2,214,658 results match your criteria Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC[Journal]


NK and T cell subsets in malignant mesothelioma patients: baseline pattern and changes in the context of anti-CTLA-4 therapy.

Int J Cancer 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology (MTC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly aggressive form of cancer with limited treatment options. Although the role of NK cells has been studied in many solid tumors, the pattern of NK cell subsets and their recognition of mesothelioma cells remains to be explored. We used RNA expression data of MM biopsies derived from the cancer genome atlas to evaluate the immune cell infiltrates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32363DOI Listing

Diabetes mellitus, genetic variants in the insulin-like growth factor pathway and colorectal cancer risk.

Int J Cancer 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Epidemiology, GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Genetic variation in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway may further increase the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Joint effects of T2DM and genetic variation in the IGF pathway on CRC risk can increase mechanistic insights. Participants from the Netherlands Cohort Study (n=120,852) completed a baseline questionnaire in 1986 when 55-69 years old (case-cohort, n subcohort=5,000, n cases = 3,441 after 16. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32365DOI Listing

Autophagy in Pulmonary Innate Immunity.

J Innate Immun 2019 Apr 24:1-10. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Autophagy is a major intracellular digestion system that delivers cytoplasmic components for degradation and recycling. In this capacity, autophagy plays an important role in maintaining cellular homeostasis by mediating the degradation of cellular macromolecules and dysfunctional organelles and regeneration of nutrients for cell growth. Autophagy is important in innate immunity, as it is responsible for the clearance of various pathogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000497414DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Different Psychosocial Factors Are Associated with Seasonal and Perennial Allergies in Adults: Cross-Sectional Results of the KORA FF4 Study.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2019 Apr 24:1-11. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Chair and Institute of Environmental Medicine, UNIKA-T, Technical University of Munich and Helmholtz Zentrum München, Augsburg, Germany,

Background: Psychosocial factors are supposed to play a central role in the development of allergic diseases. Associations with seasonal and perennial forms of allergies have not been investigated, yet.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the associations of psychosocial factors (social status, depression, generalized anxiety, psychosocial stress, Type-D personality) with seasonal, perennial, and other forms of allergies in adults. Read More

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https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/499042
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000499042DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Validation of a rapid, conservative transuranic alpha activity estimation method in air samples.

J Radiol Prot 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, UNITED STATES.

In air filter assay for radiological emergency response, radon (<sup>222</sup>Rn) and thoron (<sup>220</sup>Rn) progeny are known interferents to transuranic activity estimation. Previous work detailed a conservative, graded approach for TRU alpha activity estimation from air samples void of transuranic activity yet containing varying amounts of radon and thoron progeny. Validation of this method to produce rapid, conservative and defensible transuranic alpha activity estimates was accomplished through introduction of surrogate transuranic activity, <sup>239</sup>Pu and <sup>230</sup>Th check sources, along with the naturally occurring radioactive progeny from an environmental air filter. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6498/ab1bfdDOI Listing

Parameterizing and validating existing algorithms for identifying out-of-bed time using hip-worn accelerometer data from older women.

Physiol Meas 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, UNITED STATES.

Objective: To parameterize and validate two existing algorithms for identifying out-of-bed time using 24-hour hip-worn accelerometer data from older women. 
 
 Approach: Overall, 628 women (80±6 years old) wore ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers 24 hours/day for up to 7 days and concurrently completed sleep-logs. Trained staff used a validated visual analysis protocol to measure in-bed periods on accelerometer tracings (criterion). Read More

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http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6579/ab1c04
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6579/ab1c04DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Higher urinary cortisol levels associated with increased cardiovascular risk.

Endocr Connect 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

G Williams, Medicine/Endocrinology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, 02115, United States.

There is conflicting data on whether variations of physiologic cortisol levels associate with cardiovascular risk. We hypothesize that prior discordant findings are related to problems associated with varying sample size, techniques for assessing cardiovascular risk, and failure to adequately account for environmental factors. We utilized a large sample size, selected the Framingham risk score to compute cardiovascular risk, and performed the study in a highly controlled setting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EC-19-0182DOI Listing

Practical considerations for developmental thyroid toxicity assessments: What's working, what's not, and how can we do better?

