26,531 results match your criteria Enteroviruses


Enterovirus A71 vaccine effectiveness in preventing enterovirus A71 infection among medically-attended hand, foot, and mouth disease cases, Beijing, China.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

a Department of the National Immunization Program , Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention , Beijing , China.

Introduction: Enterovirus A71(EV-A71)-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has been reported worldwide, and poses a particularly heavy burden on patients, families, and society in China. Three Chinese companies have licensed inactivated EV-A71 vaccines, all of which have demonstrated good efficacy for preventing EV-A71-associated disease in clinical trials. However, real-world performance of EV-A71 vaccine has not been evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2019.1581539DOI Listing
February 2019

Getting to Know the Neighbours with GTM: the Case of Antiviral Compounds.

Mol Inform 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Laboratory of Chemoinformatics, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, 67081, France.

Recent outbreaks of dangerous viral infections, such as Ebola virus disease, Zika fever, etc., are forcing the search for new antiviral compounds. Preferably, such compounds should possess broad-spectrum antiviral activity, as the development of drugs for the treatment of dozens of viral infections lacking specific treatment would require significant resources. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/minf.201800166DOI Listing
February 2019

Self-assembled nanovehicle-mediated co-encapsulation of inactivated EV71 virus and CpG oligonucleotides elicits potent anti-EV71 humoral and cellular immune protective responses.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

College of Life Science and Bioengineering, Beijing University of Technology, NO. 100 Pingleyuan, Chaoyang District, Beijing, PR China. Electronic address:

Inactivated vaccines are widely used for prevention of viral disease. Both humoral and cellular immune responses have been shown to play important roles in the control and clearance of virus infections. CpG motif containing oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) have recently gained considerable interest and been used as vaccine adjuvant due to their potent abilities to modulate host immune response. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0006291X193019
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.02.014DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Strengthening laboratory surveillance of viral pathogens: Experiences and lessons learned building next-generation sequencing capacity in Ghana.

Int J Infect Dis 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Division of Viral Diseases, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia, 30329, USA.

Objectives: To demonstrate the feasibility of applying next-generation sequencing (NGS) in medium-resource reference laboratories in Africa to enhance global disease surveillance.

Methods: A training program was developed to support implementation of NGS at Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research (NMIMR), University of Ghana. The program was divided into two training stages, first at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, GA, followed by on-site training at NMIMR for a larger cohort of scientists. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2019.02.008DOI Listing
February 2019

Data fitting approach more critical than exposure scenarios and treatment of censored data for quantitative microbial risk assessment.

Water Res 2019 Feb 4;154:45-53. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Instituto de Investigaciones para la Industria Química (INIQUI), CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Salta (UNSa), Av. Bolivia 5150, Salta, 4400, Argentina; Singapore Centre for Environmental Life Sciences Engineering (SCELSE), Nanyang Technological University, 637551, Singapore; Facultad de Ingeniería, UNSa, Salta, Argentina. Electronic address:

Recreational waters are a source of many diseases caused by human viral pathogens, including norovirus genogroup II (NoV GII) and enterovirus (EV). Water samples from the Arenales river in Salta, Argentina, were concentrated by ultrafiltration and analyzed for the concentrations of NoV GII and EV by quantitative PCR. Out of 65 samples, 61 and 59 were non-detects (below the Sample Limit of Detection limit, SLOD) for EV and NoV GII, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2019.01.041DOI Listing
February 2019

Enterovirus D68-Associated Acute Flaccid Myelitis: Rising to the Clinical and Research Challenges.

JAMA 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Neuroinfectious Disease Section, Department of Neurology, University of Colorado, Aurora.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.1016DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Enterovirus as trigger of coeliac disease: nested case-control study within prospective birth cohort.

BMJ 2019 Feb 13;364:l231. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Østfold Hospital Trust, Grålum, Norway.

Objective: To determine whether infection with human enterovirus or adenovirus, both common intestinal viruses, predicts development of coeliac disease.

Design: Case-control study nested within Norwegian birth cohort recruited between 2001 and 2007 and followed to September 2016.

Setting: Norwegian population. Read More

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http://www.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmj.l231
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l231DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

A case report of a teenager with severe hand, foot, and mouth disease with brainstem encephalitis caused by enterovirus 71.

BMC Pediatr 2019 Feb 13;19(1):59. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Intensive Care Unit, Key Medical Laboratory of Pediatrics, Chongqing Health Bureau, Ministry of Education; Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China.

