develop accurate and practical prediction models of maximal oxygen consumption (VOmax) using the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA)-step test in South Korean adults.

Methods: In total, 568 adults (20-66 years) were included in this study. To develop and cross-validate prediction models of VOmax, the total sample was divided into 80% training and 20% testing using a simple random sampling method. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04115-8DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

A proof-of-concept trial of HELIOX with different fractions of helium in a human study modeling upper airway obstruction.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 May 8;119(5):1253-1260. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Philipp Klee-Institute for Clinical Pharmacology, HELIOS Clinic Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany.

Background: Helium in oxygen (HELIOX) can relieve airway obstruction and lower the work of breathing because it increases the threshold at which turbulent gas flow is induced. Less turbulent and more laminar flow lowers the work of breathing. According to guidelines, the fraction of Helium in HELIOX should be maximized (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04116-7DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

High-intensity interval exercise promotes post-exercise hypotension of greater magnitude compared to moderate-intensity continuous exercise.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 May 8;119(5):1235-1243. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Biosciences, Federal University of São Paulo, Rua Silva Jardim, 136, Santos, SP, 11015-020, Brazil.

Purpose: Physical exercise is associated with reduced blood pressure (BP). Moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MCE) promotes post-exercise hypotension (PEH), which is highly recommended to hypertensive patients. However, recent studies with high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) have shown significant results in cardiovascular disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04114-9DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

The effects of aging on the distribution of cerebral blood flow with postural changes and mild hyperthermia.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 May 8;119(5):1261-1272. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Environmental Physiology for Exercise, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-3-138 Sugimoto Sumiyoshi, 558-8585, Osaka, Japan.

Purpose: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) would be impaired with dual stresses of heat and orthostatic changes, even if those stresses are mild, in the elderly with declined cardio- and cerebrovascular functions with aging. To test the hypothesis, we compared the response of blood flow in the internal carotid artery (ICA) and vertebral artery (VA) to dual stresses of heat and orthostatic changes between the elderly and young individuals.

Methods: Nine elderly and eight young healthy men (71. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04118-5DOI Listing
May 2019
2.187 Impact Factor

A combination of oral L-citrulline and L-arginine improved 10-min full-power cycling test performance in male collegiate soccer players: a randomized crossover trial.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 May 16;119(5):1075-1084. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Faculty of Health and Sports Science, Juntendo University, 1-1, Hiragagakuendai, Inzai, Chiba, 270-1695, Japan.

Purpose: Oral L-citrulline (Cit) increases plasma L-arginine (Arg) concentration and the production of nitric oxide (NO). NO dilates blood vessels and potentially improves sports performance. The combination of oral Arg and Cit (Arg + Cit) immediately and synergistically increases plasma Arg and nitrite/nitrate (NOx) concentrations more than either Cit or Arg alone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04097-7DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Sprint exercise snacks: a novel approach to increase aerobic fitness.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 May 7;119(5):1203-1212. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus, 1147 Research Road, Kelowna, BC, V1V 1V7, Canada.

Purpose: Sprint interval training (SIT), involving brief intermittent bursts of vigorous exercise within a single training session, is a time-efficient way to improve cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). It is unclear whether performing sprints spread throughout the day with much longer (≥ 1 h) recovery periods can similarly improve CRF, potentially allowing individuals to perform "sprint snacks" throughout the day to gain health benefits.

Methods: Healthy, young, inactive adults (~ 22 years, peak oxygen uptake [VOpeak] ~ 35 ml kg min) were randomly assigned to one of two groups and performed 18 training sessions over 6 wks. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00421-019-04110-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04110-zDOI Listing
May 2019
5 Reads

Liver and muscle glycogen oxidation and performance with dose variation of glucose-fructose ingestion during prolonged (3 h) exercise.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 May 6;119(5):1157-1169. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Carnegie School of Sport, Fairfax Hall, Research Institute for Sport, Physical Activity and Leisure, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, LS6 3QT, UK.

