2,157,337 results match your criteria Environmental Science and Technology [Journal]
J Biomed Opt 2018 Dec;23(12):1-6
Technical University of Denmark, Department of Photonics Engineering, Roskilde, Denmark.
While there exist many Monte Carlo (MC) programs for solving the radiative transfer equation (RTE) in biological tissues, we have identified a need for an open-source MC program that is sufficiently user-friendly for use in an education environment, in which detailed knowledge of compiling or UNIX command-line cannot be assumed. Therefore, we introduce MCmatlab, an open-source codebase thus far consisting of (a) a fast three-dimensional MC RTE solver and (b) a finite-element heat diffusion and Arrhenius-based thermal tissue damage simulator, both run in MATLAB. The kernel for both of these solvers is written in parallelized C and implemented as MATLAB MEX functions, combining the speed of C with the familiarity and versatility of MATLAB. Read More
Liver Int 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.
Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
Background: Projections on liver diseases mortality can provide a basis for evaluating the World Health Organization's "25 by 25" goal and can help health care systems design appropriate control strategies. This study evaluated whether the 25 by 25 goal can be achieved in Taiwan and discussed possible future control strategies.
Methods: Age-period-cohort models are used to estimate the mortality trends of liver diseases from 1981 to 2016 and project these trends to 2035. Read More
Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.
Department of Microbiology, Western College of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
Many viruses that cause serious and often fatal disease in humans have spilled over from bats. Recent evidence suggests that stress may enhance virus shedding by bats increasing the possibility of transmission to other species. To understand the reasons for spillover it is therefore important to determine the molecular pathways that link stress to virus reactivation and shedding in bats. Read More
Anim Sci J 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.
College of Agriculture, Food and Environment Sciences, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido, Japan.
The present study examined the effects of substituting kraft pulp (KP) with corn silage (CS) on dry matter intake (DMI), ruminal mat and rumen fermentation characteristics, and rumination. Four non-lactating, rumen-cannulated Holstein cows were fed a CS diet comprising 36% grass silage (GS) and 64% CS or a KP diet comprising 36% GS, 57% KP, and 7% soybean meal. DMI was significantly lower in cows fed the KP diet than in those fed the CS diet (p < 0. Read More
Glob Chang Biol 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.
Chair of Soil Science, Technical University Munich (TUM), Emil-Ramann-Str. 2, D-85354, Freising, Germany.
Rising atmospheric CO concentrations have increased interest in the potential for forest ecosystems and soils to act as carbon (C) sinks. While soil organic C contents often vary with tree species identity, little is known about if, and how, tree species influence the stability of C in soil. Using a 40-year-old common garden experiment with replicated plots of eleven temperate tree species, we investigated relationships between soil organic matter (SOM) stability in mineral soils and 17 ecological factors (including tree tissue chemistry, magnitude of organic matter inputs and their turnover, microbial community descriptors, and soil physico-chemical properties). Read More
J Clin Nurs 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.
University of Canberra, 3. Stephen Neville.
Aim: To synthesise international research conducted on dementia-friendly community initiatives.
Background: The number of people living with dementia is increasing as a result of population ageing. Impairments related to neurological changes, together with environmental challenges result in disability for people who have dementia. Read More
Mol Ecol 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.
Department of Fish Ecology and Evolution, Centre of Ecology, Evolution and Biogeochemistry, EAWAG Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Seestrasse 79, 6047, Kastanienbaum, Switzerland.
The erosion of habitat heterogeneity can reduce species diversity directly but can also lead to the loss of distinctiveness of sympatric species through speciation reversal. We know little about changes in genomic differentiation during the early stages of these processes, which can be mediated by anthropogenic perturbation. Here, we analyse three sympatric whitefish species (Coregonus spp) sampled across two neighbouring and connected Swiss pre-alpine lakes, which have been differentially affected by anthropogenic eutrophication. Read More
Exp Dermatol 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.
Department of Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.
Sunburn causes inflammation, which increases melanin production in skin and causes hyperpigmentation. Angiopoietin-like protein (ANGPTL) 2 is an inflammatory mediator induced in sun-exposed skin areas. However, whether ANGPTL2 functions in melanin production remains unclear. Read More
Allergy 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.
