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    Ultrasonography of a ureteral and bladder fungal granuloma caused by Scedosporium apiospermum in a basset hound.
    Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2017 Jun 13. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    BluePearl Veterinary Partners LLC, New York, NY.
    A 5-year-old, spayed female, Basset Hound was referred for evaluation of a urinary bladder mass. Ultrasonographic images revealed a large, inhomogeneous, hypoechoic mass associated with the dorsal wall of the neck of the urinary bladder and left ureter. Partial cystectomy and left ureteral reimplantation were performed. Read More

    Fungi that Infect Humans.
    Microbiol Spectr 2017 Jun;5(3)
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710.
    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Read More

    Rapid and robust identification of the agents of black-grain mycetoma by MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry.
    J Clin Microbiol 2017 Jun 7. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    PHE Mycology Reference Laboratory, Bristol, UK.
    Eumycetoma, a chronic fungal infection endemic in India, Indonesia and parts of Africa and South and Central America, follows traumatic implantation of saprophytic fungi and frequently requires radical surgery or amputation in the absence of appropriate treatment. Fungal species that can cause black-grain mycetomas include Madurella spp., Falciformispora spp. Read More

    Post-tuberculosis mycetoma: bronchoscopic removal.
    Respirol Case Rep 2017 Jul 1;5(4):e00243. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Department of Respiratory MedicineCork University HospitalCorkIreland.
    A 76-year-old male non-smoker presented to our institution with cough and haemoptysis. He had been treated for cavitatory pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis of the right upper lobe 10 years previously. Chest radiograph and subsequent computed tomography (CT) of the chest demonstrated a right upper cavity containing a mass suspicious for mycetoma. Read More

    [Contribution of histopathology in the diagnosis of mycetoma in a Cameroonian trader and possibility of an urban contamination].
    J Mycol Med 2017 May 31. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Centre Pasteur, laboratoire d'anatomie et cytologie pathologique, Yaoundé, Cameroun.
    Background: Mycetoma are rare cutaneous affections caused by pathogens such as fungi or bacteria. They settle preferentially on limb extremities. We are going to talk about an original case of mycetoma in a young Cameroonian trader. Read More

    Practical Management of Deep Cutaneous Fungal Infections.
    Med Mycol J 2017 ;58(2):E71-E77
    Department of Dermatology, Kitasato University Kitasato Institute Hospital.
    Understanding deep cutaneous fungal infection requires not only reading many case reports and checking the typical clinical images of skin lesions, but also managing the patients properly to prevent misdiagnosis. Herein, I review my recent experiences with eight typical cases of deep cutaneous infections (including protothecosis and nocardiosis) in Japan. It is very important to do the four management processes; namely, KOH direct microscopic examination, skin biopsy, fungal culture, and microscopic examination of the histopathological specimen of PAS and Grocott staining. Read More

    Recurrent Scedosporium apiospermum mycetoma successfully treated by surgical excision and terbinafine treatment: a case report and review of the literature.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Apr 14;16(1):31. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    MTA-SZTE "Lendület" Fungal Pathogenicity Mechanisms Research Group, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Szeged, Közép fasor 52, Szeged, 6726, Hungary.
    Background: Scedosporium apiospermum is an emerging opportunistic filamentous fungus, which is notorious for its high levels of antifungal-resistance. It is able to cause localized cutaneous or subcutaneous infections in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent persons, pulmonary infections in patients with predisposing pulmonary diseases and invasive mycoses in immunocompromised patients. Subcutaneous infections caused by this fungus frequently show chronic mycetomatous manifestation. Read More

    Combining two antifungal agents does not enhance survival of Galleria mellonella larvae infected with Madurella mycetomatis.
    Trop Med Int Health 2017 Jun 2;22(6):696-702. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, ErasmusMC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Objective: To determine whether combination therapy would improve therapeutic outcome in eumycetoma caused by Madurella mycetomatis.

