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    794 results match your criteria Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis

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    Inhibition of TGF-β and NOTCH Signaling by Cutaneous Papillomaviruses.
    Front Microbiol 2018 8;9:389. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    Department of Developmental, Molecular and Chemical Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, United States.
    Infections with cutaneous papillomaviruses have been linked to cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas that arise in patients who suffer from a rare genetic disorder, epidermodysplasia verruciformis, or those who have experienced long-term, systemic immunosuppression following organ transplantation. The E6 proteins of the prototypical cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) 5 and HPV8 inhibit TGF-β and NOTCH signaling. The papillomavirus 1, MmuPV1, infects laboratory mouse strains and causes cutaneous skin warts that can progress to squamous cell carcinomas. Read More

    Chronic Inflammatory Microenvironment in Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis Skin Lesions: Role of the Synergism Between HPV8 E2 and C/EBPβ to Induce Pro-Inflammatory S100A8/A9 Proteins.
    Front Microbiol 2018 7;9:392. Epub 2018 Mar 7.
    Institute of Virology, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg, Germany.
    Persistent genus β-HPV (human papillomavirus) infection is a major co-factor for non-melanoma skin cancer in patients suffering from the inherited skin disease epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV). Malignant EV lesions are particularly associated with HPV type 5 or 8. There is clinical and molecular evidence that HPV8 actively suppresses epithelial immunosurveillance by interfering with the recruitment of Langerhans cells, which may favor viral persistence. Read More

    Identification and characterization of two novel Gammapapillomavirus genomes in skin of an immunosuppressed Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis patient.
    Virus Res 2018 04 8;249:66-68. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    Infections and Cancer Biology Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France. Electronic address:
    Two novel human gamma-papillomavirus genomes (HPV_MTS3, and HPV_MTS4) were isolated from the skin of an immunosuppressed, late-onset Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis patient and fully cloned. The L1 open reading frames of HPV_MTS3 and HPV_MTS4 were 77% and 91% identical to their closest HPV full genome isolates w18c39 and EV03c60, which belong to the species gamma-22and gamma-7 of the genus Gammapapillomavirus, respectively. Read More

    Zinc and Skin Disorders.
    Nutrients 2018 Feb 11;10(2). Epub 2018 Feb 11.
    Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi 409-3898, Japan.
    The skin is the third most zinc (Zn)-abundant tissue in the body. The skin consists of the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue, and each fraction is composed of various types of cells. Firstly, we review the physiological functions of Zn and Zn transporters in these cells. Read More

    Loss of Genome Fidelity: Beta HPVs and the DNA Damage Response.
    Front Microbiol 2017 15;8:2250. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, United States.
    While the role of genus alpha human papillomaviruses in the tumorigenesis and tumor maintenance of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers is well-established, the role of genus beta human papilloviruses (β-HPVs) in non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) is less certain. Persistent β-HPV infections cause NMSCs in sun-exposed skin of people with a rare genetic disorder, epidermodysplasia verruciformis. However, β-HPV infections in people without epidermodysplasia verruciformis are typically transient. Read More

    HPV8-E6 Interferes with Syntenin-2 Expression through Deregulation of Differentiation, Methylation and Phosphatidylinositide-Kinase Dependent Mechanisms.
    Front Microbiol 2017 8;8:1724. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Institute of Virology, University of CologneCologne, Germany.
    The E6 oncoproteins of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) of genus alpha contain a short peptide sequence at the carboxy-terminus, the PDZ binding domain, with which they interact with the corresponding PDZ domain of cellular proteins. Interestingly, E6 proteins from papillomaviruses of genus beta (betaPV) do not encode a comparable PDZ binding domain. Irrespective of this fact, we previously showed that the E6 protein of HPV8 (betaPV type) could circumvent this deficit by targeting the PDZ protein Syntenin-2 through transcriptional repression (Lazic et al. Read More

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis: three case reports and a brief review.
    Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat 2017 09;26(3):59-61
    Department of Dermatology, Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India.
    Epidermodyplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare heritable disease that is characterized by an increased susceptibility to infection with specific human papillomavirus (HPV) types due to a defect in cell-mediated immune response to HPV infection. Widespread infection with HPV is responsible for the development of wart-like lesions and pityriasis versicolor-like spots. These individuals have a lifelong risk of developing cutaneous malignancies, especially Bowen's disease and squamous cell carcinoma, mainly in sun-exposed parts. Read More

