6,139 results match your criteria Epidemiology and Infection[Journal]


Bending the epidemic curve: advancements and opportunities to reduce the threat of emerging pathogens.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e168

International Society for Infectious Disease,Brookline,USA.

This invited editorial introduces a special issue of Epidemiology & Infection while also discussing advances in emerging infectious diseases. Read More

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https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S095026881
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S095026881900058XDOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

A One Health investigation of Salmonella enterica serovar Wangata in north-eastern New South Wales, Australia, 2016-2017.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e150

Hunter New England Population Health,Wallsend, NSW,Australia.

Salmonella enterica serovar Wangata (S. Wangata) is an important cause of endemic salmonellosis in Australia, with human infections occurring from undefined sources. This investigation sought to examine possible environmental and zoonotic sources for human infections with S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000475DOI Listing
January 2019

The health and economic impact of acute gastroenteritis in Belgium, 2010-2014.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e146

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health,Sciensano,Brussels,Belgium.

Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) remains a common condition in both low- and high-income countries. In Belgium, however, there is currently a lack of information on the societal health and economic impact of AGE. We conducted a retrospective study using mortality and cause-of-death data, hospital data, primary care data, health interview survey data and other published data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S095026881900044XDOI Listing
January 2019

Skin and soft tissue infections and current antimicrobial prescribing practices in Australian aged care residents.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e87

Victorian Healthcare Associated Infection Surveillance System Co-ordinating Centre,792 Elizabeth St, Melbourne, Vic. 3000,Australia.

To determine the burden of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), the nature of antimicrobial prescribing and factors contributing to inappropriate prescribing for SSTIs in Australian aged care facilities, SSTI and antimicrobial prescribing data were collected via a standardised national survey. The proportion of residents prescribed ⩾1 antimicrobial for presumed SSTI and the proportion whose infections met McGeer et al. surveillance definitions were determined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000128DOI Listing
January 2019

Epidemiology and genotypic characterisation of dissemination patterns of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in a community.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e148

Medical Service,Louis Stokes Cleveland Veterans Affairs Medical Center,Cleveland, Ohio,USA.

To characterise the dissemination patterns of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) in a community, we conducted a study utilising molecular and fundamental descriptive epidemiology. The subjects, consisted of women having community-acquired acute urinary tract infection (UTI), were enrolled in the study from 2011 to 2012. UPEC isolates were subjected to antibacterial-susceptibility testing, O serogrouping, phylotyping, multilocus-sequence typing with phylogenetic-tree analysis and pulsed-field-gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000426DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

An apple a day: an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Norway associated with self-pressed apple juice.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e139

Smittevernlege, Postboks 184, Fjell kommune, 5342 Straume,Norway.

In the autumn of 2018, an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis affected adult employees from the same company in Western Norway. The organism was Cryptosporidium parvum, GP60 subtype IIaA14G1R1. All those infected had drunk from the same container of self-pressed apple juice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000232DOI Listing
January 2019

Risk factors and epidemiologic predictors of blood stream infections with New Delhi Metallo-b-lactamase (NDM-1) producing Enterobacteriaceae.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e137

University of Colorado School of Medicine,Aurora Colorado,USA.

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae conferred by New Delhi metallo-b-lactamase (NDM-1) resistance mechanism are endemic in India and Southeast Asia. An understanding of risk factors for NDM-1 infections is necessary to guide prevention strategies. We performed a retrospective case-control study of patients admitted at Christian Medical College Hospital, Vellore, India between May 2010 and August 2014 with Klebsiella pneumoniae blood stream infection (BSI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000256DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

The Ebola virus disease outbreak in Tonkolili district, Sierra Leone: a retrospective analysis of the Viral Haemorrhagic Fever surveillance system, July 2014-June 2015.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e103

Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases,Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy,'Sapienza' University of Rome,Rome,Italy.

