6,091 results match your criteria Epileptic and Epileptiform Encephalopathies


Shared Etiology in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Epilepsy with Functional Disability.

Behav Neurol 2022 27;2022:5893519. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

School of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, And Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China.

Autism spectrum disorders and epilepsies are heterogeneous human disorders that have miscellaneous etiologies and pathophysiology. There is considerable risk of frequent epilepsy in autism that facilitates amplified morbidity and mortality. Several biological pathways appear to be involved in disease progression, including gene transcription regulation, cellular growth, synaptic channel function, and maintenance of synaptic structure. Read More

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ILAE classification and definition of epilepsy syndromes with onset in neonates and infants: Position statement by the ILAE Task Force on Nosology and Definitions.

Epilepsia 2022 May 3. Epub 2022 May 3.

Reference Centre for Rare Epilepsies, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Necker-Enfants Malades University Hospital, APHP, Member of European Reference Network EpiCARE, Institut Imagine, INSERM, UMR 1163, Université Paris cité, Paris, France.

The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Task Force on Nosology and Definitions proposes a classification and definition of epilepsy syndromes in the neonate and infant with seizure onset up to 2 years of age. The incidence of epilepsy is high in this age group and epilepsy is frequently associated with significant comorbidities and mortality. The licensing of syndrome specific antiseizure medications following randomized controlled trials and the development of precision, gene-related therapies are two of the drivers defining the electroclinical phenotypes of syndromes with onset in infancy. Read More

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Noninvasive Detection of Hippocampal Epileptiform Activity on Scalp Electroencephalogram.

JAMA Neurol 2022 May 2. Epub 2022 May 2.

Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.

Importance: The hippocampus is a highly epileptogenic brain region, yet over 90% of hippocampal epileptiform activity (HEA) cannot be identified on scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) by human experts. Currently, detection of HEA requires intracranial electrodes, which limits our understanding of the role of HEA in brain diseases.

Objective: To develop and validate a machine learning algorithm that accurately detects HEA from a standard scalp EEG, without the need for intracranial electrodes. Read More

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Long-term outcome of developmental and epileptic encephalopathies.

Authors:
P Van Bogaert

Rev Neurol (Paris) 2022 Apr 27. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Department of Pediatric Neurology, CHU d'Angers, and Laboratoire Angevin de Recherche en Ingénierie des Systèmes (LARIS), Université d'Angers, 4, rue Larrey, 49000 Angers, France. Electronic address:

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies are conditions where there is developmental impairment related to both the underlying etiology independent of epileptiform activity and the epileptic encephalopathy. Usually they have multiple etiologies. Therefore, long-term outcome is related to both etiology-related factors and epilepsy-related factors-age at onset of epilepsy, type(s) of seizure(s), type of electroencephalographic abnormalities, duration of the epileptic disorder. Read More

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Mechanisms Involved in Epileptogenesis in Alzheimer's Disease and Their Therapeutic Implications.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Apr 13;23(8). Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Sant Pau Memory Unit, Department of Neurology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08041 Barcelona, Spain.

Epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease (AD) incidence increases with age. There are reciprocal relationships between epilepsy and AD. Epilepsy is a risk factor for AD and, in turn, AD is an independent risk factor for developing epilepsy in old age, and abnormal AD biomarkers in PET and/or CSF are frequently found in late-onset epilepsies of unknown etiology. Read More

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Epilepsy Research Now in 3D: Harnessing the Power of Brain Organoids in Epilepsy.

Authors:
Christina Gross

Epilepsy Curr 2022 Mar-Apr;22(2):135-136. Epub 2022 Jan 6.

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Brain organoids represent a powerful tool for studying human neurological diseases, particularly those that affect brain growth and structure. However, many diseases manifest with clear evidence of physiological and network abnormality in the absence of anatomical changes, raising the question of whether organoids possess sufficient neural network complexity to model these conditions. Here, we explore the network-level functions of brain organoids using calcium sensor imaging and extracellular recording approaches that together reveal the existence of complex network dynamics reminiscent of intact brain preparations. Read More

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January 2022

Bursting of excitatory cells is linked to interictal epileptic discharge generation in humans.

Sci Rep 2022 Apr 15;12(1):6280. Epub 2022 Apr 15.

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience and Psychology, Research Center for Natural Sciences, Eötvös Loránd Research Network, Magyar tudósok körútja 2., 1117, Budapest, Hungary.