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

BASF SE, Experimental Toxicology and Ecology, 67056, Ludwigshafen, Germany. Electronic address:

Thyroid hormones (THs; T3 and T4) play a role in development of cardiovascular, reproductive, immune and nervous systems. Thus, interpretation of TH changes from rodent studies (during pregnancy, in fetuses, neonates, and adults) is critical in hazard characterization and risk assessment. A roundtable session at the 2017 Society of Toxicology (SOT) meeting brought together academic, industry and government scientists to share knowledge and different perspectives on technical and data interpretation issues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2019.04.010DOI Listing

Large-scale network interactions involved in dividing attention between the external environment and internal thoughts to pursue two distinct goals.

Neuroimage 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Department of Psychology, Harvard University, William James Hall, 33 Kirkland Street, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA. Electronic address:

Previous research suggests that default-mode network (DMN) and dorsal attention network (DAN) are involved in internally- and externally-directed attention, respectively, through interactions with salience network (SN) and frontoparietal network (FPCN). Performing a task requiring external attention is often accompanied by a down-regulation of attention to internal thoughts, and vice-versa. In contrast, we often divide our attention between the external environment and internal thoughts to pursue distinct goals, yet virtually no prior research has examined how brain networks support this functionally critical neurocognitive process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.04.054DOI Listing

Corneal autophagy and ocular surface inflammation: A new perspective in dry eye.

Exp Eye Res 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Department of Ophthalmology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 515282, PR China. Electronic address:

Dry eye disease (DED), a multifactorial ocular surface disorder affecting millions of individuals worldwide, is characterized by inflammation and damage to the ocular surface. It is unclear whether corneal autophagy participates in ocular surface inflammation observed in DED. To test this involvement, dry eye (DE) was induced in female C57BL/6 mice housed in a controlled environment by subcutaneous injection of scopolamine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2019.04.023DOI Listing

Associations between self-generated strategy use and MET-Home performance in adults with stroke.

Neuropsychol Rehabil 2019 Apr 24:1-15. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

e School of Occupational Therapy , Texas Woman's University , Dallas , TX , USA.

Self-generated strategy use has substantial potential for improving community living outcomes in adults with impaired executive function after stroke. However, little is known about how self-generated strategies support task performance in people with post-stroke executive function impairments living in the community. We explored strategy use among home-dwelling persons with stroke and neurologically-healthy control participants during the Multiple Errands Test-Home Version (MET-Home), a context-specific assessment with evidence of ecological validity designed to examine how post-stroke executive dysfunction manifests during task performance in the home environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09602011.2019.1601112DOI Listing

Early Binaural Hearing: The Comparison of Temporal Differences at the Two Ears.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus University Medical Center, 3000 CA Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Many mammals, including humans, are exquisitely sensitive to tiny time differences between sounds at the two ears. These interaural time differences are an important source of information for sound detection, for sound localization in space, and for environmental awareness. Two brainstem circuits are involved in the initial temporal comparisons between the ears, centered on the medial and lateral superior olive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-061925DOI Listing

Enhancement of Photocatalytic Activity of Bi O -BiOI Composite Nanosheets through Vacancy Engineering.

Small 2019 Apr 24:e1900020. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, P. R. China.

Vacancy engineering is an effective strategy to enhance solar-driven photocatalytic performance of semiconductors. It is highly desirable to improve the photocatalytic performance of composite nanomaterials by the introduction of vacancies, but the role of vacancies and the heterostructure in the photocatalytic process is elusive to the composite nanomaterials. Herein, the introduction of I vacancies can significantly enhance the photocatalytic activity of Bi O -BiOI composite nanosheets in a synergistic manner. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201900020DOI Listing

A theory of pulse dynamics and disturbance in ecology.

Ecology 2019 Apr 24:e02734. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA.

