2,239,090 results match your criteria Epidemiology and Infection[Journal]


Household transmission of seasonal influenza from HIV-infected and -uninfected individuals in South Africa, 2013-2014.

J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Centre for Respiratory Diseases and Meningitis, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Differential transmission from HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected individuals may impact influenza burden. We estimated the household secondary infection risk (SIR) and serial interval (SI) for influenza transmission from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected index cases and identified associated factors.

Methods: Index cases were the first symptomatic person in a household with influenza-like illness, testing influenza positive on real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Read More

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December 2018

A population-based cohort study to evaluate the effectiveness of lung cancer screening using low-dose CT in Hitachi city, Japan.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Epidemiology and Prevention, Center for Clinical Sciences, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of lung cancer screening using low-dose computed tomography for the general population, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of screening for participants among Hitachi residents.

Materials And Methods: Citizens aged 50-74 who underwent low-dose computed tomography screening at least once during 1998-2006 were defined as the computed tomography group, and those who underwent X-ray screening at least once during the same period, but did not receive low-dose computed tomography screening throughout the follow-up period, were defined as the XP group. We investigated the lung cancer incidence rate, mortality rate and all-cause mortality rate for both groups from the first lung cancer screening to the end of 2012. Read More

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December 2018

Detecting moderate or complex congenital heart defects in adults from an electronic health records system.

J Am Med Inform Assoc 2018 Dec;25(12):1634-1642

Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: The prevalence of moderate or complex (moderate-complex) congenital heart defects (CHDs) among adults is increasing due to improved survival, but many patients experience lapses in specialty care or their CHDs are undocumented in the medical system. There is, to date, no efficient approach to identify this population.

Objective: To develop and assess the performance of a risk score to identify adults aged 20-60 years with undocumented specific moderate-complex CHDs from electronic health records (EHR). Read More

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December 2018
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Educational level and risk of chronic kidney disease: longitudinal data from the PREVEND study.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: The longitudinal association between low education and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its underlying mechanisms is poorly characterized. We therefore examined the association of low education with incident CKD and change in kidney function, and explored potential mediators of this association.

Methods: We analysed data on 6078 participants from the community-based Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease study. Read More

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December 2018

Personalized magnesium intervention to improve vitamin D metabolism: applying a systems approach for precision nutrition in large randomized trials of diverse populations.

Authors:
Simin Liu Qing Liu

Am J Clin Nutr 2018 Dec;108(6):1159-1161

Departments of Epidemiology, Medicine, and Surgery, and Center for Global Cardiometabolic Health, Brown University, Providence, RI.

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December 2018

Magnesium status and supplementation influence vitamin D status and metabolism: results from a randomized trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2018 Dec;108(6):1249-1258

Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN.

Background: Previous in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that enzymes that synthesize and metabolize vitamin D are magnesium dependent. Recent observational studies found that magnesium intake significantly interacted with vitamin D in relation to vitamin D status and risk of mortality. According to NHANES, 79% of US adults do not meet their Recommended Dietary Allowance of magnesium. Read More

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December 2018

Associations between general practice characteristics with use of urgent referrals for suspected cancer and endoscopies: a cross-sectional ecological study.

Fam Pract 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

The Health Improvement Institute (THIS), University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Background: Large variation in measures of diagnostic activity has been described previously between English general practices, but related predictors remain understudied.

Objective: To examine associations between general practice population and characteristics, with the use of urgent referrals for suspected cancer, and use of endoscopy.

Methods: Cross-sectional observational study of English general practices. Read More

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December 2018

Effect of losartan and fish oil on plasma IL-6 and mobility in older persons. The ENRGISE Pilot randomized clinical trial.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Biostatistics and Data Science, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.

Background: Low-grade chronic inflammation, characterized by elevations in plasma Interleukin-6 (IL-6), is an independent risk factor of impaired mobility in older persons. Angiotensin receptor blockers and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) may reduce IL-6 and may potentially improve physical function. To assess the main effects of the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan and ω-3 as fish oil on IL-6 and 400 m walking speed, we conducted the ENRGISE Pilot multicenter randomized clinical trial. Read More

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December 2018
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Gene expression models based on transcription factor binding events confer insight into functional cis-regulatory variants.