    Immunopathogenesis of HPV-Associated Cancers and Prospects for Immunotherapy.
    Viruses 2017 09 12;9(9). Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Institute of Virology, Saarland University Medical Center, 66421 Homburg/Saar, Germany.
    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a causative factor for various cancers of the anogenital region and oropharynx, and is supposed to play an important cofactor role for skin carcinogenesis. Evasion from immunosurveillance favors viral persistence. However, there is evidence that the mere presence of oncogenic HPV is not sufficient for malignant progression and that additional tumor-promoting steps are required. Read More

    Combined immunodeficiency with EBV positive B cell lymphoma and epidermodysplasia verruciformis due to a novel homozygous mutation in RASGRP1.
    Clin Immunol 2017 10 16;183:142-144. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Division of Immunology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States. Electronic address:
    RASGRP1 is a guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor essential for MAP-kinase mediated signaling in lymphocytes. We report the second case of RASGRP1 deficiency in a patient with a homozygous nonsense mutation in the catalytic domain of the protein. The patient had epidermodysplasia verruciformis, suggesting a clinically important intrinsic T cell function defect. Read More

    Benign and malignant hybrid adnexal tumors in a patient with epidermodysplasia verruciformis.
    J Cutan Pathol 2017 Nov 4;44(11):969-973. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Department of Dermatology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.
    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a genodermatosis characterized by overgrowth of flat warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions and an increased propensity for developing cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas due to abnormal susceptibility to infection with beta-human papilloma viruses. Adnexal tumors are not typically associated with EV. Here we report a spectrum of hybrid adnexal tumors with divergent eccrine and folliculosebaceous differentiation, and cytologic features ranging from benign to frankly atypical, in a patient with inherited EV. Read More

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells and type I interferon in the immunological response against warts.
    Clin Exp Dermatol 2017 Dec 24;42(8):857-862. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Dermatology Department, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Background: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are the most potent producers of type I interferons (IFNs), and are involved in the pathogenesis of several cutaneous infectious (especially viral), inflammatory/autoimmune and neoplastic entities. Their role in the pathogenesis and regression of human papilloma virus (HPV)-induced skin lesions has not been well studied.

    Aim: To investigate pDC occurrence and activity in HPV-induced skin lesions, including inflamed and uninflamed warts as well as epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EDV)-associated lesions. Read More

    Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis-like HPV Infection of the Vulva in Immunosuppressed Women.
    Int J Gynecol Pathol 2018 May;37(3):233-238
    Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Pathology, Bangkok Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand (N.P.) Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology (S.F.) Division of Dermatopathology (S.R.G., A.C.L.) Department of Pathology, Division of Women's and Perinatal Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (C.P.C.) Laboratory of Experimental Pathology, GIGA-Cancer, Liege, Belgium (M.H.).
    The vast majority of vulvar human papilloma virus infections are produced by α human papilloma viruses and consist of exophytic or flat warts and classic or "usual" vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. This report details 2 examples of epidermodysplasia verruciformis-like lesions of the vulva in women who were immunosuppressed. The most consistent morphologic feature was the presence of abnormal mature keratinocytes with large pale open nuclei with small nucleoli and eosinophilic cytoplasm, situated in the upper epithelial layers. Read More

    Acquired Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis and Its Relationship to Immunosuppressive Therapy: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature.
    J Drugs Dermatol 2017 Jul;16(7):701-704
    Introduction: Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare inherited dermatosis characterized by increased susceptibility to human papilloma virus infection. Acquired EV occurs in patients with compromised cell-mediated immunity, such as patients with HIV and transplant recipients. Optimal management of acquired EV has not yet been established, as cases are rare and are due to a variety of underlying conditions. Read More

    A novel homozygous DOCK8 mutation associated with unusual coexistence of gross molluscum contagiosum and epidermodysplasia verruciformis in a DOCK8 deficiency patient.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2017 Nov 3;31(11):e504-e505. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    Institute of Photomedicine, Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

