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    Pathology of tail fan necrosis in the spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii.
    J Invertebr Pathol 2018 Mar 21;154:5-11. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    Institute of Marine Science, The University of Auckland, New Zealand; School of Biological Sciences, The University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Tail fan necrosis (TFN) is the bacterial infection of the tail fan of spiny lobsters which leads to melanosis and erosion of the tail fan tissues. The condition is commonly found among spiny lobsters in aquaculture and commercial fisheries, and greatly reduces their commercial value. This study describes the pathology of TFN by examining the tail fans (telson, uropods) and internal organs (mid-gut, hepatopancreas, heart and gill) of 29 affected wild spiny lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) and 14 unaffected in New Zealand. Read More

    Gender, age, and concomitant diseases of melanosis coli in China: a multicenter study of 6,090 cases.
    PeerJ 2018 8;6:e4483. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    Department of Gasterology, General Hospital of the Xinjiang Military Region, Urumqi, China.
    Backgrounds And Aims: Melanosis coli (MC) is a noninflammatory, benign, and reversible colonic disorder, but its detection rates in China are unclear. We therefore aimed to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of MC in China.

    Methods: We assessed the detection rates, associated factors and concomitant diseases of MC in the patients who underwent colonoscopy at eight medical centers across five regions of China between January 2006 and October 2016. Read More

    Rare finding of concomitant pseudomelanosis of stomach and duodenum; case report and literature review.
    Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2018 ;11(1):86-89
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, SBH Health System, 4422 Third Ave, Bronx, New York, USA.
    Melanosis of the stomach and duodenum is a rare entity and a striking finding diagnosed by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Here, we describe the case of an 83-year-old female, with a complicated medical history, who was referred to gastroenterologist to assess bleeding risk. From the endoscopy, it was determined that she had both melanosis gastri and duodeni. Read More

    Blue Nevi of the Ocular Surface: Clinical Characteristics, Pathologic Features, and Clinical Course.
    Ophthalmology 2018 Mar 15. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami, Miami, Florida. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Blue nevus is a melanocytic tumor that is commonly found in the skin. Extracutaneous presentations, including the ocular surface, are rare. As such, the purpose of this study was to characterize the clinical features and clinical course of congenital melanocytic tumor (blue nevus) of the conjunctiva. Read More

    Neurocutaneous melanosis in an adult patient with intracranial primary malignant melanoma: case report and review of the literature.
    World Neurosurg 2018 Mar 9. Epub 2018 Mar 9.
    The Affiliated Suzhou Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Suzhou Municipal Hospital. Department of Neurosurgery, Suzhou215002, China. Electronic address:
    Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics of neurocutaneous melanosis (NCM) in adult patients in order to help improve diagnosis and treatment of this disease.

    Methods: We present a rare case of an adult patient suffering from neurocutaneous melanosis with malignant melanoma as well as a review Chinese and English literature, and analyze their clinical features.

    Results: There were thirty adult NCM patients, aged 19 to 65 years old, average 27. Read More

    Giant Congenital Melanocytic Nevi: An Update and Emerging Therapies.
    Case Rep Dermatol 2018 Jan-Apr;10(1):24-28. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    cDepartment of Pediatrics, Richmond University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.
    Giant congenital melanocytic nevi (GCMN) are a rare occurrence. Gain-of-function mutation in the NRAS gene is found to be associated with GCMN, causing abnormal proliferation of embryonic melanoblasts. The two major complications associated with GCMN are malignant melanoma and neurocutaneous melanosis. Read More

    Population-based incidence of conjunctival tumours in Olmsted County, Minnesota.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2018 Mar 6. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.
    Aim: To determine population-based incidence of conjunctival tumours in Olmsted County, Minnesota.

