6,492 results match your criteria Epidemiology and Infection[Journal]


Is Nigeria really on top of COVID-19? Message from effective reproduction number.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 Aug 5:1-16. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Australia Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001740DOI Listing

Development and Validation of Prognosis Model of Mortality Risk in Patients with COVID-19.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 Aug 4:1-25. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001727DOI Listing

High intensities of population movement were associated with high incidence of COVID-19 during the pandemic.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 Aug 3:1-24. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Blood Transfusion, Guangzhou First People's Hospital, School of Medicine, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou510180, Guangdong, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001703DOI Listing

Ongoing tuberculosis transmission among second-generation Ethiopian immigrants in Israel.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 Aug 3:1-14. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Pulmonary Division and Tuberculosis Center, Galilee Medical Center, Nahariya, and Faculty of Medicine in Galilee-Bar Ilan University, Israel.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001715DOI Listing

Comparison of semi-quantitative and quantitative methods for diagnosis of catheter-related blood stream infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy studies.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 Jul 27:1-21. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of ICU, Zaozhuang Municipal Hospital, Zaozhuang277100, Shandong Province, P.R. China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001673DOI Listing

Geographical variation in case fatality rate and doubling time during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 07 27;148:e163. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union), Paris, France.

Case fatality rate (CFR) and doubling time are important characteristics of any epidemic. For coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), wide variations in the CFR and doubling time have been noted among various countries. Early in the epidemic, CFR calculations involving all patients as denominator do not account for the hospitalised patients who are ill and will die in the future. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001685DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7399141PMC

Contribution of acute-phase reaction proteins to the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19).

Epidemiol Infect 2020 07 27;148:e164. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Ophthalmology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, 238 Jiefang Road, Wuhan, Hubei Province, 430060, People's Republic of China.

The emergence of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is currently a global concern. In this study, our goal was to explore the changing expression levels of acute-phase reaction proteins (APRPs) in the serum of COVID-19 patients and to elucidate the immunological characteristics of COVID-19. In the study design, we recruited 72 COVID-19 patients, including 22 cases of mild degree, 38 cases of moderate degree and 12 cases of severe degree. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S095026882000165XDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7399149PMC

Prevention and control mechanism for coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic at the primary level: perspective from China.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 07 27;148:e161. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Sociology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

After the 2003 SARS epidemic, China started constructing a primary-level emergency response system and focused on strengthening and implementation of policies, resource allocation. After 17 years of restructuring, China's primary-level response capabilities towards public health emergencies have greatly improved. During the coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic, primary-level administrative and medical personnel, social organisations, volunteers, etc. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001636DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7399136PMC

Epidemiological Study of Infections Over the Past 23 Years.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 Jul 24:1-24. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ08028, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001624DOI Listing

Mathematical model describing CoViD-19 in São Paulo, Brazil - evaluating isolation as control mechanism and forecasting epidemiological scenarios of release.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 07 20;148:e155. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Division of Allergy and Immunology, General Hospital of the Medicine School of University of São Paulo, Campinas, Brazil.

In São Paulo, Brazil, the first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (CoViD-19) was confirmed on 26 February, the first death due to CoViD-19 was registered on 16 March, and on 24 March, São Paulo implemented the isolation of persons in non-essential activities. A mathematical model was formulated based on non-linear ordinary differential equations considering young (60 years old or less) and elder (60 years old or more) subpopulations, aiming to describe the introduction and dissemination of the new coronavirus in São Paulo. This deterministic model used the data collected from São Paulo to estimate the model parameters, obtaining R0 = 6. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7378372PMC

Investigation into a national outbreak of STEC O157:H7 associated with frozen beef burgers, UK, 2017.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 Jul 16:1-23. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Field Service, National Infections Service, Public Health England, 2 Rivergate, Bristol, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001582DOI Listing

Epidemiology of viral disease outbreaks in Odisha, India (2010-2019).

Epidemiol Infect 2020 Jul 16;148:e162. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Indian Council of Medical Research-Regional Medical Research Centre, Bhubaneswar, Nalco Square, Odisha-751023, India.

Despite consistent public health efforts, the burden of viral disease in India remains high. The present study was undertaken to understand the aetiology, frequency and distribution of viral disease outbreaks in the state of Odisha between 2010 and 2019. This was a prospective study conducted at the Virology Research and Diagnostic Laboratory located at ICMR-Regional Medical Research Centre, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, wherein all the outbreaks of viral aetiologies were investigated and analysed to provide a comprehensive picture of the state of viral disease outbreaks in the region. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001594DOI Listing

Aerosol and environmental surface monitoring for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in a designated hospital for severe COVID-19 patients.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 07 14;148:e154. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan430022, China.