In Sierra Leone, the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak occurred with substantial differences between districts with someone even not affected. To monitor the epidemic, a community event-based surveillance system was set up, collecting data into the Viral Haemorrhagic Fever (VHF) database. We analysed the VHF database of Tonkolili district to describe the epidemiology of the EVD outbreak during July 2014-June 2015 (data availability). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000177DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

Comparing the epidemiology of community- and hospital-associated Clostridium difficile infections in Northern Ireland, 2012-2016: a population data linkage and case-case study.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e141

Public Health Agency, Health Protection Service Northern Ireland,Belfast,Northern Ireland.

The burden of community-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) has increased. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of CA-CDI to inform future interventions. We used population-based linked surveillance data from 2012 to 2016 to describe socio-demographic factors, ribotype and mortality for all CA (n = 1303) and hospital-associated (HA, n = 1356) CDI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000414DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Persistence and gender differences in protection against severe fever with thrombocytopaenia syndrome virus with natural infection: a 4-year follow-up and mathematical prediction study.

Authors:
R Qi Y T Huang X J Yu

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e78

Wuhan University School of Health Sciences,Wuhan,China.

SummarySevere fever with thrombocytopaenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease discovered in 2010 and has a case fatality as high as 30%. We intended to study the immune protection conferred by SFTS with natural infection. We collected and analysed 4-year follow-up data to study the characteristics of neutralising antibodies against SFTS virus (SFTSV). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1469440918003643DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Online symptom checker diagnostic and triage accuracy for HIV and hepatitis C.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e104

Division of Infectious Diseases,University of South Alabama,Mobile, AL,USA.

We sought to address the prior limitations of symptom checker accuracy by analysing the diagnostic and triage feasibility of online symptom checkers using a consecutive series of real-life emergency department (ED) patient encounters, and addressing a complex patient population - those with hepatitis C or HIV. We aimed to study the diagnostic and triage accuracy of these symptom checkers in relation to an emergency room physician-determined diagnosis. An ED retrospective analysis was performed on 8363 consecutive adult patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000268DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6419737PMC
January 2019

Integration of a recent infection testing algorithm into HIV surveillance in Ireland: improving HIV knowledge to target prevention.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e136

Health Service Executive (HSE) Health Protection Surveillance Centre,Dublin,Ireland.

Recent infection testing algorithms (RITA) for HIV combine serological assays with epidemiological data to determine likely recent infections, indicators of ongoing transmission. In 2016, we integrated RITA into national HIV surveillance in Ireland to better inform HIV prevention interventions. We determined the avidity index (AI) of new HIV diagnoses and linked the results with data captured in the national infectious disease reporting system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000244DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Louse-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia recurrentis infection).

Authors:
David A Warrell

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e106

Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine,University of Oxford,Oxford,UK.

Louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) is an epidemic disease with a fascinating history from Hippocrates' times, through the 6th century 'Yellow Plague', to epidemics in Ireland, Scotland and England in the 19th century and two large Afro-Middle Eastern pandemics in the 20th century. An endemic focus persists in Ethiopia and adjacent territories in the Horn of Africa. Since 2015, awareness of LBRF in Europe, as a re-emerging disease, has been increased dramatically by the discovery of this infection in dozens of refugees arriving from Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000116DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Screening for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection status in university freshmen: acceptability of a gingival swab method.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e140

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology,University of Minnesota Medical School,Minneapolis, MN 55455,USA.

Prophylactic vaccines against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are under development. EBV-naïve college freshmen are ideal candidates for an efficacy trial, because their incidence of infectious mononucleosis (mono) during freshman year is as high as 20%. To assess perceptions about mono and a mono vaccine, and to learn if EBV immune status could be determined using a gingival swab rather than phlebotomy, we performed a cross-sectional study of 235 healthy students at the beginning of their freshman year. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000335DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Using roaming behaviours of dogs to estimate contact rates: the predicted effect on rabies spread.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e135

Veterinary Public Health Institute, University of Bern,Liebefeld,Switzerland.