    Methods: The Rochester Epidemiology Project medical record linkage system was used to identify patients with conjunctival tumours in Olmsted County (1 January 1980 to 31 December 2015). Records were reviewed for demographics, types of tumours, histopathology, treatment and clinical course. Read More

    CCN1/Cyr61 Stimulates Melanogenesis Through Integrin α6β1, p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 Signaling Pathways in Human Epidermal Melanocytes.
    J Invest Dermatol 2018 Mar 3. Epub 2018 Mar 3.
    Department of Dermatology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, PR China. Electronic address:
    Fibroblast-derived melanogenic paracrine mediators are known to play a role in melanogenesis. To investigate the effect of CCN1 (also called CYR61, cysteine-rich 61) on melanogenesis, normal human epidermal melanocytes (NHEMs) were treated with recombinant CCN1 protein. Our findings reveal that CCN1 activates melanogenesis through promoting melanosome maturation and upregulation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1) and tyrosinase via integrin α6β1, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Read More

    Massive intussusception caused by a solitary Peutz-Jeghers type hamartomatous polyp.
    Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2018 Apr 27;100(4):e91-e93. Epub 2018 Feb 27.
    Surgical Department, General Hospital of Agrinio , Agrinio, Aitoloakarnania , Greece.
    Intussusception is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction in adults and represents a diagnostic challenge for the surgeon. In the majority of cases, presenting symptoms are not specific, making preoperative diagnosis difficult. Several medical conditions may cause intestinal intussusception. Read More

    Pigmentation Disorders: Diagnosis and Management.
    Am Fam Physician 2017 Dec;96(12):797-804
    Norton Audobon Hospital, Louisville, KY, USA.
    Pigmentation disorders are commonly diagnosed, evaluated, and treated in primary care practices. Typical hyperpigmentation disorders include postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, solar lentigines, ephelides (freckles), and café au lait macules. These conditions are generally benign but can be distressing to patients. Read More

    Clinical profile of 300 men with facial hypermelanosis.
    J Dermatol Case Rep 2017 Dec 1;11(2):20-24. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Department of Dermatology, Venereology & Leprosy, Dr. R. P. Govt. Medical College, Kangra (Tanda)-176001 (Himachal Pradesh), India.
    Background: Facial hypermelanosis is a significant cause of cosmetic disfigurement, social embarrassment and psychological morbidity affecting quality of life.

    Objective: To study clinicoepidemlogic patterns of facial hypermelanoses among men.

    Material And Methods: Medical records of all adult males presenting with facial hypermelanoses were analyzed for this retrospective cross sectional study for demographic details, duration, cosmetic usage, sun exposure, drug intake, infections, systemic or cutaneous diseases, and family history of hypermelanotic dermatosis. Read More

    [Phakomatosis pigmentovascularis cesioflammea: a case report].
    Arch Argent Pediatr 2018 Feb;116(1):e121-e124
    Servicio de Dermatología, Hospital Nacional de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. J. P. Garrahan", Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires.
    Phakomatosis pigmentovascularis (PPV) is a syndrome characterized by the association of a vascular nevus with a congenital pigmented lesion (epidermal nevus, nevus spilus, and dermal melanocytosis). There are different types of PPV according to the pigmentary nevus associated with the vascular malformation. Patients may present only the cutaneous condition or have systemic manifestations, among them, trauma, neurological and ophthalmological disorders. Read More

    [A woman with hyperpigmentation and dark urine].
    Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2017 ;161(0):D1944
    Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Ziekenhuis, afd. Medische Oncologie, Amsterdam.
    A 54-year-old patient was evaluated because of fever shortly after she had started treatment of a BRAF-mutated melanoma with BRAF- and MEK-inhibitors. Diffuse hyperpigmentation of the skin was noted as an incidental finding. She also had darkly coloured urine. Read More

    Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma with nodal melanosis: A rare cause of cystic cervical lymphadenopathy.
    Head Neck 2018 Apr 2;40(4):E33-E35. Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    Department of General Surgery, Sengkang General Hospital, Singapore.
    Background: Head and neck malignancies often present as firm, solid nodal masses. However, malignancies arising from Waldeyer's Ring may give rise to cystic lymph nodes.

    Methods: A 57-year-old man was referred for left-sided neck swelling of 2 weeks' duration. Read More

    Skin autofluorescence reflects individual seasonal UV exposure, skin photodamage and skin cancer development in organ transplant recipients.
    J Photochem Photobiol B 2018 Jan 6;178:577-583. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Department of Dermato-venerology, Bispebjerg University Hospital, 2400 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Importance: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced skin cancers varies among organ transplant recipients (OTRs). To improve individual risk assessment of skin cancer, objectively quantified skin photodamage is needed.