Background: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute viral infection occurring mostly in infants and children. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection mostly occurs in children < 5 years of age. Severe cases, however, are usually encountered in children under the age of 3 years, and exceedingly rare in teenagers > 14 years and adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-019-1428-4DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Chlorine inactivation of coxsackievirus B5 in recycled water destined for non-potable reuse.

J Water Health 2019 Feb;17(1):124-136

SA Water, 250 Victoria Square, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia E-mail:

Currently guidelines for disinfection of water with free chlorine, while primarily developed for potable water, are often used for virus disinfection of nitrified recycled water of >1 NTU (Nephelometric Turbidity Unit). More information is needed on the disinfection efficacy of free chlorine for viruses in waters of varying turbidity and pH due to significant reuse of treated wastewater of varying quality. In this study, disinfection efficacy in nitrified/denitrified activated sludge treated wastewater was investigated for coxsackievirus B5 (CB5), an enterovirus known to be highly resistant to free chlorine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wh.2018.393DOI Listing
February 2019

ACBD3 Is an Essential Pan-enterovirus Host Factor That Mediates the Interaction between Viral 3A Protein and Cellular Protein PI4KB.

MBio 2019 Feb 12;10(1). Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Infectious Diseases & Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands

The enterovirus genus of the picornavirus family includes a large number of important human pathogens such as poliovirus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus A71, and rhinoviruses. Like all other positive-strand RNA viruses, genome replication of enteroviruses occurs on rearranged membranous structures called replication organelles (ROs). Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIβ (PI4KB) is required by all enteroviruses for RO formation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02742-18DOI Listing
February 2019

An increase in reports of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in the United Kingdom, 1 January 2018-21 January 2019: early findings.

Euro Surveill 2019 Feb;24(6)

Members of the UK AFP task force are listed at the end of the article.

During 2018, the United Kingdom experienced an increase in reports of cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). As at 21 January 2019, 40 cases had been identified with a peak in October 2018. The increase was temporally associated with an upsurge in enterovirus (EV) D68 activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.6.1900093DOI Listing
February 2019

Enterovirus Persistence in Cardiac Cells of Patients Suffering From Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy is Linked to 5' Terminal Genomic RNA-Deleted Viral Populations With Viral-Encoded Proteinase Activities.

Circulation 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Medical and Molecular Virology EA4684, Laboratoire de Virologie médicale et moléculaire, et EA-4684, Hôpital Robert Debré, France.

Background: Group B enteroviruses are common causes of acute myocarditis which can be a precursor of chronic myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), leading causes of heart transplantation. To date, the specific viral functions involved in the development of DCM remain unclear.

Methods: Total RNA from cardiac tissue of patients suffering from DCM was extracted, and sequences corresponding to the 5' termini of enterovirus RNAs were identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.035966DOI Listing
February 2019
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[Etiologic surveillance and analysis of acute meningitis and encephalitis syndrome in Jinan city in 2013-2016].

Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2019 Feb;53(2):174-178

Division of Expanded Immunization Program, Shandong Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Academy of Preventive Medicine, Shandong University; Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Control and Prevention, Jinan 250014, China.

To characterize the etiology and epidemiological characteristics of the acute meningitis and encephalitis syndrome (AMES) in Jinan city in 2013-2016. The epidemiological data, clinical diagnosis, serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were collected from 3 577 AMES cases in 6 sentinel hospitals in Jinan city in 2013-2016. Samples of all cases were made sero-diagnosis for Immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibody to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and negative cases of JEV for enterovirus (EV), mumps virus (MuV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2019.02.010DOI Listing
February 2019
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[Trend of epidemics and variation of pathogens of hand, foot and mouth disease in China: a dynamic series analysis, 2008-2017].

Authors:
J Zhang

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2019 Feb;40(2):147-154

Division of Infectious Disease, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.

To understand the trend of epidemics and variation of pathogens on hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) in China for setting up appropriate intervention measures. Data related to reported cases and outbreaks of HFMD from the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance Reporting System of China, 2008 to 2017, was collected and analyzed. Based on the geographical location and types of climate, the total 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities in the mainland of China, were divided into seven regions: north-west, north, mid-north, east, mid-south, south, and south-west regions, with epidemic trends and variation of pathogens analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2019.02.005DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Staufen1 Protein Participates Positively in the Viral RNA Replication of Enterovirus 71.

