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    In vitro antibacterial effects of statins against bacterial pathogens causing skin infections.
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Mar 22. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    With financial considerations impeding research and development of new antibiotics, drug repurposing (finding new indications for old drugs) emerges as a feasible alternative. Statins are extensively prescribed around the world to lower cholesterol, but they also possess inherent antimicrobial properties. This study identifies statins with the greatest potential to be repurposed as topical antibiotics and postulates a mechanism of action for statins' antibacterial activity. Read More

    Tissue expression of Toll-like receptors 2, 3, 4 and 7 in swine in response to the Shimen strain of classical swine fever virus.
    Mol Med Rep 2018 Mar 14. Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Xianyang, Shaanxi 712100, P.R. China.
    The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) of the innate immune system provide the host with the ability to detect and respond to viral infections. The present study aimed to investigate the mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR2, 3, 4 and 7 in porcine tissues upon infection with the highly virulent Shimen strain of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of CSFV and TLR, whereas western blotting was used to detect the expression levels of TLR proteins. Read More

    Antibiotic resistance patterns of urinary tract pathogens in Turkish children.
    Glob Health Res Policy 2018 16;3:10. Epub 2018 Mar 16.
    Microbiologist and clinical Microbiologist, Ankara, Turkey.
    Background: Knowledge of local antimicrobial resistance patterns is essential for evidence- based empirical antibiotic prescribing. We aimed to investigate the distribution and changes in causative agents of urinary tract infections in children and the resistance rates, and to recommend the most appropriate antibiotics.

    Methods: In this retrospective study, we evaluated causative agents and antimicrobial resistance in urine isolates from the positive community from September 2014 to April 2016 in a single hospital in Ankara, Turkey. Read More

    In Vitro Effects of Homeopathic Drugs on Cultured Escherichia coli.
    Homeopathy 2018 Mar 22. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Homöopathie-Pannek, Basel, Switzerland.
    Background:  Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common morbidities in persons with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD). Repetitive antibiotic treatment increases the risk of selecting multi-resistant bacteria. Homeopathic treatment has been reported to be effective in these patients. Read More

    Virulent gene profile and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) from cattle and camels in Maiduguri, North-Eastern Nigeria.
    Trop Anim Health Prod 2018 Mar 21. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria.
    Prevalence and distribution of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups from the faecal samples of cattle and camels slaughter in Maiduguri abattoir and their antibiotic resistance profile of the isolates were determined. The highest prevalence (24%) was recorded in the month of September and more STEC isolates came from cattle than the camels. There was significant (P < 0. Read More

    Probiotic Escherichia coli inhibits biofilm formation of pathogenic E. coli via extracellular activity of DegP.
    Sci Rep 2018 Mar 21;8(1):4939. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, 60616, USA.
    Many chronic infections involve bacterial biofilms, which are difficult to eliminate using conventional antibiotic treatments. Biofilm formation is a result of dynamic intra- or inter-species interactions. However, the nature of molecular interactions between bacteria in multi-species biofilms are not well understood compared to those in single-species biofilms. Read More

    Pro-resolving mediators promote resolution in a human skin model of UV-killed Escherichia coli-driven acute inflammation.
    JCI Insight 2018 Mar 22;3(6). Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Centre for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Division of Medicine, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    While the treatment of inflammatory disorders is generally based on inhibiting factors that drive onset of inflammation, these therapies can compromise healing (NSAIDs) or dampen immunity against infections (biologics). In search of new antiinflammatories, efforts have focused on harnessing endogenous pathways that drive resolution of inflammation for therapeutic gain. Identification of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) (lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, maresins) as effector molecules of resolution has shown promise in this regard. Read More

    Identification of Genes Involved in Bacteriostatic Antibiotic-Induced Persister Formation.
    Front Microbiol 2018 6;9:413. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Key Lab of Molecular Virology, Institute of Medical Microbiology, Department of Infectious Diseases, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Persister cells are metabolically quiescent multi-drug tolerant fraction of a genetically sensitive bacterial population and are thought to be responsible for relapse of many persistent infections. Persisters can be formed naturally in the stationary phase culture, and also can be induced by bacteriostatic antibiotics. However, the molecular basis of bacteriostatic antibiotic induced persister formation is unknown. Read More