We propose four postulates as the minimum set of logical propositions necessary for a theory of pulse dynamics and disturbance in ecosystems: 1) 'Resource Dynamics' characterizes the magnitude, rate, and duration of resource change caused by pulse events, including the continuing changes in resources that are the result of abiotic and biotic processes; 2) 'Energy Flux' characterizes the energy flow that controls the variation in the rates of resource assimilation across ecosystems; 3) 'Patch Dynamics' characterizes the distribution of resource patches over space and time, and the resulting patterns of biotic diversity, ecosystem structure, and cross-scale feedbacks of pulses processes; and 4) 'Biotic Trait Diversity' characterizes the evolutionary responses to pulse dynamics and, in turn, the way trait diversity affects ecosystem dynamics during and after pulse events. We apply the four postulates to an important class of pulse events, biomass-altering disturbances, and derive seven generalizations that predict disturbance magnitude, resource trajectory, rate of resource change, disturbance probability, biotic trait diversification at evolutionary scales, biotic diversity at ecological scales, and functional resilience. Ultimately, theory must define the variable combinations that result in dynamic stability, comprising resistance, recovery, and adaptation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2734DOI Listing

An approach for visualizing the spatial metabolome of an entire plant root system inspired by the Swiss-rolling technique.

J Mass Spectrom 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, 99352.

The spatial configuration and morphology of roots are commonly monitored for a better understanding of plant health and development. However, this approach provides minimal details about the biochemistry regulating the observable traits. Therefore, the ability to metabolically map the entire root structure would be of major value. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jms.4363DOI Listing

Psychotic-like experiences and cannabis use in adolescents from the general population.

Adicciones 2019 Mar 28;0(0):1149. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Universidad de La Rioja Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Oviedo.

The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between psychotic-like experiences and cannabis use in a representative sample of adolescents from the general population. A total of 1,588 students (M=16.13 years, SD = 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.1149DOI Listing

Unmasking cellular response of a bloom-forming alga to viral infection by resolving expression profiles at a single-cell level.

PLoS Pathog 2019 Apr 24;15(4):e1007708. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

Infection by large dsDNA viruses can lead to a profound alteration of host transcriptome and metabolome in order to provide essential building blocks to support the high metabolic demand for viral assembly and egress. Host response to viral infection can typically lead to diverse phenotypic outcome that include shift in host life cycle and activation of anti-viral defense response. Nevertheless, there is a major bottleneck to discern between viral hijacking strategies and host defense responses when averaging bulk population response. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007708
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007708DOI Listing
April 2019
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Are we restoring functional fens? - The outcomes of restoration projects in fens re-analysed with plant functional traits.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(4):e0215645. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Plant Ecology & Environmental Conservation, Institute of Botany, Biological and Chemical Research Centre, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

In peatland restoration we often lack an information whether re-established ecosystems are functionally similar to non-degraded ones. We re-analysed the long-term outcomes of restoration on vegetation and plant functional traits in 38 European fens restored by rewetting (18 sites) and topsoil removal (20 sites). We used traits related to nutrient acquisition strategies, competitiveness, seed traits, and used single- and multi-trait metrics. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215645PLOS

Inherited risk plus prenatal insult caused malignant dysfunction in mesenteric arteries in adolescent SHR offspring.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(4):e0215994. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Institute for Fetology, First Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China.

Prenatal hypoxia can induce cardiovascular diseases in the offspring. This study determined whether and how prenatal hypoxia may cause malignant hypertension and impaired vascular functions in spontaneous hypertension rat (SHR) offspring at adolescent stage. Pregnant SHR were placed in a hypoxic chamber (11% O2) or normal environment (21% O2) from gestational day 6 until birth. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215994PLOS

Concurrent visual encounter sampling validates eDNA selectivity and sensitivity for the endangered wood turtle (Glyptemys insculpta).

PLoS One 2019 24;14(4):e0215586. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Center for Conservation Genomics, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Washington, DC, United States of America.

