1,695 results match your criteria Epilepsy and the Autonomic Nervous System

Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation in epilepsy patients enhances cooperative behavior in the prisoner's dilemma task.

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 17;12(1):10255. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Neurology, Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

The vagus nerve constitutes a key link between the autonomic and the central nervous system. Previous studies provide evidence for the impact of vagal activity on distinct cognitive processes including functions related to social cognition. Recent studies in animals and humans show that vagus nerve stimulation is associated with enhanced reward-seeking and dopamine-release in the brain. Read More

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[Possibilities of complex rehabilitation of young children with epilepsy and movement disorders].

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2022 ;99(3):25-31

Separate structural subdivision of the Russian Children's Clinical Hospital Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University of the Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow, Russia.

Epilepsy is a chronic disease characterized by recurrent, mostly unprovoked seizures with impaired motor, autonomic, mental or mental functions that occur as a result of excessive neuronal discharges in the gray matter of the cerebral cortex. The problem of the activity of medical rehabilitation for epilepsy in the professional community remains debatable, despite the obviousness of the arguments and judgments presented.

Purpose Of The Study: Development of an effective and safe complex for the rehabilitation of young children with epilepsy, accompanied by impaired movement function. Read More

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An affordable implantable vagus nerve stimulator system for use in animal research.

Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 2022 Jul 6;380(2228):20210010. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Bioinformatics, Intelligent Systems and Educational Technology (BISITE) Research Group, Salamanca, Spain.

In this research, a vagus nerve stimulator has been developed and miniaturized for use in epilepsy research. The board contains all the components necessary for its operation during the standard duration of the experiments, being possible to control it once implanted and even being able to reuse it. The VNS system has been designed for rodents since the VNS devices available for human are not only too large for laboratory animals, but also too expensive. Read More

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Vagus nerve stimulation for conservative therapy-refractive epilepsy and depression.

Laryngorhinootologie 2022 May 23;101(S 01):S114-S143. Epub 2022 May 23.

Klinik für HNO-Heilkunde, Kopf- und Halschirurgie, KRH Klinikum Nordstadt, Hannover.

Numerous studies confirm that the vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an efficient, indirect neuromodulatory therapy with electrically induced current for epilepsy that cannot be treated by epilepsy surgery and is therapy-refractory and for drug therapy-refractory depression. VNS is an established, evidence-based and in the long-term cost-effective therapy in an interdisciplinary overall concept.Long-term data on the safety and tolerance of the method are available despite the heterogeneity of the patient populations. Read More

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Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation augments postprandial inhibition of ghrelin.

Physiol Rep 2022 04;10(8):e15253

Burrell College of Osteopathic Medicine, Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA.

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) facilitates weight loss in animals and patients treated with VNS for depression or epilepsy. Likewise, chronic transcutaneous auricular VNS (taVNS) reduces weight gain and improves glucose tolerance in Zucker diabetic fatty rats. If these metabolic effects of taVNS observed in rats translate to humans is unknown. Read More

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Paroxysmal Hypothermia With Prominent Parkinsonian Features After Suprachiasmatic Tumor Resection.

Neurohospitalist 2022 Apr 6;12(2):285-289. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Department of Neurology, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

Paroxysmal hypothermia (PH) is a rare syndrome of stereotyped episodes of hypothermia, bradycardia, and altered mental status occurring in patients with hypothalamic lesions. Prior cases have mentioned bradykinesia, ataxia, and dysarthria, but parkinsonism has not been described as a specific feature of PH. We report two patients, an adult and a child, who developed PH after suprachiasmatic tumor resection, both with clinical presentations notable for prominent parkinsonian features despite no evidence of parkinsonism during the intervening months and years. Read More

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[Results of vagus nerve stimulator implantation in children and adolescents with treatment-refractory epilepsy].

HNO 2022 May 12;70(5):389-395. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Klinik für Hals-Nasen-Ohrenheilkunde, Kopf-Hals-Tumorzentrum, Klinikum Region Hannover GmbH, KRH Klinikum Nordstadt, Haltenhoffstraße 41, 30167, Hannover, Deutschland.

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a therapeutic procedure that can be applied in a palliative setting in patients with treatment-refractory epilepsy who are not suitable for epilepsy surgery. The mechanism of action of VNS is currently not completely understood but appears to depend on a modification of neurotransmitter metabolism. Data of 25 patients with treatment-refractory epilepsy who underwent implantation of a vagus nerve stimulator were retrospectively analyzed in a monocentric study. Read More

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Investigating the Effect of Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation on Cortical Excitability in Healthy Males.