Bioinformatics 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, Department of Medical Genetics, BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Motivation: Deciphering the functional roles of cis-regulatory variants is a critical challenge in genome analysis and interpretation. It has been hypothesized that altered transcription factor (TF) binding events are a central mechanism by which cis-regulatory variants impact gene expression levels. However, we lack a computational framework to understand and quantify such mechanistic contributions. Read More

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December 2018

Agnostic Pathway/Gene Set Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Data Identifies Associations for Pancreatic Cancer.

Authors:
Naomi Walsh Han Zhang Paula L Hyland Qi Yang Evelina Mocci Mingfeng Zhang Erica J Childs Irene Collins Zhaoming Wang Alan A Arslan Laura Beane-Freeman Paige M Bracci Paul Brennan Federico Canzian Eric J Duell Steven Gallinger Graham G Giles Michael Goggins Gary E Goodman Phyllis J Goodman Rayjean J Hung Charles Kooperberg Robert C Kurtz Núria Malats Loic LeMarchand Rachel E Neale Sara H Olson Ghislaine Scelo Xiao O Shu Stephen K Van Den Eeden Kala Visvanathan Emily White Wei Zheng Demetrius Albanes Gabriella Andreotti Ana Babic William R Bamlet Sonja I Berndt Ayelet Borgida Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault Lauren Brais Paul Brennan Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita Julie Buring Kari G Chaffee Stephen Chanock Sean Cleary Michelle Cotterchio Lenka Foretova Charles Fuchs J Michael M Gaziano Edward Giovannucci Michael Goggins Thilo Hackert Christopher Haiman Patricia Hartge Manal Hasan Kathy J Helzlsouer Joseph Herman Ivana Holcatova Elizabeth A Holly Robert Hoover Rayjean J Hung Vladimir Janout Eric A Klein Robert C Kurtz Daniel Laheru I-Min Lee Lingeng Lu Núria Malats Satu Mannisto Roger L Milne Ann L Oberg Irene Orlow Alpa V Patel Ulrike Peters Miquel Porta Francisco X Real Nathaniel Rothman Howard D Sesso Gianluca Severi Debra Silverman Oliver Strobel Malin Sund Mark D Thornquist Geoffrey S Tobias Jean Wactawski-Wende Nick Wareham Elisabete Weiderpass Nicolas Wentzensen William Wheeler Herbert Yu Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte Peter Kraft Donghui Li Eric J Jacobs Gloria M Petersen Brian M Wolpin Harvey A Risch Laufey T Amundadottir Kai Yu Alison P Klein Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon

J Natl Cancer Inst 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify associations of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with cancer risk but usually only explain a fraction of the inherited variability. Pathway analysis of genetic variants is a powerful tool to identify networks of susceptibility genes.

Methods: We conducted a large agnostic pathway-based meta-analysis of GWAS data using the summary-based adaptive rank truncated product method to identify gene sets and pathways associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in 9040 cases and 12 496 controls. Read More

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December 2018

Examining associations between physical activity and cardiovascular mortality using negative control outcomes.

Int J Epidemiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Background: The purpose of a negative control is to reproduce a condition that cannot involve the hypothesized causal mechanism, but does involve the same sources of bias and confounding that may distort the primary association of interest. Observational studies suggest physical inactivity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), although potential sources of bias, including reverse causation and residual confounding, make it difficult to infer causality. The aim was to employ a negative control outcome to explore the extent to which the association between physical activity and CVD mortality is explained by confounding. Read More

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December 2018

Effect modification of FADS2 polymorphisms on the association between breastfeeding and intelligence: results from a collaborative meta-analysis.

Int J Epidemiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Population Health Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that breastfeeding benefits children's intelligence, possibly due to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) present in breast milk. Under a nutritional adequacy hypothesis, an interaction between breastfeeding and genetic variants associated with endogenous LC-PUFAs synthesis might be expected. However, the literature on this topic is controversial. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Cohort Profile: the Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study (The LS).

Int J Epidemiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Centre for Longitudinal Study Information and User Support (CeLSIUS), Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.

