28,836 results match your criteria Epigenetics & Chromatin [Journal]


Importance of m N-methyladenosine (mA) RNA modification in cancer.

Med Oncol 2019 Mar 16;36(4):36. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Near East University, 99138, Nicosia, Cyprus.

RNA methylation, which was identified back in 1970s, has gained remarkable interest in recent years as it was shown to be a reversible modification involved in many cellular processes like mRNA and miRNA processing, mRNA localisation, translation suppression, or activation. These, in turn, affect important bioprocesses such as tissue development, sex determination, and DNA damage response. Important group of proteins are responsible for adding, recognizing, and removing the methyl group to and from the RNA molecules, which are referred as writers, readers, and erasers, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12032-019-1260-6DOI Listing

Shift work, DNA methylation and epigenetic age.

Int J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

Background: Shift work has been associated with increased risk of age-related morbidity and mortality. Biological age, estimated using DNA methylation (DNAm), may quantify the biological consequences of shift work on the risk of age-related disease. We examined whether prior employment in shift-working occupations was associated with epigenetic age acceleration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyz027DOI Listing

Sotos Syndrome Presenting with Neonatal Hyperinsulinaemic Hypoglycaemia, Extensive Thrombosis, and Multisystem Involvement.

Horm Res Paediatr 2019 Mar 15:1-7. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Endocrinology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom.

Initially described as an uncommon presenting feature of Sotos syndrome (SoS), over the last decades, congenital hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (CHI) has been increasingly reported in association with this condition. The mechanism responsible for CHI in SoS is unclear. We report the case of a neonate presenting with CHI and extensive venous and arterial thrombosis associated with kidney, heart, liver, skeleton, and brain abnormalities and finally diagnosed with SoS on whole genome sequencing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000496545DOI Listing

Epigenetic changes: An emerging potential pharmacological target in allergic rhinitis.

Int Immunopharmacol 2019 Mar 14;71:76-83. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130041, China. Electronic address:

The importance of epigenetics has increased due to identification of its role in the pathophysiology of a number of diseases including allergic rhinitis. Amongst the different epigenetic changes in allergic retinitis, deacetylation of histone proteins by histone deacetylase (HDACs), hypermethylation of DNA by DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) and alteration in post-transcriptional process by the changes in the levels of miRNA are widely studied. Studies conducted related to allergic rhinitis have shown the elevation in the levels of HDAC1, 3 and 11 in the nasal epithelia and HDAC inhibitors have shown effectiveness in decreasing the symptoms of rhinitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2019.03.004DOI Listing

Primers on nutrigenetics and nutri(epi)genomics: origins and development of precision nutrition.

Biochimie 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Unit of Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy, University of Camerino, 62032, Camerino, MC, Italy. Electronic address:

Understanding the relationship between genotype and phenotype is a central goal not just for genetics but also for medicine and biological sciences. Despite outstanding technological progresses, genetics alone is not able to completely explain phenotypes, in particular for complex diseases. Given the existence of a "missing heritability", growing attention has been given to non-mendelian mechanisms of inheritance and to the role of the environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2019.03.006DOI Listing

Oncogenic role of arsenic exposure in lung cancer: A forgotten risk factor.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Instituto Oncológico Fundación Arturo López, Santiago, Chile.

Several drinkable water sources worldwide have been highly contaminated with arsenic, which means that an estimated 160 million people have been exposed to this chemical agent. If we analyse exposure by region, we will find a high correlation between arsenic contamination and the incidence of lung cancer (among other malignancies). In order to determine what the risks of these exposures are, we need to understand how this chemical is processed in our body and how it is linked to cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2019.01.012DOI Listing
January 2019

Interaction of nutrition and genetics via DNMT3L-mediated DNA methylation determines cognitive decline.