    Methods: Survival, colony-forming units (CFU), melanisation and histopathology in M. mycetomatis-infected Galleria mellonella larvae treated with amphotericin B, itraconazole, terbinafine or combinations thereof were determined. Read More

    Actinomycetoma: an update on diagnosis and treatment.
    Cutis 2017 Feb;99(2):E11-E15
    Dawson Medical Group, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA.
    Mycetoma is a chronic infection that develops after traumatic inoculation of the skin with either true fungi or aerobic actinomycetes. The resultant infections are known as eumycetoma or actinomycetoma, respectively. Although actinomycetoma is rare in developed countries, migration of patients from endemic areas makes knowledge of this condition crucial for dermatologists worldwide. Read More

    Dot-in-Circle Sign - A Diagnostic MRI Sign for "Madura Foot".
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2017 Mar;27(3):S8-S10
    Department of Radiology, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad.
    Mycetoma is a slowly progressive localised, granulomatous, subcutaneous tissue infection common among adult males aged 20 - 50 years. The causing agents include both bacteria (actinomycetoma) and fungi (eumycetoma). This chronic infection was described in literature as Madura foot and eventually mycetoma, due to its etiology. Read More

    Surgical and pathogenetic considerations of frontal sinus fungus ball.
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2017 Jun 13;274(6):2493-2497. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Head and Neck Surgery & Forensic Dissection Research Center (HNS&FDRC), Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Insubria-Varese, ASST Sette Laghi, Ospedale di Circolo e Fondazione Macchi, Varese, Italy.
    Fungus ball (FB) is an non-invasive form of mycosis, that generally affects immunocompetent and non-atopic subjects. Involvement of the frontal sinus is extremely rare. We report two cases with frontal sinus fungus ball that underwent endoscopic endonasal frontal Draf type IIb or III sinusotomy with complete removal of the cheesy clay-like material. Read More

    Prompt diagnosis of Scedosporium apiospermum soft tissue infection: Life-saving in a renal transplant recipient.
    J Postgrad Med 2017 Mar 3. Epub 2017 Mar 3.
    Department of Microbiology, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
    Scedosporium apiospermum, an ubiquitous filamentous fungus, a known cause of mycetoma, is emerging as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. We report a case of painful foot abscess in a renal allograft recipient on immunosuppressive therapy, which was clinically diagnosed as a suppurative bacterial abscess. Pus was aspirated, which showed septate, branching hyphal elements and culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar yielded S. Read More

    Mycetoma-like chromoblastomycosis: a diagnostic dilemma.
    Int J Dermatol 2017 May 23;56(5):563-566. Epub 2017 Feb 23.
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Government Medical College, Kottayam, Kerala, India.
    Objectives: Mycetoma and chromoblastomycosis are subcutaneous fungal infections caused by pigmented fungi, common in the tropics and subtropics. Here we report a pregnant woman who presented with a swelling around the ankle joint which was clinically diagnosed as a case of mycetoma; however, further investigations revealed it to be a case of chromoblastomycosis.

    Methods: 24 year old primigravida presented with an indurated swelling around the ankle joint with multiple nodules and sinuses draining serosanguinous discharge. Read More

    Serious fungal infections in the Philippines.
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2017 Jun 21;36(6):937-941. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Education and Research Center, University Hospital of South Manchester, Southmoor Road, Manchester, M23 9LT, UK.
    The Philippines is a low middle-income, tropical country in Southeast Asia. Infectious diseases remain the main causes of morbidity, including tuberculosis. AIDS/HIV prevalence is still low at <1%, but is rapidly increasing. Read More

    1,10-Phenanthroline-5,6-Dione-Based Compounds Are Effective in Disturbing Crucial Physiological Events of Phialophora verrucosa.
    Front Microbiol 2017 30;8:76. Epub 2017 Jan 30.
    Laboratório de Taxonomia, Bioquímica e Bioprospecção de Fungos, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Phialophora verrucosa is a dematiaceous fungus able to cause chromoblastomycosis, phaeohyphomycosis and mycetoma. All these fungal diseases are extremely difficult to treat and often refractory to the current therapeutic approaches. Therefore, there is an urgent necessity to develop new antifungal agents to combat these mycoses. Read More