Knowledge about the activity of single neurons is essential in understanding the mechanisms of synchrony generation, and particularly interesting if related to pathological conditions. The generation of interictal spikes-the hypersynchronous events between seizures-is linked to hyperexcitability and to bursting behaviour of neurons in animal models. To explore its cellular mechanisms in humans we investigated the activity of clustered single neurons in a human in vitro model generating both physiological and epileptiform synchronous events. Read More

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Chaotic and stochastic dynamics of epileptiform-like activities in sclerotic hippocampus resected from patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy.

PLoS Comput Biol 2022 04 13;18(4):e1010027. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

The types of epileptiform activity occurring in the sclerotic hippocampus with highest incidence are interictal-like events (II) and periodic ictal spiking (PIS). These activities are classified according to their event rates, but it is still unclear if these rate differences are consequences of underlying physiological mechanisms. Identifying new and more specific information related to these two activities may bring insights to a better understanding about the epileptogenic process and new diagnosis. Read More

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GABA Receptor-Stabilizing Protein Ubqln1 Affects Hyperexcitability and Epileptogenesis after Traumatic Brain Injury and in a Model of In Vitro Epilepsy in Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Mar 31;23(7). Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Institute of Physiology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Duesbergweg 6, 55128 Mainz, Germany.

Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a major public health concern and strongly contributes to human epilepsy cases worldwide. However, an effective treatment and prevention remains a matter of intense research. The present study provides new insights into the gamma aminobutyric acid A (GABA)-stabilizing protein ubiquilin-1 (ubqln1) and its regulation in mouse models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and in vitro epilepsy. Read More

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Electroclinical features of seizures in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated cerebral cortical encephalitis: A case report and literature review.

Seizure 2022 May 3;98:13-18. Epub 2022 Apr 3.

National Epilepsy Center, NHO Shizuoka Institute of Epilepsy and Neurological Disorders, 886 Urushiyama, Aoi-ku, Shizuoka, Japan.

Purpose: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies (Abs) are associated with various central nervous system demyelinating disorders. Recently, they were detected in cerebral cortical encephalitis (CCE), which often causes seizures. We performed a literature review to elucidate the electroclinical features of CCE. Read More

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The anterior and centromedian thalamus: Anatomy, function, and dysfunction in epilepsy.

Epilepsy Res 2022 May 25;182:106913. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Division of Neurosurgery, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave., Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Program in Neuroscience and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

The thalamus is a densely connected collection of nuclei that play a critical role in gating information flow across the neocortex. Through diffuse reciprocal cortico-thalamo-cortical connectivity, the anterior and centromedian nuclei exert remarkable control over cortically expressed activity. Consequently, mounting evidence implicates these thalamic centres in both the genesis and propagation of aberrant epileptiform activity across the brain. Read More

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EEG Essentials.

Authors:
William O Tatum

Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2022 04;28(2):261-305

Purpose Of Review: EEG is the best study for evaluating the electrophysiologic function of the brain. The relevance of EEG is based on an accurate interpretation of the recording. Understanding the neuroscientific basis for EEG is essential. Read More

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[Analysis of clinical and genetic characteristics of epilepsy associated with chromosome 16p11.2 microdeletion].

Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2022 Apr;60(4):339-344

Department of Neurology, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing 100045, China.

To investigate the clinical and genetic characteristics of epilepsy associated with chromosome 16p11.2 microdeletion. The patients (=10) with 16p11. Read More

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Altered adult neurogenesis and gliogenesis in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

Nat Neurosci 2022 Apr 5;25(4):493-503. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Eli and Edythe Broad Center for Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

The hippocampus is the most common seizure focus in people. In the hippocampus, aberrant neurogenesis plays a critical role in the initiation and progression of epilepsy in rodent models, but it is unknown whether this also holds true in humans. To address this question, we used immunofluorescence on control healthy hippocampus and surgical resections from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), plus neural stem-cell cultures and multi-electrode recordings of ex vivo hippocampal slices. Read More

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Antiseizure Medications for Adults With Epilepsy: A Review.

JAMA 2022 04;327(13):1269-1281

Comprehensive Epilepsy Center and Epilepsy Division, Department of Neurology, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida.

Importance: Epilepsy affects approximately 65 million people worldwide. Persistent seizures are associated with a 20% to 40% risk of bodily injuries (eg, fractures, burns, concussions) over 12-month follow-up. The primary goal of epilepsy treatment is to eliminate seizures while minimizing adverse effects of antiseizure drugs (ASDs). Read More

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Hippocampal spikes have heterogeneous scalp EEG correlates important for defining IEDs.

Epilepsy Res 2022 May 30;182:106914. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

Department of Neurology, ⁎Neurosurgery and ̂ Pediatrics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To identify scalp EEG correlates of hippocampal spikes in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE).

Methods: We recorded scalp and intracranial EEG simultaneously in 20 consecutive surgical candidates with mTLE. Hippocampal spikes were identified from depth electrodes during the first hour of sleep on the first night of recording in the epilepsy monitoring unit, and their scalp EEG correlates were identified. Read More

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Multidimensional Feature Optimization Based Eye Blink Detection Under Epileptiform Discharges.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2022 12;30:905-914. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Objectives: Eye blink artifact detection in scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) of epilepsy patients is challenging due to its similar waveforms to epileptiform discharges. Developing an accurate detection method is urgent and critical.

Methods: In this paper, we proposed a novel multi-dimensional feature optimization based eye blink artifact detection algorithm for EEGs containing rich epileptiform discharges. Read More

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Response characteristics of objective perimetry in persons living with epilepsy.

J Neurol Sci 2022 05 25;436:120237. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Eccles Institute of Neuroscience, John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Acton, ACT, Australia. Electronic address:

Purpose: To investigate safety and visual-field changes in people with epilepsy undergoing multifocal Pupillographic Objective Perimetry (mfPOP).

Methods: 15 people with epilepsy and 15 controls underwent mfPOP in the context of routine clinical EEG testing. Safety measures comprised the proportion of participants developing an aura or seizure, a photoparoxysmal response, or increased epileptiform activity on their EEG during mfPOP. Read More

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[How our view of epileptogenesis and mechanism of epilepsy changes? The system epilepsies' concept].

Ideggyogy Sz 2022 Mar;75(3-04):79-97

Semmelweis Egyetem, Magatartástudományi Intézet, Budapest.

Background And Purpose: To examine the ways of epileptogenesis closely linked to the system epilepsies' concept.

Methods: We follow the ways of epileptic transformation in the declarative memory-system, in the sleep/arousal twin-systems, in the perisylvian neuronal network and in postinjury epilepsy, which we consider a general model of the epileptic transformation.

Results: In the presented systems, epileptogenesis shares a similar mechanism in the form of augmentation and derailment of plasticity and sleep-related synaptic homeo-stasis. Read More

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Neuroelectric Mechanisms of Delayed Cerebral Ischemia after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Mar 13;23(6). Epub 2022 Mar 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu 514-8507, Mie, Japan.

Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) remains a challenging but very important condition, because DCI is preventable and treatable for improving functional outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The pathologies underlying DCI are multifactorial. Classical approaches to DCI focus exclusively on preventing and treating the reduction of blood flow supply. Read More

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In-vitro engineered human cerebral tissues mimic pathological circuit disturbances in 3D.

Commun Biol 2022 03 23;5(1):254. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands.

In-vitro modeling of brain network disorders such as epilepsy remains a major challenge. A critical step is to develop an experimental approach that enables recapitulation of in-vivo-like three-dimensional functional complexity while allowing local modulation of the neuronal networks. Here, by promoting matrix-supported active cell reaggregation, we engineered multiregional cerebral tissues with intact 3D neuronal networks and functional interconnectivity characteristic of brain networks. Read More

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Persistence of neural function in animals submitted to seizure-suppressing scale-free nonperiodic electrical stimulation applied to the amygdala.

Behav Brain Res 2022 05 15;426:113843. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

Laboratory of Neuroengineering and Neuroscience (LINNce), Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of São João Del-Rei. Pça. Frei Orlando, 170 - Centro, São João Del-Rei, MG 36302-357, Brazil. Electronic address:

Based on the rationale that neural hypersynchronization underlies epileptic phenomena, nonperiodic stimulation (NPS) was designed and successfully tested as an electrical stimulus with robust anticonvulsant action. Considering the scale-free temporal structure of NPS mimics natural-like activity, here we hypothesized its application to the amygdala would induce minor to none impairment of neural function in treated animals. Wistar rats underwent gold-standard behavioral tests such as open field (OF), elevated plus-maze (EPM), novel object recognition, and social interaction test in order to evaluate the functions of base-level anxiety, motor function, episodic memory, and sociability. Read More

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Novel mutation of SIK1 gene causing a mild form of pediatric epilepsy in a Chinese patient.

Metab Brain Dis 2022 Apr 10;37(4):1207-1219. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Department of Molecular Neuropathology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, No. 119 South Fourth Ring Road West, Fengtai District, Beijing, 100070, China.

Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy (DEE) is a group of disorders affecting children at early stages of infancy, which is characterized by frequent seizures, epileptiform activity on EEG, and developmental delayor regression. Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-30 (DEE30) is a severe neurologic disorder characterized by onset of refractory seizures soon after birth or in the first months of life. Which was recently found to be caused by heterozygous mutations in the salt-inducible kinase SIK1. Read More

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Sentinel Epileptiform Discharges Activating Two Seizure Networks on Intracranial EEG.

J Clin Neurophysiol 2022 Mar;39(3):e10-e14

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, U.S.A.

Summary: Sentinel epileptiform discharges (SEDs) are epileptiform transients preceding the onset of a focal seizure seen on scalp EEG. Despite their potential localizing value, formal study of SED has been limited. The authors report a patient with MRI-negative focal-onset epilepsy whose seizures on scalp and intracranial EEG were always preceded by SED. Read More

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Acute epileptiform abnormalities are the primary predictors of post-stroke epilepsy: a matched, case-control study.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2022 Apr 3;9(4):558-563. Epub 2022 Mar 3.

Charles Shor Epilepsy Center, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Stroke patients who underwent continuous EEG (cEEG) monitoring within 7 days of presentation and developed post-stroke epilepsy (PSE; cases, n = 36) were matched (1:2 ratio) by age and follow-up duration with ones who did not (controls, n = 72). Variables significant on univariable analysis [hypertension, smoking, hemorrhagic conversion, pre-cEEG convulsive seizures, and epileptiform abnormalities (EAs)] were included in the multivariable logistic model and only the presence of EAs on EEG remained significant PSE predictor [OR = 11.9 (1. Read More

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[Clinical characteristics and gene analysis of GRIN2B gene related neurological developmental disorders in children].

Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2022 Mar;60(3):232-236

Department of Neurology, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing 100045, China.

To analyse the clinical and gene characteristics of GRIN2B gene related neurological developmental disorders in children. The data of 11 children with GRIN2B gene related neurological developmental disorders from November 2016 to February 2021 were collected from Department of Neurology, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health and analyzed retrospectively. The clinical features, electroencephalogram (EEG), brain imaging and gene testing results were summarized. Read More

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Menthol exerts TRPM8-independent antiepileptic effects in prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons.

Brain Res 2022 05 25;1783:147847. Epub 2022 Feb 25.

Department of Pharmacodynamics, The Medical University of Warsaw, Banacha 1B, Warsaw 02-097, Poland.

Menthol is a natural compound that evokes cold sensations by activating TRPM8 channels in peripheral sensory receptors. Little is known about the effects of this compound on brain neurons. It has been shown previously that menthol exerts antiepileptic effects in hippocampal neurons by enhancing GABA receptors. Read More

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Beware of nonconvulsive seizures in prolonged disorders of consciousness: Long-term EEG monitoring is the key.

Clin Neurophysiol 2022 04 25;136:228-234. Epub 2022 Jan 25.

William Lennox Neurological Hospital (WLNH), Ottignies, Belgium; Refractory Epilepsy Reference Center, Université Catholique de Louvain (UCLouvain) - Saint-Luc University Hospital, Belgium; Institute of Neuroscience (IoNS), Université catholique de Louvain (UCLouvain), Brussels, Belgium.

Objective: Evaluate the prevalence of epileptic seizures (ES) and epileptiform discharges (EDs) in patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (DOC), and potential influence of amantadine on epilepsy.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study in 34 patients hospitalized in a DOC care unit for prolonged DOC between 2012 and 2018, who received a long-term EEG monitoring (LTM). We reviewed the prevalence of ES, EDs and nonconvulsive seizures (NCSz), the type of DOC recovery treatment administered, and neurological outcome. Read More

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Therapeutic efficacy of seizure onset zone-targeting high-definition cathodal tDCS in patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy.

Clin Neurophysiol 2022 04 3;136:219-227. Epub 2022 Feb 3.

Bio-imaging Lab, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Objective: Epilepsy is a common neurological disease with recurrent seizures. Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) is a safe, non-invasive method used for neuromodulation. The aim of this study was to explore the efficacy of cathodal high-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) as a noninvasive method for the treatment of patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy (DRFE). Read More

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Interictal epileptiform discharges in focal epilepsy are preceded by increase in low-frequency oscillations.

Clin Neurophysiol 2022 04 14;136:191-205. Epub 2022 Feb 14.

NatMEG, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objective: Interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) constitute a diagnostic signature of epilepsy. These events reflect epileptogenic hypersynchronization. Previous studies indicated that IEDs arise from slow neuronal activation accompanied by metabolic and hemodynamic changes. Read More

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