Neurobiol Aging 2019 Feb 13;78:64-73. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

School of Life Sciences, Queen's Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK. Electronic address:

Low homocysteine levels and B vitamin treatment are reported to protect against declining cognitive health. Both B vitamins and homocysteine are involved in the production of S-adenosylmethionine, a universal methyl donor essential for the process of DNA methylation. We investigated the effect of a damaging coding variant within the DNA methyltransferase gene DNMT3L (R278G, A/G) by examining B vitamin intake, homocysteine levels, cognitive performance, and brain atrophy in individuals in the VITACOG study of mild cognitive impairment and the TwinsUK cohort. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2019.02.001DOI Listing
February 2019

p27 transcriptionally coregulates cJun to drive programs of tumor progression.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Braman Family Breast Cancer Institute, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136;

p27 shifts from CDK inhibitor to oncogene when phosphorylated by PI3K effector kinases. Here, we show that p27 is a cJun coregulator, whose assembly and chromatin association is governed by p27 phosphorylation. In breast and bladder cancer cells with high p27pT157pT198 or expressing a CDK-binding defective p27pT157pT198 phosphomimetic (p27CK-DD), cJun is activated and interacts with p27, and p27/cJun complexes localize to the nucleus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1817415116DOI Listing

Dependence on Myb expression is attenuated in myeloid leukaemia with N-terminal CEBPA mutations.

Life Sci Alliance 2019 Apr 15;2(2). Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

Mutations at the N- or C-terminus of C/EBPα are frequent in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) with normal karyotype. Here, we investigate the role of the transcription factor Myb in AMLs driven by different combinations of CEBPA mutations. Using knockdown of Myb in murine cell lines modelling the spectrum of CEBPA mutations, we show that the effect of reduced Myb depends on the mutational status of the two Cebpa alleles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26508/lsa.201800207DOI Listing

Yeast Epigenetics: The Inheritance of Histone Modification States.

Biosci Rep 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom

(budding yeast) and (fission yeast) are two of the most recognized and well-studied model systems for epigenetic regulation and the inheritance of chromatin states. Their silent loci serve as a proxy for heterochromatic chromatin in higher eukaryotes, and as such both species have provided a wealth of information on the mechanisms behind the establishment and maintenance of epigenetic states, not only in yeast, but in higher eukaryotes. This review focuses specifically on the role of histone modifications in governing telomeric silencing in and centromeric silencing in as examples of genetic loci that exemplify epigenetic inheritance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20182006DOI Listing

KBG syndrome presenting with brachydactyly type E.

Bone 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Bone Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, Australia; Department of Endocrinology, St Vincent's Hospital Sydney, Australia; School of Medicine, UNSW, Sydney, Australia; School of Medicine Sydney, University of Notre Dame, Australia.

We report the case of a young woman who presented at age 10 years with height on the tenth centile, brachydactyly type E and mild developmental delay. Biochemistry and hormonal profiles were normal. Differential diagnoses considered included Albright hereditary osteodystrophy without hormone resistance (a. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2019.03.012DOI Listing

MicroRNA-424-5p acts as a potential biomarker and inhibits proliferation and invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting TRIM29.

Life Sci 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400010, China. Electronic address:

Background: miRNA-424-5p (miR-424-5p) has been implicated in the development and progression of various tumors. However, the functional mechanisms of miR-424-5p in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are unclear. In this study, we investigated the specific biological functions of miRNA in HCC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.03.028DOI Listing

rRNA and tRNA Bridges to Neuronal Homeostasis in Health and Disease.

J Mol Biol 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Institute of Applied Physiology, University of Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 11, 89081 Ulm, Germany; Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical Cell Biology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 307, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:

Dysregulation of protein translation is emerging as a unifying mechanism in the pathogenesis of many neuronal disorders. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) are structural molecules that have complementary and coordinated functions in protein synthesis. Defects in both rRNAs and tRNAs have been described in mammalian brain development, neurological syndromes and neurodegeneration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2019.03.004DOI Listing

Epigenetic modifications induced by exercise: Drug-free intervention to improve cognitive deficits associated with obesity.

Physiol Behav 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Laboratório de Bioenergética e Estresse Oxidativo (LABOX), Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, Brazil. Electronic address:

Obesity and metabolic disorders are increasing worldwide and are associated with brain atrophy and dysfunction, which are risk factors for late-onset dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Epidemiological studies demonstrated that changes in lifestyle, including the frequent practice of physical exercise are able to prevent and treat not only obesity/metabolic disorders, but also to improve cognitive function and dementia. Several biochemical pathways and epigenetic mechanisms have been proposed to understand the beneficial effects of physical exercise on cognition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.03.009DOI Listing

Increased methylation upstream of the MEG3 promotor is observed in acute myeloid leukemia patients with better overall survival.

Clin Epigenetics 2019 Mar 15;11(1):50. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Stem Cell Institute at James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.