    The Colibactin Genotoxin Generates DNA Interstrand Cross-Links in Infected Cells.
    MBio 2018 Mar 20;9(2). Epub 2018 Mar 20.
    IRSD, Université de Toulouse, INSERM, INRA, ENVT, UPS, Toulouse, France
    Colibactins are hybrid polyketide-nonribosomal peptides produced by,, and otherharboring thegenomic island. These genotoxic metabolites are produced by-encoded peptide-polyketide synthases as inactive prodrugs called precolibactins, which are then converted to colibactins by deacylation for DNA-damaging effects. Colibactins are bona fide virulence factors and are suspected of promoting colorectal carcinogenesis when produced by intestinalNatural active colibactins have not been isolated, and how they induce DNA damage in the eukaryotic host cell is poorly characterized. Read More

    Association between passive immunity and health status of dairy calves under 30 days of age.
    Prev Vet Med 2018 Apr 3;152:12-15. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Viale dell'Università 10, 35020, Legnaro, PD, Italy.
    Calves are highly susceptible to disease and mortality occurrence within the first month of life. Even if failed transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) is commonly recognized as a main factor affecting calf health and survival, conflicting results are reported in literature about the association between passive immunity (PI) and calf health, especially regarding enteric diseases. Therefore, a prospective cohort study was conducted on 78 calves of three Italian dairy farms during winters of years 2014-2016, with the specific aim of evaluating the association between PI and health status of calves within 30 days of age under field conditions. Read More

    In Vitro Assessment of Selected Medicinal Plants Used by the Bapedi Community in South Africa for Treatment of Bacterial Infections.
    J Evid Based Integr Med 2018 Jan-Dec;23:2515690X18762736
    1 University of Limpopo, Sovenga, South Africa.
    There is very little scientific information on indigenous plants used for medicinal purposes. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the leaves of Commelina africana, Elephantorrhiza elephantina, Dombeya rotundifolia, and the whole plant excluding the roots of Schkuhria pinnata indigenous medicinal plants from the Limpopo Province, which may be used for the treatment in humans infected with bacterial pathogens. The screening of different phytoconstituents using standard methods revealed the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, and saponins. Read More

    Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance of Carbapenemase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacteria in Saint Petersburg and Some Other Regions of the Russian Federation.
    Antibiot Khimioter 2016;61(11-12):28-38
    Carbapenemase-producing gramnegative bacteria, which hydrolyze most offi-lactams, including carbapenems, is of global health care system threat. The number of the known carbapenemases is constantly increasing, however only four types are widely distributed: NDM-type, KPC-type, OXA-48-type and VIM-type. The frequency of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiellapneumoniae in hospitals of Saint Petersburg reached 9. Read More

    Susceptibility of Escherichia coli to nitroxoline, an option for uncomplicated urinary tract infections - the first report from Croatia.
    J Chemother 2018 Mar 20:1-3. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
    b School of Medicine , University of Zagreb , Zagreb , Croatia.
    Nitroxoline (NTX), 5-nitro-8-hydroxyquinoline is an oral antibiotic with mechanism of bacteriostatic activity that is based on chelation of divalent cations required for bacterial RNA polymerase. Susceptibility to NTX of 100 Escherichia coli urine isolates was determined at the Department of Clinical and Molecular Microbiology, University Hospital Centre Zagreb during September and October 2017. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by disc diffusion and the results were interpreted according to the European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) standards. Read More

    Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance inIsolated From Macaques.
    Front Microbiol 2018 5;9:311. Epub 2018 Mar 5.
    Division of Comparative Medicine, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States.
    Non-human primates (NHPs) for biomedical research are commonly infected withspp. that can cause acute dysentery or chronic episodic diarrhea. These animals are often prophylactically and clinically treated with quinolone antibiotics to eradicate these possible infections. Read More