Center of Allergy and Environment (ZAUM), Technical University of Munich and Helmholtz Center Munich, member of the German Center for Lung Research, 80802, Munich, Germany.
Background: Eicosanoid lipid mediators play key roles in type 2 immune responses, e.g. in allergy and asthma. Read More
J Aquat Anim Health 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.
Dept. of Veterinary Sciences, Polo Universitario dell'Annunziata, University of Messina, 98168, Messina, Italy.
The present study supports the usefulness of ancillary techniques such as immunohistochemistry as a valid diagnostic tool in the field of fish oncology. The immunohistochemical patterns observed in four neoplasms, in four individual teleosts belonging to different species are here described. Cytokeratin, vimentin, actin, S-100, calretinin, and melan A antibodies were used. Read More
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
Department of Biological Functions Engineering, Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 2-4 Hibikino, Wakamatsu, Kitakyushu, 808-0196, Japan.
Quorum sensing (QS) plays a key role in activating bacterial functions through small molecules called autoinducers. In this study, the QS of Gram-negative bacteria in waste sewage sludge (WSS) was downregulated by adding the quorum quenching enzyme, AiiM lactonase, which cleaved the acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) autoinducer signals from Gram-negative bacteria, and subsequently methane production was inhibited by over 400%. The pH was lowered after 2 days in the anaerobic fermentation whereas protease activity at the hydrolysis step was almost the same with or without AiiM. Read More
Biol Trace Elem Res 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
Pharmaceutical Chemistry, North Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
Many periodontal patients may need orthodontic treatment. Alterations in oral environment particularly the reduction of pH in periodontal patients could affect metal ion release from orthodontic appliances. However, there is no study on metal ion release in periodontal patients. Read More
Protoplasma 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
Biosystems and Integrative Sciences Institute (BioISI), University of Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD), 5000-801, Vila Real, Portugal.
Seed priming with iron (Fe) and/or zinc (Zn) can overcome the reduced availability of these micronutrients in soils and crops, but suitable dosages should be predetermined. Nucleolus responds to stress, such as cytotoxicity, with alterations perceivable by cytogenetic analyses. This work intends to study how seed priming with Fe and/or Zn affects the nucleolar activity in roots and the total soluble protein content in the flour of bread wheat cv. Read More
J Plant Res 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
Department of Biology, University of Minnesota Duluth, 207A Swenson Science Building, Duluth, MN, 55812, USA.
The mating systems of wild plant populations have profound effects on their genetic structure and evolution, yet remain unknown or incompletely described for many species. One such species, the herbaceous native annual Linum sulcatum Riddell (Linaceae), is thought to be self-compatible, but there has been no experimental evidence to date to support this claim. To assess the breeding system of this species, seeds were collected from wild populations and reared in a controlled environment. Read More
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
Department of Aquaculture, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung, 91201, Taiwan.
Little is known about the effects of environmental factors on total arsenic (TAs) accumulation in marine Rhodophyta. The effects of five environmental factors (temperature, light intensity, pH, exposure duration, and phosphate) at various As(III) concentrations were investigated in Sarcodia suiae. The highest TAs accumulations were recorded at 25°C, a luminance of 80 µmol photons m s, and a pH of 8. Read More
Mikrochim Acta 2018 Dec 15;186(1):21. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510641, People's Republic of China.
The authors describe a simplified chemical precipitation method and silver mirror reaction to synthesize a nanocomposite consiting of silver nanoparticles on a thin and porous nickel oxide film. Placed on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE), it allows for the determination of levofloxacin (LEV) via square wave voltammetry (SWV). Under optimal detection conditions, the voltammetric signal (typically measured at around 0. Read More
Acta Neurol Belg 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
Human Molecular Cytogenetics and Stem Cell Laboratory, Department of Human Genetics and Molecular Biology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 641 046, India.
Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder and the cause of autism is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of socioeconomic, environmental, pregnancy and newborn-related risk factors among children with autism spectrum disorders. This was a population-based case-control study. Read More
Environ Monit Assess 2018 Dec 15;191(1):20. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
Chongqing College of Arts and Sciences, Chongqing, 402160, China.
