1,818,148 results match your criteria Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations [Journal]


Differences at surgery between patients with bicuspid and tricuspid aortic valves.

Neth Heart J 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam University Medical Centre, location AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Aim: To determine differences in surgical procedures and clinical characteristics at the time of surgery between native bicuspid aortic valves (BAV) and tricuspid aortic valves (TAV) in patients being followed up after aortic valve surgery (AVS).

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study in a non-academic hospital, we identified patients who had a surgeon's report of the number of native valve cusps and were still being followed up. We selected patients with BAV and TAV, and used multivariable regression analyses to identify associations between BAV-TAV and pre-specified clinical characteristics. Read More

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December 2018

The Effects of Probiotics or Synbiotics Supplementation in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Epidemiology and Reproductive Health, Reproductive Epidemiology Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.

We searched bibliographic databases from inception through May 2018 to evaluate the effect of probiotics (or synbiotics) supplementation in women suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Seven trials involving 236 women with PCOS and 235 controls were included in the meta-analysis. Comparing with the control group, probiotics (or synbiotics) may improve Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) (standardized mean difference (SMD) 0. Read More

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December 2018

The Interaction of Race and Gender as a Significant Driver of Racial Arrest Disparities for African American Men.

J Urban Health 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

San Diego School of Medicine, Center on Gender Equity and Health, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

The mass incarceration of African Americans is both a driver of racial health inequalities in the USA. Systemic social biases which associate African American men with criminality, violence, and as a particular threat to white women may partially explain their over-representation in the criminal justice system. We combined data from the Washington, DC Metro Police Department (MPD) and the American Community Survey to test whether neighborhood-level gender, race, and economic makeup were associated with elevated drug-related arrest disproportions for African American men. Read More

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December 2018

More interdisciplinary research is needed in forensic medicine.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences, Berlin, Germany.

Forensic routine consists of more than just the classical legal medicine described in textbooks. It is often crucial to answer forensic questions that involve numerous interfaces with other medical disciplines. These interdisciplinary questions that arise in routine autopsy proceedures can also be addressed scientifically, despite decreasing autopsy numbers. Read More

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December 2018

Depression, ART Adherence, and Receipt of Case Management Services by Adults with HIV in North Carolina, Medical Monitoring Project, 2009-2013.

AIDS Behav 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services, Division of Public Health, Communicable Disease Branch, Raleigh, NC, 27603, USA.

Depression among persons with HIV is associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption and discontinuation, virological failure, and poor clinical and survival outcomes. Case management services can address needs for emotional counseling and other supportive services to facilitate HIV care engagement. Using 2009-2013 North Carolina Medical Monitoring Project data from 910 persons engaged in HIV care, we estimated associations of case management utilization with "probable current depression" and with 100% ART dose adherence. Read More

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December 2018

Increasing trends in in situ breast cancer incidence in a region with no population-based mammographic screening program: results from Zurich, Switzerland 2003-2014.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Institute for Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention, University of Zurich, Hirschengraben 82, 8001, Zurich, Switzerland.

Purpose: Increase in in situ breast cancer (BCIS) incidence has been reported across Europe and the USA. However, little is known about the trends in BCIS incidence in regions without population-based mammographic screening programs. We set out to investigate these trends in Zurich, Switzerland, where only opportunistic mammographic screening exists. Read More

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December 2018
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Cardiovascular mortality attributable to dietary risk factors in 51 countries in the WHO European Region from 1990 to 2016: a systematic analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study.

Eur J Epidemiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Competence Cluster for Nutrition and Cardiovascular Health (nutriCARD), Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Germany.

This study was performed to highlight the relationship between single dietary risk factors and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the WHO European Region. We used the comparative risk assessment framework of the Global Burden of Disease Study to estimate CVD mortality attributable to diet; comprising eleven forms of CVDs, twelve food and nutrient groups and 27 risk-outcome pairs in four GBD regions including 51 countries by age and sex between 1990 and 2016. In 2016, dietary risks were associated with 2. Read More

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December 2018
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Modifiable Risk-factors for Keratinocyte Cancers in Australia: A Case-control Study.

