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    Keratinocyte Sonic Hedgehog Up-regulation Drives the Development of Giant Congenital Nevi via Paracrine Endothelin-1 Secretion.
    J Invest Dermatol 2017 Nov 11. Epub 2017 Nov 11.
    Drug Discovery Group, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address:
    Giant congenital nevi are associated with clinical complications such as neurocutaneous melanosis and melanoma. Virtually nothing is known about why some individuals develop these lesions. We previously identified the sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway regulator Cdon as a candidate nevus modifier gene. Read More

    Melanosis coli: Harmless pigmentation? A case-control retrospective study of 657 cases.
    PLoS One 2017 31;12(10):e0186668. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Department of Surgery, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.
    Backgrounds And Aims: The association of melanosis coli with the development of colorectal polyps remains uncertain.

    Methods: From a total of 18263 patients who had received colonoscopy in our hospital, 219 with melanosis coli cases and 438 controls matched by age and sex (at 1:2 ratio) were included in this study. The association of incidence, number, location, and pathology of colorectal neoplasm with grades and distribution of melanosis coli were analyzed. Read More

    Conjunctival changes in different clinical variants of early pseudoexfoliation.
    Int Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 30. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    Glaucoma Diagnostic Service, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Patia, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, 751024, India.
    Purpose: To evaluate the conjunctival signs in different forms of pseudoexfoliation (PXF) syndrome to identify signs predicting early forms of the disease.

    Methods: This observational study included patients with newly diagnosed PXF screened in the outpatient department of glaucoma services. Slit lamp photographs were captured in low and high magnification after full dilatation, and details like melanotic pigmentation, vascularity and tortuosity of vessels, scarring if any, presence of pterygium and actinic changes along with basal Schirmer's test were analysed. Read More

    Benefits of Urologic-Dermatologic Consultations for the Diagnosis of Cutaneous Penile Lesions: A Prospective Study.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Urology, Angers University Hospital, Angers, France.
    Introduction: We evaluated the benefits of a specialized consultation created in 2014 for cutaneous penile lesions.

    Materials And Methods: We performed a descriptive prospective study evaluating all patients sent for a monthly urologic-dermatologic consultation at a French university hospital from September 2014 to September 2015 for cutaneous penile lesions. All patients evaluated were included. Read More

    Morphologic and Elemental Analysis of Primary Melanosis of the Dentate Nucleus: Review and Correlation With Neuromelanin.
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2017 Nov;76(11):949-956
    Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of South Florida-Morsani, Tampa, Florida; Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, Georgia.
    Primary melanosis of the dentate nucleus is a rarely described entity with neither known cause nor definitive clinicopathologic correlation. We revisit this previously reported phenomenon by presenting one such case with a review of the pathology as well as additional investigations including elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. The lesion presented macroscopically as a sharply defined, black pigmentation that was restricted to the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum. Read More

    Dermoscopy and patch testing in patients with lichen planus pigmentosus on face: A cross-sectional observational study in fifty Indian patients.
    Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2017 Nov-Dec;83(6):656-662
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    Background: Lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP) is a common cause of facial melanosis in the dark-skinned population. At present, information on dermoscopy and patch testing in LPP is limited.

    Objectives: To describe dermoscopic findings and study the role of patch testing in patients with LPP on the face. Read More

    A 23-Nucleotide Deletion in STK11 Gene Causes Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome and Malignancy in a Chinese Patient Without a Positive Family History.
    Dig Dis Sci 2017 Nov 6;62(11):3014-3020. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Department of Medical Genetics, Naval Medical University, 800 Xiangyin Rd., Shanghai, 200433, China.
    Background And Aims: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is an autosomal-dominant genetic disease caused by mutations in the tumor suppressor gene, STK11, which is characterized by gastrointestinal hamartomas, melanin spots on the lips and the extremities, and an increased risk of developing both gastrointestinal and extraintestinal malignancies.