Along with rapid economic development and population growth, anthropogenic disturbances to natural ecosystems increase the progressively worsening environmental problems in and around water resources, making the potential ecological risks more severe and unpredictable. In order to cope with the increasingly serious issues related to the ecological environment and poverty alleviation, the Government of Yunnan in Southwest China launched a large-scale afforestation campaign (plantation forestry) on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, which is the main source of several major river systems in Southeast Asia. In this study, we use GIS to investigate the impacts of a large-scale afforestation on the water storage balance of Southeast Asia. Read More
Biochem Genet 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
College of Animal Science, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, 010018, China.
The skin is the primary barrier between the internal organs of an organism and the environment, and it provides protection from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. According to the nocturnal bottleneck hypothesis, ungulates might have traversed to the grasslands and were exposed to UV radiation subsequent to the reduction in predation pressure. UV light exposure might have increased the S100A7 expression. Read More
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Tartu, Vanemuise 46, 51014, Tartu, Estonia.
The objectives of this study were to determine the biofilm microbial activity and bacterial community structure and successions in greywater treatment filters and to relate the treatment efficiency to the bacterial community parameters. This 10-month study was performed in a newly established experimental system for domestic greywater treatment that consisted of three parallel vertical flow filters (VFs) followed by a horizontal flow filter (HF). A rapid increase in the bacterial community abundance occurred during the first 85 days of filter operations, followed by a short-term decrease and the stabilization of the 16S rRNA gene copy numbers at average levels of 1. Read More
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
Taihu Laboratory for Lake Ecosystem Research, State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008, China.
Organic matter (OM), a complex entity with diverse functional groups and molecular sizes, has important effects on aquatic systems. We studied the optical compositions and sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) in Lake Taihu, a large, shallow and eutrophic lake in China. Significant differences in optical compositions and sources occurred between the POM and DOM. Read More
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
Ministry of Education and Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Genetic Breeding, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, 330045, China.
Greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils contribute substantially to global atmospheric composition. Nitrous oxide (NO) is one important greenhouse gas induces global warming. Nitrification inhibitors (NI) or biochar can be effective soil NO emission mitigation strategies for agricultural soils. Read More
Mol Biol Rep 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
School of Arts and Sciences, St. Bonaventure University, St. Bonaventure, New York, 14778, USA.
A rapidly growing area of interest in biomedical science involves the reciprocal crosstalk between the sensory nervous and immune systems. Both of these systems are highly integrated, detecting potential environmental harms and restoring homeostasis. Many different cytokines, receptors, neuropeptides, and other proteins are involved in this bidirectional communication that are common to both systems. Read More
Rheumatol Int 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
Division of Rheumatology, Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 455 -3° andar, sala 3131, Cerqueira César, São Paulo, CEP 01246-903, Brazil.
The association between cocaine abuse and systemic sclerosis (SSc) is rarely described. Two new cases of this association are presented: two young adults, after using inhaled cocaine for a few years, were diagnosed with SSc. While a 24 year-old white female patient presented with diffuse SSc with multiple digital ulcers and scleroderma renal crisis (SRC), a 27 year-old male patient presented limited SSc with skin ulcers and digital gangrene, rapidly evolving to death due to massive intestinal hemorrhage. Read More
J Fluoresc 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
Computational Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Réduit, 80832, Mauritius.
Comparative study of nonlinear optical properties of red fluorescent coumarins was carried out with density functional theory based ab initio method using the popular global hybrid (GH) and range separated hybrid (RSH) functionals and correlated with the spectroscopic values. The GHs - M06 L, PBE1PBE, M06, BHHLYP, M062X and M06HF and RSHs - HISSbPBE, wB97, wB97X, HSEH1PBE, CAM-B3LYP and wB97XD in combination with the double zeta basis function 6-311 + G(d,p) were used. The computed polarizability (α), hyperpolarizability of the first order (β) and second order (γ) computed by the RSHs are closer to the spectroscopic values compared to GHs. Read More
J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
Department of Energy Science and Technology (DEST), Energy and Environment Fusion Technology Center (E2FTC), Myongji University, Myongji-ro 116, Cheoin-gu, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do, 170-58, South Korea.