Domestic dogs display complex roaming behaviours, which need to be captured to more realistically model the spread of rabies. We have previously shown that roaming behaviours of domestic dogs can be categorised as stay-at-home, roamer and explorer in the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA), Queensland, Australia. These roaming behaviours are likely to cause heterogeneous contact rates that influence the speed or pattern of rabies spread in a dog population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000189DOI Listing
January 2019

Hospitalisations with infections related to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria from the French nationwide hospital discharge database, 2016.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e144

Biostatistics, Biomathematics, Pharmacoepidemiology and Infectious Diseases (B2PHI), Inserm, UVSQ, Institut Pasteur, Université Paris-Saclay,Paris,France.

Massive use of antibiotics has led to increased bacterial resistance to these drugs, making infections more difficult to treat. Few studies have assessed the overall antimicrobial resistance (AMR) burden, and there is a paucity of comprehensive data to inform health policies. This study aims to assess the overall annual incident number of hospitalised patients with AMR infection in France, using the National Hospital Discharge database. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000402DOI Listing
January 2019

Nipah virus infection: A review.

Authors:
Aditi M Shariff

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e95

Department of Microbiology,Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute,Delhi,India.

Nipah virus (NiV) is an emerging bat-borne pathogen. It was first identified 20 years ago in Malaysia and has since caused outbreaks in other parts of South and Southeast Asia. It causes severe neurological and respiratory disease which is highly lethal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000086DOI Listing
January 2019

Epidemiology of two decades of invasive meningococcal disease in the Republic of Ireland: an analysis of national surveillance data on laboratory-confirmed cases from 1996 to 2016.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e142

Irish Meningitis and Sepsis Reference Laboratory,Temple Street Children's University Hospital,Dublin,Ireland.

We examined the epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in the Republic of Ireland (ROI) between epidemiological year (EY) 1996/1997 and EY2015/2016. Over the 20 EYs, 3707 cases were reported with annual incidence rates per 100 000 peaking at 11.6 in EY1999/2000, decreasing significantly to 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000396DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Chronic hepatitis B and C infections in the Netherlands: estimated prevalence in risk groups and the general population.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e147

Center for Infectious Disease Control,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM),Bilthoven,The Netherlands.

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are usually asymptomatic for decades, thus targeted screening can prevent liver disease by timely diagnosis and linkage to care. More robust estimates of chronic HBV and HCV infections in the general population and risk groups are needed. Using a modified workbook method, the total number of ever chronically infected individuals in the Netherlands in 2016 was determined using population size and prevalence estimates from studies in the general and high-risk population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000359DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

The resurgence of syphilis in high-income countries in the 2000s: a focus on Europe.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e143

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control,Stockholm,Sweden.

Syphilis can cause severe complications and sequelae. Following a decrease in reported cases in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) and other high-income countries in the 1980s and 1990s as a result of the HIV epidemic and ensuing changes in sexual behaviour, trends started to increase in the 2000s in a number of EU/EEA Member States with higher rates among men and a large proportion of cases reported among men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly HIV-positive MSM. Trends in EU/EEA Member States vary however with some countries continuing to report decreases in the number of reported cases (mostly in the Eastern part of EU/EEA) whereas many Western European countries report increasing numbers of cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000281DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Syndromic surveillance: two decades experience of sustainable systems - its people not just data!

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e101

Respiratory Diseases Department,National Infection Service,Public Health England,London,UK.

Syndromic surveillance is a form of surveillance that generates information for public health action by collecting, analysing and interpreting routine health-related data on symptoms and clinical signs reported by patients and clinicians rather than being based on microbiologically or clinically confirmed cases. In England, a suite of national real-time syndromic surveillance systems (SSS) have been developed over the last 20 years, utilising data from a variety of health care settings (a telehealth triage system, general practice and emergency departments). The real-time systems in England have been used for early detection (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000074DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

The association of cellulitis incidence and meteorological factors in Taiwan.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e138

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery,Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou,Taoyuan,Taiwan.

Cellulitis is a common infection of the skin and soft tissue. Susceptibility to cellulitis is related to microorganism virulence, the host immunity status and environmental factors. This retrospective study from 2001 to 2013 investigated relationships between the monthly incidence rate of cellulitis and meteorological factors using data from the Taiwanese Health Insurance Dataset and the Taiwanese Central Weather Bureau. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000323DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Are food exposures obtained through commercial market panels representative of the general population? Implications for outbreak investigations.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e99

Field Service, Public Health England,London,UK.