    Methods And Results: We treated a PJS patient without a positive family history, who possessed typical clinical manifestations including polyp canceration. In order to explore the genotype of this patient, blood samples were collected from all the available family members. Read More

    Treatment of Freckles Using a Fractional Nonablative 2940nm Erb:YAG Laser in a Series of Asian Patients.
    J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 2017 Aug 1;10(8):28-30. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Dr. Tian is with Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.
    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a novel, effective, and safe way to utilize the Erb:YAG laser to clear freckles in Type III/IV Asian skin. DESIGN: This was a prospective study. SETTING: The setting was a Singapore-based clinic. Read More

    Urothelial melanosis of the bladder.
    Can J Urol 2017 Oct;24(5):9035-9037
    Division of Urology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut, USA.
    Urothelial melanosis is a rare finding characterized by abnormal pigmentation noted on cystoscopic evaluation and histologically defined by melanin deposition in the urothelium. Although generally considered benign, few cases of urothelial melanosis have been reported in the literature and the risk of recurrence or progression remains largely unknown. Four cases associated with urothelial cell carcinoma have been previously described. Read More

    Dermatoscopic evaluation and histopathological correlation of acquired dermal macular hyperpigmentation.
    Int J Dermatol 2017 Dec 3;56(12):1395-1399. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
    Background: Acquired dermal macular hyperpigmentation (ADMH) is a hypernym encompassing Riehl's melanosis, lichen planus pigmentosus, and ashy dermatoses that show significant clinicopathological overlap. We sought to describe the dermatoscopic features of ADMH and correlate them with histopathological findings.

    Methods: This was a prospective observational study performed in two phases. Read More

    Surgical amniotic membrane transplantation after conjunctival and limbal tumor excision.
    Arq Bras Oftalmol 2017 Jul-Aug;80(4):242-246
    Department of Ophthalmology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.
    Purpose:: To evaluate the clinical results of patients treated by amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) following excision of conjunctival and limbal tumors.

    Methods:: A total of 14 eyes of 14 patients who underwent AMT after total lesion-free tumor excision and perilesional cryotherapy were evaluated.

    Results:: The excised tumors comprised 7 conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia, 5 conjunctival nevus, 1 primary acquired melanosis, and 1 squamous cell carcinoma. Read More

    Penile Melanosis Associated with Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus: First Description in the Medical Literature.
    Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2017 Aug 10;5(5):692-693. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Medical Institute of Ministry of Interior (MVR), Department of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery, Generel Skobelev 79, 1606 Sofia, Bulgaria.
    We present a 74-year-old male patient with 3-years history of visible discoloration of the glans penis, without subjective complaints. Histopathological examination after incision biopsy revealed a moderate increase in the number of melanocytes in the basal layer with irregular distribution, without melanocytic nests, melanophages in the superficial dermis, and subepidermal sclerosus. No cytologic atypia of melanocytes was detectable. Read More

    Combination of Q-Switched Nd:YAG and Fractional Erbium:YAG Lasers in Treatment of Melasma: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.
    J Lasers Med Sci 2017 8;8(1):1-6. Epub 2017 Jan 8.
    Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Introduction: Ablative and nonablative lasers have been used to treat melasma. We aimed to assess and compare the combining Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (QSNYL) and fractional erbium:YAG laser (FEYL) with QSNYL alone in treatment of melasma. Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial was performed in our Research Center during 2013-2014. Read More

    Outcome Analyses of 15,189 Screenings Via Colonoscopy.
    Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2017 Oct;27(5):400-403
    Departments of *Gastroenterology †Trauma and Orthopaedics, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Shandong Province, Peoples Republic of China.
    Purpose: This study investigated the detection rates of common colorectal diseases during colonoscopy procedures to provide reference for clinical diagnoses in China.