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December 2018

Surgical outcomes of renal transplant recipients after abdominal surgery not connected with transplantation A retrospective case-control study.

Int J Surg 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department for General and Visceral Surgery, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Due to the increasing number of patients after kidney transplantation, elective and emergency surgery of transplanted patients is becoming a relevant challenge in clinical routine. The current data on complication rate of patients after kidney transplantation, which must undergo another elective or emergency abdominal surgery, is inhomogeneous. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the outcome of renal transplant patients undergoing abdominal and abdominal wall surgery. Read More

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December 2018

IGFBP7 Induces Differentiation and Loss of Survival of Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Stem Cells without Affecting Normal Hematopoiesis.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3021-3035.e5

Department of Hematology, Cancer Center Amsterdam (CCA), Amsterdam UMC, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Leukemic stem cells (LSCs) are thought to be the major cause of the recurrence of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) due to their potential for self-renewal. To identify therapeutic strategies targeting LSCs, while sparing healthy hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), we performed gene expression profiling of LSCs, HSCs, and leukemic progenitors all residing within the same AML bone marrow and identified insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) as differentially expressed. Low IGFBP7 is a feature of LSCs and is associated with reduced chemotherapy sensitivity. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Closure of live bird markets leads to the spread of H7N9 influenza in China.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208884. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Epidemiological Survey Division, China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center, Qingdao, Shandong, China.

Following the emergence of H7N9 influenza in March 2013, local animal and public health authorities in China have been closing live bird markets as a measure to try to control the H7N9 influenza epidemic. The role of live bird market (LBM) closure on the spread of N7N9 influenza following the closure of LBMs during March to May 2013 (the first wave) and October 2013 to March 2014 (the second wave) is described in this paper. Different provinces implemented closure actions at different times, and intensive media reports on H7N9 in different provinces started at different times. Read More

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December 2018
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Patients who leave Emergency Department without being seen or during treatment in the Lazio Region (Central Italy): Determinants and short term outcomes.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208914. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Regional Health Service, Rome, Italy.

Background And Aims: Patients who leave Emergency Department before physician's visit (LWBS) or during treatment (LDT) represent a useful indicator of the emergency care's quality. The profile of patients LWBS was described: they are generally males, young, with lower urgency triage allocation and longer waiting time. They have a greater risk of ED re-admission compared to discharged patients, but effect on hospitalization and mortality are more controversial. Read More

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December 2018

Penetration of new antidiabetic medications in East Asian countries and the United States: A cross-national comparative study.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208796. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America.

Background: The number of patients with diabetes is increasing particularly in Asia-Pacific region. Many of them are treated with antidiabetics. As the basis of the studies on the benefit and harm of antidiabetic drugs in the region, the information on patterns of market penetration of new classes of antidiabetic medications is important in providing context for subsequent research and analyzing and interpreting results. Read More

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December 2018

Decoupling environmental effects and host population dynamics for anthrax, a classic reservoir-driven disease.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208621. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Spatial Epidemiology and Ecology Research Laboratory, Department of Geography, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.

Quantitative models describing environmentally-mediated disease transmission rarely focus on the independent contribution of recruitment and the environment on the force of infection driving outbreaks. In this study we attempt to investigate the interaction between external factors and host's population dynamics in determining the outbreaks of some indirectly transmitted diseases. We first built deterministic and stochastic compartmental models based on anthrax which were parameterized using information from literature and complemented with field observations. Read More

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December 2018

Age threshold for recommending higher protein intake to prevent age-related muscle weakness: A cross-sectional study in Japan.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208169. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Departments of Health and Social Behavior, School of Public Health, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Although insufficient dietary protein intake is a known risk factor for age-related muscle weakness, the optimal age at which higher protein intake is required to prevent muscle weakness is yet to be determined. Using a population-based panel survey of community-dwelling people aged 50-75 years, this cross-sectional study aimed to find the age threshold at which a higher protein intake is associated with higher muscle strength. We utilized a dataset from the Japanese Study of Aging and Retirement conducted between 2007 and 2011. Read More

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December 2018

Use of RFID technology to characterize feeder visitations and contact network of hummingbirds in urban habitats.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208057. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America.