    Antimicrobial susceptibility of common pathogens isolated from postoperative intra-abdominal infections in Japan.
    J Infect Chemother 2018 Mar 16. Epub 2018 Mar 16.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan.
    The principle of empirical therapy for patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAI) should include antibiotics with activity against Enterobacteriaceae and Bacteroides fragilis group species. Coverage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, and Enterococcus faecalis is also recommended for hospital-associated IAI. A nationwide survey was conducted to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens isolated from postoperative IAI. Read More

    Antibiotic Resistance infrom Farm Livestock and Related Analytical Methods: A Review.
    J AOAC Int 2018 Mar 19. Epub 2018 Mar 19.
    Enbiotech S.r.l., Via Aquileia, 34, 90144, Palermo, Italy.
    The indiscriminate use of antibiotics for the treatment of human and animal infections has led to the rise ofresistance in pathogens and in commensal bacteria. In particular, farm animals may act as vectors for the dissemination of drug-resistant genes because of the intensive use of antibiotics in animal production, enabling resistance to a wide range of antimicrobial agents, including those normally used in human medicine., being a widespread commensal, is considered a good indicator of antibiotic use. Read More

    Cytotoxic Escherichia coli strains encoding colibactin isolated from immunocompromised mice with urosepsis and meningitis.
    PLoS One 2018 19;13(3):e0194443. Epub 2018 Mar 19.
    Division of Comparative Medicine, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America.
    Immune-compromised mouse models allow for testing the preclinical efficacy of human cell transplantations and gene therapy strategies before moving forward to clinical trials. However, CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing of the Wsh/Wsh mouse strain to create an immune-compromised model lacking function of Rag2 and Il2rγ led to unexpected morbidity and mortality. This warranted an investigation to ascertain the cause and predisposing factors associated with the outbreak. Read More

    Differential somatic cell count in milk before, during, and after lipopolysaccharide- and lipoteichoic-acid-induced mastitis in dairy cows.
    J Dairy Sci 2018 Mar 14. Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    FOSS Analytical A/S, Foss Allé 1, 3400 Hillerød, Denmark. Electronic address:
    Intramammary infections induce the initiation of the inflammatory response, resulting in an increase in somatic cell count (SCC) in milk. The SCC includes several different types of cells but does not differentiate between them. On the contrary, the new differential somatic cell count (DSCC) parameter allows for the differentiation between 2 groups of cells: polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and lymphocytes versus macrophages. Read More

    Pathogenic potential of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains of caprine origin: virulence genes, Shiga toxin subtypes, phylogenetic background and clonal relatedness.
    BMC Vet Res 2018 Mar 16;14(1):97. Epub 2018 Mar 16.
    Molecular Biology Research Center, Systems Biology and Poisonings Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: All over the world, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are considered as important zoonotic pathogens. Eight serogroups have the greatest role in the outbreaks and diseases caused by STEC which include O26, O45, O103, O111, O113, O121, O145 and O157. Ruminants, especially cattle are the main reservoirs but the role of small ruminants in the epidemiology of human infections has not been thoroughly assessed in many countries. Read More

    Novel ciprofloxacin hybrids using biology oriented drug synthesis (BIODS) approach: Anticancer activity, effects on cell cycle profile, caspase-3 mediated apoptosis, topoisomerase II inhibition, and antibacterial activity.
    Eur J Med Chem 2018 Mar 9;150:403-418. Epub 2018 Mar 9.
    Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, 33 Kasr El-Aini Street, Cairo 11562, Egypt.
    As we are interested in synthetizing biologically active leads with dual anticancer and antibacterial activity, we adopted biology oriented drug synthesis (BIODS) strategy to synthesize a series of novel ciprofloxacin (CP) hybrids. The National Cancer Institute (USA) selected seventeen newly synthesized compounds for anticancer evaluation against 59 different human tumor cell lines. Five compounds 3e, 3f, 3h, 3o and 3p were further studied through determination of ICvalues against the most sensitive cancer cell lines. Read More