    Methods: A total of 15,189 participants, who underwent total colonoscopy, were studied. We analyzed the detection rates of common colorectal diseases in different sex, age, and decade groups. Read More

    [Current Therapies in Superficial Malignant Tumors].
    Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 2017 Sep 12. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Zentrum für Augenheilkunde, Universitätsklinikum Essen, Essen.
    This article is a review of diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities in common epibulbar malignant tumors, such as basal cell carcinoma, conjunctival lymphoma, squamous cell carcinoma and conjunctival melanoma. Most importantly, for every tumor patient there is a detailed anamnesis, split lamp examination and photo documentation. Further regular controls after therapy are required due to the risk of recurrences. Read More

    Systemic BRAF/MEK Inhibitors as a Potential Treatment Option in Metastatic Conjunctival Melanoma.
    Ocul Oncol Pathol 2017 Jul 8;3(2):133-141. Epub 2016 Dec 8.
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Aim: In this review, we outline similarities between conjunctival and skin melanoma as well as the effectiveness of combined BRAF/MEK inhibition in melanoma, and discuss the applicability of these agents in conjunctival melanoma.

    Methods: The study provides a PubMed literature review.

    Results: Conjunctival melanoma and skin melanoma are genetically and phenotypically related. Read More

    Oral melanoma and other pigmentations: when to biopsy?
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2017 Sep 1. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Dermatology, Department of Experimental Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Oral pigmentations (OPs) are often neglected, although a meticulous examination of the oral cavity is important not only in the diagnosis of oral melanoma, but also for the detection of important clinical findings that may indicate the presence of a systemic disease. OPs may be classified into two major groups on the basis of their clinical appearance: focal and diffuse pigmentations, even though this distinction may not appear so limpid in some cases. The former include amalgam tattoo, melanocytic nevi, melanoacanthoma and melanosis, while the latter include physiological/racial pigmentations, smoker's melanosis, drug-induced hyperpigmentations, postinflammatory hyperpigmentations and OPs associated with systemic diseases. Read More

    Peppered and rare - Gastric and Duodenal Pseudomelanosis: A case series.
    Pak J Med Sci 2017 May-Jun;33(3):757-760
    Michael Demyen, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA.
    Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) pseudomelanosis is an uncommon entity characterized by endoscopic visualization of speckled dark mucosal pigmentation. While described in the rectum and colon, 'melanosis' or more aptly 'pseudomelanosis' is rare in the duodenum and exceedingly rare in the stomach. Five cases of pseudomelanosis were encountered at our department. Read More

    A Retrospective Study, an Initial Lesion of Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Esophagus Revealed by Endoscopy.
    Intern Med 2017 Aug 1;56(16):2133-2137. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Department of Gastroenterology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.
    A 66-year-old man presented to his previous physician with epigastric discomfort in 2014. He was then referred to our hospital due to suspected primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus (PMME). A biopsy showed atypical cells containing melanin granules. Read More

    Occupational Argyria of the Nasal Mucosa.
    Head Neck Pathol 2017 Aug 4. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Otorhyniloaryngology Unit, Civitanova Marche General Hospital, Civitanova Marche, Italy.
    A biopsy specimen from the nasal mucosa of a 37-year-old man disclosed a subepithelial accumulation of black granules mainly running parallel to the surface in the absence of any inflammatory infiltrate. Since the mucosal pigment was negative with Perls' stain and resisted to melanin bleach, an exogenous pigmentation was suspected. The biopsy specimen had been taken because of a diffuse steel-blue pigmentation of the nasal mucosa, incidentally discovered during routine clinical examination. Read More

    Vulvar Neoplasms, Benign and Malignant.
    Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2017 Sep;44(3):339-352
    Bethesda Dermpath Laboratory, 1730 Elton Road, Suite 11, Silver Spring, MD 20903, USA; Anne Arundel Dermatology, Towson, MD 21204, USA; Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, 4940 Bayview Medical Center, Eastern Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. Electronic address:
    Cutaneous vulvar neoplasms are commonly encountered at gynecology visits, with 2% of women having a benign vulvar melanocytic nevus and 10% to 12% of nevi being vulvar. High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or 3) occurs in 5 per 100,000 women, with increasing incidence in the past 30 years. The recognition of these lesions and differentiation between benign, premalignant, and malignant stages are crucial for adequate diagnosis, clinical monitoring, and treatment. Read More

    Effect of chitosan-carvacrol coating on the quality of Pacific white shrimp during iced storage as affected by caprylic acid.
    Int J Biol Macromol 2017 Aug 1. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    College of Food and Medicine, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316022, China; Key Laboratory of Health Risk Factors for Seafood of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316022, China. Electronic address:
    This study aimed to investigate the effect of chitosan-carvacrol coating with or without caprylic acid (CAP) on the quality of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) during 10days of iced storage. The result showed that chitosan-carvacrol coating significantly inhibited the increase in total aerobic plate count (TPC), pH and total volatile basic nitrogen content (TVB-N) of shrimp in comparison with the control. Chitosan-carvacrol coating also delayed the melanosis formation and changes of ΔE values, and improved the texture and sensory properties of shrimp. Read More

    Gingival Pigmentation Affected by Smoking among Different Age Groups: A Quantitative Analysis of Gingival Pigmentation Using Clinical Oral Photographs.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017 Aug 4;14(8). Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Section of Geriatric Dentistry, Department of General Dentistry, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka 814-0193, Japan.
    The presence of any age-related differences in gingival pigmentation associated with smoking, particularly in a young population, remains to be fully investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the age-related differences in smoking gingival pigmentation. Gingival pigmentation was analyzed using the gingival melanosis record (GMR) and Hedin's classification with frontal oral photographs taken at 16 dental offices in Japan. Read More

    Influence of Repeated Senna Laxative Use on Skin Barrier Function in Mice.
    Ann Dermatol 2017 Aug 21;29(4):414-421. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Mie, Japan.
    Background: Senna, one of the major stimulant laxatives, is widely used for treating constipation. Chronic senna use has been reported to be associated with colonic disorders such as melanosis coli and/or epithelial hyperplasia. However, there is no obvious information on the influence of chronic senna use on organs except for the intestine. Read More

    Bioconcentration and Metabolism of Emodin in Zebrafish Eleutheroembryos.
    Front Pharmacol 2017 11;8:453. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhou, China.
    Emodin is a major active anthraquinone of various herbal laxatives, which can exert many pharmacological effects. However, chronic use of anthranoid laxatives, even at low dosages, may cause melanosis coli (MC). It has been suggested that the accumulation of anthraquinones is a risk factor in the MC process. Read More

    [Vitiligo occurring on dermal melanocytosis (nevus of Ota) in a dark-skinned patient].
    Ann Dermatol Venereol 2017 Nov 17;144(11):712-714. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Service de dermatologie, CHU, Treichville, Côte d'Ivoire.
    Background: Nevus of Ota is a rare disease most frequently found in Asians. It presents clinically as a bluish gray hyperpigmentation of one side of the face. Transformation into melanoma and glaucoma are the main risks. Read More

    Iris Freckles a Potential Biomarker for Chronic Sun Damage.
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2017 May;58(6):BIO174-BIO179
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Purpose: To investigate the role of sunlight exposure in iris freckles formation.

    Methods: We prospectively examined volunteers attending a skin cancer screening program conducted by ophthalmologists and dermatologists. Frequency and topographical variability of iris freckles were noted and associated with behavioral and dermatologic characteristics indicating high sun exposure. Read More

    Pseudomelanosis duodeni:a case report.
    Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi 2017 ;114(7):1264-1268
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences.
    An 83-year-old Japanese man underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy for screening purposes. He had a medical history of hypertension, chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, and chronic myeloid leukemia, and he had been taking the following medications:ferrous citrate, furosemide, spironolactone, tolvaptan, bisoprolol, nicorandil, warfarin, nilotinib, febuxostat, esomeprazole, digestive enzyme complex, ambroxol, carbocysteine, and potassium L-aspartate. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a brownish speckled pigmentation in the duodenal bulb. Read More

    Anatomic mapping and clinicopathologic analysis of benign acral melanocytic neoplasms: A comparison between adults and children.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2017 Oct 1;77(4):735-745. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    Department of Dermatology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea. Electronic address:
    Background: The clinicopathologic features of benign acral melanocytic neoplasms (BAMNs) remain poorly understood.

    Objective: To define the clinicopathologic features of BAMNs.