Environmental DNA (eDNA) has been used to record the presence of many different organisms in several different aquatic and terrestrial environments. Although eDNA has been demonstrated as a useful tool for the detection of invasive and/or cryptic and declining species, this approach is subject to the same considerations that limit the interpretation of results from traditional survey techniques (e.g. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215586PLOS

Plasma pharmacokinetic profile and efficacy of meloxicam administered subcutaneously and intramuscularly to sheep.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(4):e0215842. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Plasma pharmacokinetic profiles and the anti-inflammatory efficacy of meloxicam were determined when administered subcutaneously (SC) or intramuscularly (IM) to sheep. Merino ewes were initially injected with 0.1 mL of oil of turpentine into a forelimb to induce inflammation, followed by either 1. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215842PLOS

Characterization of pig saliva as the major natural habitat of Streptococcus suis by analyzing oral, fecal, vaginal, and environmental microbiota.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(4):e0215983. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Research Center for Food Safety, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

It is generally difficult to specify the sources of infection by which domestic animals may acquire pathogens. Through 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we compared the composition of microbiota in the saliva, vaginal mucus, and feces of pigs, and in swabs of feeder troughs and water dispensers collected from pig farms in Vietnam. The composition of the microbiota differed between samples in each sample group. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215983PLOS

Prevalence, attitudes, behaviours and policy evaluation of midwakh smoking among young people in the United Arab Emirates: Cross-sectional analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(4):e0215899. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Public Health Research Center, New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

Introduction: Non-cigarette tobacco products are an increasing public health concern globally. Little is known about midwakh, a pipe indigenous to the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This study aimed to assess the prevalence, attitudes, behaviours and policy evaluation of midwakh smoking among 13 to 15 year olds in the UAE. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215899PLOS

Population genetic differentiation of the hydrothermal vent crab Austinograea alayseae (Crustacea: Bythograeidae) in the Southwest Pacific Ocean.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(4):e0215829. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Global Ocean Resources Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology, Busan Metropolitan City, Republic of Korea.

To understand the origin, migration, and distribution of organisms across disjunct deep-sea vent habitats, previous studies have documented the population genetic structures of widely distributed fauna, such as gastropods, bivalves, barnacles, and squat lobsters. However, a limited number of investigations has been conducted in the Southwest Pacific Ocean, and many questions remain. In this study, we determined the population structure of the bythograeid crab Austinograea alayseae from three adjacent vent systems (Manus Basin, North Fiji Basin, and Tonga Arc) in the Southwest Pacific Ocean using the sequences of two mitochondrial genes (COI and 16S rDNA) and one nuclear gene (28S rDNA). Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215829PLOS

Perceptions of water insecurity from urban and peri-urban Haiti: A quantitative analysis.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(4):e0214789. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Anthropology University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States of America.

Safe drinking water access has continued to be a growing issue in Haiti. Water accessibility, availability, and quality can have severe implications on health and safety, with those in urban areas often having more access. Key differences relating to water accessibility can be seen between the urban and peri-urban areas of Haiti. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214789PLOS

Mapping Europe into local climate zones.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(4):e0214474. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

School of Geography, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Cities are major drivers of environmental change at all scales and are especially at risk from the ensuing effects, which include poor air quality, flooding and heat waves. Typically, these issues are studied on a city-by-city basis owing to the spatial complexity of built landscapes, local topography and emission patterns. However, to ensure knowledge sharing and to integrate local-scale processes with regional and global scale modelling initiatives, there is a pressing need for a world-wide database on cities that is suited for environmental studies. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214474PLOS

Stakeholders' perceptions of protected area management following a nationwide community-based conservation reform.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(4):e0215437. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UIT-The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

People's perceptions can point to reasons for conservation support or lack thereof. In this study, we surveyed the perceptions of conservation among local stakeholders who participated in protected area (PA) management following a reform towards community-based conservation in Norway. We analyzed the link between perceptions of threats to conservation values, prioritized management actions and trust in PA governance, and assessed how these perceptions aligned with the stakeholders' preferred overarching conservation approach and their support for PAs. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215437PLOS

What are they returning to? Psychosocial work environment as a predictor of returning to work among employees in treatment for common mental disorders: A prospective observational pre-post study.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(4):e0215354. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Lovisenberg Hospital, Nydalen, Oslo, Norway.

Introduction: Long-term sick leave and disabilities due to common mental disorders are challenging for society, employers, and individuals. Hence, we wanted to investigate whether psychosocial work environments experienced by employees undergoing treatment for such disorders was associated with return to work.