Purpose: This study investigated the effect of small manipulations in carbohydrate (CHO) dose on exogenous and endogenous (liver and muscle) fuel selection during exercise.

Method: Eleven trained males cycled in a double-blind randomised order on 4 occasions at 60% [Formula: see text] for 3 h, followed by a 30-min time-trial whilst ingesting either 80 g h or 90 g h or 100 g hC-glucose-C-fructose [2:1] or placebo. CHO doses met, were marginally lower, or above previously reported intestinal saturation for glucose-fructose (90 g h). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04106-9DOI Listing

The effects of local muscle temperature on force variability.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 May 5;119(5):1225-1233. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Kinesiology, Brock University, 1812 Sir Isaac Brock Way, St. Catharines, ON, L2S 3A1, Canada.

Purpose: Force variability is affected by environmental temperature, but whether the changes are from altered muscle temperature or proprioception are unclear. We tested how forearm muscle warming and cooling affected a force tracking task.

Methods: Twelve males and four females completed evoked, maximal, and isometric wrist flexion contractions (0-30% maximal) during thermoneutral-, warm-, and cold-muscle conditions. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00421-019-04112-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04112-xDOI Listing
May 2019
3 Reads

Mechanisms of vitamin D on skeletal muscle function: oxidative stress, energy metabolism and anabolic state.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Apr 4;119(4):825-839. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Neurobiology of Muscle, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Kazimierza Gorskiego 1, 80-336, Gdansk, Poland.

Purpose: This review provides a current perspective on the mechanism of vitamin D on skeletal muscle function with the emphasis on oxidative stress, muscle anabolic state and muscle energy metabolism. It focuses on several aspects related to cellular and molecular physiology such as VDR as the trigger point of vitamin D action, oxidative stress as a consequence of vitamin D deficiency.

Method: The interaction between vitamin D deficiency and mitochondrial function as well as skeletal muscle atrophy signalling pathways have been studied and clarified in the last years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04104-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6422984PMC
April 2019
3 Reads

The effect of severe and moderate hypoxia on exercise at a fixed level of perceived exertion.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 May 1;119(5):1213-1224. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

School of Sport, Health and Applied Science, St Mary's University, Twickenham, London, TW1 4SX, UK.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the primary cues regulating perceived effort and exercise performance using a fixed-RPE protocol in severe and moderate hypoxia.

Methods: Eight male participants (26 ± 6 years, 76.3 ± 8. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04111-yDOI Listing
May 2019
2 Reads

Regional differences in facial skin blood flow responses to thermal stimulation.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 May 28;119(5):1195-1201. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Institute for Liberal Arts, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo, 152-8852, Japan.

Purpose: The facial skin blood flow (SkBF) shows regional differences in the responses to a given stimulation. The facial SkBFs, especially in the eyelid and nose exhibit unique response to physiological and psychological stimuli, but the mechanisms inducing those regional differences remain unclear. To investigate whether the regional differences in the local control of vasomotion in facial vessels correspond to the regional differences in facial SkBF response, we monitored the relative change of facial SkBF to regional thermal stimulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04109-6DOI Listing

Muscle quality as a complementary prognostic tool in conjunction with sarcopenia assessment in younger and older individuals.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 May 26;119(5):1171-1181. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Institute for Sport, Physical Activity and Leisure, Leeds Beckett University, Fairfax Hall, Headingley Campus, Leeds, West Yorkshire, LS6 3QS, UK.

Purpose: This pilot study investigated differences in lean tissue mass, muscle strength, muscle quality (strength per unit of muscle mass; MQ), and functional performance in healthy younger and older individuals. The most robust predictors of appendicular lean mass (ALM) were then determined in each group.

Methods: Fifty younger (18-45 years) and 50 older (60-80 years) participants completed tests of upper and lower body strength alongside body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry from which upper- and lower-body MQ were estimated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04107-8DOI Listing
May 2019
4 Reads

The relationship between stiffness and pain following unaccustomed eccentric exercise: the effects of gentle stretch and repeated bout.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 May 25;119(5):1183-1194. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, M15 6BH, UK.