    Review of 21 cases of mycetoma from 1991 to 2014 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Feb 13;11(2):e0005301. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation - Rio de Janeiro - Brazil.
    Mycetoma is caused by the subcutaneous inoculation of filamentous fungi or aerobic filamentous bacteria that form grains in the tissue. The purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiologic, clinic, laboratory, and therapeutic characteristics of patients with mycetoma at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 1991 and 2014. Twenty-one cases of mycetoma were included in the study. Read More

    Mycetoma in a non-endemic area: a diagnostic challenge.
    BMC Clin Pathol 2017 2;17. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    Departement of Pathology, Hassan II Teaching Hospital, Fès, Morocco.
    Background: Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous infectious disease caused by filamentous bacteria or by fungi. The disease is endemic in certain tropical and subtropical areas of the world but can be found elsewhere posing sometimes a diagnostic challenge for clinicians.

    Case Presentation: A 65-year- old man presented with a right foot swelling evolving for 25 years. Read More


    Tenosynovitis caused by Scedosporium apiospermum infection misdiagnosed as an Alternaria species: a case report.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Jan 14;17(1):72. Epub 2017 Jan 14.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.
    Background: Scedosporium apiospermum, which can usually be isolated from soil, polluted stream water and decaying vegetation, is increasingly recognized as an opportunistic dematiaceous fungus. The mortality rate of infection in immunocompromised hosts is over 50%. S. Read More

    [Cutaneous granular bacteriosis occurring in Staphylococcus aureus septicaemia].
    Ann Dermatol Venereol 2017 Apr 26;144(4):275-278. Epub 2016 Dec 26.
    Service de dermatologie, hôpital Saint-André, CHU de Bordeaux, 1, rue Jean-Burguet, 33075 Bordeaux cedex, France; Inserm U1053, équipe 3 oncogenèse des lymphomes cutanés, université de Bordeaux, France. Electronic address:
    Background: Herein we report a case of cutaneous granular bacteriosis, with discussion of the nosological setting of this entity based upon the clinical and histological findings.

    Patients And Methods: A 62-year-old woman receiving methotrexate for Sezary syndrome was admitted for fever of 38.5̊C and overall impairment of her health. Read More

    Fusarium species causing eumycetoma: Report of two cases and comprehensive review of the literature.
    Mycoses 2017 Mar 7;60(3):204-212. Epub 2016 Dec 7.
    Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.
    Recently, mycetoma was added to the World Health Organization's list of neglected tropical disease priorities. Fusarium as a genus has been reported to cause eumycetoma, but little is known about the species involved in this infection and their identification. In this study, molecular tools were applied to identify Fusarium agents from human eumycetoma cases. Read More

    First Case of Actinomycetoma in France Due to a Novel Nocardia Species, Nocardia boironii sp. nov.
    mSphere 2016 Nov-Dec;1(6). Epub 2016 Nov 23.
    Research Group on Bacterial Opportunistic Pathogens and Environment, UMR 5557, Ecologie Microbienne, French Observatory of Nocardiosis, Université de Lyon, Université de Lyon, CNRS, VetAgro Sup, Lyon, France.
    Bacterial mycetoma is a neglected disease mainly observed in tropical area countries and typically associated with rural conditions, making its presence in developed countries of temperate climate areas rare. However, we report the first case of an autochthonous mycetoma case in continental France that originated from a new Nocardia species. A Gram-positive filamentous bacterium (OFN 14. Read More

    Two Cases of Chromomycosis Identified by Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis.
    Med Mycol J 2016 ;57(4):J133-J139
    Department of Dermatology, Kyorin University School of Medicine.
    Chromomycosis is an infection caused by dematiaceous fungi. These fungi belong to several genera with varied clinical presentations and parasitic forms. The disease is roughly classified into three types: chromoblastomycosis, black-grain mycetoma, and phaeohyphomycosis. Read More