Despite the popular use of hummingbird feeders, there are limited studies evaluating the effects of congregation, sharing food resources and increased contact when hummingbirds visit feeders in urban landscapes. To evaluate behavioral interactions occurring at feeders, we tagged 230 individuals of two species, Anna's and Allen's Hummingbirds, with passive integrated transponder tags and recorded their visits with RFID transceivers at feeders. For detecting the presence of tagged birds, we developed an RFID equipped feeding station using a commercially available antenna and RFID transceiver. Read More

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December 2018

Increased Alzheimer's risk during the menopause transition: A 3-year longitudinal brain imaging study.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207885. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Departments of Pharmacology and Neurology, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, United States of America.

Two thirds of all persons with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) are women. Identification of sex-based molecular mechanisms underpinning the female-based prevalence of AD would advance development of therapeutic targets during the prodromal AD phase when prevention or delay in progression is most likely to be effective. This 3-year brain imaging study examines the impact of the menopausal transition on Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker changes [brain β-amyloid load via 11C-PiB PET, and neurodegeneration via 18F-FDG PET and structural MRI] and cognitive performance in midlife. Read More

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December 2018

Analysis and insights into recombination signals in lumpy skin disease virus recovered in the field.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207480. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Federal Center for Animal Health, Vladimir, Russia.

Wide spread incidences of vaccine-like strains of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) have recently been reported in a Russian region with a neighboring country that actively vaccinate with a live attenuated LSD vaccine. The use of live-attenuated viruses (LAVs) as vaccines during an active outbreak, creates potential ground for coinfection of hosts and emergence of a strain combining genetic fragments of both parental vaccine and field strains. In this study, we analyse the vaccine-like strain LSDV RUSSIA/Saratov/2017 detected in Saratovskaya oblast, a region sharing border with Kazakhstan. Read More

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December 2018
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What Factors Predict the Risk of Proximal Junctional Failure in the Long Term, Demographic, Surgical or Radiographic? Results from a Time-Dependent ROC Curve.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY.

Study Design: Retrospective review of prospective multicenter database.

Objective: To identify an optimal set of factors predicting the risk of PJF while taking the time dependency of PJF and those factors into account.

Summary Of Background Data: Surgical correction of adult spinal deformity (ASD) can be complex and therefore, may come with high revision rates due to proximal junctional failure (PJF). Read More

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December 2018

The Epidemiology of Otosclerosis in a British Cohort.

Otol Neurotol 2019 Jan;40(1):22-30

University College London Ear Institute, University College London.

Objective: To analyse the epidemiology of otosclerosis in a British cohort collected between 2011 and 2017.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: Five UK ENT Departments. Read More

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January 2019

Job Strain and Long-Term Sickness Absence from Work - a Ten-Year Prospective Study in German Working Population.

J Occup Environ Med 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Global Health Institute, Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Belgium (Mutambudzi); Department of Preventive Medicine & Community Health, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas (Mutambudzi); Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden (Theorell); Institute of Occupational, Social, and Environmental Medicine, Centre for Health and Society, Faculty of Medicine, University of Düsseldorf, Germany (Li).

Objective: To examine the prospective associations between baseline job strain and ten-year cumulative incidence of long term sickness absence (LTSA) in the German workforce.

Methods: This study used longitudinal data from the 2001-2010 waves of The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) (n = 9794). Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to examine the prospective association between job strain and incidence of LTSA. Read More

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December 2018

Co-infection organises epidemiological networks of viruses and hosts and reveals hubs of transmission.

Phytopathology 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Centro de Biotecnología y Genómica de Plantas, Madrid, Madrid, Spain ;

Multiple virus infections affect the competence of host plants to transmit disease. The effects of co-infection on transmission are expected to produce ecologically complex pathogen and host-pathogen interactions. However, the prediction of disease risk will rely on untangling non-random from random patterns of infection to identify underlying processes that drive these interactions. Read More

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December 2018

Real-time Mobile Monitoring of the Dynamic Associations Among Motor Activity, Energy, Mood, and Sleep in Adults With Bipolar Disorder.