The non-conventional D-xylose metabolism called the Dahms pathway which only requires the expression of at least three enzymes to produce pyruvate and glycolaldehyde has been previously engineered in Escherichia coli. Strains that rely on this pathway exhibit lower growth rates which were initially attributed to the perturbed redox homeostasis as evidenced by the lower intracellular NADPH concentrations during exponential growth phase. NADPH-regenerating systems were then tested to restore the redox homeostasis. Read More
Environ Monit Assess 2018 Dec 15;191(1):19. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Institute of Soil Science and Environmental Protection, Grunwaldzka 53, 50-357, Wrocław, Poland.
The legal regulatory/action levels of trace elements in soils are established at high concentrations, at which the crucial functions of soil are at risk or are eliminated. However, concentrations below these action levels, but above presumed natural levels, may also limit particular ecosystem services, including organic food production. Thus, defining the (ambient) background concentrations is an essential part of environmental or health risk assessment, e. Read More
Support Care Cancer 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Research, Cancer Control Alberta, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Purpose: To gain breast cancer survivors' perspectives on participation in a home-based physical activity intervention and the factors that contributed to their acceptance and adherence to physical activity.
Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six women who had participated in a 12-week, home-based physical activity intervention using Polar A360® activity trackers. Additionally, 22 participants from the physical activity interventions provided scaled responses to barriers of physical activity on weeks 3, 6, 9, and 12. Read More
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
Department of Ophthalmology, the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Eye Hospital of China Medical University, Key Laboratory of Lens Research of Liaoning Province, Shenyang, China.
Purpose: To assess the effects of posterior sclera reinforcement (PSR) in refractive outcomes, choroidal thickness (CT), and retinal thickness (RT) during a 3-year follow-up in eyes with pathological myopia.
Methods: Thirty-eight eyes of 26 adults with pathological myopia who underwent PSR (the PSR group) and 30 eyes of 18 adults with matched age and myopia who did not receive PSR treatment (the control group) were followed up with measurements of axial length (AL), spherical equivalent (SE), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), CT, and RT at baseline, 1 and 3 months, and 1, 2, and 3 years postoperatively. Data were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance and independent-samples t test. Read More
Ann Ig 2019 Jan-Feb;31(1):52-61
Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Background: As a great opportunistic pathogen, Staphylococcus epidermidis participates in a wide spectrum of infections by residing in the medical devices. Regardless of the clinical importance of S. epidermidis, there are a few data about typing of clinical and non-clinical isolates at the subspecies level in Iran. Read More
Ann Ig 2019 Jan-Feb;31(1):45-51
Discipline of Nutrition and Dietetics, The University of Auckland, New Zealand.
Background: The intervention "Med-Anticancer Food Program" has proven to be effective in promoting the Mediterranean Diet, significantly increasing the Mediterranean Adequacy Index in healthy subjects. There are no studies that have investigated the effectiveness of this intervention in individuals who have had a diagnosis of cancer.
Objective: To perform a pilot study to assess the opportunity of employing the methodology of the Med-Anticancer Food Program in order to encourage "long-term cancer survivors" to adhere to the Mediterranean Diet, as well as healthy people, and this in order to apply the program to larger groups. Read More
Digestion 2018 Dec 14:1-7. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila,
Background And Aim: Many investigations have demonstrated that changes in body weight are frequent in patients with coeliac disease (CD) after a gluten-free diet (GFD); conversely data on the metabolic syndrome (MS) and hepatic steatosis (HS) are still rare. The aim is to evaluate the prevalence of MS and HS in patients with CD, before and after a GFD.
Methods: One hundred eighty-five coeliac adult patients were enrolled in the study. Read More
J R Army Med Corps 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
Emergency Department, University Hospitals Plymouth NHS Trust, Plymouth, UK.
Introduction: Supplemental oxygen is a key element of emergency treatment algorithms. However, in the operational environment, oxygen supply poses a challenge. The lack of high-quality evidence alongside emerging technologies provides the opportunity to challenge current guidelines. Read More
Tob Control 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
Department of Public Health Science, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
Background: The prevalence of cigarette smoking among South Korean adolescents has decreased markedly over the past decade, which may indicate a norm shift between generations of adolescents. The present study aims to identify the effect of banning smoking in public places and increasing cigarette prices on current adolescent smoking, and to determine whether these policies additionally resulted in cohort effects.