Acta Derm Venereol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Applied Biostatistics, University Hospital Tübingen, DE-72076 Tübingen, Germany.

Keratinocyte cancer (KC) is the most common malignancy in Caucasians. The incidence of KC has increased over the past 40 years. This case-control study investigated the environmental and host risk-factors responsible for development of KC in Australia's high-risk population. Read More

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December 2018

Building a network for multicenter, prospective research of central nervous system infections in South America: Process and lessons learned.

eNeurologicalSci 2018 Dec 4;13:63-69. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Hospital Emergencias Pediatricas, Lima, Peru.

Multicenter collaborative networks are essential for advancing research and improving clinical care for a variety of conditions. Research networks are particularly important for central nervous system infections, which remain difficult to study due to their sporadic occurrence and requirement for collection and testing of cerebrospinal fluid. Establishment of long-term research networks in resource-limited areas also facilitates diagnostic capacity building, surveillance for emerging pathogens, and provision of appropriate treatment where needed. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluating layered stigma from comorbid HIV and epilepsy among Zambian adults.

eNeurologicalSci 2018 Dec 21;13:56-62. Epub 2017 Dec 21.

Strong Epilepsy Center, Department of Neurology, University of Rochester, 265 Crittenden Blvd, CU420694, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.

Background And Purpose: Stigma hinders care for patients with neurologic illness. Layered stigma due to comorbid disease is common yet poorly characterized due to lack of instruments. Epilepsy and HIV are prototypical stigmatized conditions widespread in sub-Saharan Africa. Read More

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December 2018
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Ideal Cardiovascular Health and Cognitive Test Performance: Testing a Modified Index of Life's Simple 7 Among Older Chinese Adults.

Front Public Health 2018 28;6:352. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Anthropology, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, United States.

Evidence suggests that cognitive decline in older adults is influenced by cardiovascular health (CVH), with metabolic and vascular mechanisms hypothesized to underlie the etiology of cognitive impairment. Research in high-income nations suggests that improved CVH is linked with decreased cognitive impairment risk, but it is unclear if this pattern is evident in low-income countries. Nationally-representative data collected in China were drawn from the World Health Organization's Study on global AGing and adult health Wave 1 (2007-2010; = 11,295). Read More

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November 2018
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Treatment outcome differences between pass and fail scores and correlation between cephalometric changes and cast-radiograph evaluation of the American Board of Orthodontics.

J Orthod Sci 2018 15;7:22. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Objective: Using the cast-radiograph evaluation (CRE) score of the American Board of Orthodontics (ABO), the purpose of this study was 1) to find the post-treatment discrepancies that contributed to low-quality outcomes and 2) to identify if there might be any correlation between cephalometric changes and post-treatment discrepancies.

Materials And Methods: About 200 records submitted for the Thai Board of Orthodontics examination were analyzed. Overall, 23 parameters of the CRE scores and 12 cephalometric changes were collected. Read More

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November 2018

Higher hemoglobin A1C and atherogenic lipoprotein profiles in children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

J Clin Transl Endocrinol 2019 Mar 30;15:30-34. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Pediatrics/Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Children's of Alabama, University of Alabama at Birmingham, CPPII M30, 1601 4th Ave S, Birmingham, AL 35233, United States.

Aim: Significant knowledge gaps exist regarding lipoprotein profiles in children with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The primary objective was to analyze the type and nature of lipoprotein abnormalities present in children with T2DM and to identify determinants of adverse lipoprotein profiles. The secondary objective was to assess associations with elevated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), i. Read More

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BRAF and MEK inhibitors differentially affect nivolumab-induced T cell activation by modulating the TCR and AKT signaling pathways.

Oncoimmunology 2019 29;8(1):e1512456. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Office of Biotechnology Products, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) such as the anti-PD-1 antibody Nivolumab, achieve remarkable clinical efficacy in patients with late stage cancers. However, only a small subset of patients benefit from this therapy. Numerous clinical trials are underway testing whether combining ICIs with other anti-cancer therapies can increase this response rate. Read More

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October 2018

Neoadjuvant sipuleucel-T induces both Th1 activation and immune regulation in localized prostate cancer.