JAMA Psychiatry 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.

Importance: Biologic systems involved in the regulation of motor activity are intricately linked with other homeostatic systems such as sleep, feeding behavior, energy, and mood. Mobile monitoring technology (eg, actigraphy and ecological momentary assessment devices) allows the assessment of these multiple systems in real time. However, most clinical studies of mental disorders that use mobile devices have not focused on the dynamic associations between these systems. Read More

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December 2018

Association of Noninfectious Pneumonia With Ustekinumab Use.

JAMA Dermatol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Office of Surveillance and Epidemiology, Division of Pharmacovigilance, FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Silver Spring, Maryland.

Importance: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducts ongoing public health safety surveillance for drug and therapeutic biologic products. Identifying cases of acute and subacute noninfectious pneumonia supports the public health mission of the FDA.

Objective: To identify and analyze postmarketing cases of noninfectious pneumonia associated with ustekinumab use. Read More

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December 2018

Learning best-practices in journalology: course description and attendee insights into the inaugural EQUATOR Canada Publication School.

BMC Proc 2018 23;12(Suppl 10):18. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

2Child Health Evaluative Sciences, The Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, Toronto, Canada.

Background And Purpose: Dissemination of research results is a key component of the research continuum and is commonly achieved through publication in peer-reviewed academic journals. However, issues of poor quality reporting in the research literature are well documented. A lack of formal training in journalology (i. Read More

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Beyond reasonable drought: hotspots reveal a link between the 'Big Dry' and cryptosporidiosis in Australia's Murray Darling Basin.

J Water Health 2018 Dec;16(6):1033-1037

National Centre for Geographic and Resource Analysis in Primary Health Care, Australian National University, Canberra, 2600, Australia.

There is little evidence on how the health impacts of drought vary spatially and temporally. With a focus on waterborne cryptosporidiosis, we identify spatio-temporal hotspots and by using interrupted time series analysis, examine the impact of Australia's Big Dry (2001-2009) in these disease clusters in the Murray Darling Drainage Basin. Analyses revealed a statistically significant hotspot in the north of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and a hotspot in the north-eastern end of the basin in Queensland. Read More

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December 2018

HEPATITIS B AND C IN PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDED BY A PRENATAL PROGRAM IN AN UNIVERSITARY HOSPITAL IN RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL: RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF SEROPREVALENCE SCREENING.

Arq Gastroenterol 2018 Jul-Sep;55(3):267-273

Universidade Federal Fluminense, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Medicina Interna, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

Background: Hepatitis B and C are diseases with high morbimortality and constitute a global public health problem. In Brazil, the prevalence is not homogeneous, oscillating among different regions, but it is estimated that currently about 1% of the population present chronic disease related to the B virus and that there are 1.5 million infected with the C virus. Read More

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ACUTE GASTROENTERITIS ASSOCIATED WITH NOROVIRUS GII.4 VARIANTS.

Arq Gastroenterol 2018 Jul-Sep;55(3):264-266

Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Laboratório de Virologia, Salvador, BA, Brasil.

Background: Norovirus (NoV) is an important etiologic agent of acute gastroenteritis and infects individuals of all ages, especially children in Brazil and worldwide. NoV GII.4 was the most prevalent genotype worldwide because of your extensive genetic diversity. Read More

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THE CHANGING TREND OF MORTALITY CAUSED BY GASTROINTESTINAL CANCERS IN IRAN DURING THE YEARS 2006-2010.

Arq Gastroenterol 2018 Jul-Sep;55(3):237-241

Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Department of Bacteriology and Virology, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Cancers are one of the most important causes of death in the world. According to their high incidence and mortality, gastrointestinal cancers have particular importance among other cancers.

Objective: Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the mortality change trends of gastrointestinal cancers in Iran. Read More

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February 2018

Polymorphisms in the TGFB1 and IL2RA genes are associated with clinical forms of leprosy in Brazilian population.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2018 Dec 10;113(12):e180274. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Instituto Lauro de Souza Lima, Bauru, SP, Brasil.