    Objectives: We measured personal UVR-exposure dose in OTRs and assessed the relation between individual UVR exposure, skin cancer and objectively measured photodamage in terms of skin autofluorescence, pigmentation, and black light-evaluated solar lentigines. Read More

    Diffuse cutaneous melanosis: rare complication of metastatic melanoma.
    An Bras Dermatol 2017 ;92(5 Suppl 1):62-64
    Private practice - Brasília (DF), Brazil.
    Diffuse cutaneous melanosis is a rare complication of metastatic melanoma related to a worse prognosis. There are few cases reported in the literature. Its pathogenesis has not been completely elucidated, although studies have suggested certain mechanisms for its occurrence. Read More

    A novel germline mutation (c.A527G) in STK11 gene causes Peutz-Jeghers syndrome in a Chinese girl: A case report.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Dec;96(49):e8591
    aDepartment of Medical Genetics, Naval Medical University, Shanghai 200433, ChinabHebei North University, Zhangjiakou, Hebei Province, ChinacDepartment of Gastroenterology, Airforce General Hospital of PLA, Beijing, China.
    Rationale: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a Mendelian autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the tumor suppressor gene, serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11). The features of this syndrome include gastrointestinal (GI) hamartomas, melanin spots on the lips and the extremities, and an increased risk of developing cancer. Early onset of disease is often characterized by mucocutaneous pigmentation and intussusception due to GI polyps in childhood. Read More

    A giant and extensive solitary Peutz-Jeghers-type polyp in the antrum of stomach: Case report.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Dec;96(49):e8466
    aDepartment of Gastroenterology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, ChinabDepartment of Gastroenterology, Xi'an Children's Hospital, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.
    Rationale: A solitary Peutz-Jeghers-type polyp is a hamartomatous polyp which without either mucocutaneous pigmentation or a family history of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS). It can occur in all of the gastrointestinal tract, but it is extremely rare in the stomach.

    Patient Concerns: A 53-year-old man was admitted to the local hospital with left upper abdominal pain lasting 2 weeks. Read More

    Hyperpigmentation of the hard palate mucosa in a patient with chronic myeloid leukaemia taking imatinib.
    Maxillofac Plast Reconstr Surg 2017 Dec 5;39(1):37. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Maxillo-Facial and Dental Unit, Fondazione Ca' Granda IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, University of Milan, Via Commenda 10, 20122 Milan, Italy.
    Background: Imatinib mesylate is an inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase Bcr-Abl and a first-line treatment for Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). Dermatological side effects include superficial oedema, pustular eruption, lichenoid reactions, erythroderma, and skin rash. Depigmentation of the skin and/or mucosa is uncommon, and hyperpigmentation is rare. Read More

    Treatment of Melasma and Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation by a Picosecond 755-nm Alexandrite Laser in Asian Patients.
    Ann Dermatol 2017 Dec 30;29(6):779-781. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    Department of Dermatology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    The picosecond lasers have shown to effectively treat tattoo pigments that are intractable to previous multiple Q-switched (QS) laser treatments. Therefore we hypothesized that a picosecond laser would show better efficacy with minimal adverse events in the treatment of melasma and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) that are difficult to treat with conventional QS lasers. Two patients with melasma and one patient with PIH were treated with a Picosecond 755-nm Alexandrite Laser (Cyanosure, USA). Read More

    Genetic determinants of freckle occurrence in the Spanish population: Towards ephelides prediction from human DNA samples.
    Forensic Sci Int Genet 2018 Mar 23;33:38-47. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Department of Medicine, Jaume I University of Castellon, Ave. Sos Baynat, 12071, Castellon, Spain. Electronic address:
    Prediction of human pigmentation traits, one of the most differentiable externally visible characteristics among individuals, from biological samples represents a useful tool in the field of forensic DNA phenotyping. In spite of freckling being a relatively common pigmentation characteristic in Europeans, little is known about the genetic basis of this largely genetically determined phenotype in southern European populations. In this work, we explored the predictive capacity of eight freckle and sunlight sensitivity-related genes in 458 individuals (266 non-freckled controls and 192 freckled cases) from Spain. Read More