Current methods of control recruitment for case-control studies can be slow (a particular issue for outbreak investigations), resource-intensive and subject to a range of biases. Commercial market panels are a potential source of rapidly recruited controls. Our study evaluated food exposure data from these panel controls, compared with an established reference dataset. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6420139PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Oral fluid testing facilitates understanding of hepatitis A virus household transmission.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e105

Blood Borne Virus Unit, National Infection Service,Public Health England,London,UK.

The public health response to sporadic hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, hepatitis A, can be complex especially when the index case is a child and no obvious source is identified. Identifying an infection source may avoid mass immunisation within schools when transmission is found to have occurred within the household. Screening of asymptomatic contacts via venepuncture can be challenging and unacceptable, as a result non-invasive methods may facilitate public health intervention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S095026881900027XDOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Development of a mechanistic dengue simulation model for Guangzhou.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e125

School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences,University of South Australia,Adelaide, SA 5001,Australia.

Dengue infection in China has increased dramatically in recent years. Guangdong province (main city Guangzhou) accounted for more than 94% of all dengue cases in the 2014 outbreak. Currently, there is no existing effective vaccine and most efforts of control are focused on the vector itself. Read More

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https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S095026881
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S095026881900030XDOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

Trends of hospitalisations rates in a cohort of HIV-infected persons followed in an Italian hospital from 1998 to 2016.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e89

Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS,Roma Italia, UOC Malattie Infettive.

Here we evaluated hospitalisation rates and associated risk factors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals who were followed up in an Italian reference hospital from 1998 to 2016. Incidence rates (IR) of hospitalisations were calculated for five study periods from 1998 to 2016. The random-effects Poisson regression model was used to assess risk factors for hospitalisation including demographic and clinical characteristics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000098DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Seroprevalence of HCV, HBV and HIV in two inner-city London emergency departments.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e145

Immunisation, Hepatitis and Blood Safety Department,Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance & Control (CIDSC), National Infection Service, Public Health England,London,UK.

Summary: In this paper we build on work investigating the feasibility of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing in emergency departments (EDs), estimating the prevalence of hepatitis B, C and HIV infections among persons attending two inner-London EDs, identifying factors associated with testing positive in an ED. We also undertook molecular characterisation to look at the diversity of the viruses circulating in these individuals, and the presence of clinically significant mutations which impact on treatment and control.Blood-borne virus (BBV) testing in non-traditional settings is feasible, with emergency departments (ED) potentially effective at reaching vulnerable and underserved populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000360DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Dengue outbreaks: unpredictable incidence time series.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e116

Instituto de Ciências Ambientais, Químicas e Farmacêuticas (ICAQF), Laboratório de Economia, Saúde e Poluição Ambiental, Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP,São Paulo,Brazil.

Dengue fever is a disease with increasing incidence, now occurring in some regions which were not previously affected. Ribeirão Preto and São Paulo, municipalities in São Paulo state, Brazil, have been highlighted due to the high dengue incidences especially after 2009 and 2013. Therefore, the current study aims to analyse the temporal behaviour of dengue cases in the both municipalities and forecast the number of disease cases in the out-of-sample period, using time series models, especially SARIMA model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000311DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Comparison of clinical characteristics of patients with Mycobacterium avium complex disease by gender.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e108

The First Department of Internal Medicine,Shinshu University School of Medicine,Matsumoto, Nagano,Japan.

The clinical characteristics of male patients with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease have not been clearly defined. We aimed to clarify the clinical characteristics of male patients with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease compared with female patients.We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease who visited the outpatient clinic of the Shinshu University Hospital between 2003 and 2016 and compared the clinical characteristics of male and female patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000293DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Feral cats do not play a major role in leptospirosis epidemiology on Reunion Island.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e97

Université de La Réunion, UMR PIMIT (Processus Infectieux en Milieu Insulaire Tropical),INSERM 1187, CNRS 9192, IRD 249,Plateforme Technologique CYROI, Sainte-Clotilde, La Réunion,France.