    Non-dermatophyte Dermatoses Mimicking Dermatophytoses in Animals.
    Mycopathologia 2017 Feb 16;182(1-2):113-126. Epub 2016 Nov 16.
    UP Interactions Cellules Environnement, VetAgro Sup, Univ Lyon, 69280, Marcy l'Etoile, France.
    Dermatophytoses in animals are fungal diseases of the skin caused by dermatophyte fungi of the genus Microsporum or Trichophyton. Because the infection is generally follicular, the most common clinical sign is one or many circular areas of alopecia with variable erythema, scaling and crusting, and the primary differential diagnoses are follicular infections, such as bacterial folliculitis and demodicosis. Although dermatophyte folliculitis or ringworm is the most commonly observed lesion of dermatophytoses in animals, other presentations may be observed according to the host species and the dermatophyte involved: dermatophyte folliculitis or ringworm, scaling and crusting in dermatophytosis due to Microsporum persicolor, nodule in case of kerion or mycetoma, matted hairs, seborrheic dermatosis or miliary dermatitis in cats, generalized exfoliative dermatoses in dogs, cats and horses, superficial non-follicular pustules, papules and macules in the Devon Rex cat, pruritic dermatophytoses in dogs, cats and horses, and onychomycosis in dogs, cats and horses. Read More

    Predictors of Post-operative Mycetoma Recurrence Using Machine-Learning Algorithms: The Mycetoma Research Center Experience.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Oct 31;10(10):e0005007. Epub 2016 Oct 31.
    The Mycetoma Research Center, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.
    Post-operative recurrence in mycetoma after adequate medical and surgical treatment is common and a serious problem. It has health, socio-economic and psychological detrimental effects on patients and families. It is with this in mind, we set out to determine the predictors of post-operative recurrence in mycetoma. Read More

    PET/CT and MRI Imaging of a Eumycetoma of the Right Thigh.
    Clin Nucl Med 2017 Jan;42(1):61-63
    From the *Department of Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Bicêtre University Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre; and †IR4M-UMR8081, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Orsay, France.
    Eumycetoma is a chronic tropical fungal disease that infiltrates subcutaneous tissues, mainly in the feet and legs. Standard antifungal drugs are ineffective, and mutilating surgery is common. Morphological imaging is useful for assessing the local extent of the disease before surgery. Read More

    Molecular identification of unusual Mycetoma agents isolated from patients in Venezuela.
    Mycoses 2017 Feb 21;60(2):129-135. Epub 2016 Oct 21.
    Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico.
    Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous, subcutaneous disease endemic in tropical and subtropical countries. It is currently a health problem in rural areas of Africa, Asia and South America. Nine cases of mycetoma were analysed in a retrospective study. Read More

    Hand Mycetoma: The Mycetoma Research Centre Experience and Literature Review.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Aug 2;10(8):e0004886. Epub 2016 Aug 2.
    The Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.
    Mycetoma is a devastating, neglected tropical disease characterised by extensive tissue involvement resulting in destruction, deformities and disabilities in the affected patients. The hand is commonly affected by mycetoma thus compromises its functionality and hinder the patient's daily activities of living. In this communication, we report on 533 patients with hand mycetoma managed over a period of 24 years at the Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan. Read More

    Detection of (1→3)-β-d-Glucan in Eumycetoma Patients.
    J Clin Microbiol 2016 Oct 20;54(10):2614-7. Epub 2016 Jul 20.
    ErasmusMC, Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Wytemaweg 80, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Mycetoma can be caused by bacteria (actinomycetoma) or fungi (eumycetoma). Here, we demonstrated in 45 eumycetoma patients, 30 actinomycetoma patients, and 30 healthy controls that (1→3)-β-d-glucan detection in serum cannot reliably be used to discriminate between the two types of mycetoma. Read More

    Th-1, Th-2 Cytokines Profile among Madurella mycetomatis Eumycetoma Patients.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Jul 19;10(7):e0004862. Epub 2016 Jul 19.
    Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.
    Eumycetoma is a progressive and destructive chronic granulomatous subcutaneous inflammatory disease caused by certain fungi, the most common being Madurella mycetomatis. The host defence mechanisms against fungi usually range from an early non-specific immune response to activation and induction of specific adaptive immune responses by the production of Th-1 and Th-2 cytokines. The aim of this study is to determine the levels of Th-1 and Th-2 cytokines in patients infected with Madurella mycetomatis, and the association between their levels and disease prognosis. Read More