    Draft Genome Sequences of Four Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Serotype O4:H5 Isolates (ATCC 700414, 700415, 700416, and 700417).
    Genome Announc 2018 Mar 15;6(11). Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania, USA
    Uropathogenicserotype O4:H5 isolates (ATCC 700414, 700415, 700416, and 700417) were recovered from women with first-time urinary tract infections. Here, we report the draft genome sequences for these fourisolates, which are currently being used to validate food safety processing technologies. Read More

    Green silver nanoparticles from novel Brassicaceae cultivars with enhanced antimicrobial potential than earlier reported Brassicaceae members.
    J Trace Elem Med Biol 2018 May 12;47:1-11. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Molecular Physiology and Proteomics Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India. Electronic address:
    In the present study, we report perhaps for the first time the use of novel varieties of Brassica oleracea var. botrytis and Raphanus sativus as potential bioreductant, to synthesize highly stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, no aggregation observed for six months), which is a significant finding as plant extract-directed AgNPs are intrinsically unstable and tend to aggregate. The reduction of Agto Agnanostructures was confirmed using UVVis spectroscopy showing SPR spectra at 400-435 nm. Read More

    A prospective study of hospital-acquired infections among adults in a tertiary hospital in north-western Nigeria.
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2018 Mar 12. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Infectious and Tropical Diseases Unit, Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria.
    Background: Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. This study examined the epidemiology, clinical outcomes and microbiological profile of HAIs.

    Methods: This prospective study was carried out on patients identified to have developed HAIs while admitted to the medical wards, surgical wards, dialysis unit and intensive care unit (ICU) of the hospital. Read More

    Investigations of Peptide-Based Biocompatible Injectable Shape-Memory Hydrogels: Differential Biological Effects on Bacterial and Human Blood Cells.
    ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Mar 14. Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    Here, we report the self-assembly of Amoc (9-anthracenemethoxycarbonyl)-capped dipeptides, which self-assemble to form injectable, self-healable and shape-memory hydrogels with inherent antibacterial properties. Amoc-capped dipeptides self-assemble to form nanofibrillar networks, which are established by several spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The inherent antibacterial properties of hydrogels are evaluated using two Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and three Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi bacteria. Read More

    Portable Nanofiber-Light Addressable Potentiometric Sensor for Rapid Escherichia coli Detection in Orange Juice.
    ACS Sens 2018 Mar 16. Epub 2018 Mar 16.
    Roshan Water Solutions Inc. , Edmonton , Alberta T6G 1H7 , Canada.
    The growing need to prevent pathogen outbreaks is irrefutable in the case of the food industry. Early detection in products, especially beverages, contaminated with bacterial strains is vital to avoid infected foods from reaching the consumer. If E. Read More

    Antibiotic susceptibility of intestinal Escherichia coli in men undergoing transrectal prostate biopsies: a prospective, registered, multicenter study.
    BJU Int 2018 Mar 13. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Department of Urology, Turku University Hospital, and University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Objectives: To determine, in a prospective, multicenter setting, the prevalence of fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistant and extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli strains in men undergoing transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-Bx) in Finland and to survey the associated risk factors for having the previously mentioned strains.

    Materials And Methods: This is a substudy of the trial investigating the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in prostate cancer diagnosis (multi-IMPROD, NCT02241122). Read More

    Antimicrobial susceptibility trends and evolution of isolates with extended spectrum β-lactamases among Gram-negative organisms recovered during the SMART study in Spain (2011-2015).
    Rev Esp Quimioter 2018 Mar 12. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Rafael Cantón. Servicio de Microbiología. Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal. Carretera de Colmenar Km 9,1. 28034-Madrid. Spain.
    Objective: The SMART (Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends) surveillance study monitors antimicrobial susceptibility and extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in Gram-negative bacilli recovered from intra-abdominal infections (IAI).

    Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility of 5,343 isolates from IAI recovered in 11 centres during the 2011-2015 SMART-Spain program was analysed by standard microdilution (EUCAST criteria) and compared with that from 2002-2010. ESBLs were phenotypically detected. Read More

    Magnolol restores the activity of meropenem against NDM-1-producingby inhibiting the activity of metallo-beta-lactamase.
    Cell Death Discov 2018 Dec 20;4:28. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    1Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Ministry of Education, Institute of Zoonosis, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, China.
    The emergence of plasmid-mediated New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) in carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens is an increasing clinical threat. Here we report the discovery of an NDM-1 inhibitor, magnolol, through enzyme inhibition screening. We showed that magnolol significantly inhibited NDM enzyme activity (IC = 6. Read More

    Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Bacteraemia Causing Pathogens Isolated from Febrile Children with and without Sickle Cell Disease in Kano, Nigeria.
    Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis 2018 15;10(1):e2018016. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, P.M.B. 3011, Kano State, Nigeria.
    Background And Objectives: Bacterial infection in sickle cell anaemic patients is a major cause of mortality and requires proper treatment with appropriate antibiotics. However, continue defiant of these infections causing pathogens to many antibiotics and inadequate screening methods in overburden health care facilities such as our in Kano, Nigeria necessitates the conduct of this study. A research was therefore conducted to isolate, characterize and test for antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteraemia-causing pathogens from febrile children with and without sickle cell disease in Kano, Nigeria. Read More

    Heavy Metal Susceptibility onfrom Urine Samples from Sweden, Germany and Spain.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 Mar 12. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Antimicrobial resistance is a major health care problem, with the intensive use of heavy metals and biocides recently being identified as potential contributing factors to the aggravation of this situation. This study investigated heavy metal susceptibility and genetic resistance determinants inisolated from clinical urine samples from Sweden, Germany and Spain. A total of 186 isolates were tested for minimal inhibition concentration to sodium arsenite, silver nitrate and copper (II) sulphate. Read More

    Discovery of a Novel Metallo-ß-Lactamase Inhibitor, which can Potentiate Meropenem Activity against Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 Mar 12. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Antabio SAS, 31670 Labège, France.
    Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are increasingly prevalent and have become a major worldwide threat to human health. Carbapenem resistance is driven primarily by the acquisition of β-lactamase enzymes which are able to degrade carbapenem antibiotics (hence termed carbapenemases) and can result in high levels of resistance and treatment failure. Clinically relevant carbapenemases include both serine-β-lactamases (SBLs, e. Read More

    Antibacterial effects of 18 medicinal plants used by the Khyang tribe in Bangladesh.
    Pharm Biol 2018 Dec;56(1):201-208
    a School of Pharmacy , University of Nottingham , Semenyih , Malaysia.
    Context: The resistance of bacteria to antibiotics is raising serious concern globally. Asian medicinal plants could improve the current treatment strategies for bacterial infections. The antibacterial properties of medicinal plants used by the Khyang tribe in Bangladesh have not been investigated. Read More

    Single Cell Observations Show Persister Cells Wake Based on Ribosome Content.
    Environ Microbiol 2018 Mar 12. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, 16802-4400, USA.
    Since persister cells survive antibiotic treatments through dormancy and resuscitate to reconstitute infections, it is imperative to determine the rate at which these cells revive. Using two sets of Escherichia coli persister cells, those arising after antibiotic treatment at low levels and those generated at high levels by ceasing transcription via rifampicin pretreatment (shown to be bona fide persisters through eight sets of experiments), we used microscopy of single cells to determine that the resuscitation of dormant persisters is heterogeneous and includes cells that grow immediately. In all, five phenotypes were found during the observation of persister cells when fresh nutrients were added: (i) immediate division, (ii) immediate elongation followed by division, (iii) immediate elongation but no division, (iv) delayed elongation/division, and (v) no growth. Read More

    Colonization of long-term care facility residents in three Italian Provinces by multidrug-resistant bacteria.
    Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 2018 6;7:33. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    1Department of Clinical Surgical Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, Laboratory of Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology, University of Pavia, Via Brambilla 74, 27100 Pavia, Italy.
    Background: Rationale and aims of the study were to compare colonization frequencies with MDR bacteria isolated from LTCF residents in three different Northern Italian regions, to investigate risk factors for colonization and the genotypic characteristics of isolates. The screening includedexpressing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESβLs) and high-level AmpC cephalosporinases, carbapenemase-producing,or, methicillin-resistant(MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE).