Methods: Repeated cross-sectional survey data, nationally representative of South Korean adolescents, were used. Read More
Gut 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
Department of Medicine, Solna (MedS), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Objective: The rate of postcolonoscopy colorectal cancer (PCCRC) is considered a key quality indicator of colonoscopy; little is known about PCCRC in IBD.
Design: A population-based cohort study of colonoscopies in Sweden from 2001 to 2010 was conducted. Individuals with a colorectal cancer (CRC) detected within 36 months after a colonoscopy were identified and stratified on UC, Crohn's disease (CD) or non-IBD. Read More
Environ Pollut 2018 Dec 5;246:207-216. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008, PR China; Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou, 215009, PR China.
Dredging is frequently implemented for the reduction of internal nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loadings and the control of eutrophication. Residuals during dredging activities and external pollution loadings after dredging both commonly contribute to influence the effectiveness of dredging and have been widely discussed. In the current study, the exchanges of N and P across the sediment-water interface (SWI) to these two factors were compared in a six-month field incubation experiment. Read More
J Hazard Mater 2018 Dec 7;366:423-431. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences (QAEHS), The University of Queensland, 20 Cornwall street, Woolloongabba, Queensland, 4102, Australia.
Per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) as key components in aqueous film forming foams (AFFF) have led to growing incidences of environmental contamination. The aim of this study was to investigate a novel diffusion based passive sampling device comprising of microporous polyethylene (PE) for the long-term time-integrative monitoring of PFASs in groundwater systems. PE passive samplers (PEs) were deployed for 83 d and calibrated at five AFFF impacted groundwater sites representing different PFASs concentration levels (ΣPFAS 0. Read More
Water Res 2018 Dec 6;150:392-402. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Advanced Water Management Centre, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia. Electronic address:
Microbially induced concrete corrosion (MICC) is a major deterioration affecting sewers worldwide. MICC is not uniform on sewer inner walls and often occurs at hot spots such as crown and tidal regions, which are critical to determine sewer service life. Especially, concrete corrosion in tidal regions is complicated due to the fluctuation of wastewater levels and the hydraulic scouring effects. Read More
Plant Physiol Biochem 2018 Dec 3;135:182-193. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Plant Biology and Horticulture Sections, School of Integrative Plant Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853, USA. Electronic address:
The production of wine grapes in upstate New York (USA) is limited by diseases that are promoted by the cool and sometimes rainy climate. A breeding program has been introducing disease resistance from related species into the cultivated stock. Previous work has indicated that such resistance may be based on biochemical reactions rather than on a hypersensitive reaction. Read More
Accid Anal Prev 2018 Dec 13;123:274-281. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899, United States. Electronic address:
According to NHTSA, more than 3477 people (including 551 non-occupants) were killed and 391,000 were injured due to distraction-related crashes in 2015. The distracted driving epidemic has long been under research to identify its impact on driving behavior. There have been a few attempts to detect drivers' engagement in secondary tasks from observed driving behavior. Read More
Environ Res 2018 Nov 28;170:7-15. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Department of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211166, PR China; Department of Hygiene Analysis and Detection, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211166, PR China. Electronic address:
Background: Extensive studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) to an increased mortality burden from a wide range of causes. However, the effects of PM on mortality rates from specific causes were unclear. This study aimed to estimate the detrimental effects of PM on cause specific deaths in Changzhou, China. Read More
Environ Res 2018 Dec 6;170:16-25. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, 08034 Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:
Social concern has raised during the last years due to the development of antibiotic resistance hotspots in different environmental compartments, including the edible parts of crops. To assess the influence of the water quality used for watering, we collected samples from soil, roots, leaves and beans from the legume plant Vicia faba (broad beans) in three agricultural peri-urban plots (Barcelona, NE Spain), irrigated with either groundwater, river water, or reclaimed water. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) sul1, tetM, qnrS1, blabla, mecA, and bla were quantified by real-time PCR, along with 16S rDNA and intl1 sequences, as proxies for bacterial abundance and integron prevalence, respectively. Read More
Environ Res 2018 Dec 6;170:1-6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003, United States.
In the present study, we investigated the antifungal effects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) against Podosphaera pannosa (P. pannosa), a fungal pathogen that causes powdery mildew on plants in the rose family. Four commercial ENMs, including multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) and titanium dioxide (TiO) NPs, were used to prepare 50 or 200 mg/L NP suspensions in deionized water. Read More
Chemosphere 2018 Dec 7;219:636-644. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Department of Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193, Portugal.