    Identification by Molecular Methods and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry and Antifungal Susceptibility Profiles of Clinically Significant Rare Aspergillus Species in a Referral Chest Hospital in Delhi, India.
    J Clin Microbiol 2016 Sep 13;54(9):2354-64. Epub 2016 Jul 13.
    Department of Medical Mycology, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi, Delhi, India
    Aspergillus species cause a wide spectrum of clinical infections. Although Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus remain the most commonly isolated species in aspergillosis, in the last decade, rare and cryptic Aspergillus species have emerged in diverse clinical settings. The present study analyzed the distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility profiles of rare Aspergillus species in clinical samples from patients with suspected aspergillosis in 8 medical centers in India. Read More

    Sinonasal Fungal Infections and Complications: A Pictorial Review.
    J Clin Imaging Sci 2016 14;6:23. Epub 2016 Jun 14.
    Department of Radiology and Imaging, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.
    Fungal infections of the nose and paranasal sinuses can be categorized into invasive and non-invasive forms. The clinical presentation and course of the disease is primarily determined by the immune status of the host and can range from harmless or subtle presentations to life threatening complications. Invasive fungal infections are categorized into acute, chronic or chronic granulomatous entities. Read More

    Cutaneous Involvement in the Deep Mycoses: A Literature Review. Part I-Subcutaneous Mycoses.
    Actas Dermosifiliogr 2016 Dec 30;107(10):806-815. Epub 2016 Jun 30.
    Departamento de Dermatología, Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    The deep mycoses are uncommon in our setting. These fungal infections occur mainly in immunosuppressed patients or in tropical climates, and include subcutaneous infections and systemic infections. The skin is always involved in the former. Read More

    Genomic Changes Associated with the Loss of Nocardia brasiliensis Virulence in Mice after 200 In Vitro Passages.
    Infect Immun 2016 Sep 19;84(9):2595-606. Epub 2016 Aug 19.
    Laboratorio Interdisciplinario de Investigación Dermatológica, Servicio de Dermatología, Hospital Universitario, U.A.N.L., Monterrey, Mexico
    Nocardia species, particularly Nocardia brasiliensis, are etiologic agents of mycetoma, a chronic subcutaneous infection. Until now, little has been known about the pathogenic mechanisms involved in nocardial infection. Traditionally, subculture in rich media has been a simple way to induce attenuation. Read More

    The Surgical Treatment of Mycetoma.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 06 23;10(6):e0004690. Epub 2016 Jun 23.
    Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.
    Surgical intervention is an integral component in the diagnosis and management of mycetoma. Surgical treatment is indicated for small, localised lesions and massive lesions to reduce the mycetoma load and to enable better response to medical therapy. It is also a life-saving procedure in patients with massive disease and sepsis. Read More

    Subcutaneous Phaeohyphomycosis Caused by Pyrenochaeta romeroi in a Rheumatoid Arthritis Patient: A Case Report with Review of the Literature.
    Mycopathologia 2016 Oct 10;181(9-10):735-43. Epub 2016 Jun 10.
    Department of Pathology, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India.
    Pyrenochaeta romeroi is a rare fungal agent of chronic, suppurative subcutaneous infections leading to mycetoma. It is an unusual cause of deep, non-mycetomatous infections. We herein present review of the literature along with a case of 61-year-old Indian female with rheumatoid arthritis who developed subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Pyrenochaeta romeroi. Read More

    [Mycetoma and their treatment].
    J Mycol Med 2016 Jun 31;26(2):77-85. Epub 2016 May 31.
    Service de parasitologie-mycologie, hôpital Saint-Antoine, 184, rue du Faubourg-Saint-Antoine, 75012 Paris, France. Electronic address:
    Mycetoma are chronic subcutaneous infections, endemic in dry tropical regions. It can be caused either by actinomycetes or by fungi, presenting as filamentous grains in vivo. The foot is the most common localization. Read More

    Role of a NSAID in the apparent cure of a fungal mycetoma.
    J Mycol Med 2016 Jun 24;26(2):86-93. Epub 2016 May 24.
    Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, 75013 Paris, France.
    Unlabelled: We report the case of a fungal mycetoma due to Madurella mycetomatis that failed to respond to surgery and antifungal treatment but responded strongly to the addition of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). This African patient was born in Mauritania in 1972. He was a herdsman, living close to the Senegal River. Read More

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