Background: The delta-like non-canonical Notch ligand 1 (DLK1)-maternally expressed 3(MEG3) locus (DLK1-MEG3 locus) plays a critical role in the maintenance and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells. Accumulating evidence implicates the imprinted genes from this locus, DLK1 and MEG3, in the development and progression of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the contribution of this locus to the treatment response of patients and their survival is unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13148-019-0643-zDOI Listing

Early detection of colorectal cancer based on presence of methylated syndecan-2 (SDC2) in stool DNA.

Clin Epigenetics 2019 Mar 15;11(1):51. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, South Korea.

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening can effectively reduce disease-related mortality by detecting CRC at earlier stages. We have previously demonstrated that the presence of SDC2 methylation in stool DNA is significantly associated with the occurrence of CRC regardless of clinical stage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of stool DNA-based SDC2 methylation test for CRC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13148-019-0642-0DOI Listing

Epigenome-wide association study reveals methylation pathways associated with childhood allergic sensitization.

Epigenetics 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

a Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine , Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School , Boston , MA , USA.

Epigenetic mechanisms integrate both genetic variability and environmental exposures. However, comprehensive epigenome-wide analysis has not been performed across major childhood allergic phenotypes. We examined the association of epigenome-wide DNA methylation in mid-childhood peripheral blood (Illumina HumanMethyl450 Beadchip) with mid-childhood atopic sensitization, and environmental/inhalant and food allergen sensitization as intermediate phenotypes in 739 children in two birth cohorts (Project Viva-Boston, Massachusetts and the Generation R Study-Rotterdam, the Netherland). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15592294.2019.1590085DOI Listing

DNA Methylation Patterns in the Round Goby Hypothalamus Support an On-The-Spot Decision Scenario for Territorial Behavior.

Genes (Basel) 2019 Mar 14;10(3). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Program Man-Society-Environment, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Basel, Vesalgasse 1, CH-4051 Basel, Switzerland.

The question as to how early life experiences are stored on a molecular level and affect traits later in life is highly topical in ecology, medicine, and epigenetics. In this study, we use a fish model to investigate whether DNA methylation mediates early life experiences and predetermines a territorial male reproductive phenotype In fish, adult reproductive phenotypes frequently depend on previous life experiences and are often associated with distinct morphological traits. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism which is both sensitive to environmental conditions and stably inherited across cell divisions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes10030219DOI Listing

Developmental and epigenetic effects of Roundup and glyphosate exposure on Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

Aquat Toxicol 2019 Mar 7;210:215-226. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Biology, University of North Carolina Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, 27412, United States. Electronic address:

Roundup and other glyphosate-based herbicides are the most commonly used herbicides in the world, yet their effects on developing fish embryos are not clearly understood. The present study, therefore, examined developmental teratogenic effects and adult-onset reproductive effects of exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of glyphosate and Roundup in Japanese medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). Hd-rR strain medaka embryos were exposed to 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2019.03.005DOI Listing

A Bayesian model for single cell transcript expression analysis on MERFISH data.

Bioinformatics 2019 Mar;35(6):995-1001

Center for Functional Cancer Epigenetics, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

Motivation: Multiplexed error-robust fluorescence in-situ hybridization (MERFISH) is a recent technology to obtain spatially resolved gene or transcript expression profiles in single cells for hundreds to thousands of genes in parallel. So far, no statistical framework to analyze MERFISH data is available.

Results: We present a Bayesian model for single cell transcript expression analysis on MERFISH data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bty718DOI Listing

Environmentally-induced epigenetic conversion of a piRNA cluster.

Elife 2019 Mar 15;8. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Laboratoire Biologie du Développement, UMR7622, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Paris-Seine, Paris, France.

Transposable element (TE) activity is repressed in animal gonads by PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) produced by piRNA clusters. Current models in flies propose that germinal piRNA clusters are functionally defined by the maternal inheritance of piRNAs produced during the previous generation. Taking advantage of an inactive, but ready to go, cluster of -element derived transgene insertions in , we show here that raising flies at high temperature (29°C) instead of 25°C triggers the stable conversion of this locus from inactive into actively producing functional piRNAs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.39842DOI Listing

Genome-wide miRNA methylome analysis in oral cancer: possible biomarkers associated with patient survival.

Epigenomics 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Pathology, Division of Health Science, University of Otago, Dunedin, Otago, MD 20892, New Zealand.

Aim: The methylome associated with miRNA loci was investigated in oral cancer to explore tobacco specific methylation and potential biomarkers for patient survival.