Although previous studies have reported Leptospira carriage in kidneys and urine of cats, the role of these animals in leptospirosis epidemiology remains poorly understood. Using molecular methods, we investigated Leptospira renal carriage in 172 feral cats from Reunion Island, an oceanic geographically isolated island located in the South West Indian Ocean. Only one out of the 172 analysed specimens tested positive for Leptospira DNA through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000190DOI Listing
January 2019

A hospital qPCR-based survey of 10 gastrointestinal parasites in routine diagnostic screening, Marseille, France.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e100

Aix Marseille University, IRD, APHM, MEPHI, IHU-Méditerranée Infection,Marseille,France.

There is a scarcity of recent epidemiological data on intestinal parasitic infections in France. We conducted a prospective study aimed at estimating the prevalence of 10 enteric parasites in Marseille, France, using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnosis. A total of 643 faeces from 488 patients referred to the Parasitology-Mycology Laboratory of the University Hospital of Marseille over a 6 months period were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000165DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Has Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence in young women in England, Scotland and Wales changed? Evidence from national probability surveys.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e107

Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School,Oakfield House, Oakfield Grove, Bristol BS8 5BN,UK.

We evaluate the utility of the National Surveys of Attitudes and Sexual Lifestyles (Natsal) undertaken in 2000 and 2010, before and after the introduction of the National Chlamydia Screening Programme, as an evidence source for estimating the change in prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in England, Scotland and Wales. Both the 2000 and 2010 surveys tested urine samples for CT by Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAATs). We examined the sources of uncertainty in estimates of CT prevalence change, including sample size and adjustments for test sensitivity and specificity, survey non-response and informative non-response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000347DOI Listing
January 2019

Letter to the editor in response to 'Reconstruction and prediction of viral disease epidemics'.

Authors:
T Alex Perkins

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e98

Department of Biological Sciences and Eck Institute for Global Health,University of Notre Dame,100 Galvin Hall,Notre Dame, IN 46556,USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S095026881900013XDOI Listing
January 2019

Characterisation of antibiotic resistance of Salmonella isolated from dog treats in Japan.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e102

Course of Advanced Clinical Medicine, Division of Veterinary Science,Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University,Osaka,Japan.

Dog treats might be contaminated with Salmonella. In Canada and the USA, outbreaks of human salmonellosis related to exposure to animal-derived dog treats were reported. Consequently, surveillance data on Salmonella contamination of dog treats have been gathered in many countries, but not in Japan. Read More

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https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S095026881
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000153DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Spatiotemporal patterns and risk factors concerning hepatitis B virus infections in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area of China.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e110

Beijing Center for Diseases Prevention and Control,Beijing,China.

Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei is the largest urban agglomeration in northern China, but the spatiotemporal patterns and risk factors concerning hepatitis B virus (HBV) incidence in this area have been unclear. The present study aimed to reveal the spatiotemporal epidemiological features of HBV infection and quantify the association between HBV infection and socio-economic risk factors. The data on HBV cases in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei from 2007 to 2012 was collected for each county. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268818003412DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in dromedary camels, Bedouins, Muslim Arabs and Jews in Israel, 2009-2017.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e92

Central Virology Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Public Health Services, The Chaim Sheba Medical Center,Tel Hashomer, Ramat-Gan,Israel.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging cause of viral hepatitis worldwide. Recently, HEV-7 has been shown to infect camels and humans. We studied HEV seroprevalence in dromedary camels and among Bedouins, Arabs (Muslims, none-Bedouins) and Jews and assessed factors associated with anti-HEV seropositivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000062DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads

Bayesian evaluation of three serological tests for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in Bangladesh.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e73

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney,425 Werombi Road, Camden, 2570 NSW,Australia.