There is limited information concerning the viral load of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in aerosols deposited on environmental surfaces and the effectiveness of infection prevention and control procedures on eliminating SARS-CoV-2 contamination in hospital settings. We examined the concentration of SARS-CoV-2 in aerosol samples and on environmental surfaces in a hospital designated for treating severe COVID-19 patients. Aerosol samples were collected by a microbial air sampler, and environmental surfaces were sampled using sterile premoistened swabs at multiple sites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001570DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7371847PMC

Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination and clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 in Rhode Island, United States: a cohort study.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 07 9;148:e140. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Medicine, Brown University Warren Alpert Medical School, Providence, Rhode Island02906, USA.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in a global pandemic, and there is limited data on effective therapies. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, a live-attenuated strain derived from an isolate of Mycobacterium bovis and originally designed to prevent tuberculosis, has shown some efficacy against infection with unrelated pathogens. In this study, we reviewed 120 consecutive adult patients (≥18 years old) with COVID-19 at a major federally qualified health centre in Rhode Island, United States from 19 March to 29 April 2020. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001569DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7360951PMC
July 2020
2.535 Impact Factor

Higher level of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte is associated with severe COVID-19.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 07 9;148:e139. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Medical Laboratory, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei430014, China.

In December 2019, cases of severe coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infection rapidly progressed to acute respiratory failure. This study aims to assess the association between the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the incidence of severe COVID-19 infection. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 210 patients with COVID-19 infection who were admitted to the Central Hospital of Wuhan from 27 January 2020 to 9 March 2020. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7360950PMC

Non-O1/non-O139 bacteraemia in mainland China from 2005-2019: clinical, epidemiological and genetic characteristics.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 Jul 8:1-22. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001545DOI Listing

Response to the letter from Dr J. Wang.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 Jun 23;148:e133. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of AIDS Prevention and Treatment, School of Public Health, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7355214PMC

Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of a familial cluster of COVID-19.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 07 7;148:e145. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Dazhou Central Hopsital, Dazhou, Sichuan, China.

We report a family cluster of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection involving five patients in a family cluster in Dazhou, China, including the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and radiological findings. Three-generation transmission was observed. Through epidemiological investigation, we observed asymptomatic transmission to a cohabiting family member, as well as person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 outside Wuhan city. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7369338PMC
July 2020
2.535 Impact Factor

Application of ordinal logistic regression analysis to identify the determinants of illness severity of COVID-19 in China.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 07 7;148:e146. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Clinical Research Center, Ruijin Hospial, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has presented an unprecedented challenge to the health-care system across the world. The current study aims to identify the determinants of illness severity of COVID-19 based on ordinal responses. A retrospective cohort of COVID-19 patients from four hospitals in three provinces in China was established, and 598 patients were included from 1 January to 8 March 2020, and divided into moderate, severe and critical illness group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001533DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7369341PMC

Epidemiological characteristics and spatial-temporal analysis of COVID-19 in Shandong Province, China.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 07 6;148:e141. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong250012, China.

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed serious challenges. It is vitally important to further clarify the epidemiological characteristics of the COVID-19 outbreak for future study and prevention and control measures. Epidemiological characteristics and spatial-temporal analysis were performed based on COVID-19 cases from 21 January 2020 to 1 March 2020 in Shandong Province, and close contacts were traced to construct transmission chains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S095026882000151XDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7360956PMC

Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of three family clusters of COVID-19 transmitted by latent patients in China.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 07 6;148:e137. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Ruian People's Hospital, Ruian, Zhejiang, China.

From 21 January 2020 to 9 February 2020, three family clusters involving 31 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 were identified in Wenzhou, China. The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the family cluster patients were analysed and compared with those of 43 contemporaneous sporadic cases. The three index cases transmitted the infection to 28 family members 2-10 days before illness onset. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7360955PMC

Dynamic evolution of lung abnormalities evaluated by quantitative CT techniques in patients with COVID-19 infection.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 07 6;148:e136. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Radiology, Nanchong Central Hospital, The Second Clinical Medical College, North Sichuan Medical College, Sichuan, Nanchong637000, China.

Chest CT evaluation is often vital to determine patients suspected of COVID-19 pneumonia. The aim of this study was to determine the evolution of lung abnormalities evaluated by quantitative CT techniques in patients with COVID-19 infection from initial diagnosis to recovery. This retrospective study included 16 patients with COVID-19 infection from 30 January 2020 through 11 March 2020. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001508DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7360949PMC

Role of pulsed-xenon ultraviolet light in reducing healthcare-associated infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 Jul 6;148:e165. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Emergency, Zaozhuang Municipal Hospital, Zaozhuang277101, Shandong Province, P.R. China.

Pulsed-xenon-ultraviolet light (PX-UVL) is increasingly used as a supplemental disinfection method in healthcare settings. We undertook a systematic search of the literature through several databases and conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of PX-UVL in reducing healthcare-associated infections. Eleven studies were included in the systematic review and nine in the meta-analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S095026882000148XDOI Listing

Inappropriate data selection and statistical method lead to overestimated mortality for hospitalised HIV/AIDS patients.

Authors:
J Wang

Epidemiol Infect 2020 Jun 22;148:e134. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7355390PMC

Association of spontaneous abortion and detected in placental tissue.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 Jun 22;148:e126. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Microbiology and Immunology Laboratory, Federal University of Bahia, Anísio Teixeira Campus, Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil.

Spontaneous abortion is considered a public health problem having several causes, including infections. Among the infectious agents, bacteria of the vaginal microbiota and Ureaplasma parvum have been associated with abortion, but their participation needs to be further elucidated. This study aims to evaluate the influence of Mollicutes on the development of spontaneous abortion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7339087PMC

Evaluation of human resources needed and comparison with human resources available to implement emergency vaccination in case of foot and mouth disease outbreaks in Tunisia.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 Jun 18;148:e128. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Tunisian Veterinary Services, 30 rue Alain Savary, 1002Tunis, Tunisia.

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease that affects domestic and wild artiodactyl animals and causes considerable economic losses related to outbreak management, production losses and trade impacts. In Tunisia, the last FMD outbreak took place in 2018-2019. The effectiveness of control measures implemented to control FMD depends, in particular, on the human resources used to implement them. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7355213PMC

Recurrent outbreaks of mumps in Lothian and the impact of waning immunity.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 Jun 18;148:e131. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

NHS Lothian, Edinburgh, UK.

Another large outbreak of mumps occurred in Lothian from October 2017, which coincided with the commencement of the higher education term. During this period 324 cases were notified, most of whom were aged 18-22 years old. Although previous outbreaks had a focus in student populations, 43% of current cases reported that they were not a student. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7355216PMC

The COVID-19 pandemic: a new challenge for syndromic surveillance.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 06 18;148:e122. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

National Infection Service, Public Health England, London, UK.

The COVID-19 pandemic is exerting major pressures on society, health and social care services and science. Understanding the progression and current impact of the pandemic is fundamental to planning, management and mitigation of future impact on the population. Surveillance is the core function of any public health system, and a multi-component surveillance system for COVID-19 is essential to understand the burden across the different strata of any health system and the population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7338397PMC

The descriptive epidemiology of coronavirus disease 2019 during the epidemic period in Lu'an, China: achieving limited community transmission using proactive response strategies.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 07 2;148:e132. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Lu'an Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Lu'an, Anhui, China.

Hubei province in China has had the most confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and has reported sustained transmission of the disease. Although Lu'an city is adjacent to Hubei province, its community transmission was blocked at the early stage, and the impact of the epidemic was limited. Therefore, we summarised the overall characteristics of the entire epidemic course in Lu'an to help cities with a few imported cases better contain the epidemic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001478DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7360947PMC
July 2020
2.535 Impact Factor

Treatment and preliminary outcomes of 150 acute care patients with COVID-19 in a rural health system in the Dakotas.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 06 22;148:e124. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Pharmacy Services, Sanford Medical Center, Fargo, ND, USA.

The majority of available US-published reports present populations with community spread in urban areas. The objective of this report is to describe a rural healthcare system's utilisation of therapeutic options available to treat Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and subsequent patient outcomes. A total of 150 patients were treated for COVID-19 at three hospitals in the Dakotas from 21 March 2020 to 30 April 2020. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001351DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330277PMC

Effectiveness analysis of spatially targeted mollusciciding for snail control.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 Jul 1;148:e152. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

A new developed spatially targeted mollusciciding technology for snail control was utilised in a research site. This study aims to analyse whether this technology can achieve rational effectiveness compared with the routine method. Snail density was monitored every spring and autumn from 2010 to 2017 at the research site and routine mollusciciding for snail control was then performed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7374813PMC

Risk factors for surgical site infections in abdominal surgeries in Ghana: emphasis on the impact of operating rooms door openings.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 Jul 1;148:e147. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Ghana Medical School, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.

Major surgery carried out in low- and middle-income countries is associated with a high risk of surgical site infections (SSI), but knowledge is limited regarding contributory factors to such infections. This study explores factors related to patients developing an SSI in a teaching hospital in Ghana. A prospective cohort study of patients undergoing abdominal surgical procedures was conducted at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001454DOI Listing

Laboratory findings and a combined multifactorial approach to predict death in critically ill patients with COVID-19: a retrospective study.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 06 30;148:e129. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China.

To describe the laboratory findings of cases of death with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to establish a scoring system for predicting death, we conducted this single-centre, retrospective, observational study including 336 adult patients (≥18 years old) with severe or critically ill COVID-19 admitted in two wards of Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology in Wuhan, who had definite outcomes (death or discharge) between 1 February 2020 and 13 March 2020. Single variable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify mortality-related factors. We combined multiple factors to predict mortality, which was validated by receiver operating characteristic curves. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001442DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7343973PMC

Possible indirect transmission of COVID-19 at a squash court, Slovenia, March 2020: case report.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 06 19;148:e120. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

National Institute of Public Health, Regional Unit Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia.

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 epidemic, there is an ongoing debate and research regarding the possible ways of virus transmission. We conducted an epidemiological investigation which revealed a cluster of five COVID-19 cases, linked to playing squash at a sports venue in Maribor, Slovenia. Acquired data raises possibility that the transmission occurred indirectly through contaminated objects in changing room or squash hall or via aerosolisation in squash hall. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327185PMC

Dengue virus co-infections with multiple serotypes do not result in a different clinical outcome compared to mono-infections.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 06 29;148:e119. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.

Circulation of multiple dengue virus (DENV) serotypes in a locale has resulted in individuals becoming infected with mixed serotypes. This research was undertaken to study the clinical presentation, presence of DENV serotypes and serological characteristics of DENV infected patients with co-infections from three Provinces of Sri Lanka where DENV-1 and -2 predominated during the study. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed on 1249 patient samples and 301 were positive for DENV (24. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820000229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325333PMC

Hepatitis E virus and blood transfusion safety.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 Jun 29;148:e158. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hubei Province, Wuhan430070, China.

While the majority of worldwide hepatitis E viral (HEV) infections that occur in people are from contaminated water or food sources, there has also been a steadily rising number of reported cases of transfusion-transmitted HEV (TT-HEV) in blood donation recipients. For most, HEV infection is acute, self-limiting and asymptomatic. However, patients that are immunocompromised, especially transplant patients, are at much higher risk for developing chronic infections, which can progress to cirrhosis and liver failure, along with overall increased mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001429DOI Listing

Epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 06 29;148:e130. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

HIV/STI Surveillance Research Center, and WHO Collaborating Center for HIV Surveillance, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Our understanding of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to evolve and there are many unknowns about its epidemiology. This study aims to synthesise case fatality rate (CFR) among confirmed COVID-19 patients, incubation period and time from onset of COVID-19 symptoms to first medical visit, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, recovery, and death. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Google Scholar, and bibliographies of relevant articles from 01 December 2019 to 11 March 2020 without any language restrictions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7343974PMC

Epidemiological and genetic characteristics of influenza virus and the effects of air pollution on laboratory-confirmed influenza cases in Hulunbuir, China, from 2010 to 2019.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 Jun 29;148:e159. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Microbiology, Public Health College, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.

Objective: A continuous survey on influenza was conducted in Hulunbuir, China from January 2010 to May 2019 to reveal epidemiological, microbiological and air pollutants associated with laboratory-confirmed influenza cases.

Methods: Influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory infection subjects were enrolled from a sentinel hospital in Hulunbuir during the study period for epidemiological and virological investigation. The association between air pollutants and influenza-positivity rate was assessed by a generalised additive model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001387DOI Listing

Estimation of incubation period and serial interval of COVID-19: analysis of 178 cases and 131 transmission chains in Hubei province, China.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 06 19;148:e117. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

School of Public Health and Management, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei province, China.

A novel coronavirus disease, designated as COVID-19, has become a pandemic worldwide. This study aims to estimate the incubation period and serial interval of COVID-19. We collected contact tracing data in a municipality in Hubei province during a full outbreak period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001338DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7324649PMC

Taking the inner route: spatial and demographic factors affecting vulnerability to COVID-19 among 604 cities from inner São Paulo State, Brazil.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 06 19;148:e118. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Biostatistics, Botucatu Institute of Biosciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), City of Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil.