Neuromodulation 2022 Apr;25(3):395-406

Department of Neurology, 4BRAIN Research Group, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.

Objectives: As a potential treatment for epilepsy, transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) has yielded inconsistent results. Combining transcranial magnetic stimulation with electromyography (TMS-EMG) and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) can be used to investigate the effect of interventions on cortical excitability by evaluating changes in motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs). The goal of this study is to objectively evaluate the effect of taVNS on cortical excitability with TMS-EMG and TMS-EEG. Read More

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Short- and Long-Term Response of Vagus Nerve Stimulation Therapy in Drug-Resistant Epilepsy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Neuromodulation 2022 Apr;25(3):327-342

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: To compare the short- and long-term efficacies as well as tolerability of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for the patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) in comparison with status at baseline.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a specific and systematic search in online data bases for relevant literature published prior to December 2020. The literature retrieved, including randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and observational studies, were then reviewed and analyzed. Read More

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A Comprehensive Review of Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Depression.

Neuromodulation 2022 Apr;25(3):309-315

Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is reemerging as an exciting form of brain stimulation, due in part to the development of its noninvasive counterpart transcutaneous auricular VNS. As the field grows, it is important to understand where VNS emerged from, including its history and the studies that were conducted over the past four decades. Here, we offer a comprehensive review of the history of VNS in the treatment of major depression. Read More

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[Current concepts about autonomic dysfunction in patients with epilepsy].

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2022 ;122(3):131-138

Moscow Research and Clinical Center for Neuropsychiatry, Moscow, Russia.

Autonomic dysfunction is frequently observed in people with epilepsy. Ictal and postictal dysautonomia is not only manifestation of autonomic seizures, but could be a life threatening condition in some cases and contribute to sudden unexpected death (SUDEP). Interictal decrease of autonomic activity is associated with duration and severity of epilepsy, it is the most prominent in focal and drug-resistant epilepsy. Read More

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Synaptic alterations as a neurodevelopmental trait of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Neurobiol Dis 2022 06 4;168:105718. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Institute of Molecular Biology and Pathology (IBPM), National Research Council (CNR) of Italy c/o Department of Biology and Biotechnology "Charles Darwin", Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy.

Dystrophinopaties, e.g., Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), Becker muscular dystrophy and X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy are inherited neuromuscular diseases, characterized by progressive muscular degeneration, which however associate with a significant impact on general system physiology. Read More

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Measuring brain response to transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) using simultaneous magnetoencephalography (MEG).

J Neural Eng 2022 04 13;19(2). Epub 2022 Apr 13.

School of Science, Computing and Engineering Technologies, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.

Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) is a form of non-invasive brain stimulation that delivers a sequence of electrical pulses to the auricular branch of the vagus nerve and is used increasingly in the treatment of a number of health conditions such as epilepsy and depression. Recent research has focused on the efficacy of tVNS to treat different medical conditions, but there is little conclusive evidence concerning the optimal stimulation parameters. There are relatively few studies that have combined tVNS with a neuroimaging modality, and none that have attempted simultaneous magnetoencephalography (MEG) and tVNS due to the presence of large stimulation artifacts produced by the electrical stimulation which are many orders of magnitude larger than underlying brain activity. Read More

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Concurrent brain-responsive and vagus nerve stimulation for treatment of drug-resistant focal epilepsy.

Epilepsy Behav 2022 04 16;129:108653. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

University of Colorado, Department of Neurology, United States; Mayo Clinic Arizona, Department of Neurology, United States. Electronic address:

Objective: Clinical trials of a brain-responsive neurostimulator, RNS® System (RNS), excluded patients with a vagus nerve stimulator, VNS® System (VNS). The goal of this study was to evaluate seizure outcomes and safety of concurrent RNS and VNS stimulation in adults with drug-resistant focal-onset seizures.

Methods: A retrospective multicenter chart review was performed on all patients with an active VNS and RNS who were treated for a minimum of 6 months with both systems concurrently. Read More

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Wearable device assessments of antiseizure medication effects on diurnal patterns of electrodermal activity, heart rate, and heart rate variability.

Epilepsy Behav 2022 04 9;129:108635. Epub 2022 Mar 9.

Computational Neurology, Department of Neurology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany; Berlin Institute of Health, Germany. Electronic address:

Patient-generated health data provide a great opportunity for more detailed ambulatory monitoring and more personalized treatments in many diseases. In epilepsy, robust diagnostics applicable to the ambulatory setting are needed as diagnosis and treatment decisions in current clinical practice are primarily reliant on patient self-reports, which are often inaccurate. Recent work using wearable devices has focused on methods to detect and forecast epileptic seizures. Read More

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[Epilepsy and Autonomic Nervous System].