Methods: At the start of treatment, 164 patients responded to questionnaires concerning their psychosocial work environment (the Job Demand-Control-Support model and the Effort-Reward Imbalance model), symptoms (The Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure) and ability to work (Work Ability Index). Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215354PLOS

Mutational landscape of canine B-cell lymphoma profiled at single nucleotide resolution by RNA-seq.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(4):e0215154. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Comparative Biomedicine and Food Science, University of Padua, Legnaro, Padua, Italy.

The genomic landscape in human B-cell lymphoma has revealed several somatic mutations and potentially relevant germline alterations affecting therapy and prognosis. Also, mutations originally described as somatic aberrations have been shown to confer cancer predisposition when occurring in the germline. The relevance of mutations in canine B-cell lymphoma is scarcely known and gene expression profiling has shown similar molecular signatures among different B-cell histotypes, suggesting other biological mechanisms underlining differences. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215154PLOS

The lab management practices of "Research Exemplars" that foster research rigor and regulatory compliance: A qualitative study of successful principal investigators.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(4):e0214595. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Division of General Medical Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America.

Introduction: Conducting rigorous scientific inquiry within the bounds of research regulation and acceptable practice requires a principal investigator to lead and manage research processes and personnel. This study explores the practices used by investigators nominated as exemplars of research excellence and integrity to produce rigorous, reproducible research and comply with research regulations.

Methods: Using a qualitative research design, we interviewed 52 principal investigators working in the United States at top research universities and the National Institutes of Health Intramural Research Program. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214595PLOS

Mental and physical health effects of meaningful work and rewarding family responsibilities.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(4):e0214916. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen. Copenhagen, Denmark.

Positive feelings about work and family responsibilities benefit psychological well-being, but their physical health effects remain unexplored. The study assessed whether meaningful work and reward from taking care of family benefitted physical health to the same degree as mental health. Participants were 181 Danes aged 49-51. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214916PLOS

Perceived water insecurity among adults from urban and peri-urban Haiti: A qualitative study.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(4):e0214790. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Anthropology University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States of America.

Water and sanitation services are fundamental in preventing the spread of waterborne and hygiene-related diseases. However, in developing countries, such as Haiti, access to clean water continues to pose major challenges despite efforts to improve quality and reduce distance. With Léogâne being the epicenter of the earthquake in Haiti in 2010, there were dozens of interventions aimed to improve access to clean water, specifically well construction and use of water treatment strategies. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214790PLOS

Densities and drivers of sea turtle populations across Pacific coral reef ecosystems.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(4):e0214972. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Monterey Bay Aquarium, Monterey, California, United States of America.

Sea turtle populations are often assessed at the regional to sub-basin scale from discrete indices of nesting abundance. While this may be practical and sometimes effective, widespread in-water surveys may enhance assessments by including additional demographics, locations, and revealing emerging population trends. Here, we describe sea turtle observations from 13 years of towed-diver surveys across 53 coral islands, atolls, and reefs in the Central, West, and South Pacific. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214972PLOS

Food allergy knowledge, attitudes and their determinants among restaurant staff: A cross-sectional study.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(4):e0214625. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Family Medicine and Primary Care, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Mandalay, Nanyang Technological University Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Background: There is wide international variation regarding food allergy knowledge among restaurant staff. Further, attitudes towards food allergy remain under-researched. Insights into the independent determinants of knowledge and attitudes are limited due to lacking mutual statistical adjustment for determinants/confounders in the vast majority of prior studies. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214625PLOS

Natural disaster preparedness in a multi-hazard environment: Characterizing the sociodemographic profile of those better (worse) prepared.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(4):e0214249. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Psychology, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

The growing multi-hazard environment to which millions of people in the world are exposed highlights the importance of making sure that populations are increasingly better prepared. The objective of this study was to report the levels of preparedness of a community exposed to two natural hazards and identify the primary sociodemographic characteristics of groups with different preparedness levels. A survey was conducted on 476 participants from two localities of the Atacama Region in the north of Chile during the spring of 2015. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214249PLOS

An elucidation of over a century old enigma in genetics-Heterosis.