BACKGROUND Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, and compromises the skin and peripheral nerves. This disease has been classified as multibacillary (MB) or paucibacillary (PB) depending on the host immune response. Genetic epidemiology studies in leprosy have shown the influence of human genetic components on the disease outcomes. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Molecular Characterization and Drug Susceptibility of Isolated from Cattle in Xinjiang, China.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2018 Dec;131(24):3017-3019

National Center for Tuberculosis Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.

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December 2018

A review on Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs) burden, its socio-economic impact and the strategies for prevention and control of NCDs in India.

Indian J Public Health 2018 Oct-Dec;62(4):302-304

Assistant Professor, Department of Bio-Technology, Techno India University, West Bengal, India.

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have become a major public health problem in India accounting for 62% of the total burden of foregone DALYs and 53% of total deaths. Out-of-pocket expenditure associated with the acute and long-term effects of NCDs is high resulting in catastrophic health expenditure for the households. A large national survey in India found that spending on NCDs accounted for 5. Read More

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December 2018

Vaccine hesitancy for childhood vaccinations in slum areas of Siliguri, India.

Indian J Public Health 2018 Oct-Dec;62(4):253-258

Professor and Head, Department of Community Medicine, North Bengal Medical College and Hospital, Siliguri, West Bengal, India.

Background: Despite evidence regarding the beneficial effects of vaccines, vaccination uptake has not been up to the mark across the globe in various sociocultural and sociodemographic groups. Logistics and workforce have been issues of concern to public health managers, but the latent issue of vaccine hesitancy leading to vaccine delays and refusals has not been widely addressed particularly in the Indian context.

Objectives: The present study was conducted to find out the proportion and factors contributing to vaccine hesitancy for childhood vaccinations in slums of Siliguri, India. Read More

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December 2018

Ganodermanontriol inhibits expression of special AT rich sequence binding protein 1 gene in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

J Cancer Res Ther 2018 Dec;14(Supplement):S964-S968

Department of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan, Guangdong 523808, China, Dongguan.

Context: The metastasis of liver cancer is a major cause of clinical treatment failure, restrain, and control the cancer metastasis is the major strategy of the treatment and prevention of the disease. Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 (SATB1) gene was overexpressed in many malignant tumors and considered as a potential target of anticancer drug. This study investigated the mechanism how ganodermanontriol effect the expression of SATB1 and thus inhibits the growth and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Read More

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December 2018

Congenital blindness is protective for schizophrenia and other psychotic illness. A whole-population study.

Schizophr Res 2018 Dec 7;202:414-416. Epub 2018 Jul 7.

Centre for Clinical Research in Neuropsychiatry, Division of Psychiatry, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Medical Research Foundation Building, Rear 50, Murray Street, Perth 6000, Australia.

Congenital/early blindness is reportedly protective against schizophrenia. Using a whole-population cohort of 467,945 children born in Western Australia between 1980 and 2001, we examined prevalence of schizophrenia and psychotic illness in individuals with congenital/early blindness. Overall, 1870 children developed schizophrenia (0. Read More

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December 2018

Peripheral oxytocin and vasopressin modulates regional brain activity differently in men and women with schizophrenia.

Schizophr Res 2018 Dec 6;202:173-179. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China; Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States of America; Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati, United States of America.

Background: Oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) exert sexually dimorphic effects on cognition and emotion processing. Abnormalities in these hormones are observed in schizophrenia and may contribute to multiple established sex differences associated with the disorder. Here we examined sex-dependent hormone associations with resting brain activity and their clinical associations in schizophrenia patients. Read More

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December 2018

Comparing Maternal Serum Screening Markers Among IVF and Spontaneous Conceptions in Ontario Through Registry Data.

J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2018 Dec 26;40(12):1608-1617. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

BORN (Better Outcomes Registry and Network) Ontario, Ottawa, ON; Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, ON; OMNI Research Group, Ottawa, ON; CHEO (Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario) Research Institute, Ottawa, ON; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON.

Objective: The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) to investigate the accuracy of IVF identification on the prenatal screening record from prenatal screening laboratories; (2) to compare the screening markers in IVF and non-IVF pregnancies in the population of Ontario; and (3) to propose more appropriate IVF adjustment factors for the Ontario population.