    Methods: We analyzed clinical data and mapped BAMNs anatomically. Read More

    Late Solitary Extraocular Recurrence From Previously Resected Iris Melanoma.
    Am J Ophthalmol 2017 Sep 1;181:97-105. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    Ocular Oncology Service, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, United Kingdom; UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, United Kingdom.
    Purpose: To report on cases of late extraocular relapse of previously resected iris melanoma, without concurrent intraocular recurrence.

    Design: Retrospective case series.

    Methods: A retrospective chart review of 4 patients diagnosed with late subconjunctival relapse of previously resected iris melanoma. Read More

    Cancer risk in patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: A retrospective cohort study of 336 cases.
    Tumour Biol 2017 Jun;39(6):1010428317705131
    1 Department of Gastroenterology, Clinical College of Air Force General Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Beijing, China.
    Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by mucocutaneous pigmentation and hamartomatous gastrointestinal polyposis. A growing body of evidence has shown that Peutz-Jeghers syndrome could cause an increased risk of various cancers, yet the range of cancer risk estimates was wide among different studies. In this retrospective cohort study, 336 patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome in China were enrolled. Read More

    Efficacy of surgical laser therapy in the management of oral pigmented lesions: A systematic review.
    J Photochem Photobiol B 2017 Aug 15;173:353-359. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Division of General Dentistry, Eastman Institute for Oral Health, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, United States.
    Background: Oral pigmentation, especially in the gingiva poses esthetic problems. Laser therapy has been widely used for cosmetic therapy in dentistry. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the efficacy of surgical laser therapy (SLT) in the management of oral pigmented lesions (OPL). Read More


    In vivo efficacy of the AKT inhibitor ARQ 092 in Noonan Syndrome with multiple lentigines-associated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
    PLoS One 2017 5;12(6):e0178905. Epub 2017 Jun 5.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.
    Noonan Syndrome with Multiple Lentigines (NSML, formerly LEOPARD syndrome) is an autosomal dominant "RASopathy" disorder manifesting in congenital heart disease. Most cases of NSML are caused by catalytically inactivating mutations in the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP), non-receptor type 11 (PTPN11), encoding the SH2 domain-containing PTP-2 (SHP2) protein. We previously generated knock-in mice harboring the PTPN11 mutation Y279C, one of the most common NSML alleles; these now-termed SHP2Y279C/+ mice recapitulate the human disorder and develop hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) by 12 weeks of age. Read More

    Ophthalmic Manifestations of Xeroderma Pigmentosum: A Perspective from the United Kingdom.
    Ophthalmology 2017 Nov 26;124(11):1652-1661. Epub 2017 May 26.
    Nationally Commissioned Xeroderma Pigmentosum Service, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom; Department of Ophthalmology, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom.
    Purpose: To document the ocular manifestations of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), presenting via the United Kingdom (UK) XP service, and to analyze the correlations between XP genotype and ophthalmic phenotype.

    Design: Prospective observational case series.

    Subjects: Eighty-nine patients seen by the UK Nationally Commissioned XP Service, from April 2010 to December 2014, with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of XP. Read More

    Epidemiology and Predisposing Factors for Erythema Toxicum Neonatorum and Transient Neonatal Pustular: A Multicenter Study.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2017 Jul 25;34(4):422-426. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Department of Dermatology, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
    Background/objectives: Erythema toxicum neonatorum (ETN) and transient neonatal pustular melanosis (TNPM) are benign pustular skin conditions that are relatively common in newborns, but the predisposing factors for these conditions are unknown. Our goal was to verify the prevalence of ETN and TNPM and their predisposing factors in a large sample of neonates.

    Methods: In this prospective 1-year multicenter study, 2,831 neonates (age ≤72 hours) born in southern Brazil were randomized to undergo skin examination by a dermatologist. Read More

    Eosinophilic annular erythema is clinically characterized by central pigmentation reflecting basal melanosis: a clinicopathological study of 10 cases.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2017 Nov 21;31(11):1916-1923. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Dermatology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.
    Background: Eosinophilic annular erythema (EAE) has been proposed as a clinical entity to describe annular skin lesions associated with tissue eosinophilia. However, systematic investigations on the histopathology of EAE have not been performed, and useful histopathological findings for diagnosis of EAE remain unknown.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological features of EAE. Read More

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