    Novel TMC8 splice site mutation in epidermodysplasia verruciformis and review of HPV infections in patients with the disease.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2017 Oct 4;31(10):1722-1726. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Department of Biomedicine, University Hospital Basel and University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Background: Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a genodermatosis leading to infections with cutaneous HPV, persistent plane warts and a high rate of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Biallelic loss-of-function mutations in TMC6 and TMC8 are known to be causative.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to report EV-causing mutations in four patients with EV and to give an overview of all described patients with EV. Read More

    Identification of C/EBPα as a novel target of the HPV8 E6 protein regulating miR-203 in human keratinocytes.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Jun 22;13(6):e1006406. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Institute of Virology, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar, Germany.
    Patients suffering from Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), a rare inherited skin disease, display a particular susceptibility to persistent infection with cutaneous genus beta-human papillomavirus (beta-HPV), such as HPV type 8. They have a high risk to develop non-melanoma skin cancer at sun-exposed sites. In various models evidence is emerging that cutaneous HPV E6 proteins disturb epidermal homeostasis and support carcinogenesis, however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood as yet. Read More

    Acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis occurring in a renal transplant recipient.
    Cutis 2017 May;99(5):E9-E12
    Department of Dermatology, Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EDV) is a rare condition occurring in patients with depressed cellular immunity, particularly individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Acquired EDV is less commonly reported in recipients of stem cell or solid organ transplantation. This condition typically manifests within 5 years of initial immunosuppression and can present as multiple hypopigmented to red, tinea versicolor-like macules or as multiple verrucous, flat-topped papules distributed over the trunk, arms, and legs. Read More

    HPV8 Field Cancerization in a Transgenic Mouse Model Is due to Lrig1+ Keratinocyte Stem Cell Expansion.
    J Invest Dermatol 2017 Oct 6;137(10):2208-2216. Epub 2017 Jun 6.
    European Cancer Stem Cell Research Institute, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK. Electronic address:
    β-Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause near ubiquitous latent skin infection within long-lived hair follicle (HF) keratinocyte stem cells. In patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis, β-HPV viral replication is associated with skin keratosis and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. To determine the role of HF keratinocyte stem cells in β-HPV-induced skin carcinogenesis, we utilized a transgenic mouse model in which the keratin 14 promoter drives expression of the entire HPV8 early region (HPV8tg). Read More

    Perianal Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis Associated With Human Papillomavirus 5 After a Renal Transplant.
    J Low Genit Tract Dis 2017 07;21(3):e35-e36
    1Mid-Charlotte Dermatology and Research, Charlotte, TX; 2Piedmont Pathology Associates, Hickory, NC; 3Center for Clinical Studies, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX; and 4Department of Dermatology, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX.

    Comparative study of p16 protein expression in squamous cell carcinomas from patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis and patients without the disease.
    Arch Dermatol Res 2017 Aug 24;309(6):479-483. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Department of Dermatology, University of São Paulo Medical School, Avenida Dr. Arnaldo, 455, São Paulo, SP, 01246-903, Brazil.
    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare genodermatosis associated with susceptibility to beta-human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. EV patients develop disseminated warts and non-melanoma skin cancer, mainly squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) that are locally aggressive. EV pathogenesis is not yet fully understood, but alterations in the p16 gene play a role in the pathogenesis of neoplasms caused by high-risk genital HPV. Read More

    Eccrine Syringofibroadenoma in Association With Acquired Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2017 Jul;39(7):534-537
    Departments of *Pathology, and †Dermatology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL; ‡Robert H. Lurie Cancer Center, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL; §Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, NorthShore University HealthSystem Vernon Hills, IL; and ¶Dermatology and Aesthetics of Wicker Park, Chicago, IL.
    A 75-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus infection and numerous biopsy-proven warts for 10 years, refractory to cryosurgery, cimetidine, and topical imiquimod, presented with numerous pink to hypopigmented verrucous papules and plaques involving the face, trunk, buttocks, and groin. Laboratory evaluation revealed a CD4 T-cell count of 62 cells per microliter and human immunodeficiency virus viral load of <117 copies per milliliter. Biopsy of a plaque groin lesion was performed. Read More