Methods: Two years of IVF treatment, data from all fertility clinics in Ontario were merged with the corresponding prenatal screening data from all five prenatal screening labs. New adjustment factors for IVF were developed for each maternal serum screening marker and nuchal translucency measurement. Read More

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December 2018

The Inhibitory Role of M2000 (β-D-Mannuronic Acid) on Expression of Toll-like Receptor 2 and 4 in HT29 Cell Line.

Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Immunology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran. Iran.

Background/objectives: Anti-inflammatory agents play a crucial role in controlling inflammatory diseases such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) but their use is restricted due to their vast side effects. M2000 (β-D-mannuronic Acid) is a new immunomodulatory drug. According to the capacity of M2000 in suppressing some molecules involved in Toll Like Receptors (TLRs) signaling and reducing oxidative stress we hypothesize that, this molecule may have a potential role in decreasing inflammatory responses in IBD. Read More

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December 2018

Pediatric open-globe injury in a university-based tertiary hospital.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 12:1120672118818013. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

1 Department of Ophthalmology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background:: To investigate epidemiology, etiology, and outcomes after repair of pediatric open-globe injury.

Methods:: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients ⩽18 years who underwent primary open-globe repair.

Results:: A total of 213 patients were identified. Read More

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December 2018

A new decision tree for diagnosis of osteoarthritis in primary care: international consensus of experts.

Aging Clin Exp Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Service de rééducation et réadaptation de l'appareil locomoteur et des pathologies du rachis, Laboratoire de Pharmacologie, Toxicologie et Signalisation Cellulaire, Univ. Paris Descartes, PRES Sorbonne Paris Cité, Hôpital Cochin, Assistance Publique -Hôpitaux de Paris, INSERM UMR-S 1124, UFR Biomédicale des Saints Pères, Paris, France.

Background And Aims: Although osteoarthritis (OA) is managed mainly in primary care, general practitioners (GPs) are not always trained in its diagnosis, which leads to diagnostic delays, unnecessary resource utilization, and suboptimal patient outcomes.

Methods: To address this situation, an International Rheumatologic Board (IRB) of 8 experts from 3 continents developed guidelines for the diagnosis of OA in primary care. The focus was three major topologies: hip, knee, and hand/finger OA. Read More

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December 2018

Liquid-Biopsy-Based Identification of EGFR T790M Mutation-Mediated Resistance to Afatinib Treatment in Patients with Advanced EGFR Mutation-Positive NSCLC, and Subsequent Response to Osimertinib.

Target Oncol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Acquired epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) T790M mutation is the primary resistance mechanism to first-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) used in advanced, EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Available data, predominantly in Asian patients, suggest that this mutation is also the major cause of resistance to the irreversible ErbB family blocker, afatinib. For EGFR T790M-positive patients who progress on EGFR TKI therapy, osimertinib is an effective treatment option. Read More

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December 2018

Mediating Effects of Depressive Symptoms on Perceived Social Support and HIV Disclosure: Assessing Moderation by Sex.

AIDS Behav 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Mental Health Law and Policy, College of Behavioral and Community Sciences, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.

People living with HIV may decide to disclose their HIV-positive status after considering the benefits and costs. Studies have shown associations between perceived social support, depressive symptoms and HIV disclosure among men and women; however, research assessing the mediating pathway among these variables and the associated disparities by sex are lacking. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the association between perceived social support from family and friends and HIV disclosure to sexual partners; assess the mediating effects of depressive symptoms; and examine the disparities by sex. Read More

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December 2018

Previous Adverse Outcome of Term Pregnancy and Risk of Preterm Birth in Subsequent Pregnancy.

Matern Child Health J 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

The California Preterm Birth Initiative, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Objective Evaluate risk of preterm birth (PTB, < 37 completed weeks' gestation) among a population of women in their second pregnancy with previous full term birth but other adverse pregnancy outcome. Methods The sample included singleton live born infants between 2007 and 2012 in a birth cohort file maintained by the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development. The sample was restricted to women with two pregnancies resulting in live born infants and first birth between 39 and 42 weeks' gestation. Read More

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December 2018
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