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 24;17(4):e3000215. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Recognition and exploitation of hybrid vigor or heterosis among individual crosses of plants and animals has a long and distinguished history. Its manifestation is influenced by a combination of genetic, epigenetic, phenotypic, and environmental factors. Although heterosis is known to be governed by both dominant and epistatic gene action, its expression is greatly influenced by nonlinear interaction among epigenetic and phenotypic (phenomic) components. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000215DOI Listing

Satisfaction with Emergency Departments and Other Mental Health Services among Patients with Mental Disorders.

Healthc Policy 2019 Feb;14(3):43-54

Associate ProfessorDepartment of Health Administration, Policy and EvaluationSchool of Public Health, University of MontrealMontreal, QC.

Background: Few studies have investigated satisfaction with emergency departments (EDs) among patients with mental health (MH) issues. This study evaluated the use of and satisfaction with EDs and other MH services among 328 patients with MH disorders, as well as specific characteristics of patient satisfaction and dissatisfaction.

Methods: A mixed-methods study was conducted in four EDs located in different administrative healthcare regions of Quebec (Canada). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12927/hcpol.2019.25793DOI Listing
February 2019

Canadian newcomer children's bone health and vitamin D status.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2019 Apr 24:1-8. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

b College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, 104 Clinic Place, SK S7N 2Z4, Canada.

Adequate calcium intake and supply of vitamin D during childhood play important roles in ensuring adequate bone mass gain to achieve optimal peak bone mass. The Healthy Immigrant Children study employed a mixed-method cross-sectional study design to characterize the health and nutritional status of 300 immigrant and refugee children aged 3-13 years who had been in Canada for less than 5 years. This paper presents bone mineral content and vitamin D status data along with qualitative data that deepen the understanding of newcomer bone health status. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2018-0705DOI Listing
April 2019
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Photoinduced Intercomponent Processes in Selectively Addressable Bichromophoric Dyads Made of Linearly Arranged Ru(II) Terpyridine and Expanded Pyridinium Components.

Inorg Chem 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Univ Paris Diderot , Sorbonne Paris Cité, ITODYS, UMR CNRS 7086 , 15 rue J-A de Baïf , 75013 Paris , France.

Three new linearly arranged bichromophoric systems 1-3 have been prepared, and their photophysical properties have been studied, taking also advantage of femtosecond pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy. The three compounds contain the same chromophores, that is a Ru(II)-terpy-like species and a fused expanded bipyridinium (FEBP) unit, separated by three different, variously methylated biphenylene-type bridges. The chromophores have been selected to be selectively addressable, and excitation involving the Ru-based or the FEBP-based dyes results in different excited-state decays. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.9b00139DOI Listing

Synthesis, Crystal Structures, and Photochemical Properties of a Family of Heterometallic Titanium Oxo Clusters.

Inorg Chem 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization , Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences , 5625 Renmin Street , Changchun , Jilin 130022 , China.

The incorporation of heterometallic atoms into the structure of titanium-oxygen nanomaterials is one of the known and effective strategies to develop new high-performance photovoltaic active materials. In this study, we have synthesized three benzoic acid-stabilized heterometallic titanium oxo clusters with the different transition metals Co, Cu, and Cd, formulated as [TiCo(μ-O)(μ-O)(CHCOO)(CHCN)]·2CHCN (1), [TiCu(μ-O)(CHCOO)] (2), and [TiCd(μ-O)(μ-O)(μ-O)(CHCOO)(CHCOOH)(CHCN)]·CHCN·CHCOOH (3), and then we characterized their structures. UV-vis spectroscopy analysis revealed an enhanced UV-vis-light absorption of those heterometallic clusters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.9b00508DOI Listing

Interfacial vs Bulk Ozonolysis of Nerolidol.

Environ Sci Technol 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Ozone readily reacts with olefins with the formation of more reactive Criegee intermediates (CIs). The transient Criegee intermediates impact HOx cycles and they play a role in new particle formation in the troposphere. Oxidation by O3 occurs both in the gas-phase, in the liquid phase, and at air-water and air-aerosol interfaces. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b00364DOI Listing
April 2019
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From Molecular and Emulsified Ion Sensors to Membrane Electrodes: Molecular and Mechanistic Sensor Design.