Oncoimmunology 2019 1;8(1):e1486953. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Sipuleucel-T is the only FDA-approved immunotherapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. The mechanism by which this treatment improves survival is not fully understood. We have previously shown that this treatment can induce the recruitment of CD4 and CD8 T cells to the tumor microenvironment. Read More

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October 2018

Genetic associations of T cell cancer immune response with tumor aggressiveness in localized prostate cancer patients and disease reclassification in an active surveillance cohort.

Oncoimmunology 2019 29;8(1):e1483303. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Departments of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Determining prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness and reclassification are critical events during the treatment of localized disease and for patients undergoing active surveillance (AS). Since T cells play major roles in cancer surveillance and elimination, we aimed to identify genetic biomarkers related to T cell cancer immune response which are predictive of aggressiveness and reclassification risks in localized PCa. The genotypes of 3,586 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from T cell cancer immune response pathways were analyzed in 1762 patients with localized disease and 393 who elected AS. Read More

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October 2018

Assessment of women's satisfaction with family planning service at public health facilities in Northwest Region of Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

Contracept Reprod Med 2018 6;3:25. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

3Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics', School of Public Health, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

Background: Ethiopia is a Sub Saharan African country with an estimated contraceptive prevalence rate of 36% and 22% unmet need for family planning service among married women. Client satisfaction influences the use of Family Planning and other reproductive health services. There is limited information on satisfaction with family planning service among Family planning users particularly in the northern part of Ethiopia. Read More

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December 2018
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Costs associated with management of non-communicable diseases in the Arab Region: a scoping review.

J Glob Health 2018 Dec;8(2):020410

Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.

Background: Global mortality rates resulting from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are reaching alarming levels, especially in low- and middle-income countries, imposing a considerable burden on individuals and health systems as a whole. This scoping review aims at synthesizing the existing literature evaluating the cost associated with the management and treatment of major NCDs across all Arab countries; at evaluating the quality of these studies; and at identifying the gap in existing literature.

Methods: A systematic search was conducted using Medline electronic database to retrieve articles evaluating costs associated with management of NCDs in Arab countries, published in English between January 2000 and April 2016. Read More

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December 2018

Psychiatric outcomes observed in patients living with HIV using six common core antiretrovirals in the Observational Pharmaco-Epidemiology Research and Analysis database.

Ther Adv Drug Saf 2018 Dec 29;9(12):675-686. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Epividian, Inc., Durham, NC, USA.

Background: Psychiatric outcomes are common among people living with HIV and may be associated with specific antiretroviral use. We evaluated the occurrence of psychiatric outcomes in patients taking dolutegravir (DTG)-containing regimens compared with five other core agents.

Methods: Patients in the OPERA database prescribed regimens based on DTG, efavirenz (EFV), raltegravir (RAL), darunavir (DRV), rilpivirine (RPV), or elvitegravir (EVG) for the first time between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2015 were analyzed. Read More

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December 2018

Decreased long intergenic noncoding RNA P7 predicts unfavorable prognosis and promotes tumor proliferation via the modulation of the STAT1-MAPK pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Oncotarget 2018 Nov 8;9(90):36057-36066. Epub 2017 Dec 8.

Beijing 302 Hospital, Beijing, 100039, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common neoplasm and is a leading cause of cancer-related death. Despite advances in the diagnosis and management of HCC, its prognosis remain unfavorable. Accumulating evidence has shown that long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) play central roles in the development of HCC. Read More

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November 2018

Optimizing medical care for geriatric patients in Austria: defining a top five list of "Choosing Wisely" recommendations using the Delphi technique.

Eur Geriatr Med 2018 27;9(6):783-793. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

14Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 15, 8036 Graz, Austria.

Purpose: Inappropriate use of diagnostic and therapeutic medical procedures is common and potentially harmful for older patients. The Austrian Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology defined a consensus of five recommendations to avoid overuse of medical interventions and to improve care of geriatric patients.

Methods: From an initial pool of 147 reliable recommendations, 20 were chosen by a structured selection process for inclusion in a Delphi process to define a list of five top recommendations for geriatric medicine. Read More

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September 2018

Cancers among adolescents and young adults at one institution in Japan.

Oncol Lett 2018 Dec 1;16(6):7212-7222. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Department of Medical Oncology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata 951-8510, Japan.

Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer often live long lives following treatment and face many life events. No detailed studies of cancers in AYAs have described the epidemiology, treatment outcome, and social status in Japan. The present study defined AYAs as those aged 15-29 years old based on the US National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. Read More

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December 2018

Racial disparities in the survival time of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma between Chinese patients and patients of other racial groups: A population-based study from 2004 to 2013.

Oncol Lett 2018 Dec 5;16(6):7102-7116. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, P.R. China.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the racial disparities in the presentation, treatment and survival time of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) between Chinese and other racial groups from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database between January 1st 2004, and December 31st 2013. Key covariates, including clinical presentation, treatment and survival time, were recorded and compared, demonstrating the racial differences. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression models were performed to identify these disparities in survival time. Read More

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December 2018

Is regulation preventing the development of therapeutics that may prevent future coronavirus pandemics?

Future Virol 2018 Mar 21;13(3):143-146. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

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Topiramate and Metformin Are Effective Add-On Treatments in Controlling Antipsychotic-Induced Weight Gain: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis.

Front Pharmacol 2018 28;9:1393. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Institute for Mental Health, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Antipsychotic drugs may lead to side effects such as obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. The current systematic review and network meta-analysis analyzes and provides an update on the clinical performance of these add-ons in comparison to placebo on body weight and body mass index (BMI) reductions. A comprehensive literature search was performed on electronic databases: PubMed (1946-), Embase (1974-), Cochrane library (1992-), and OpenGrey (2000-) until 31 July 2018. Read More

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November 2018

The Association between Frequency of Social Contact and Frailty in Older People: Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study (KFACS).

J Korean Med Sci 2018 Dec 3;33(51):e332. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Jungbu Area Epidemiologic Investigation Team, Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute, Incheon, Korea.

Background: The trend of aging society is occurring globally, and with it, one of the health problems that is emerging is frailty. Efforts are being made to account for the increasing prevalence of frailty, and various modifiable factors are being considered in regards to frailty. Because social contact has shown beneficial effects in terms of health in previous studies, it is increasingly being considered in relation to frailty. Read More

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December 2018

Prevalence of mandibular fracture in patients visiting a tertiary dental care hospital in North India.

Natl J Maxillofac Surg 2018 Jul-Dec;9(2):123-128

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Faculty of Dental Sciences, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Background: Injuries of the maxillofacial complex represent one of the most important health problems worldwide. At present, in developing India, due to poor traffic sense, maxillofacial trauma and fractures are most epidemiologic diseases. Mandible is the largest and strongest facial bone and it is the second most commonly fractured bone. Read More

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December 2018

A National Quality Assurance program for breast immunohistochemistry: an Italian perspective.

Pathologica 2018 Sep;110(2):83-91

Pathology Unit, A. Cardarelli Hospital, Naples, Italy.

A national project for the quality assessment of breast immunohistochemistry, involving 155 pathology laboratories distributed all over the Italian territory ( 19 regions), was carried out. The Project lasted one year from December 2014 to December 2015 and it was strongly supported by the Italian Society of Anatomic Pathology (SIAPEC/IAP). Proficiency tests were carried out by the Nordic Immunohistochemical Quality Control (NordiQC) organization. Read More

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September 2018

Determinants of environmental styrene exposure in Gulf coast residents.

J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

Background: In a previous study of exposure to oil-related chemicals in Gulf coast residents, we measured blood levels of volatile organic compounds. Levels of styrene were substantially elevated compared to a nationally representative sample. We sought to identify factors contributing to these levels, given the opportunities for styrene exposure in this community. Read More

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December 2018

Tracking virus outbreaks in the twenty-first century.

Nat Microbiol 2019 Jan 13;4(1):10-19. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Emerging viruses have the potential to impose substantial mortality, morbidity and economic burdens on human populations. Tracking the spread of infectious diseases to assist in their control has traditionally relied on the analysis of case data gathered as the outbreak proceeds. Here, we describe how many of the key questions in infectious disease epidemiology, from the initial detection and characterization of outbreak viruses, to transmission chain tracking and outbreak mapping, can now be much more accurately addressed using recent advances in virus sequencing and phylogenetics. Read More

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January 2019
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Epidemiology of bloodstream infections in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a longitudinal nation-wide cohort study.

Leukemia 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Haematology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have a high risk of bloodstream infections (BSI). BSI cause significant morbidity and mortality among CLL patients; approximately one-third of fatalities in CLL list infections as cause of death. All CLL patients in Denmark diagnosed between 2008 and 2016 were followed through registries for the event of a BSI. Read More

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December 2018

Healthcare Resource Use, Cost, and Sick Leave Following Kidney Transplantation in Sweden: A Population-Based, 5-Year, Retrospective Study of Outcomes: COIN.

Ann Transplant 2018 Dec 14;23:852-866. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Transplantation Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.

BACKGROUND Improved understanding of the impact of kidney transplantation on healthcare resource use/costs and loss of productivity could aid decision making about funding allocation and resources needed for the treatment of chronic kidney disease in stage 5. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a retrospective study utilizing data from Swedish national health registers of patients undergoing kidney transplantation. Primary outcomes were renal disease-related healthcare resource utilization and costs during the 5 years after transplantation. Read More

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December 2018

Variation in Integrated Head and Neck Cancer Care: Impact of Patient and Hospital Characteristics.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2018 Dec;16(12):1491-1498

Scientific Center for Quality of Healthcare, and Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Radboud University Medical Center, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Nijmegen; Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam; Department of Medical Oncology, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Nederlands Kanker Instituut, Amsterdam; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Noordwest Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht; Department of Research, Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Organisation, Utrecht; Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen; Department of Head and Neck Surgical Oncology, UMC Utrecht Cancer Centre, Utrecht; Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede; Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Elisabeth Tweesteden Ziekenhuis Tilburg, Tilburg; Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden; Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, MC Haaglanden-Bronovo, The Hague; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medical Centre Leeuwarden, Leeuwarden; Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen; Department of Head and Neck Surgery and Oncology, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Nederlands Kanker Instituut, Amsterdam; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Academisch Medisch Centrum, Amsterdam Zuid-Oost; and Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Radboud University Medical Centre, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Monitoring and effectively improving oncologic integrated care requires dashboard information based on quality registrations. The dashboard includes evidence-based quality indicators (QIs) that measure quality of care. This study aimed to assess the quality of current integrated head and neck cancer care with QIs, the variation between Dutch hospitals, and the influence of patient and hospital characteristics. Read More

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December 2018
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Impact of Patient- and Clinician-Reported Cumulative Toxicity on Quality of Life in Patients With Metastatic Castration-Naïve Prostate Cancer.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2018 Dec;16(12):1481-1488

Department of Medical Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Psychiatry, Cancer Center Amsterdam, and Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Inserm, UMR 912 'Economic and Social Sciences, Health Systems and Societies (SESSTIM)', Aix-Marseille Université, IRD, Marseille, France; Department of Medical Psychology, Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, Cancer Center Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, VU University Medical Center, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Medical Oncology, Centre François Baclesse - CHU Côte de Nacre, Caen, France; Department of Cancer Medicine, Institut Gustave Roussy, University of Paris Sud, Villejuif, France; UNICANCER, Paris, France; Department of Biostatistic, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille, France; Aix Marseille Université, INSERM, IRD, SESSTIM, Marseille, France; Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Rangueil, Toulouse, France; Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris, France; and Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Aix-Marseille University, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de Marseille (CRCM), Marseille, France.

Current toxicity evaluation is primarily focused on high-grade adverse events (AEs) reported by clinicians. However, the cumulative effect of multiple lower-grade AEs may also impact patients' quality of life (QoL). Further, patient-reported toxicity may be more representative of patients' treatment experiences. Read More

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December 2018

Paediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension: updates on definition, classification, diagnostics and management.

Eur Respir J 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Center for Congenital Heart Diseases, Pediatric Cardiology, Beatrix Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Paediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) shares common features of adult disease, but is associated with several additional disorders and challenges that require unique approaches. This article discusses recent advances, ongoing challenges and distinct approaches for the care of children with PAH, as presented by the Paediatric Task Force of the 6th World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension. We provide updates of the current definition, epidemiology, classification, diagnostics and treatment of paediatric PAH, and identify critical knowledge gaps. Read More

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December 2018

Pathophysiology of the right ventricle and of the pulmonary circulation in pulmonary hypertension: an update.