    Re-evaluation of epidermodysplasia verruciformis: Reconciling more than 90 years of debate.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2017 Jun 10;76(6):1161-1175. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Department of Dermatology, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address:
    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by abnormal susceptibility to cutaneous human beta-papillomavirus infections causing persistent flat warts or pityriasis versicolor-like lesions. This generalized verrucous skin disorder resembles generalized verrucosis, but these 2 conditions are distinguished by differences in clinical manifestation and the human papillomavirus types involved. A breakthrough in our understanding of EV was the discovery that homozygous inactivating mutations in TMC6 (EVER1) and TMC8 (EVER2) determine susceptibility to this disorder; however, they have not solved all EV cases fully. Read More

    Cutaneous HPV8 and MmuPV1 E6 Proteins Target the NOTCH and TGF-β Tumor Suppressors to Inhibit Differentiation and Sustain Keratinocyte Proliferation.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Jan 20;13(1):e1006171. Epub 2017 Jan 20.
    Department of Developmental, Molecular and Chemical Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.
    Cutaneous beta-papillomaviruses are associated with non-melanoma skin cancers that arise in patients who suffer from a rare genetic disorder, Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) or after immunosuppression following organ transplantation. Recent studies have shown that the E6 proteins of the cancer associated beta human papillomavirus (HPV) 5 and HPV8 inhibit NOTCH and TGF-β signaling. However, it is unclear whether disruption of these pathways may contribute to cutaneous HPV pathogenesis and carcinogenesis. Read More

    [Human papilloma virus infection in basal cell carcinoma of the skin: a systematic review and meta-analysis study].
    Pol J Pathol 2017;68(4):330-342
    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a large and ubiquitous group of viruses that some of them have been suggested as a co-factor in the development of non-melanoma skin cancers. The aim of this meta-analysis study was to evaluate HPVs' prevalence in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin and the risk of them in the BCC patients compared with the healthy controls. Five databases were searched from January 1980 to February 2017. Read More

    The biology of beta human papillomaviruses.
    Virus Res 2017 03 14;231:128-138. Epub 2016 Nov 14.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France. Electronic address:
    The beta genus comprises more than 50 beta human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are suspected to be involved, together with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), the most common form of human cancer. Two members of the genus beta, HPV5 and HPV8, were first identified in patients with a genetic disorder, epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), that confers high susceptibility to beta HPV infection and NMSC development. The fact that organ transplant recipients (OTRs) with an impaired immune system have an elevated risk of NMSC raised the hypothesis that beta HPV types may also be involved in skin carcinogenesis in non-EV patients. Read More

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis as a manifestation of ARTEMIS deficiency in a young adult.
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 2017 Jan 24;139(1):372-375.e4. Epub 2016 Aug 24.
    Division of Immunology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Mass; Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. Electronic address:

    Beta-HPV types in patients with head and neck pathology and in healthy subjects.
    J Clin Virol 2016 09 28;82:159-165. Epub 2016 Jul 28.
    Department of Genetics and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic. Electronic address:
    Background: Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are a heterogeneous group of viruses classified into five genera. The beta-HPV type (beta-PV) infection is very common but mostly asymptomatic in immunocompetent individuals. However, beta-PVs play a role in Epidermodysplasia verruciformis and possibly in non-melanoma skin cancer. Read More

    Cutaneous human papillomavirus genotypes in different kinds of skin lesions in Argentina.
    J Med Virol 2017 Feb 27;89(2):352-357. Epub 2016 Jul 27.
    Department of Virology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán", Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) comprise a large and highly heterogeneous virus group. Some of the cutaneous HPVs of the genus Beta have been suggested as a co-factor in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). The aim of this study was to determine cutaneous HPV prevalence and type-specific distribution in different kinds of skin lesions from Argentine patients visiting Dermatology Departments of three hospitals from Buenos Aires. Read More

    The EVER genes - the genetic etiology of carcinogenesis in epidermodysplasia verruciformis and a possible role in non-epidermodysplasia verruciformis patients.
    Postepy Dermatol Alergol 2016 Apr 16;33(2):75-80. Epub 2016 May 16.
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
    In recent years, the two adjacent novel EVER1 and EVER2 genes have been identified, whose mutations are responsible for the development of epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV). Epidermodysplasia verruciformis is a rare, autosomal recessive genodermatosis associated with increased risk of skin carcinoma. Up to now 7 mutations in the EVER1 gene and 5 mutations in the EVER2 gene have been identified only in EV. Read More