Even though the impact of COVID-19 in metropolitan areas has been extensively studied, the geographic spread to smaller cities is also of great concern. We conducted an ecological study aimed at identifying predictors of early introduction, incidence rates of COVID-19 and mortality (up to 8 May 2020) among 604 municipalities in inner São Paulo State, Brazil. Socio-demographic indexes, road distance to the state capital and a classification of regional relevance were included in predictive models for time to COVID-19 introduction (Cox regression), incidence and mortality rates (zero-inflated binomial negative regression). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S095026882000134XDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7324662PMC

The association between sporadic Legionnaires' disease and weather and environmental factors, Minnesota, 2011-2018.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 Jun 29;148:e156. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

From 2011 through 2018, there was a notable increase in sporadic Legionnaires' disease in the state of Minnesota. Sporadic cases are those not associated with a documented outbreak. Outbreak-related cases are typically associated with a common identified contaminated water system; sporadic cases typically do not have a common source that has been identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001417DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7378963PMC

Mortality and survival of COVID-19.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 06 25;148:e123. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Postgraduation Program in Clinical Care in Nursing and Health, Ceará State University, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil.

This study aims to identify the risk factors associated with mortality and survival of COVID-19 cases in a state of the Brazilian Northeast. It is a historical cohort with a secondary database of 2070 people that presented flu-like symptoms, sought health assistance in the state and tested positive to COVID-19 until 14 April 2020, only moderate and severe cases were hospitalised. The main outcome was death as a binary variable (yes/no). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330281PMC

Analysis of factors affecting the prognosis of COVID-19 patients and viral shedding duration.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 06 25;148:e125. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Respiratory, Haihe Hospital, Tianjin University, Tianjin300350, China.

The clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 were analysed to determine the factors influencing the prognosis and virus shedding time to facilitate early detection of disease progression. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the relationships among prognosis, clinical characteristics and laboratory indexes. The predictive value of this model was assessed with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, calibration and internal validation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001399DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7332754PMC

Prospective Enteritidis Surveillance and Outbreak Detection using Whole Genome Sequencing, Minnesota 2015-2017.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 Jun 16:1-21. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Minnesota Department of Health, Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001272DOI Listing

Numerous outbreaks amongst homeless and injection drug-using populations raise concerns of an evolving syndemic in London, Canada.

Authors:
S Turner

Epidemiol Infect 2020 Jun 16;148:e160. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Environmental Health and Infectious Diseases Division, Middlesex-London Health Unit, London, Ontario, Canada.

London, Ontario is a mid-sized Canadian city which appears to be experiencing a syndemic predominately amongst its marginalized populations. Since 2014, rates of HIV, hepatitis A (HAV), hepatitis C (HCV), and invasive group A streptococcal disease have climbed well above provincial rates amid increasing use of injection drugs. Rates of infective endocarditis have also been on the rise. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001260DOI Listing

COVID-19: asymptomatic carrier transmission is an underestimated problem.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 06 11;148:e116. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

State Key Lab of Respiratory Disease, Institute for Public Health, School of Public Health, The First Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

At the present time, COVID-19 is spreading rapidly [1]. The global prevention and control of COVID-19 is focused on the estimation of the relevant incubation period, basic reproduction number (R0), effective reproduction number (Rt) and death risk. Although the prevention and control of COVID-19 requires a reliable estimation of the relevant incubation period, R0, Rt and death risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322154PMC

The basic reproduction number and prediction of the epidemic size of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) in Shahroud, Iran.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 06 10;148:e115. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Ophthalmic Epidemiology Research Center, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran.

The aim of this study was to estimate the basic reproduction number (R0) of COVID-19 in the early stage of the epidemic and predict the expected number of new cases in Shahroud in Northeastern Iran. The R0 of COVID-19 was estimated using the serial interval distribution and the number of incidence cases. The 30-day probable incidence and cumulative incidence were predicted using the assumption that daily incidence follows a Poisson distribution determined by daily infectiousness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322167PMC

Factors associated with the duration of hospitalisation among COVID-19 patients in Vietnam: A survival analysis.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 06 10;148:e114. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Institute of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: The median duration of hospital stays due to COVID-19 has been reported in several studies on China as 10-13 days. Global studies have indicated that the length of hospitalisation depends on different factors, such as the time elapsed from exposure to symptom onset, and from symptom onset to hospital admission, as well as specificities of the country under study. The goal of this paper is to identify factors associated with the median duration of hospital stays of COVID-19 patients during the second COVID-19 wave that hit Vietnam from 5 March to 8 April 2020. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7306545PMC