Methods: Methylome data was generated from 16 pairs of cancer-normal tissues by reduced representation bisulfite sequencing method. Differentially methylated regions were identified using the DMAP pipeline. Read More

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https://www.futuremedicine.com/doi/10.2217/epi-2018-0078
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/epi-2018-0078DOI Listing
March 2019
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DNA methylation signatures in mendelian developmental disorders as a diagnostic bridge between genotype and phenotype.

Epigenomics 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Departments of Pediatrics, Biochemistry & Oncology, Western University, London, ON, N6A 3K7, Canada.

Epigenetic and genetic mechanisms regulate the establishment and maintenance of gene expression in its proper context. Recent genome-wide mapping approaches have identified DNA methylation (DNAm) signatures in patients clinically diagnosed with syndromes manifesting as developmental disabilities with intellectual impairments. Here, we review recent studies in which these DNA methylation signatures have enabled highly sensitive and specific screening of such individuals and have clarified ambiguous cases where subjects present with genetic sequence variants of unknown clinical significance (VUS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/epi-2018-0192DOI Listing

PDGFR-induced autocrine SDF-1 signaling in cancer cells promotes metastasis in advanced skin carcinoma.

Oncogene 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Cancer Epigenetics and Biology Program (PEBC), Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), Barcelona, Spain.

Advanced and undifferentiated skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) exhibit aggressive growth and enhanced metastasis capability, which is associated in mice with an expansion of the cancer stem-like cell (CSC) population and with changes in the regulatory mechanisms that control the proliferation and invasion of these cells. Indeed, autocrine activation of PDGFRα induces CSC invasion and promotes distant metastasis in advanced SCCs. However, the mechanisms involved in this process were unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-019-0773-yDOI Listing
March 2019
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DMSO induces drastic changes in human cellular processes and epigenetic landscape in vitro.

Sci Rep 2019 Mar 15;9(1):4641. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.

Though clinical trials for medical applications of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reported toxicity in the 1960s, later, the FDA classified DMSO in the safest solvent category. DMSO became widely used in many biomedical fields and biological effects were overlooked. Meanwhile, biomedical science has evolved towards sensitive high-throughput techniques and new research areas, including epigenomics and microRNAs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-40660-0DOI Listing

Omics and the Search for Blood Biomarkers in COPD: Insights from COPDGene.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

National Jewish Health, 2930, Department of Medicine, Denver, Colorado, United States.

Background: There is an unmet need for blood biomarkers in diagnosis and prognosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The search for these biomarkers has been revolutionized by high throughput sequencing techniques and multiplex platforms which can measure thousands of gene transcripts, proteins, or metabolites. We review COPDGene publications which include DNA methylation, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomic blood biomarkers and discuss their impact on COPD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1165/rcmb.2018-0245PSDOI Listing

Epigenetic regulation of B cell fate and function during an immune response.

Immunol Rev 2019 Mar;288(1):75-84

Infection and Immunity Program and The Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

The humoral immune response requires coordination of molecular programs to mediate differentiation into unique B cell subsets that help clear the infection and form immune memory. Epigenetic modifications are crucial for ensuring that the appropriate genes are transcribed or repressed during B cell differentiation. Recent studies have illuminated the changes in DNA methylation and histone post-translational modifications that accompany the formation of germinal center and antibody-secreting cells during an immune response. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/imr.12733
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12733DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

DNA-methylation abundantly associates with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and its subphenotypes.

Epigenomics 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Anatomy, Embryology & Physiology, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Location AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Aim: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) involves prenatal growth delay, impaired facial and CNS development and causes severe clinical, social-economic burdens. Here, we aim to detect DNA-methylation aberrations associated with FASD and potential FASD diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers.

Patients & Methods:  The FASD diagnosis was established according to golden-standard protocols in a discovery and independent replication cohort. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/epi-2018-0221DOI Listing

Cationic liposome codelivering PI3K pathway regulator improves the response of BRCA1-deficient breast cancer cells to PARP1 inhibition.

J Cell Biochem 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Breast Surgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Although some progresses have been made in breast cancer therapy, effective treatment for BRCA1-deficient breast cancer remains to be a great challenge. It has been demonstrated that the PI3K pathway is inappropriately activated in BRCA1-deficient breast cancers which can be downregulated by microRNA 451 (miR-451). In addition, although PARP1 inhibitors showed relatively positive results in both preclinical and clinical studies, additional efforts to decrease drug resistance as well as reduce systematic toxicity need to be addressed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.28574DOI Listing

Applications of Lgr5-Positive Cochlear Progenitors (LCPs) to the Study of Hair Cell Differentiation.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2019 19;7:14. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Otolaryngology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.