We evaluated the performance of three serological tests - an immunoglobulin G indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA), a Rose Bengal test and a slow agglutination test (SAT) - for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in Bangladesh. Cattle sera (n = 1360) sourced from Mymensingh district (MD) and a Government owned dairy farm (GF) were tested in parallel. We used a Bayesian latent class model that adjusted for the conditional dependence among the three tests and assumed constant diagnostic accuracy of the three tests in both populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268818003503DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Differential detection of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii in faecal samples using nested multiplex PCR in west of Iran.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e96

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine,Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences,Sanandaj,Iran.

This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii (collectively referred to as Entamoeba complex), using microscopic and molecular methods in Kurdistan Province, northwest of Iran. The relationship between positive Entamoeba species and clinical symptoms was also investigated. Eight positive Entamoeba complex, as well as four Entamoeba complex-like isolates, were detected by microscopic stool examination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000141DOI Listing
January 2019

Environmental and social determinants of acute rheumatic fever: a longitudinal cohort study.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e79

School of Population and Global Health, University of Western Australia,Crawley, WA,Australia.

Acute rheumatic fever (ARF), an auto-immune response to a group A Streptococcus infection and precursor to rheumatic heart disease (RHD), remains endemic in many socio-economically disadvantaged settings. A Global Resolution on ARF and RHD was recently adopted at the 71st World Health Assembly where governments committed to improving efforts to prevent and control ARF and RHD. To inform these efforts, the objectives of this study were to examine associations between childhood ARF in the UK between 1958 and 1969 and a range of environmental and social factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268818003527DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Diabetes, undernutrition, migration and indigenous communities: tuberculosis in Chiapas, Mexico.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e71

University of Texas Health Houston, School of Public Health,Brownsville Campus, Brownsville, TX, 78520,USA.

We investigated the distribution of comorbidities among adult tuberculosis (TB) patients in Chiapas, the poorest Mexican state, with a high presence of indigenous population, and a corridor for migrants from Latin America. Secondary analysis on 5508 new adult TB patients diagnosed between 2010 and 2014 revealed that the most prevalent comorbidities were diabetes mellitus (DM; 19.1%) and undernutrition (14. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268818003461DOI Listing
January 2019

Measles and rubella seroprevalence in a population of young adult blood donors, France 2013.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e109

Direction des maladies infectieuses,Santé publique France,Saint-Maurice,France.

As part of the evaluation of the French plan for the elimination of measles and rubella, we conducted a seroprevalence survey in 2013, aimed at updating seroprevalence data for people 18-32 years old. A secondary objective was to estimate measles incidence in this population during the 2009-2011 outbreak, and thus estimate the exhaustiveness of measles mandatory reporting. We used a cross-sectional survey design, targeting blood donors 18-32 years old, living in France since 2009, who came to give blood in a blood collecting site. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000050DOI Listing
January 2019
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Introduction of Ebola virus into a remote border district of Sierra Leone, 2014: use of field epidemiology and RNA sequencing to describe chains of transmission.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e88

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,Atlanta, Georgia,USA.

In early October 2014, 7 months after the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa began, a cluster of reported deaths in Koinadugu, a remote district of Sierra Leone, was the first evidence of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in the district. Prior to this event, geographic isolation was thought to have prevented the introduction of Ebola to this area. We describe our initial investigation of this cluster of deaths and subsequent public health actions after Ebola was confirmed, and present challenges to our investigation and methods of overcoming them. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000104DOI Listing
January 2019
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Epidemiological evaluation of human papillomavirus genotypes and their associations in multiple infections.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e132

Section of Microbiology, Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine (DIM),School of Medicine, University of Bari 'Aldo Moro',Bari,Italy.

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of multiple type human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, and whether any types are involved in multiple HPV-type infections (mHPV) more or less frequently than expected. From January 2012 to February 2018, 2848 cervico-vaginal swabs were analysed in the UOC Microbiology and Virology of Policlinico of Bari, Italy. HPV DNA detection was performed using initially nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequently multiplex real-time PCR assay. Read More

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https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S095026881
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268818003539DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

The prevalence, temporal trends, and geographical distribution of HIV-1 subtypes among men who have sex with men in China: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e83

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics,Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering of Ministry of Education,School of Public Health,Southeast University,Nanjing,China.