Purpose: To determine how muscle stiffness and pain which develop after eccentric exercise are affected by gentle stretching and repeated exercise.

Methods: Twenty-one healthy female participants undertook eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors and changes in resting elbow flexion angle (REFA; a measure of muscle stiffness), pain on stretch scale, pain elicited by pressure (PPT pain, a measure of mechanoreceptor hypersensitivity), and upper arm girth were followed for 7 days after exercise. The effects of gentle passive stretching on pain and muscle stiffness were investigated 2 and 4 days after exercise. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04108-7DOI Listing
May 2019
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Effects of exercise in normobaric hypoxia on hemodynamics during muscle metaboreflex activation in normoxia.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 May 19;119(5):1137-1148. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Medical Sciences and Public Health, Sports Physiology Lab, University of Cagliari, Via Porcell 4, 09124, Cagliari, Italy.

Purpose: Little is known about the cardiovascular effects of the transition from exercise in hypoxia (EH) to normoxia. This investigation aimed to assess hemodynamics during the metaboreflex elicited in normoxia after EH.

Methods: Ten trained athletes (four females and six males, age 35. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00421-019-04103-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04103-yDOI Listing
May 2019
14 Reads

Suitability of jumps as a form of high-intensity interval training: effect of rest duration on oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 May 19;119(5):1149-1156. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Sensorimotor Performance Lab, University of Konstanz, 78457, Constance, Germany.

Purpose: High-intensity interval training (HIT) has been shown to be an effective endurance training method. However, most HIT research has been conducted on running and cycling. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of intermittent exercises such as jumps as a type of HIT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04105-wDOI Listing
May 2019
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Characterization of torque generating properties of ankle plantar flexor muscles in ambulant adults with cerebral palsy.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 May 18;119(5):1127-1136. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3, 2200, Copenhagen N, Denmark.

Purpose: Weakness of plantar flexor muscles is related to reduced push-off and forward propulsion during gait in persons with cerebral palsy (CP). It has not been clarified to what an extent altered muscle contractile properties contribute to this muscle weakness. Here, we investigated the torque generating capacity and muscle fascicle length in the triceps surae muscle throughout ankle range of motion (ROM) in adults with CP using maximal single muscle twitches elicited by electrical nerve stimulation and ultrasonography. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04102-zDOI Listing
May 2019
4 Reads

Neuromuscular adaptations to wide-pulse high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation training.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 May 18;119(5):1105-1116. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Institute of Sport Sciences, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Purpose: No studies have evaluated the potential benefits of wide-pulse high-frequency (WPHF) neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) despite it being an interesting alternative to conventional NMES. Hence, this study evaluated neuromuscular adaptations induced by 3 weeks of WPHF NMES.

Methods: Ten young healthy individuals (training group) completed nine sessions of WPHF NMES training spread over 3 weeks, whereas seven individuals (control group) only performed the first and last sessions. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00421-019-04100-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04100-1DOI Listing
May 2019
3 Reads

Cardiac performance after an endurance open water swimming race.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Apr 18;119(4):961-970. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Cardiovascular Institute, Hospital Clínic, IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: Endurance exercise competitions have shown a transient negative effect on global right ventricular (RV) performance. Most published studies are based on terrestrial sports. The aim of our study was to evaluate the cardiac effects after an open water swimming race. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04085-xDOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Damage protective effects conferred by low-intensity eccentric contractions on arm, leg and trunk muscles.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 May 18;119(5):1055-1064. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Physical Education, National Taiwan Normal University, P.O. Box 97-71, Wenshan Wansheng, Taipei, 11699, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Purpose: Low-intensity eccentric contractions with a load corresponding to 10% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction strength (10% EC) attenuate muscle damage in a subsequent bout of higher-intensity eccentric contractions performed within 2 weeks for the elbow flexors, knee flexors and knee extensors. However, it is not known whether this strategy could be applied to other muscles. This study investigated whether 10% EC would confer damage protective effect on high-intensity eccentric contractions (80% EC) for nine different muscle groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04095-9DOI Listing