    Methods: Urine samples and rectal, inguinal, oropharyngeal and nasal swabs were plated on selective agar; resistance genes were sought by PCR and sequencing. Read More

    Evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility in wound infections: A pilot study from Bangladesh.
    F1000Res 2017 7;6:2103. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Institute of Tropical Medicine and International Health, Berlin, Germany.
    : Infections due to antibiotic resistant bacteria have increased alarmingly in both developed and developing countries. Unrestrained and rapidly spreading bacterial growth has turned the management of wound infections into a serious challenge. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of different bacterial pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility in various types of wound infections. Read More

    Macrophage sphingolipids are essential for the entry of mycobacteria.
    Chem Phys Lipids 2018 Mar 8;213:25-31. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad, 500 007, India. Electronic address:
    Mycobacteria are intracellular pathogens that can invade and survive within host macrophages. Mycobacterial infections remain a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with serious concerns of emergence of multi and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. While significant advances have been made in identifying mycobacterial virulence determinants, the detailed molecular mechanism of internalization of mycobacteria into host cells remains poorly understood. Read More

    Genetic diversity of the enterohaemolysin gene (ehxA) in non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains in China.
    Sci Rep 2018 Mar 9;8(1):4233. Epub 2018 Mar 9.
    State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is increasingly recognized as an important enteric foodborne pathogen. The hallmark of the disease is the production of Shiga toxins; however, there are other virulence factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of STEC. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of the enterohaemolysin gene, ehxA, among non-O157 STEC strains from human, animal, and food sources. Read More

    Impact of an antimicrobial stewardship program on urinary tract infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.
    Rev Esp Quimioter 2018 Mar 9. Epub 2018 Mar 9.
    Juan P. Horcajada. Service of Infectious Diseases. Hospital del Mar. Passeig Marítim 25-29, 08003 Barcelona, Spain.
    Objective: To analyze the clinical and economic impact of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) targeting urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli.

    Methods: An observational retrospective study that included adults with a diagnosis of UTI caused by ESBL-producing E. coli admitted to a tertiary care hospital in Barcelona, Spain, between January 2014 and December 2015. Read More

    Transcriptional Activator GmrA, Encoded in Genomic Island OI-29, Controls the Motility of EnterohemorrhagicO157:H7.
    Front Microbiol 2018 22;9:338. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    TEDA Institute of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.
    EnterohemorrhagicO157:H7 is a major human enteric pathogen capable of causing large outbreaks of severe infections that induce bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Its genome contains 177 unique O islands (OIs) including those carrying the main virulence elements, Shiga toxin-converting phages (OI-45 and OI-93) and locus for enterocyte effacement (OI-148). However, many of these islands harbor only genes of unknown function. Read More

    Prevalence, risk factors and microorganisms of urinary tract infections in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a retrospective study in China.
    Ther Clin Risk Manag 2018 26;14:403-408. Epub 2018 Feb 26.
    Department of Endocrinology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.
    Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur more frequently in diabetic patients. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence, risk factors and microorganisms of UTIs in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).