The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide a comprehensive overview of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 subtypes and to investigate temporal and geographical trends of the HIV-1 epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Chinese and English articles published between January 2007 and December 2017 were systematically searched. Pooled HIV-1 prevalence was calculated, and its stability was analysed using sensitivity analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268818003400DOI Listing
January 2019
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Outbreak of hepatitis A genotype IB in Australia associated with imported frozen pomegranate arils.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e74

NSW Ministry of Health,Sydney,Australia.

Locally acquired hepatitis A infection is re-emerging in Australia owing to person-to-person outbreaks among men who have sex with men and imported frozen produce. This paper describes a multi-state foodborne outbreak in the first half of 2018. Enhanced human epidemiological investigation including a case-control study, as well as microbial surveillance and trace-back investigations concluded that the outbreak was caused by consumption of imported frozen pomegranate arils. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268818003515DOI Listing
January 2019
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Genetic characterisation of Measles virus variants identified during a large epidemic in Milan, Italy, March-December 2017.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e80

Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health,University of Milan,Milan,Italy.

In 2017, Italy experienced a large measles epidemic with 5408 cases and four deaths. As Subnational Reference Laboratory of the Measles and Rubella surveillance NETwork (MoRoNET), the EpiSoMI (Epidemiology and Molecular Surveillance of Infections) Laboratory (University of Milan) set up rapid and active surveillance for the complete characterisation of the Measles virus (Mv) responsible for the large measles outbreak in Milan and surrounding areas (Lombardy, Northern Italy). The aims of this study were to describe the genetic profile of circulating viruses and to track the pathway of measles transmission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268818003606DOI Listing
January 2019
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Gender and time delays in diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis: a cross-sectional study from China.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e94

Yulin Center for Disease Control and Prevention,Shaanxi, 719000,China.

Gender inequality has severe consequences on public health in terms of delay in diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). In order to explore gender-related differences in diagnosis delay, a cross-sectional study of 10 686 patients diagnosed with PTB in Yulin from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2014 was conducted. Diagnosis delay was categorised into 'short delay' and 'long delay' by four commonly used cut-off points of 14, 30, 60 and 90 days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000049DOI Listing
January 2019
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Pneumonia hospitalisation and case-fatality rates in older Australians with and without risk factors for pneumococcal disease: implications for vaccine policy.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e118

School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales,Sydney, NSW,Australia.

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) results in substantial numbers of hospitalisations and deaths in older adults. There are known lifestyle and medical risk factors for pneumococcal disease but the magnitude of the additional risk is not well quantified in Australia. We used a large population-based prospective cohort study of older adults in the state of New South Wales (45 and Up Study) linked to cause-specific hospitalisations, disease notifications and death registrations from 2006 to 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268818003473DOI Listing
January 2019
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Associations between antibiotic prescriptions and recurrent urinary tract infections in female college students.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e119

Department of Epidemiology,College of Public Health and Health Professions, College of Medicine, University of Florida,Gainesville, FL,USA.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common among college-aged women and often recur. Some antibiotics recommended to treat UTIs trigger dysbiosis of intestinal and vaginal microbiomes - where uropathogens originate, though few studies have investigated associations between these therapies with recurrent infections. We retrospectively analysed the electronic medical records of 6651 college-aged women diagnosed with a UTI at a US university student health centre between 2006 and 2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268818003369DOI Listing
January 2019
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Invasive pneumococcal disease in hospitalised children from Lima, Peru before and after introduction of the 7-valent conjugated vaccine.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e91

Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia,Lima,Peru.

The objective of this study was to determine the serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) strains in children from Lima, Peru, before and after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), which was introduced in the national immunisation program on 2009. We conducted a prospective, multicentre, passive surveillance IPD study during 2006-2008 and 2009-2011, before and right after the introduction of PCV7 in Peru. The study was performed in 11 hospitals and five private laboratories in Lima, Peru, in patients <18 years old, with sterile site cultures yielding Streptococcus pneumoniae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000037DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads