7,945 results match your criteria Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations [Journal]


Influenza vaccination coverage and deprivation among the elderly in the municipality of Cagliari: results and perspectives.

J Prev Med Hyg 2018 Dec 28;59(4 Suppl 2):E65-E70. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), University of Genoa, Italy.

Introduction: The elderly are among the main targets of influenza vaccination campaigns. Previous studies have shown that socio-economic status influences compliance with influenza vaccination, particularly in the elderly. Deprivation indexes can therefore be useful in identifying population groups with lower vaccination uptake and guide targeted intervention to improve vaccination coverage. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2018.59.4s2.1197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6419306PMC
December 2018

White matter hyperintensities in vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID): Knowledge gaps and opportunities.

Alzheimers Dement (N Y) 2019 9;5:107-117. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Molecular & Clinical Sciences Research Institute, St George's University of London and Department of Neurology, St George's University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are frequently seen on brain magnetic resonance imaging scans of older people. Usually interpreted clinically as a surrogate for cerebral small vessel disease, WMHs are associated with increased likelihood of cognitive impairment and dementia (including Alzheimer's disease [AD]). WMHs are also seen in cognitively healthy people. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S23528737193000
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trci.2019.02.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461571PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

Ischemic stroke in the young: Current perspectives on incidence, risk factors, and cardiovascular prognosis.

Authors:
Jukka Putaala

Eur Stroke J 2016 Mar 1;1(1):28-40. Epub 2016 Mar 1.

Department of Neurology, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

About one-fourth of ischemic strokes occur in working-aged individuals in the high-income countries, with worldwide increasing incidence in this age group from 1980s to present. Recent evidence suggests that traditional vascular risk factors are more prevalent than previously suggested in young adult stroke patients and they accumulate with age particularly in men. Accordingly, relatively high rates of atherosclerotic changes have been detected in these patients. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2396987316629860DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6301217PMC

The characteristics of internet-based venue sex-seeking and mobility among money boys in Tianjin, China.

HIV Med 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Objectives: Internet-based venue sex-seeking is prevalent among money boys (MBs), as is a high degree of mobility, which is crucial for HIV transmission in key populations with high risks of HIV infection. However, correlation studies in MBs are scarce because of the secretive nature of this hard-to-reach subpopulation. We conducted this project to explore the characteristics of MBs. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/hiv.12746
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hiv.12746DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Intracranial arterial wall imaging: Techniques, clinical applicability, and future perspectives.

Int J Stroke 2019 Apr 13:1747493019840942. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

4 Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Purpose: To review the current state of the art and future development of intracranial vessel wall imaging.

Methods: Recent literature review and expert opinion about intracranial arterial wall imaging.

Results: Intracranial large artery diseases represent an important cause of stroke and vascular cognitive impairment worldwide. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493019840942DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Influences of stress hormones on microbial infections.

Microb Pathog 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, School of Life Science and Technology, China Pharmaceutical University, Jiangsu Province, Nanjing, 210009, PR China. Electronic address:

Stress hormones have been recently suggested to influence the pathogenicity of bacteria significantly. Stress has been identified as part of the factors causing an outbreak of infections in the aquaculture industry. The most studied neuroendocrine hormonal family from a microbial endocrinology perspective is the catecholamine comprising of norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.04.013DOI Listing
April 2019
2.000 Impact Factor

Fatigue in young people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada.

Aim: To describe fatigue in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) from patients' and parents' perspectives and to explore risk factors for fatigue in children and adolescents with DMD.

Method: A multicentre, cross-sectional study design was used. Seventy-one patients (all males; median age 12y, age range 5-17y) identified via the Canadian Neuromuscular Disease Registry, and their parents completed questionnaires. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dmcn.14248DOI Listing

The Future of Genomic Studies Must Be Globally Representative: Perspectives from PAGE.

Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA; email: ,

The past decade has seen a technological revolution in human genetics that has empowered population-level investigations into genetic associations with phenotypes. Although these discoveries rely on genetic variation across individuals, association studies have overwhelmingly been performed in populations of European descent. In this review, we describe limitations faced by single-population studies and provide an overview of strategies to improve global representation in existing data sets and future human genomics research via diversity-focused, multiethnic studies. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genom-091416-035517DOI Listing

Ecological Momentary Assessment of the Breakfast, Lunch, and Dinner Family Meal Environment in Racially/Ethnically Diverse and Immigrant Households.

J Nutr Educ Behav 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN.

Objective: To describe meal characteristics across breakfast, lunch, and dinner family meals in racially/ethnicallydiverse and immigrant/refugee households via ecological momentary assessment; identify real-time meal characteristics associated with family meal frequency; and identify qualitative themes regarding parents' perspectives about meal characteristics and meal types that influence family meal frequency.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: In-home visits. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2019.03.002DOI Listing

Conditional Financing of Drugs in the Netherlands: Past, Present, and Future-Results From Stakeholder Interviews.

Value Health 2019 Apr;22(4):399-407

The National Healthcare Institute, Diemen, The Netherlands; Department of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Conditional financing (CF) of hospital drugs was implemented in the Netherlands as a form of managed entry agreements between 2006 and 2012. CF was a 4-year process comprising 3 stages: initial health technology assessment of the drug (T = 0), conduct of outcomes research studies, and reassessment of the drug (T = 4).

Objectives: To analyze stakeholder experiences in implementing CF in practice. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jval.2018.11.016DOI Listing

The Public Health Benefits and Economic Value of Routine Yellow Fever Vaccination in Colombia.

Value Health Reg Issues 2019 Apr 8;20:60-65. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Department, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Medical School, Bogotá, Colombia.

Objectives: To evaluate the public health benefits and economic value of live-attenuated yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine in Colombia.

Methods: A decision tree model was used to assess the theoretical impact of routine YF vaccination of 1-year-olds (no "catch-up") during the interepidemic period from 1980 to 2002, avoiding capturing the impact of YF vaccine introduction in 2003. The vaccine was assumed to be 99% effective, to provide lifetime protection, and to cover 85% of the target population. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vhri.2019.01.004DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Early-life socioeconomic circumstances explain health differences in old age, but not their evolution over time.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Swiss NCCR 'LIVES - Overcoming Vulnerability: Life Course Perspectives', University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Early-life socioeconomic circumstances (SEC) are associated with health in old age. However, epidemiological evidences on the influence of these early-life risk factors on trajectories of healthy ageing are inconsistent, preventing drawing solid conclusion about their potential influence. Here, to fill this knowledge gap, we used a statistical approach adapted to estimating change over time and an outcome-wide epidemiology approach to investigate whether early-life SEC were associated with the level of and rate of decline of physical, cognitive and emotional functioning over time. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2019-212110DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Feline Panleukopenia: A Re-emergent Disease.

Authors:
Vanessa R Barrs

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2019 Apr 6. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Science, and Marie Bashir Institute of Infectious Diseases & Biosecurity, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia. Electronic address:

Feline panleukopenia (FPL) is caused by a Carnivore protoparvovirus infection. Feline parvovirus (FPV) causes most cases. When Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) first emerged, it could not replicate in cats. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01955616193003
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2019.02.006DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Perspectives of adolescents, parents, and teachers on barriers and facilitators of physical activity among school-age adolescents: a qualitative analysis.

Environ Health Prev Med 2019 Apr 9;24(1):21. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Laboratory of Epidemiology, Clinical Research and Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, Fez, Morocco.

Background: Physical activity levels are low among adolescents in Morocco; however, the influences on physical activity behavior of adolescents have not yet been explored in a qualitative study. Here, we explored potential social-ecological barriers and facilitators of physical activity in Moroccan adolescents with the goal of developing a successful intervention program aimed at improving their physical activity level.

Methods: For this study, we conducted 17 focus group discussions (100 participants, composed of 56 adolescents, 26 parents, and 18 teachers from two middle schools in Taza city, Morocco). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12199-019-0775-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454728PMC

IL-17 inhibition in axial spondyloarthritis: current and future perspectives.

Expert Opin Biol Ther 2019 Apr 6:1-11. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

b Department of Gastroenterology , Infectiology and Rheumatology, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charité - Universitätsmedizin , Berlin , Germany.

Introduction: Interleukin (IL)-17 is a proinflammatory cytokine considered to play a significant role in the immunopathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis (AS)/axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) as well as of other spondyloarthritides. There is a number of substances targeting IL-17, which are at different stages of development in the axSpA indication. Areas covered: This review summarizes the current evidence on the role of IL-17 in the pathophysiology of axSpA and provided a comprehensive review of clinical and radiographic outcomes as well as of safety data from studies with IL-17A inhibitors secukinumab and ixekizumab. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14712598.2019.1605352DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Intracranial mirror aneurysm: Epidemiology, Rupture risk, New imaging, Controversies and Treatment strategies.

World Neurosurg 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China. Electronic address:

There are some controversies about the surgical treatment strategy of mirror aneurysms. Whether to take one-stage or two-stages surgery, bilateral or unilateral craniotomy, surgical or interventional treatment is the main points in dispute. The present review mainly introduces the different surgery strategies facing with different patients. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.03.275DOI Listing

Evidence needed for antimicrobial resistance surveillance systems.

Bull World Health Organ 2019 Apr 28;97(4):283-289. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

One Health surveillance for antimicrobial resistance has been promoted by the scientific community and by international organizations for more than a decade. In this article, we highlight issues that need to be addressed to improve the understanding of the effectiveness of One Health surveillance for antimicrobial resistance. We also outline the evidence needed to support countries planning to increase the level of integration of their surveillance system. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.18.218917DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6438253PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Implementation of patient-centred care: which organisational determinants matter from decision maker's perspective? Results from a qualitative interview study across various health and social care organisations.

BMJ Open 2019 Apr 1;9(4):e027591. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Health Services Research, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany.

Objectives: Health and social care systems, organisations and providers are under pressure to organise care around patients' needs with constrained resources. To implement patient-centred care (PCC) successfully, barriers must be addressed. Up to now, there has been a lack of comprehensive investigations on possible determinants of PCC across various health and social care organisations (HSCOs). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-027591DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Hospital epidemiologists' and infection preventionists' opinions regarding hospital-onset bacteremia and fungemia as a potential healthcare-associated infection metric.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2019 Apr 1:1-5. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics,Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine,Baltimore,Maryland.

Objective: To ascertain opinions regarding etiology and preventability of hospital-onset bacteremia and fungemia (HOB) and perspectives on HOB as a potential outcome measure reflecting quality of infection prevention and hospital care.

Design: Cross-sectional survey.

Participants: Hospital epidemiologists and infection preventionist members of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) Research Network. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2019.40DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Current patient perspectives of vulvovaginal candidiasis: incidence, symptoms, management and post-treatment outcomes.

BMC Womens Health 2019 Mar 29;19(1):48. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Center of Excellence in Oral and Craniofacial Biology, School of Dentistry, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common infection affecting women worldwide. Reports of patterns/risk factors/trends for episodic/recurrent VVC (RVVC) are largely outdated. The purpose of this study was to obtain current patient perspectives of several aspects of VVC/RVVC. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12905-019-0748-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441174PMC
March 2019
3 Reads

Medical perspectives regarding goals-of-care consultations in Emergency Departments.

Psychol Health Med 2019 Mar 29:1-11. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

a Department of Medicine , Monash University , Melbourne , Australia.

Goals-of-care discussions aim to establish patient values for shared medical decision-making. These discussions are relevant towards end-of-life as patients may receive non-beneficial treatments if they have never discussed preferences for care. End-of-life care is provided in Emergency Departments (EDs) but little is known regarding ED-led goals-of-care discussions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2019.1595683DOI Listing

Prevention and management of musculoskeletal pain in nursing staff by a multifaceted intervention in the workplace: design of a cluster randomized controlled trial with effectiveness, process and economic evaluation (INTEVAL_Spain).

BMC Public Health 2019 Mar 28;19(1):348. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Centre for Research in Occupational Health, Pompeu Fabra University/IMIM-Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute, PRBB-Barcelona Biomedical Research Park. Dr. Aiguader, 88, 08003, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is the leading cause of years lived with disability. In consequence, to reduce MSP and its associated sickness absence is a major challenge. Previous interventions have been developed to reduce MSP and improve return to work of workers with MSP, but combined approaches and exhaustive evaluation are needed. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6683-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6437843PMC

Association between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Muscle Strength in Older Age.

Gerontology 2019 Mar 28:1-11. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Swiss NCCR "LIVES - Overcoming Vulnerability: Life Course Perspectives," University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Muscle weakness - a biomarker of health - may have its origins in early life and be related to factors such as adverse childhood experiences (ACE), which refer to a set of early-life traumatic and stressful psychosocial events out of the child's control. To date, evidence of an association between ACE and muscle strength in older age is lacking. -Objective: Here, we assessed the associations between ACE during the first 15 years of life and the risk of low muscle strength (LMS) later in life. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000494972DOI Listing

European Qualitative research project on Patient-preferred outcomes in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis (EQPERA): rationale, design and methods of a multinational, multicentre, multilingual, longitudinal qualitative study.

BMJ Open 2019 Mar 27;9(3):e023606. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Medical Technology Assessment, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Including the patient perspective is important to achieve optimal outcomes in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Ample qualitative studies exist on patient outcomes in RA. A Belgian study recently unravelled what matters most to patients throughout the overwhelming and rapidly evolving early stage of RA. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023606DOI Listing

Acceptability of HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) and Opinions on PrEP Service Delivery Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Singapore: A Qualitative Study.

AIDS Educ Prev 2019 Apr;31(2):152-162

National Centre for Infectious Diseases, Singapore.

PrEP is effective in preventing HIV transmission among at-risk HIV-negative MSM. A qualitative descriptive study with five focus group discussions (N = 33) involving a purposively recruited sample of Singaporean MSM was conducted from August 2016 to April 2017 to understand local perspectives on potential barriers and motivators to the adoption of PrEP, prior to the implementation of PrEP services in Singapore. Knowledge of PrEP was high, and many viewed PrEP as an attractive alternative to condoms for HIV prevention. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/aeap.2019.31.2.152DOI Listing

Ambient air pollution and health in Sub-Saharan Africa: Current evidence, perspectives and a call to action.

Environ Res 2019 Mar 16;173:174-188. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

Background: People from low- and middle-income countries are disproportionately affected by the global burden of adverse health effects caused by ambient air pollution (AAP). However, data from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are still scarce. We systematically reviewed the literature to describe the existing knowledge on AAP and health outcomes in SSA. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.03.029DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

A mixed methods analysis of factors affecting antenatal care content: A Syrian case study.

PLoS One 2019 25;14(3):e0214375. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Maternity care services provide critical interventions aimed at improving maternal and newborn health. In this study, we examined determinants of antenatal care (ANC) content in Syria, together with changes over time.

Methods: We analysed two national surveys conducted by the Central Bureau of Statistics in Damascus (PAPFAM 2001 and MICS 2006). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214375PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433263PMC
March 2019
3.234 Impact Factor

A definition of flare in low back pain (LBP): A multiphase process involving perspectives of individuals with LBP and expert consensus.

J Pain 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

The University of Queensland, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Brisbane, QLD, Australia. Electronic address:

Low back pain (LBP) varies over time. Consumers, clinicians and researchers use various terms to describe fluctuations of LBP symptoms. Although "flare" is commonly used to describe symptom fluctuation, there is no consensus on how it is defined. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2019.03.009DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Health and equity in Latin America: utopias and reality.

Health Promot Int 2019 Mar;34(Supplement_1):i11-i19

Fiocruz's Presidency Chief of Staff/IdeiaSUS, The Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Av. Brasil 4365, Mourish Castle, 5th Floor, Manguinhos, RJ, Brazil.

Curitiba's Declaration during the 22nd World Conference on Health Promotion of the IUHPE highlighted equity as a prerequisite for health and as an essential element of health promotion, though not as an isolated aim. Latin America today is facing the loss of civil rights, austerity policies and social inequities, which together are increasing the gap between rich and poor and putting the health sector on alert. As health professionals, it is therefore our responsibility to provide cross-cutting analyses on how inter-sectoral public policies might represent utopias and realities in such a dramatic period of our history. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/daz014DOI Listing

The State of the US Governmental Public Health Workforce, 2014-2017.

Am J Public Health 2019 May 21;109(5):674-680. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Katie Sellers and Brian C. Castrucci are with the de Beaumont Foundation, Bethesda, MD. Jonathon P. Leider is with the Division of Health Policy and Management, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Elizabeth Gould and Kyle Bogaert are with the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, Arlington, VA. Angela Beck is with the Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Fátima Coronado is with the Division of Scientific Education and Professional Development, Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Gulzar Shah is with the Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health, Health Policy and Management, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro. Valerie Yeager is with the Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health, Health Policy and Management, Indiana University, Indianapolis. Leslie M. Beitsch is with the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Social Medicine, Florida State University College of Medicine, Tallahassee. Paul C. Erwin is with the University of Alabama Birmingham School of Public Health.

Public health workforce development efforts during the past 50 years have evolved from a focus on enumerating workers to comprehensive strategies that address workforce size and composition, training, recruitment and retention, effectiveness, and expected competencies in public health practice. We provide new perspectives on the public health workforce, using data from the Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey, the largest nationally representative survey of the governmental public health workforce in the United States. Five major thematic areas are explored: workforce diversity in a changing demographic environment; challenges of an aging workforce, including impending retirements and the need for succession planning; workers' salaries and challenges of recruiting new staff; the growth of undergraduate public health education and what this means for the future public health workforce; and workers' awareness and perceptions of national trends in the field. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2019.305011DOI Listing
May 2019
4.552 Impact Factor

Association between sleep duration and breast cancer incidence: The multiethnic cohort.

Int J Cancer 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu, HI, USA.

Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second-leading cause of cancer-related death among women. Inconsistent findings for the relationship between melatonin levels, sleep duration and breast cancer have been reported. We investigated the association of sleep duration at cohort entry and its interaction with body mass index (BMI) with risk of developing breast cancer in the large population-based Multiethnic Cohort study. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32292DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

[Сases of human convalescence from rabies and lifetime diagnostics of lyssavirus encephalitis.]

Vopr Virusol 2019 ;64(1):42-48

Federal Center for Animal Health, Vladimir, 600901, Russian Federation.

Notwithstanding the availability of effective vaccines, 40 - 60 thousand rabies cases in humans are reported every year. Almost always the disease is fatal because therapeutic treatment of lyssavirus encephalitis has not been developed. Since 1970 the number of reports on rare cases of convalescence including those using experimental treatment protocols has been gradually increasing 20 cases of convalescence, "partial" convalescence or long-term survival of humans (1970-2015) were selected as they were complaint with laboratory criteria of active lyssavirus infection. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18821/0507-4088-2019-64-1-42-48DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

A Nationwide Study of Young Adults' Perspectives on Participation in Bereavement Research.

J Palliat Med 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

3 Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Young adults represent a minority in research; they are often considered too young or too old for participation. There is sparse information, especially in bereavement research, regarding how this age group perceives research participation and what they consider beneficial or harmful.

Aim: To explore how parentally bereaved and nonbereaved young adults perceive research participation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2018.0630DOI Listing

A human rights-based framework to assess gender equality in health systems: the example of Zika virus in the Americas.

Glob Health Action 2019 ;11(sup3):1570645

b Centre for Emergency Preparedness and Response , Public Health Agency of Canada , Ottawa , Canada.

Background: The right to health was enshrined in the constitution of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1946 and in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. The latter Declaration, which also guaranteed women's rights, was signed by almost all countries in the world. Subsequent international conventions reinforced these rights, requiring that women be able to realize their fundamental freedoms and dignity. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16549716.2019.1570645DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6427496PMC
January 2019

Exploring purpose-designed audio-visual falls prevention messages on older people's capability and motivation to prevent falls.

Health Soc Care Community 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Bentley, Perth, WA, Australia.

The number of falls and fall-associated injury rates among older people continues to rise worldwide. Increased efforts to influence older people's falls prevention behaviour are needed. A two-phase exploratory community-based participatory study was conducted in Western Australia. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hsc.12747DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

The Early Growth Genetics (EGG) and EArly Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortia: design, results and future prospects.

Eur J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 18;34(3):279-300. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7BN, UK.

The impact of many unfavorable childhood traits or diseases, such as low birth weight and mental disorders, is not limited to childhood and adolescence, as they are also associated with poor outcomes in adulthood, such as cardiovascular disease. Insight into the genetic etiology of childhood and adolescent traits and disorders may therefore provide new perspectives, not only on how to improve wellbeing during childhood, but also how to prevent later adverse outcomes. To achieve the sample sizes required for genetic research, the Early Growth Genetics (EGG) and EArly Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortia were established. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-019-00502-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447695PMC
March 2019
6 Reads
5.339 Impact Factor

A novel comprehensive paradigm for the etiopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis: therapeutic approaches and future perspectives on its treatment.

Amino Acids 2019 May 18;51(5):745-759. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Biochemical Sciences "A. Rossi Fanelli", Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185, Rome, Italy.

It is well recognized that variation in the geographical distribution of prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) exists: increasing the latitude its prevalence increases as well, but the underlying causes of such dissimilarity still remained elusive as of today. Currently, the most accredited hypothesis is that the closer to the equator the more pronounced is the amount of sunlight which, in turn, increases the production of vitamin D. Cholecalciferol is indeed deficient in MS patients, but this factor does not explain by itself the etiopathogenesis of the disease. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00726-019-02718-1DOI Listing
May 2019
2 Reads

Hydrocephalus in neurocysticercosis: challenges for clinical practice and basic research perspectives.

World Neurosurg 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, UNAM - Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; México/Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, Ciudad de México, México.

Purpose Of The Review: To discuss relevant data on the epidemiology of hydrocephalus in neurocysticercosis, the new knowledge coming from experimental studies, the pathophysiological mechanisms involved, and the controversies regarding clinical and surgical management.

Recent Findings: Hydrocephalus is present at the onset of the disease in 16-51% of patients with neurocysticercosis and in 64-72% of patients with the extraparenchymal form of the disease. Animal models have successfully reproduced the disease and open new therapeutic approaches perspectives. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.03.071DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Public Health Workforce Development Needs: A National Assessment of Executives' Perspectives.

Am J Prev Med 2019 May 16;56(5):e153-e161. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, Arlington, Virginia.

Introduction: Workforce development is one of the ten essential public health services. Recent studies have better characterized individual worker perceptions regarding workforce interests and needs, but gaps remain around workforce needs from program managers' perspectives. This study characterized management perspectives regarding subordinate's abilities and training needs and perceived challenges to recruitment and retention. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2018.10.032DOI Listing

Epidemiology: Back to the Future.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Center for Perinatal Research, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH.

In 2018 the Society for Epidemiologic Research (SER) and the its partner journal, the American Journal of Epidemiology (AJE), assembled a working group to develop a set of papers devoted to the "future of epidemiology". These 14 papers covered a wide range of topic areas and perspectives - from thoughts on our profession, teaching, methods, to critical areas of substantive research. The papers considered current challenges and future opportunities for research and education. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz045DOI Listing

An epidemiological and molecular study regarding the spread of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in a teaching hospital in Bogotá, Colombia 2016.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Mar 15;19(1):258. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Molecular Biology and Immunology Department, Fundación Instituto de Inmunología de Colombia (FIDIC), Carrera 50#26-20, Bogotá, Colombia.

Background: Enterococcus faecium is ranked worldwide as one of the top ten pathogens identified in healthcare-associated infections (HAI) and is classified as one of the high priority pathogens for research and development of new antibiotics worldwide. Due to molecular biology techniques' higher costs, the approach for identifying and controlling infectious diseases in developing countries has been based on clinical and epidemiological perspectives. Nevertheless, after an abrupt vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium dissemination in the Méderi teaching hospital, ending up in an outbreak, further measures needed to be taken into consideration. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3877-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6419805PMC

Using photovoice methods as a community-based participatory research tool to advance uptake of clean cooking and improve health: The LPG adoption in Cameroon evaluation studies.

Soc Sci Med 2019 May 5;228:30-40. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Public Health and Policy, University of Liverpool, UK. Electronic address:

Each year up to 2.6 million people die prematurely from household air pollution (HAP) due to cooking with polluting fuels such as wood and charcoal, particularly in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). The World Health Organisation recommends scaling the adoption of clean fuels to improve maternal and child health. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.02.044DOI Listing
May 2019
3 Reads

Inclusion of special populations in clinical research: important considerations and guidelines.

J Clin Transl Res 2018 May 7;4(1):56-69. Epub 2018 Apr 7.

UNM Clinical and Translational Science Center, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, United States.

Background: Trials that involve human participants call for experiments or observations that are performed in a clinical research setting. Currently, there are over 16,000 clinical trials open in the United States. Despite continuing efforts to include "special populations" in clinical trials, there are gaps in participation for people who are either minors or elderly adults, are from historically under-represented minorities, or live in rural communities. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6410628PMC

Food insecurity in relation to obesity in peri-urban Cape Town, South Africa: Implications for diet-related non-communicable disease.

Appetite 2019 Jun 11;137:244-249. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Division of Public Health Medicine, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Observatory, 7925, South Africa; MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science Building, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, United Kingdom.

In urban informal areas of South Africa, obesity and hunger represent two sides of food insecurity. Despite this, public health and clinical obesity interventions focus on nutrition education, implying dietary choice and thereby overlooking food insecurity. The objective of this paper is to explore peri-urban residents' perspectives of changing food environments, framed by the Food Aid Organization (FAO) definition of food security and demonstrating the interconnectedness of dimensions of food security. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01956663183117
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2019.03.012DOI Listing
June 2019
4 Reads

Burden of varicella in the Asia-Pacific region: a systematic literature review.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2019 Mar 14:1-19. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

h Center for Observational and Real-World Evidence , Merck & Co., Inc ., Kenilworth , NJ , USA.

Introduction: Varicella is a highly contagious infection that can lead to serious complications, particularly in high-risk groups; however, it is vaccine preventable. Disease awareness and understanding of the disease burden can strongly influence vaccine coverage. This review provides insight into the current epidemiology and the importance of varicella from both public health and economic perspectives across the Asia-Pacific (APAC) region. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14760584.2019.1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14760584.2019.1594781DOI Listing
March 2019
7 Reads

How patients choose kidney transplant centers: A qualitative study of patient experiences.

Clin Transplant 2019 Mar 12:e13523. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Little is known about how patients make the critical decision of choosing a transplant center. In the United States, acceptance criteria, waiting times, and mortality vary significantly by geography and center. We sought to understand patients' experiences and perspectives when selecting transplant centers. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ctr.13523DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

'Try to make good hay in the shade - it won't work!' A qualitative interview study on the perspectives of Bavarian farmers regarding primary prevention of skin cancer.

Br J Dermatol 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Institute for Medical Information Processing, Biometry, and Epidemiology, Pettenkofer School of Public Health, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

Background: Extensive exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the main risk factor for keratinocyte carcinoma (KC), making outdoor workers, including farmers, a high-risk population for KC. The use of sun protection is crucial for KC prevention but is not typically implemented by outdoor workers during their daily tasks.

Objectives: To explore the attitudes of Bavarian farmers regarding sun-protective measures in their daily work and to understand perceived barriers and unmet needs. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjd.17872DOI Listing

Epidemiology and Outcomes of Candidemia in a Referral Center in Tehran.

Caspian J Intern Med 2019 ;10(1):73-79

Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Bloodstream infection with , or candidemia, is the most common systemic infection. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of patients with candidemia to provide appropriate perspectives on these patients and reduce the associated mortality and morbidity.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all patients with at least one positive blood culture of spp. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://caspjim.com/article-1-1573-en.html
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.22088/cjim.10.1.73DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6386322PMC
January 2019
66 Reads