Sensitivity and reliability of cerebral oxygenation responses to postural changes measured with near-infrared spectroscopy.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 May 15;119(5):1117-1125. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Biophysics, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Heijendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Cerebral oxygenation as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) might be useful to discriminate between physiological and pathological responses after standing up in individuals with orthostatic hypotension. This study addressed the physiological sensitivity of the cerebral oxygenation responses as measured by NIRS to different types and speeds of postural changes in healthy adults and assessed the reliability of these responses.

Methods: Cerebral oxygenated hemoglobin (OHb), deoxygenated hemoglobin (HHb) and tissue saturation index (TSI) were measured bilaterally on the forehead of 15 healthy individuals (12 male, age range 18-27) using NIRS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04101-0DOI Listing

Motor unit action potential amplitudes and firing rates during repetitive muscle actions of the first dorsal interosseous in children and adults.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Apr 15;119(4):1007-1018. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Neuromechanics Laboratory, Department of Health, Sport, and Exercise Sciences, University of Kansas, 1301 Sunnyside Ave, Room 101BE, Lawrence, KS, 66045, USA.

Purpose: Previous research has indicated greater muscle activation is needed for children (CH) to match relative intensity submaximal contractions in comparison with adults (AD). However, no study has compared motor unit (MU) firing and recruitment patterns between children and adults. Therefore, MU action potential amplitudes (MUAP) and firing rates were examined during two repetitive submaximal contractions of the first dorsal interosseous in children and adults. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00421-019-04090-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04090-0DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Efficacy of a new strength training design: the 3/7 method.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 May 12;119(5):1093-1104. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Laboratory of Applied Biology and Neurophysiology, Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB), 808 route de Lennik, CP 640, 1070, Brussels, Belgium.

Aim: This study investigated the efficacy of a new strength training method on strength gain, hypertrophy, and neuromuscular fatigability.

Methods: The training exercise consisted of elbow flexion against a load of ~ 70% of one repetition maximal (1RM). A new method (3/7 method) consisting of five sets of an increasing number of repetitions (3 to 7) during successive sets and brief inter-set intervals (15 s) was repeated two times after 150 s of recovery and compared to a method consisting of eight sets of six repetitions with an inter-set interval of 150 s (8 × 6 method). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04099-5DOI Listing
May 2019
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Dose-response relationship of intermittent normobaric hypoxia to stimulate erythropoietin in the context of health promotion in young and old people.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 May 11;119(5):1065-1074. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Institute III: Sport Science, Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Zschokkestr. 32, 39104, Magdeburg, Germany.

Purpose: Erythropoietin (EPO) has multifactorial positive effects on health and can be increased by intermittent normobaric hypoxia (IH). Recommendations about the intensity and duration of IH to increase EPO exist, but only for young people. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the dose-response relationship regarding the duration of hypoxia until an EPO expression and the amount of EPO expression in old vs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04096-8DOI Listing

Effects of chronic beetroot juice supplementation on maximum oxygen uptake, velocity associated with maximum oxygen uptake, and peak velocity in recreational runners: a double-blinded, randomized and crossover study.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 May 12;119(5):1043-1053. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Post-graduate Program of Physiological Sciences, Department of Physiological Sciences, State University of Maringá-PR, Colombo Avenue, 5790, Maringá, PR, 87020-900, Brazil.

Purpose: This study investigated the effects of chronic 3-day beetroot juice (BRJ) supplementation on maximum oxygen uptake (VO), velocity associated with VO(vVO), and peak velocity (V) in recreational runners.

Methods: Thirteen male recreational runners (age 28.2 ± 3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04094-wDOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read