The mouse cochlea contains approximately 15,000 hair cells. Its dimensions and location, and the small number of hair cells, make mechanistic, developmental and cellular replacement studies difficult. We recently published a protocol to expand and differentiate murine neonatal cochlear progenitor cells into 3D organoids that recapitulate developmental pathways and can generate large numbers of hair cells with intact stereociliary bundles, molecular markers of the native cells and mechanotransduction channel activity, as indicated by FM1-43 uptake. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2019.00014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6401656PMC
February 2019

Additional Impact of Glucose Tolerance on Telomere Length in Persons With and Without Metabolic Syndrome in the Elderly Ukraine Population.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2019 28;10:128. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Laboratory of Epigenetics, Chebotariov Institute of Gerontology, Kyiv, Ukraine.

Association between different components of metabolic syndrome and the rate of age-related telomere shortening was reported repeatedly, although some findings are inconsistent across studies, suggesting the need for further research on the topic. In the present study, we examined relationships between different components of metabolic syndrome (MetS); glucose tolerance reflected in 2-h post-load plasma glucose (2hPG) levels and age on the leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in Ukraine population. The study was conducted on the 115 adult individuals residing in the Kyiv region (Ukraine). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2019.00128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6404635PMC
February 2019

Does Leave an Epigenetic Imprint on the Brain?

Front Neurosci 2019 27;13:173. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Neuroscience Institute, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, United States.

The words "sex" and "gender" are often used interchangeably in common usage. In fact, the Merriam-Webster dictionary offers "sex" as the definition of gender. The authors of this review are neuroscientists, and the words "sex" and "gender" mean very different things to us: sex is based on biological factors such as sex chromosomes and gonads, whereas gender has a social component and involves differential expectations or treatment by conspecifics, based on an individual's perceived sex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2019.00173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6400866PMC
February 2019

Regulation of proline-directed kinases and the trans-histone code H3K9me3/H4K20me3 during human myogenesis.

J Biol Chem 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, United States.

We present a system-level analysis of proteome, phosphoproteome and chromatin state of precursors of muscle cells (myoblasts) differentiating into specialized myotubes. Using stable isotope labeling (SILAC) and nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS), we found that phosphorylation motifs targeted by the kinases PKC, CDK and MAPK showed increased phosphorylation during myodifferentiation of LHCN-M2 human skeletal myoblast cell line. Drugs known to inhibit these kinases either promoted (PD0325901 and GW8510) or stalled (CHIR99021 and roscovitine) differentiation, resulting in myotube-and myoblast phenotypes, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA118.004977DOI Listing

[The epigenetic regulation of ribosomal DNA and tumorigenesis].

Yi Chuan 2019 Mar;41(3):185-192

Department of Histology and Embryology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081, China.

Recent research in epigenetics suggests that defects in epigenetic regulation of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription may contribute to tumorigenesis. ATRX/DAXX complex is involved in the establishment and maintenance of the silence of the rDNA gene through H3K9me3 modification at histone variant H3.3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.16288/j.yczz.18-244DOI Listing

The effects of Assisted Reproductive Technologies on genomic imprinting in the placenta.

Placenta 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Epigenetics Institute, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Smilow Center for Translational Research, 3400 Civic Center Blvd, Bldg 421, Philadelphia, PA, 19104-6058, USA. Electronic address:

The placenta is a complex and poorly understood organ, which serves as the connection between the mother and the developing fetus. Genomic imprinting, defined as a regulatory process resulting in the expression of a gene in a parent-of-origin-specific manner, plays an important role in fetal development and placental function. Disturbances that occur during the establishment and maintenance of imprinting could compromise the placenta and fetus, and ultimately, offspring health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.placenta.2019.02.013DOI Listing

Targeted in vivo epigenome editing of H3K27me3.

Epigenetics Chromatin 2019 Mar 13;12(1):17. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan.