    Assessment of the effects of skin microneedling as adjuvant therapy for facial melasma: a pilot study.
    BMC Dermatol 2017 Nov 28;17(1):14. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    Unesp Medical School, Botucatu, SP, Brazil.
    Background: Melasma is a common chronic and relapsing acquired dyschromia. Skin microneedling was reported resulting sustained long-term improvement of recalcitrant melasma, however, the exact mechanism that promotes this skin lightening is not known. This study aimed to investigate clinical and histologic alterations promoted by skin microneedling in facial melasma. Read More

    Sanger sequencing in exonic regions of STK11 gene uncovers a novel de-novo germline mutation (c.962_963delCC) associated with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and elevated cancer risk: case report of a Chinese patient.
    BMC Med Genet 2017 11 15;18(1):130. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Department of Medical Genetics, Naval Medical University, 800 Xiangyin Rd, Shanghai, 200433, China.
    Background: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is caused by mutations in the tumor suppressor gene, STK11, and is characterized by gastrointestinal hamartomas, melanin spots on the lips and the extremities, and an increased risk of developing cancer.

    Case Presentation: We reported an isolated PJS patient who died of colon cancer, whose blood sample was collected together with all the available family members'. The entire coding region of the STK11 gene was amplified by PCR and analyzed by Sanger sequencing, through which, a novel mutation, c. Read More

    Keratinocyte Sonic Hedgehog Upregulation Drives the Development of Giant Congenital Nevi via Paracrine Endothelin-1 Secretion.
    J Invest Dermatol 2018 Apr 11;138(4):893-902. Epub 2017 Nov 11.
    Drug Discovery Group, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address:
    Giant congenital nevi are associated with clinical complications such as neurocutaneous melanosis and melanoma. Virtually nothing is known about why some individuals develop these lesions. We previously identified the sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway regulator Cdon as a candidate nevus modifier gene. Read More

    Melanosis coli: Harmless pigmentation? A case-control retrospective study of 657 cases.
    PLoS One 2017 31;12(10):e0186668. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Department of Surgery, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.
    Backgrounds And Aims: The association of melanosis coli with the development of colorectal polyps remains uncertain.

    Methods: From a total of 18263 patients who had received colonoscopy in our hospital, 219 with melanosis coli cases and 438 controls matched by age and sex (at 1:2 ratio) were included in this study. The association of incidence, number, location, and pathology of colorectal neoplasm with grades and distribution of melanosis coli were analyzed. Read More

    Conjunctival changes in different clinical variants of early pseudoexfoliation.
    Int Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 30. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    Glaucoma Diagnostic Service, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Patia, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, 751024, India.
    Purpose: To evaluate the conjunctival signs in different forms of pseudoexfoliation (PXF) syndrome to identify signs predicting early forms of the disease.

    Methods: This observational study included patients with newly diagnosed PXF screened in the outpatient department of glaucoma services. Slit lamp photographs were captured in low and high magnification after full dilatation, and details like melanotic pigmentation, vascularity and tortuosity of vessels, scarring if any, presence of pterygium and actinic changes along with basal Schirmer's test were analysed. Read More

    Benefits of Urologic-Dermatologic Consultations for the Diagnosis of Cutaneous Penile Lesions: A Prospective Study.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2018 Apr 5;16(2):e421-e424. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Urology, Angers University Hospital, Angers, France.
    Introduction: We evaluated the benefits of a specialized consultation created in 2014 for cutaneous penile lesions.