Eur Respir J 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Dept of Cardiology, Erasme University Hospital, Brussels, Belgium.

The function of the right ventricle determines the fate of patients with pulmonary hypertension. Since right heart failure is the consequence of increased afterload, a full physiological description of the cardiopulmonary unit consisting of both the right ventricle and pulmonary vascular system is required to interpret clinical data correctly. Here, we provide such a description of the unit and its components, including the functional interactions between the right ventricle and its load. Read More

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December 2018

Triple therapy trials in COPD: a precision medicine opportunity.

Eur Respir J 2018 Dec 13;52(6). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Lung Unit, Emek Medical Center, Clalit Healthcare Services, Afula, Israel.

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December 2018

Calcium intake and survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis.

Clin Cancer Res 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School

Purpose: Although evidence suggests an inverse association between calcium intake and colorectal cancer incidence, the influence of calcium on survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis remains unclear.

Experimental Design: We prospectively assessed the association of postdiagnostic calcium intake with colorectal cancer-specific and overall mortality among 1,660 non-metastatic colorectal cancer patients within the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Patients completed a validated food frequency questionnaire between 6 months and 4 years after diagnosis and were followed up for death. Read More

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December 2018

HbA screening in the community: Lessons for safety and quality management of a point of care programme.

Prim Care Diabetes 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Aim: To describe quality management processes and appropriate interpretation with respect to HbA point-of-care (POC) testing in a national diabetes and cardiovascular risk screening programme.

Methods: We compared HbA results from capillary blood, measured by the cobas b 101 (Roche Diagnostics) POC testing system, with results from venous blood measured by accredited laboratory analysers to inform national screening practice and a (separately-reported) randomised controlled trial. Difference plots and regressions were used to aid interpretation around 40 and 50mmol/mol, the cut-offs used to identify "pre-diabetes" and diabetes in New Zealand. Read More

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December 2018

Abdominal obesity, metabolic dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome in U.S. adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2016.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Epidemiology Program, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center School of Public Health, New Orleans, LA. Electronic address:

Purpose: The objectives were to use National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data to (1) estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors (elevated blood pressure, triglycerides, blood glucose, and low HDL cholesterol); (2) estimate the prevalence of MetS using three common definitions; and (3) compare the odds of MetS risk factors/MetS when using different measures of abdominal obesity (sagittal abdominal diameter [SAD] versus waist circumference [WC]) among U.S. adolescents. Read More

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November 2018

Does diabetes decrease the risk of glioma? A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: Increasing epidemiologic evidence suggests that diabetes mellitus (DM) may be associated with a decreased risk of glioma. This systematic review assessed whether DM was associated with glioma risk.

Methods: Electronic searches were performed in PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases up to August 30, 2018. Read More

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November 2018

Surgical treatment and survival from colorectal cancer in Denmark, England, Norway, and Sweden: a population-based study.

Lancet Oncol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: Survival from colorectal cancer has been shown to be lower in Denmark and England than in comparable high-income countries. We used data from national colorectal cancer registries to assess whether differences in the proportion of patients receiving resectional surgery could contribute to international differences in colorectal cancer survival.

Methods: In this population-based study, we collected data from all patients aged 18-99 years diagnosed with primary, invasive, colorectal adenocarcinoma from Jan 1, 2010, to Dec 31, 2012, in Denmark, England, Norway, and Sweden, from national colorectal cancer registries. Read More

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December 2018

Strengthening national vaccine decision-making: Assessing the impact of SIVAC Initiative support on national immunisation technical advisory group (NITAG) functionality in 77 low and middle-income countries.

Vaccine 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, WC1E 7HT London, United Kingdom; Modelling and Economics Unit, Public Health England, 61 Colindale Avenue, NW9 5EQ London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: National Immunisation Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs) are multi-disciplinary expert groups that provide policy-makers with independent, evidence-based advice on vaccination. Between 2008 and 2017, the SIVAC Initiative supported establishment and strengthening of NITAGs in low and lower-middle income countries though its impact was never assessed quantitatively.