Background: Epigenetic modifications have a central role in transcriptional regulation. While several studies using next-generation sequencing have revealed genome-wide associations between epigenetic modifications and transcriptional states, a direct causal relationship at specific genomic loci has not been fully demonstrated, due to a lack of technology for targeted manipulation of epigenetic modifications. Recently, epigenome editing techniques based on the CRISPR-Cas9 system have been reported to directly manipulate specific modifications at precise genomic regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13072-019-0263-zDOI Listing

Genetic regulation of methylation in human endometrium and blood and gene targets for reproductive diseases.

Clin Epigenetics 2019 Mar 14;11(1):49. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, 306 Carmody Road, Building 80, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Background: Major challenges in understanding the functional consequences of genetic risk factors for human disease are which tissues and cell types are affected and the limited availability of suitable tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate tissue-specific genotype-epigenetic characteristics in DNA samples from both endometrium and blood collected from women at different stages of the menstrual cycle and relate results to genetic risk factors for reproductive traits and diseases.

Results: We analysed DNA methylation (DNAm) data from endometrium and blood samples from 66 European women. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13148-019-0648-7DOI Listing

RnBeads 2.0: comprehensive analysis of DNA methylation data.

Genome Biol 2019 Mar 14;20(1):55. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Max Planck Institute for Informatics, Saarland Informatics Campus, 66123, Saarbrücken, Germany.

DNA methylation is a widely investigated epigenetic mark with important roles in development and disease. High-throughput assays enable genome-scale DNA methylation analysis in large numbers of samples. Here, we describe a new version of our RnBeads software - an R/Bioconductor package that implements start-to-finish analysis workflows for Infinium microarrays and various types of bisulfite sequencing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-019-1664-9DOI Listing

DNA replication dynamics of vole genome and its epigenetic regulation.

Epigenetics Chromatin 2019 Mar 14;12(1):18. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Cell Biology and Epigenetics, Department of Biology, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstrasse 10, 64287, Darmstadt, Germany.

Background: The genome of some vole rodents exhibit large blocks of heterochromatin coupled to their sex chromosomes. The DNA composition and transcriptional activity of these heterochromatin blocks have been studied, but little is known about their DNA replication dynamics and epigenetic composition.

Results: Here, we show prominent epigenetic marks of the heterochromatic blocks in the giant sex chromosomes of female Microtus cabrerae cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13072-019-0262-0DOI Listing

DNA methylation changes associated with Parkinson's disease progression: outcomes from the first longitudinal genome-wide methylation analysis in blood.

Epigenetics 2019 Mar 14:1-18. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

h Department of Neurosciences , University of California San Diego , La Jolla , CA , USA.

Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder currently diagnosed based on the presentation of characteristic movement symptoms. Unfortunately, patients exhibiting these symptoms have already undergone significant dopaminergic neuronal loss. Earlier diagnosis, aided by molecular biomarkers specific to PD, would improve overall patient care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15592294.2019.1588682DOI Listing

Evaluation of DNA Methylation Changes and Micronuclei in Workers Exposed to a Construction Environment.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 Mar 13;16(6). Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Molecular Oncology Research Center, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Barretos 14784-400, São Paulo, Brazil.

Methylation levels in tumor-suppressor genes and repetitive sequences have previously been used to study the relationship between environmental air pollution and epigenetic changes related to cancer. In this study, we measured the methylation profiles of the promoter regions , and and the repetitive sequence in 59 workers exposed to the construction environment and in 49 unexposed workers. We also evaluated the micronuclei frequency and levels of trace elements in the blood of all workers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16060902DOI Listing

Sirtuins in Alzheimer's Disease: SIRT2-Related GenoPhenotypes and Implications for PharmacoEpiGenetics.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 12;20(5). Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA.

Sirtuins (SIRT1-7) are NAD⁺-dependent protein deacetylases/ADP ribosyltransferases with important roles in chromatin silencing, cell cycle regulation, cellular differentiation, cellular stress response, metabolism and aging. Sirtuins are components of the epigenetic machinery, which is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), contributing to AD pathogenesis. There is an association between the genotype (rs10410544) (50. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051249DOI Listing

Associations between preterm infant stress, epigenetic alteration, telomere length and neurodevelopmental outcomes: A systematic review.

Early Hum Dev 2019 Mar 11;131:63-74. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

School of Nursing, University of Connecticut, 231 Glenbrook Road, U-2026, Storrs, CT 06269, USA.