    Identification of LCK mutation in a family with atypical epidermodysplasia verruciformis with T-cell defects and virus-induced squamous cell carcinoma.
    Br J Dermatol 2016 Dec 31;175(6):1204-1209. Epub 2016 Aug 31.
    Department of Dermatology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.
    Background: Inherited epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare skin disorder characterized by susceptibility to specific types of human papilloma virus (HPV) and is strongly associated with skin carcinomas. Inactivating mutations in EVER1/EVER2 account for most cases of EV. However, more phenotypes related to but distinct from EV have been reported with an immunodeficiency state but without EVER1/EVER2 mutation, and the genetic basis for these atypical EV cases is poorly understood. Read More

    Keratinocyte Carcinoma as a Marker of a High Cancer-Risk Phenotype.
    Adv Cancer Res 2016 23;130:257-91. Epub 2016 Feb 23.
    Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States. Electronic address:
    Keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) (also referred to as nonmelanoma skin cancer) is by far the most common form of human cancer. A personal history of KC is well established to be associated with increased risk of recurrent KC and malignant melanoma, a less common yet more fatal form of skin cancer. More surprising is that a substantial body of epidemiologic evidence now indicates that a personal history of KC is significantly associated with an overall elevated risk of noncutaneous malignancies. Read More

    Lifelong widespread warts associated with human papillomavirus type 70/85: a new diagnostic entity?
    Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat 2016 ;25(1):11-3
    Dermatology Unit, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, United Hospital of Ancona, Polytechnic Marche University, Ancona, Italy.
    We present a patient with HPV 70/85-positive widespread cutaneous warts characterized by clinical and histological features atypical for classic generalized verrucosis or epidermodysplasia verruciformis. The cutaneous HPV infection is characterized by verrucous papules or plaques variable in size, number, and distribution depending on the genotype of HPV involved and the immune status of the patient. Human papillomaviruses comprise five genera (alpha, beta, gamma, mu, and nu papillomavirus) with different life-cycle characteristics, epithelial tropisms, and disease associations. Read More

    Treatment of Imiquimod Resistant Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis With Ingenol Mebutate.
    J Drugs Dermatol 2016 Mar;15(3):350-2
    Background: Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by widespread human papillomavirus (HPV) associated lesions and an increase susceptibility to cutaneous malignancies. A host of medications traditionally used to treat warty lesions have been used with variable results and limited success. To our knowledge, we describe the first reported case of a patient with Imiquimod resistant EV successfully treated with topical ingenol mebutate (Picato). Read More

    Human Papillomavirus Infection and p16 Expression in Extragenital/Extraungual Bowen Disease in Immunocompromised Patients.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2016 Oct;38(10):751-7
    *Šikl's Department of Pathology, the Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital in Pilsen, Charles University in Prague, Pilsen, Czech Republic; †Bioptická laboratoř, s.r.o., Pilsen, Czech Republic; ‡Department of Pathology, Louis Pasteur University Hospital, Košice, Slovakia; and §Integrated Cancer Research Center, School of Biology and Parker H. Petit Institute of Bioengineering and Biosciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA.
    An increased rate of second nonmelanoma skin cancers is found in immunocompromised patients. Epidemiological and molecular data implicate ultraviolet radiation as the major risk factor. In addition, there is increasing evidence supporting the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the pathogenesis of premalignant and malignant skin lesions in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Read More

    Lesions With an Epidermal Hyperplastic Pattern: Morphologic Clues in the Differential Diagnosis.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2016 Jan;38(1):1-16; quiz 17-9
    Consultant Hisopathologist, Department of Cellular Pathology, Hospital El Bierzo, Ponferrada, Spain.
    In this report, we review the most common entities that show a epidermal hyperplastic pattern in the biopsy. These entities include inflammatory, reactive, infectious, hamartomatous, and tumoral conditions, each with a very different prognosis. Therefore, an approach based on the classic "patterns and clues" tools used in dermatopathology can bring a lot of information to the dermatopathologist or the general pathologist evaluating these lesions. Read More

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