Anthropic pressure negatively affects natural environments. Lead (Pb) is a non-essential highly toxic metal that is present in aquatic ecosystems. Two daphnid species from two different latitudes, the temperate Daphnia magna and the tropical Daphnia similis were used as test-organisms to evaluate a long-term Pb exposure. Read More
Chemosphere 2018 Dec 4;219:617-635. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan, Hubei, 430074, PR China; Hubei Provincial Engineering Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment, Disposal and Recycling, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan, Hubei, 430074, PR China. Electronic address:
Porphyrin-based chemistry has reached an unprecedented period of rapid development after decades of study. Due to attractive multifunctional properties, porphyrins and their analogues have emerged as multifunctional organometals for environmental and energy purposes. In particular, pioneer works have been conducted to explore their application in pollution abatement, energy conversion and storage and molecule recognition. Read More
Chemosphere 2018 Nov 28;219:588-606. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Division of Sustainable Resources Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Japan.
Acid mine/rock drainage (AMD/ARD), effluents with low pH and high concentrations of hazardous and toxic elements generated when sulfide-rich wastes are exposed to the environment, is considered as a serious environmental problem encountered by the mining and mineral processing industries around the world. Remediation options like neutralization, adsorption, ion exchange, membrane technology, biological mediation, and electrochemical approach have been developed to reduce the negative environmental impacts of AMD on ecological systems and human health. However, these techniques require the continuous supply of chemicals and energy, expensive maintenance and labor cost, and long-term monitoring of affected ecosystems until AMD generation stops. Read More
Chemosphere 2018 Dec 6;219:574-587. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, U.T, India. Electronic address:
Present study was chosen to elucidate the role of Environmental Pollution in the contamination of vegetables with trace elements in Mandi-gobindgarh (India) and associated potential risk to human health. Total 14 vegetable types including leafy vegetables (Brassica, Metha, Coriander, Spinach, Cabbage), fruit vegetables (Brinjal, Cauliflower, Bottle-gourd, Tomato, Green chilli) and root vegetables (Radish, Carrot, Turnip, Potato) were collected from Mandi-gobindgarh and analyzed for Zn, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se and Fe on WD-XRF. Results showed more than permissible limits of Zn (23. Read More
Early Hum Dev 2018 Dec 13;128:69-76. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Family and Community Medicine, School of Medicine, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, United States of America.
Background: While use of prescription opioids and medication assisted therapy (MAT) for opioid use disorder in pregnancy, as well as the incidence of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS) continue to rise, little is known about outcomes for children with NOWS beyond the newborn period.
Methods: We examined 1) prenatal MAT exposure vs. unexposed healthy controls [HC]; and 2) treatment for NOWS and NOWS severity on infant neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes at 5-8 months of age in 78 maternal-infant pairs from the ENRICH prospective cohort study. Read More
J Environ Manage 2018 Dec 13;233:30-38. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA, USA.
A central challenge in the Mississippi River Basin is how to continue to support profitable agricultural production, provide water supply, flood control, transportation, and other benefits, while reducing the current burden of environmental degradation. Several practices have been shown to reduce nutrient runoff and water pollution, and improve soil fertility, while often yielding profits for farmers. Yet many of these beneficial practices remain underutilized. Read More
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018 Nov 27;175:324-332. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University (Parkville Campus), 381 Royal Parade Parkville, Victoria, 3052, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence in Convergent Bio-Nano Science and Technology, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University (Parkville Campus), 381 Royal Parade Parkville, Victoria, 3052, Australia. Electronic address:
The use of liquid crystalline nanoparticles as potential agrochemical delivery agents or adjuvant systems is gaining traction due to the possibility that the systems can enhance penetration of the active and increase adhesion of the formulation to the leaf, increasing overall efficacy and decreasing the harmful environmental impact. However the interaction between liquid crystalline nanoparticles and active products is not well understood. Using small angle X-ray scattering we investigated the structural changes that occur to liquid crystalline nanoparticles upon addition of three common herbicides, 2,4-D 2-ethylhexyl ester, bromoxynil octanoate and haloxyfop-p-methyl ester active agrochemicals in the form of emulsions. Read More