    Patients And Methods: A total of 3,652 Chinese inpatients with T2D were reviewed and data on their clinical characteristics, symptoms of UTIs, random blood glucose, HbA1c, glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody, insulin autoantibody, albumin excretion rate in 24-hour urine, urine culture and susceptibility to antibiotics, and so on were collected. Read More

    Attaching NorA efflux pump inhibitors to methylene blue enhances antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation of Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii in vitro and in vivo.
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2018 Feb 24. Epub 2018 Feb 24.
    School of Chemistry and Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia. Electronic address:
    Resistance of bacteria to antibiotics is a public health concern worldwide due to the increasing failure of standard antibiotic therapies. Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI) is a promising non-antibiotic alternative for treating localized bacterial infections that uses non-toxic photosensitizers and harmless visible light to produce reactive oxygen species and kill microbes. Phenothiazinium photosensitizers like methylene blue (MB) and toluidine blue O are hydrophobic cations that are naturally expelled from bacterial cells by multidrug efflux pumps, which reduces their effectiveness. Read More

    Prevalence of ESBL/AmpC genes and specific clones among the third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from canine and feline clinical specimens in Japan.
    Vet Microbiol 2018 Mar 16;216:183-189. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Department of Health and Medical Sciences, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621, Japan. Electronic address:
    In recent years, besides the widespread occurrence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and/or plasmid-mediated AmpC (pAmpC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in both healthcare and community settings of humans, the third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant microbes have also been reported from companion animals worldwide. Here, we characterized ESBL- and/or pAmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates from companion animals. Among the 487 clinical isolates mainly from urine of dogs and cats between May and September 2016, 104 non-repetitive isolates were resistant to the 3GC, and they consisted of 81 of 381 (21. Read More

    A bacteriophage cocktail targeting Escherichia coli reduces E. coli in simulated gut conditions, while preserving a non-targeted representative commensal normal microbiota.
    Gut Microbes 2018 Mar 8:1-19. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    a Department of Food Science, Faculty of Science , University of Copenhagen , Frederiksberg C, Denmark , Rolighedsvej 26, Frederiksberg C, 1958, Denmark.
    Antibiotics offer an efficient means for managing diseases caused by bacterial pathogens. However, antibiotics are typically broad spectrum and they can indiscriminately kill beneficial microbes in body habitats such as the gut, deleteriously affecting the commensal gut microbiota. In addition, many bacteria have developed or are developing resistance to antibiotics, which complicates treatment and creates significant challenges in clinical medicine. Read More

    Impact of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacterial and Fungal Infections in Outcome of Acute Pancreatitis.
    Pancreas 2018 Apr;47(4):489-494
    Objectives: The knowledge about pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns is essential to select an appropriate antibiotic.

    Methods: We investigated the microbiological profile in pancreatic and extrapancreatic infections, and antibiotic sensitivity pattern in patients with acute pancreatitis.

    Results: Of 556 patients with acute pancreatitis, only 189 developed bacterial infection; however, bacteremia was present in 42 patients (7. Read More

    Clonal relationships, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and molecular characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates from urinary tract infections and fecal samples in Southeast Iran.
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2018 Jan-Feb;51(1):44-51
    Department of Microbiology and Virology, School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Kerman, Iran.
    Introduction: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli, a species that is a leading cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and is a major global public health concern. This study was designed to detect the differences in antibiotic resistance patterns, the production and type of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), and the clonal relationships among E. coli isolates from UTIs and fecal samples. Read More

    Frequent Community Use of Antibiotics among a Low-Economic Status Population in Manila, the Philippines: A Prospective Assessment Using a Urine Antibiotic Bioassay.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Mar 5. Epub 2018 Mar 5.
    Clinical Sciences, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    The widespread unregulated use of antibiotics without medical consultation contributes to the burden of antibiotic resistance in Southeast Asian countries. This study investigated antibiotic use before hospital consultation. In a prospective observational study from February 2, 2015, to July 2, 2015, we enrolled febrile patients attending the emergency room in San Lazaro Hospital, Manila, the Philippines. Read More

    Rapid Growth of Uropathogenicduring Human Urinary Tract Infection.
    MBio 2018 Mar 6;9(2). Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    Uropathogenic(UPEC) strains cause most uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs). These strains are a subgroup of extraintestinal pathogenic(ExPEC) strains that infect extraintestinal sites, including urinary tract, meninges, bloodstream, lungs, and surgical sites. Here, we hypothesize that UPEC isolates adapt to and grow more rapidly within the urinary tract than otherisolates and survive in that niche. Read More

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