Acc Chem Res 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

University of Geneva , Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry , Quai Ernest Ansermet 30 , Geneva 1211 , Switzerland.

Selective molecular ion probes are often insoluble in water and require a hydrophobic solvent environment for strong and selective binding, which runs counter to the desire of utilizing them in a homogeneous solution. This Account aims to guide the reader on how such molecules, often coined ionophores, can be harnessed to design exceptionally useful optical and electrochemical sensors. We start here with some historical context on the design of such ionophores and continue with the explanation of the response mechanism of optical and potentiometric sensors and the role of combined components to build a robust ion sensor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.accounts.9b00056DOI Listing
April 2019
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Magnetite Coated Boron Nitride Nanosheets for the Removal of Arsenic (V) from Water.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

It is widely known that the existence of arsenic (As) in water negatively impacts the humans and the environment. We report the synthesis, characterization and application of boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) and Fe3O4 functionalized BNNS (BNNS-Fe3O4) nanocomposite for removal of As(V) ions from aqueous systems. The morphology, surface properties and compositions of synthesized nanomaterials were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), surface area analysis, zero-point charge and magnetic moment determination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b22401DOI Listing

Selectively Metalized 2D Materials for Simple Logic Devices.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

We herein demonstrate, for the first time, transparent, flexible, and large-area monolithic MoS2 transistors and logic gates. Each single transistor consists of only two components: a monolithic chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown MoS2 layer and an ion-gel gate dielectric. Additional electrode materials are not required. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b03078DOI Listing

Pharmacological modulation of the spatiotemporal disposition of micromotions in the intact resting urinary bladder of the rabbit; their pattern is under both myogenic and autonomic control.

BJU Int 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Institute of Food, Nutrition and Human Health, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Objectives: To explore and characterize the disposition and dynamics of micromotions in the wall of the intact resting teradotoxinized urinary bladder of the rabbit before and after the administration of adrenergic and cholinergic pharmaceutical agents.

Methods: Spatiotemporal maps and related intravesical pressure were used to analyse propagating patches of contractions (PPCs) and their component individual myogenic contractions [propagating individual contractions (PICs)] in the wall of the tetradotoxinized urinary bladder.

Results: The bladder wall exhibited two contractile states that were of similar frequencies to those of the two types of electrophysiological discharge described in previous studies; the first, in which cyclic PPCs predominated, the second in which small irregular PICs predominated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.14715DOI Listing

Outcomes of Pancreaticoduodenctomy in Patients with Chronic Hepatic Dysfunction Including Liver Cirrhosis: Results of a Retrospective Multicenter Study by the Japanese.

J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Second Department of Surgery, Wakayama Medical University School of Medicine.

Purpose: Since there is no reliable evidence on the safety of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) in chronic hepatic dysfunction (CHD) including liver cirrhosis (LC), the effects of CHD on patients undergoing PD were investigated.

Methods: This multi-institutional retrospective study analyzed 529 patients with CHD, including 105 patients diagnosed with LC, who underwent PD at 82 high-volume institutions between 2004 and 2013.

Results: The in-hospital mortality rate was 5. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jhbp.630DOI Listing

Observe Spatiotemporal Heterogeneity of Reactions in Solution with High-Speed Single Nanorod Rotational Sensing.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Tsinghua University, Department of Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, 100084, Beijing, CHINA.

We have developed a high-speed dark-field microscope to monitor the rapid rotation of single gold nanorods (AuNRs) and use it to study the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of chemical reactions in free solution. A wide range of viscosity change from 237 cP to 0.8 cP could be detected conveniently. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201901550DOI Listing

O- excess as a detector for co-extracted organics in vapor analyses of plant isotope signatures.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Global Institute for Water Security, School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, 11 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 3H5, Canada.

Rationale: The stable isotope compositions of hydrogen and oxygen in water (δ H and δ O values) have been widely used to investigate plant water sources, but traditional isotopic measurements of plant waters are expensive and labor intensive. Recent work with direct vapor equilibration (DVE) on laser spectroscopy has shown potential to sidestep limitations imposed by traditional methods. Here, we evaluate DVE analysis of plants with a focus on spectral contamination introduced by organic compounds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.8470DOI Listing
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