    Materials And Methods: We performed a descriptive prospective study evaluating all patients sent for a monthly urologic-dermatologic consultation at a French university hospital from September 2014 to September 2015 for cutaneous penile lesions. All patients evaluated were included. Read More

    Morphologic and Elemental Analysis of Primary Melanosis of the Dentate Nucleus: Review and Correlation With Neuromelanin.
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2017 Nov;76(11):949-956
    Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of South Florida-Morsani, Tampa, Florida; Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, Georgia.
    Primary melanosis of the dentate nucleus is a rarely described entity with neither known cause nor definitive clinicopathologic correlation. We revisit this previously reported phenomenon by presenting one such case with a review of the pathology as well as additional investigations including elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. The lesion presented macroscopically as a sharply defined, black pigmentation that was restricted to the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum. Read More

    Dermoscopy and patch testing in patients with lichen planus pigmentosus on face: A cross-sectional observational study in fifty Indian patients.
    Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2017 Nov-Dec;83(6):656-662
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    Background: Lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP) is a common cause of facial melanosis in the dark-skinned population. At present, information on dermoscopy and patch testing in LPP is limited.

    Objectives: To describe dermoscopic findings and study the role of patch testing in patients with LPP on the face. Read More

    A 23-Nucleotide Deletion in STK11 Gene Causes Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome and Malignancy in a Chinese Patient Without a Positive Family History.
    Dig Dis Sci 2017 11 6;62(11):3014-3020. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Department of Medical Genetics, Naval Medical University, 800 Xiangyin Rd., Shanghai, 200433, China.
    Background And Aims: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is an autosomal-dominant genetic disease caused by mutations in the tumor suppressor gene, STK11, which is characterized by gastrointestinal hamartomas, melanin spots on the lips and the extremities, and an increased risk of developing both gastrointestinal and extraintestinal malignancies.

    Methods And Results: We treated a PJS patient without a positive family history, who possessed typical clinical manifestations including polyp canceration. In order to explore the genotype of this patient, blood samples were collected from all the available family members. Read More

    Treatment of Freckles Using a Fractional Nonablative 2940nm Erb:YAG Laser in a Series of Asian Patients.
    J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 2017 Aug 1;10(8):28-30. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Dr. Tian is with Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.
    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a novel, effective, and safe way to utilize the Erb:YAG laser to clear freckles in Type III/IV Asian skin. This was a prospective study. The setting was a Singapore-based clinic. Read More

    Urothelial melanosis of the bladder.
    Can J Urol 2017 Oct;24(5):9035-9037
    Division of Urology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut, USA.
    Urothelial melanosis is a rare finding characterized by abnormal pigmentation noted on cystoscopic evaluation and histologically defined by melanin deposition in the urothelium. Although generally considered benign, few cases of urothelial melanosis have been reported in the literature and the risk of recurrence or progression remains largely unknown. Four cases associated with urothelial cell carcinoma have been previously described. Read More

    Dermatoscopic evaluation and histopathological correlation of acquired dermal macular hyperpigmentation.
    Int J Dermatol 2017 Dec 3;56(12):1395-1399. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
    Background: Acquired dermal macular hyperpigmentation (ADMH) is a hypernym encompassing Riehl's melanosis, lichen planus pigmentosus, and ashy dermatoses that show significant clinicopathological overlap. We sought to describe the dermatoscopic features of ADMH and correlate them with histopathological findings.

    Methods: This was a prospective observational study performed in two phases. Read More

    Surgical amniotic membrane transplantation after conjunctival and limbal tumor excision.
    Arq Bras Oftalmol 2017 Jul-Aug;80(4):242-246
    Department of Ophthalmology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.
    Purpose:: To evaluate the clinical results of patients treated by amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) following excision of conjunctival and limbal tumors.

    Methods:: A total of 14 eyes of 14 patients who underwent AMT after total lesion-free tumor excision and perilesional cryotherapy were evaluated.

    Results:: The excised tumors comprised 7 conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia, 5 conjunctival nevus, 1 primary acquired melanosis, and 1 squamous cell carcinoma. Read More

    The clinicoaetiological, hormonal and histopathological characteristics of melasma in men.
    Clin Exp Dermatol 2018 Jan 22;43(1):36-41. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Department of Endocrinology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
    Background: Melasma is relatively uncommon in males, and there is a paucity of data on male melasma, including its clinical pattern, triggering factors, endocrine profile and histopathological findings.

    Aim: To characterize the clinical findings and aetiological factors, including hormonal and histopathological features, of male melasma.

    Methods: Male patients with melasma and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. Read More

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