Aim: To quantitatively assess whether SIVAC support is associated with a faster rate at which NITAGs became functional based on six performance indicators. Read More

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December 2018

Use of Measures of Inflammation and Kidney Function for Prediction of Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease Events and Death in Patients With CKD: Findings From the CRIC Study.

Am J Kidney Dis 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Kidney Diseases and Hypertension, George Washington University, Washington, DC. Electronic address:

Rationale & Objective: Traditional risk estimates for atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD) and death may not perform optimally in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We sought to determine whether the addition of measures of inflammation and kidney function to traditional estimation tools improves prediction of these events in a diverse cohort of patients with CKD.

Study Design: Observational cohort study. Read More

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December 2018

Sex Disparities in ESRD-Related Mortality: A Call to Action.

Authors:
Bethany J Foster

Am J Kidney Dis 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Montreal Children's Hospital of the McGill University Health Centre; and Departments of Pediatrics and Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

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December 2018

Effects of primary tumor resection on the survival of patients with stage IV extrathoracic metastatic non-small cell lung cancer: A population-based study.

Lung Cancer 2018 Nov 13. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Peking University People's Hospital, China. Electronic address:

Background: Selected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with extrathoracic metastases might benefit from surgical intervention; however, the evidence is limited. We investigated the benefit of surgery in these patients regarding the extent of the metastatic disease.

Methods: Patients with extrathoracic metastatic NSCLC were identified in the US National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2010-2015). Read More

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November 2018

Calibrated Breast Density Measurements.

Acad Radiol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Cancer Epidemiology Department, Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute, 12902 Bruce B Downs Blvd, Mail Stop: MRC Can/Cont, Tampa, FL 33612. Electronic address:

Rationale And Objectives: Mammographic density is an important risk factor for breast cancer, but translation to the clinic requires assurance that prior work based on mammography is applicable to current technologies. The purpose of this work is to evaluate whether a calibration methodology developed previously produces breast density metrics predictive of breast cancer risk when applied to a case-control study.

Materials And Methods: A matched case control study (n = 319 pairs) was used to evaluate two calibrated measures of breast density. Read More

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December 2018

Differences in the characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of patient groups reviewed by intensive care liaison nurses in Australia: A multicentre prospective study.

Aust Crit Care 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Intensive Care Unit, Austin Health, 145 Studley Road, Heidelberg, Victoria, 3084, Australia.

Background: There is a lack of knowledge about tasks intensive care unit liaison nurses (ICU LNs) perform during patient review, despite this role operating in at least 31 acute care hospitals in Australia.

Objectives: To evaluate the tasks that ICU LNs perform during patient review in the following referral subcategories: review after ICU discharge, rapid response team (RRT) review, and ward referral.

Methods: A 2-month prospective observational study using standardised case report forms to collect data on patients reviewed by ICU LNs in 20 Australian hospitals was conducted. Read More

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December 2018

Understanding nationwide readmissions after thyroid surgery.

Surgery 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Surgery, Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery Program, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA. Electronic address:

Background: The 30-day readmission rate is increasingly utilized as a metric of quality that impacts reimbursement. To date, there are no nationally representative data on readmission rates after thyroid surgery. We aimed to determine national readmission rates after inpatient thyroidectomy operations and whether select clinical factors were associated with increased odds of postthyroidectomy readmission. Read More

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December 2018
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Comparison of resting distal to aortic coronary pressure with angiography-based quantitative flow ratio.

Int J Cardiol 2018 Nov 17. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Department of Cardiology, Charité Berlin - University Medicine, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany; DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Berlin, Berlin, Germany; Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Quantitative flow ratio (QFR) is a novel, adenosine-free method for functional coronary lesion interrogation, which is based on 3-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography and computational algorithms. Data on QFR in all-comer patients with intermediate coronary lesions are scarce, and the diagnostic performance in comparison to resting distal to aortic coronary pressure (Pd/Pa) ratio unknown.

Methods: A total of 436 patients with 516 vessels undergoing FFR measurements were included in the analysis. Read More

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November 2018
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