Kensuke Kawai

Brain Nerve 2022 Mar;74(3):271-277

Department of Neurosurgery, Jichi Medical University.

Epileptic activity that involves the central autonomic system, including the insular lobe, medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray, parabrachial complex, nucleus tractus solitarius, and ventrolateral medulla results in seizures with various autonomic manifestations. Some autonomic manifestations suggest localization and lateralization of epileptic foci. The autonomic nervous system modulates cerebral activity under physiological and pathological conditions. Read More

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Reproducible asystole following vagal nerve stimulator lead replacement: a case report.

BMC Neurol 2022 Mar 4;22(1):75. Epub 2022 Mar 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA.

Background: Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) is approved therapy for the treatment of intractable epilepsy. The stimulation of either nerve, left or right, is effective. However, due to the anatomic and physiological effects of cardiac innervation, the right vagus nerve is typically avoided in order to minimize the risk of cardiac bradyarrhythmias. Read More

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Hospital costs associated with vagus nerve stimulation and medical treatment in pediatric patients with refractory epilepsy.

Epilepsia 2022 05 13;63(5):1141-1151. Epub 2022 Mar 13.

Department of Neurological Surger, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Objectives: Refractory epilepsy is a diagnosis of recurrent seizures that requires multiple resources for optimal chronic management. The disease negatively impacts the lives of affected patients and families and poses an economic burden to the health care system. This study compares hospital costs between pediatric patients treated with antiseizure medications (ASMs) only and ASMs plus vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). Read More

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Neural Sources of Vagus Nerve Stimulation-Induced Slow Cortical Potentials.

Neuromodulation 2022 Apr 15;25(3):407-413. Epub 2022 Feb 15.

Department of Functioning and Disability, Institute for Developmental Research, Aichi Developmental Disability Center, Kasugai, Japan.

Objectives: This study investigated neuronal sources of slow cortical potentials (SCPs) evoked during vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in patients with epilepsy who underwent routine electroencephalography (EEG) after implantation of the device.

Materials And Methods: We analyzed routine clinical EEG from 24 patients. There were 5 to 26 trains of VNS during EEG. Read More

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Laryngeal Muscle-Evoked Potential Recording as an Indicator of Vagal Nerve Fiber Activation.

Neuromodulation 2022 Apr 15;25(3):461-470. Epub 2022 Feb 15.

4Brain, Department of Neurology, Department of Head and Skin, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address:

Background: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an adjunctive therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy. Noninvasive evoked potential recordings in laryngeal muscles (LMEPs) innervated by vagal branches may provide a marker to assess effective vagal nerve fiber activation. We investigated VNS-induced LMEPs in patients with epilepsy in acute and chronic settings. Read More

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Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood: neurological comorbidities and intrafamilial variability.

Ital J Pediatr 2022 Feb 17;48(1):29. Epub 2022 Feb 17.

Unit of Rare Diseases of the Nervous System in Childhood, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Pediatrics and Child Neuropsychiatry, University of Catania, AOU "Policlinico", PO "G. Rodolico", Catania, Italy.

Background: Alternating of Childhood (AHC) is an uncommon and complex disorder characterized by age of onset before 18 months with recurrent hemiplegia of one or either sides of the body or quadriplegia. The disorder is mainly caused by mutations in ATP1A3 gene, and to a lesser extent in ATP1A2 gene. In AHC neurological co-morbidities are various and frequently reported including developmental delay, epilepsy, tonic or dystonic spells, nystagmus,autonomic manifestations with intrafamilial variability. Read More

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February 2022

Long-term outcome of vagus nerve stimulation for drug-resistant epilepsy using continuous assessment, with a note on mortality.

Seizure 2022 Mar 29;96:74-78. Epub 2022 Jan 29.

Department of Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience (IoPPN), King's College London (KCL), London, UK; Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, King's College Hospital NHS Trust, London, UK. Electronic address:

Purpose: To examine the outcome of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for drug-resistant epilepsy using data from a National Health Service VNS clinic.

Methods: Clinical records of patients implanted with VNS for epilepsy between1995 and 2010 were examined. Patients were selected for study who had at least one year of therapeutic stimulation (minimum 1 mA stimulator current) and follow-up by our service with analysable electronic records, providing continuous assessment of seizure control during available follow-up. Read More

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The potential of invasive and non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation to improve verbal memory performance in epilepsy patients.

Sci Rep 2022 02 7;12(1):1984. Epub 2022 Feb 7.

Department of Neurology, 4BRAIN Research Group, Ghent University Hospital, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.