Background: Every year, an estimated 15 million babies are born preterm (<37 weeks' gestational age [GA]) globally. These preterm infants are exposed to repeated stressful and often painful procedures as part of routine life-saving care within the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Preterm birth continues to be a major health issue associated with increased risk of neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders such as cerebral palsy, cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorders and psychiatric disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2019.03.003DOI Listing

Epigenomic profiling of newborns with isolated orofacial clefts reveals widespread DNA methylation changes and implicates metastable epiallele regions in disease risk.

Epigenetics 2019 Mar 14:1-16. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

f California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences , University of California , Berkeley , CA , USA.

Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is a common human birth defect whose etiologies remain largely unknown. Several studies have demonstrated that periconceptional supplementation of folic acid can reduce risk of CL/P in offspring. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the preventive effect of folic acid is manifested through epigenetic modifications by determining whether DNA methylation changes are associated with CL/P. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15592294.2019.1581591DOI Listing

[Endocrine disruptor compounds and new mechanisms of toxicity networks].

Authors:
Robert Barouki

Rev Prat 2018 Dec;68(10):1069-1074

Inserm UMR-S 1124, centre universitaire des Saints-Pères, université Paris-Descartes, Paris, France.

Endocrine disruptor compounds and new mechanisms of toxicity. Recent observations have shown that certain exogenous substances could interfere with the endocrine system and thereby elicit toxic effects. This has led to the identification of the endocrine disruptor compounds (EDC) as a new class of toxic agents. Read More

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December 2018

H3K9me3 is required for inheritance of small RNAs that target a unique subset of newly evolved genes.

Elife 2019 Mar 14;8. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Neurobiology, Wise Faculty of Life Sciences & Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

In , RNA interference (RNAi) responses can transmit across generations via small RNAs. RNAi inheritance is associated with Histone-3-Lysine-9 tri-methylation (H3K9me3) of the targeted genes. In other organisms, maintenance of silencing requires a feed-forward loop between H3K9me3 and small RNAs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.40448DOI Listing

Synergistic Effect of Epigenetic Inhibitors Decitabine and Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid on Colorectal Cancer in vitro.

Curr Mol Pharmacol 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Natural Sciences, School of Arts and Sciences, Lebanese American University, Beirut. Lebanon.

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common cause of oncological deaths worldwide. Alterations of the epigenetic landscape constitute are a well-documented hallmark of CRC phenotype. Accumulation of aberrant DNA methylation and histone acetylation plays a major role in altering gene activity and driving tumor onset, progression and metastasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874467212666190313154531DOI Listing

Explaining the Relationship Between Minority Group Status and Health Disparities: A Review of Selected Concepts.

Health Equity 2019 7;3(1):47-60. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

National Committee for Quality Assurance, Washington, District of Columbia.

There is growing concern that value-based payment for health care may disadvantage health care organizations that serve populations with social risk. In the broader investigation of social risk factors, including income, education, neighborhood deprivation, and other risks, the focus on race and ethnicity as a risk factor for disparities in health and health care has diminished. Understanding the independent contribution of minority group status is critical to this discussion. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/heq.2018.0035
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/heq.2018.0035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6413828PMC
March 2019
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Histone serotonylation is a permissive modification that enhances TFIID binding to H3K4me3.

Nature 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Fishberg Department of Neuroscience, Friedman Brain Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Chemical modifications of histones can mediate diverse DNA-templated processes, including gene transcription. Here we provide evidence for a class of histone post-translational modification, serotonylation of glutamine, which occurs at position 5 (Q5ser) on histone H3 in organisms that produce serotonin (also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)). We demonstrate that tissue transglutaminase 2 can serotonylate histone H3 tri-methylated lysine 4 (H3K4me3)-marked nucleosomes, resulting in the presence of combinatorial H3K4me3Q5ser in vivo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1024-7DOI Listing

Transcriptional profiling of human microglia reveals grey-white matter heterogeneity and multiple sclerosis-associated changes.

Nat Commun 2019 Mar 13;10(1):1139. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Neuroimmunology Research Group, Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Meibergdreef 47, 1105BA, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Here we report the transcriptional profile of human microglia, isolated from normal-appearing grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) of multiple sclerosis (MS) and non-neurological control donors, to find possible early changes related to MS pathology. Microglia show a clear region-specific profile, indicated by higher expression of type-I interferon genes in GM and higher expression of NF-κB pathway genes in WM. Transcriptional changes in MS microglia also differ between GM and WM. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-08976-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-08976-7DOI Listing
March 2019
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