It has been demonstrated that acute vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) improves word recognition memory in epilepsy patients. Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) has gained interest as a non-invasive alternative to improve cognition. In this prospective randomized cross-over study, we investigated the effect of both invasive VNS and taVNS on verbal memory performance in 15 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Read More

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February 2022

Peri-Ictal Autonomic Control of Cardiac Function and Seizure-Induced Death.

Front Neurosci 2021 21;15:795145. Epub 2022 Jan 21.

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States.

Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) accounts for the deaths of 8-17% of patients with epilepsy. Although the mechanisms of SUDEP are unknown, one proposed mechanism is abnormal control of the heart by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Our objective was to determine whether the broad changes in ictal heart rate experienced by mouse models of SUDEP are (1) due to the ANS and (2) contribute to seizure-induced death. Read More

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January 2022

Vasospasm following low-velocity penetrating pediatric intracranial trauma.

J Med Case Rep 2022 Feb 6;16(1):48. Epub 2022 Feb 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background: BB guns or non-powder guns created in the modern era are able to reach exceedingly fast velocities as a result of advances in compressed-gas technology. While missile penetrating trauma has been well documented in neurosurgical literature, penetrating intracranial injury secondary to non-powder guns, along with their associated complications and treatments, is not well described, and even less so in the pediatric population.

Case Presentation: Here, we describe an unusual case of a 6-year-old Indigenous child who was accidentally shot with a BB gun to the head. Read More

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February 2022

Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.

Daniel Friedman

Curr Opin Neurol 2022 04;35(2):181-188

NYU Grossman School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, 223 East 34th Street, New York, New York, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a major contributor to premature mortality in people with epilepsy. This review provides an update on recent findings on the epidemiology of SUDEP, clinical risk factors and potential mechanisms.

Recent Findings: The overall risk rate of SUDEP is approximately 1 per 1000 patients per year in the general epilepsy population and that children and older adults have a similar incidence. Read More

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How predictable is heart rate variability in Brazilian patients with drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy?

Epilepsy Behav 2022 03 29;128:108532. Epub 2022 Jan 29.

Center for Applied Neuroscience, University Hospital (HU), UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; Graduate Program in Neuroscience, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; Neurology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; Center for Epilepsy Surgery of Santa Catarina (CEPESC), HU, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. Electronic address:

This study aimed to compare heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with healthy controls and to analyze their clinical and sociodemographic variables predictive for HRV. Thirty-nine consecutive patients with drug-resistant MTLE were included in the study. The control group included twenty-seven healthy participants matched by age and gender. Read More

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Investigation of the Optimal Parameters of Median Nerve Stimulation, Using a Variety of Stimulation Methods, and Its Effects on Heart Rate Variability: A Systematic Review.

Neuromodulation 2022 Jan 7. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Cakmak Lab, Department of Anatomy, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; Medtech Centre of Research Excellence, Auckland, New Zealand; Brain Health Research Centre, Dunedin, New Zealand; Centre for Health Systems and Technology, Dunedin, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Objectives: There is a wealth of literature supporting the use of median nerve stimulation (MNS) for modulating autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction such as in hypoxia, recovery after heart valve replacement, ischemia, and cardiac contractibility. Heart rate variability (HRV) is considered a gold standard for measuring autonomic modulation and dynamic nonlinear ANS processes through the use of an electrocardiogram (ECG). Although the use of MNS on HRV in animals and humans has been documented, optimal stimulation parameters are yet to be outlined. Read More

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January 2022

Effect of Vagus Nerve Stimulation on Attention and Working Memory in Neuropsychiatric Disorders: A Systematic Review.

Neuromodulation 2022 Apr 26;25(3):343-355. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; Mental Health Care Line, Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: It has been suggested that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) may enhance attention and working memory. The neuromodulator effects of VNS are thought to activate the release of neurotransmitters involving cognition and to promote neuronal plasticity. Therefore, VNS has been studied for its effects on attention and working memory impairment in neuropsychiatric disorders. Read More

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Heart rate variability is reduced during the menstrual phase in women with catamenial C1-type temporal lobe epilepsy.

Epilepsy Behav 2022 02 30;127:108508. Epub 2021 Dec 30.

Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Science, "G. D'Annunzio" University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy; Departments of Neurology and Pharmacology, Institute for Mind Impairments and Neurological Disorders - iMIND, University of California - Irvine, Irvine, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most frequent focal epilepsy in adulthood. Catamenial C1-type TLE, is characterized by a cyclic seizure exacerbation during the menstrual phase. The heart rate variability (HRV) analysis assesses cardiac autonomic control and may represent a biomarker for Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). Read More

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February 2022