Viruses 2019 Feb 8;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Division of Microbiology and Immunology, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan.

The double-stranded RNA-binding protein Staufen1 (Stau1) has multiple functions during RNA virus infection. In this study, we investigated the role of Stau1 in viral translation by using a combination of enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) infection, RNA reporter transfection, and in vitro functional and biochemical assays. We demonstrated that Stau1 specifically binds to the 5'-untranslated region of EV-A71 viral RNA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11020142DOI Listing
February 2019

Prevalence, levels and seasonal variations of human enteric viruses in six major rivers in Alberta, Canada.

Water Res 2019 Apr 1;153:349-356. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Paediatrics, University of Alberta, 1405-87 Ave, Edmonton, AB, T6G 1C9, Canada.

The prevalence and seasonal variation of 7 viruses in 6 major rivers in Alberta were assessed using a combination of qPCR, cell culture and integrated cell culture with qPCR (ICC-qPCR). Water samples were collected monthly from rivers at different sites upstream and downstream of major urban centers. Seven viruses including rotavirus, adenovirus, astrovirus, norovirus, sapovirus, JC virus and enterovirus, were detected in at least one of the water samples at each site using qPCR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2019.01.034DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Higher abundance of enterovirus A species in the gut of children with islet autoimmunity.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 11;9(1):1749. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

School of Women's and Children's Health, University of New South Wales Faculty of Medicine, Sydney, Australia.

Enteroviruses (EVs) are prime candidate environmental triggers of islet autoimmunity (IA), with potential as vaccine targets for type 1 diabetes prevention. However, the use of targeted virus detection methods and the selective focus on EVs by most studies increases the risk for substantial investigation bias and an overestimated association between EV and type 1 diabetes. Here we performed comprehensive virome-capture sequencing to examine all known vertebrate-infecting viruses without bias in 182 specimens (faeces and plasma) collected before or at seroconversion from 45 case children with IA and 48 matched controls. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-38368-8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-38368-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6370883PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

Confocal Imaging of Double-Stranded RNA and Pattern Recognition Receptors in Negative-Sense RNA Virus Infection.

J Vis Exp 2019 Jan 26(143). Epub 2019 Jan 26.

Department of Pathology and Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch.

Double-stranded (ds) RNA is produced as a replicative intermediate during RNA virus infection. Recognition of dsRNA by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as the retinoic acid (RIG-I) like receptors (RLRs) RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA-5) leads to the induction of the innate immune response. The formation and intracellular distribution of dsRNA in positive-sense RNA virus infection has been well characterized by microscopy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/59095DOI Listing
January 2019
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The Diagnostic and Clinical Approach to Pediatric Myocarditis: A Review of the Current Literature.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Jan 4;7(1):162-173. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Medical School, University of Prishtina, Prishtina, Kosovo.

Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the myocardium with a broad spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from mild symptoms to severe heart failure. The course of patients with myocarditis is heterogeneous, varying from partial or full clinical recovery in a few days to advanced low cardiac output syndrome requiring mechanical circulatory support or heart transplantation. Myocarditis is a very heterogeneous disease, especially in the pediatric age group as worldwide disease myocarditis has been defined by the World Health Organization/International Society and Federation of Cardiology as an inflammatory disease of the heart muscle diagnosed by established histological, immunologic, and immunohistological criteria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6352488PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Development of real-time fluorescent reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for rhinovirus detection.

J Med Virol 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Influenza Virus Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 4-7-1 Gakuen, Musashimuyayama-shi, Tokyo, Japan.

Human rhinoviruses (RVs) belong to the genus Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae, and are classified into RV-A, -B, and -C species. Two assays were developed to detect RVs by a real-time fluorescent reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification method: one was designed based on the 5'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of RV-A and B, and the other was designed based on the 5'-UTR of RV-C. The competence of both assays for the diagnosis of RV infection was tested using isolated viruses and compared with real-time RT-PCR assays on clinical specimens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25427DOI Listing
February 2019
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MRI reveals segmental distribution of enterovirus lesions in the central nervous system: a probable clinical evidence of retrograde axonal transport of EV-A71.

J Neurovirol 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Guangzou Institute of Pediatrics, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510623, China.

Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a major causative agent for hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), especially severe HFMD characterized by neurologic involvement. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the distribution of neurologic infection and the outcomes of severe HFMD. A total of 139 suspected severe HFMD cases (92 were confirmed as EV-A71 infection) underwent clinical and laboratory diagnosis as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the nervous system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00724-3DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) annual report 2016: Prospective hospital-based surveillance for serious paediatric conditions

Commun Dis Intell (2018) 2019 Feb 1;43. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Director, National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance, Kids Research Institute, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead, New South Wales

Introduction: The Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network is a hospital-based active surveillance system employing prospective case ascertainment for selected serious childhood conditions, particularly vaccine preventable diseases and potential adverse events following immunisation (AEFI). PAEDS data is used to better understand these conditions, inform policy and practice under the National Immunisation Program, and enable rapid public health responses for certain conditions of public health importance. PAEDS enhances data available from other Australian surveillance systems by providing prospective, detailed clinical and laboratory information on children with selected conditions. Read More

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February 2019

Re-emergence of a coxsackievirus A24 variant causing acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Brazil from 2017 to 2018.

Arch Virol 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Laboratório de Enterovírus, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

A large outbreak (over 200,000 cases) of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) took place in Brazil during the summer of 2017/2018, seven years after a nationwide epidemic, which occurred in 2011. To identify the etiological agent, 80 conjunctival swabs from patients with a clinical presentation suggestive of AHC were analyzed at the national enterovirus laboratory. Real-time RT-PCR for human enteroviruses was performed, and enterovirus RNA was detected in 91. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-019-04157-5DOI Listing
February 2019

A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase 9 Domain (ADAM9) Is a Major Susceptibility Factor in the Early Stages of Encephalomyocarditis Virus Infection.

MBio 2019 Feb 5;10(1). Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA

Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a picornavirus that produces lytic infections in murine and human cells. Employing a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 knockout screen to find host factors required for EMCV infection, we identified a role for ADAM9 in EMCV infection. CRISPR-mediated deletion of ADAM9 in multiple human cell lines rendered the cells highly resistant to EMCV infection and cell death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02734-18DOI Listing
February 2019

Kynurenine is a cerebrospinal fluid biomarker for bacterial and viral CNS infections.

J Infect Dis 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Centre for Individualized Infection Medicine, Hannover, Germany.

Background: The tryptophan-kynurenine-NAD+ pathway is closely associated with regulation of immune cells toward less inflammatory phenotypes and may exert neuroprotective effects. Investigating its regulation in CNS infections would improve our understanding of pathophysiology and end-organ damage, and, furthermore, open doors to its evaluation as a source of diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarkers.

Methods: We measured concentrations of kynurenine (Kyn) and tryptophan (Trp) in 220 cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with bacterial and viral (herpes simplex, varicella zoster, enteroviruses) meningitis/encephalitis, neuroborreliosis, autoimmune neuroinflammation (anti-NMDA-R encephalitis, multiple sclerosis), and noninflamed controls (Bell's palsy, normal pressure hydrocephalus, Tourette syndrome). Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/inf
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz048DOI Listing
February 2019
7 Reads

Coxsackievirus B infection induces the extracellular release of miR-590-5p, a proviral microRNA.

Virology 2019 Jan 30;529:169-176. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

The Smidt Heart Institute and the Barbra Streisand Women's Heart Center, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Coxsackievirus B is a significant human pathogen and is a leading cause of myocarditis. We and others have observed that certain enteroviruses including coxsackievirus B cause infected cells to shed extracellular vesicles containing infectious virus. Recent reports have shown that vesicle-bound virus can infect more efficiently than free virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2019.01.025DOI Listing
January 2019

Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances is associated with lower hand, foot and mouth disease viruses antibody response in infancy: Findings from the Guangzhou Birth Cohort Study.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Jan 26;663:60-67. Epub 2019 Jan 26.

Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition and Health, Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China. Electronic address:

Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic chemicals widely used in industry and for commercial products. Their immunomodulatory effects are a growing health concern in children. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a common childhood viral infection, and increased incidence of which has parallel the rise in PFAS exposure in the Asia-Pacific region. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.01.325DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Profiles of Human Enteroviruses Associated with Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Nanjing, China.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2019 Feb 1:1-5. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Institute of Pediatrics,Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University,Nanjing,Jiangsu,China.

Objective: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease caused by a group of viruses. The causative viruses have changed over time, and there is a need for a more effective protective vaccine. In this study, we investigated the profiles of human enteroviruses that caused HFMD outbreaks in Nanjing in 2015, with the goal of guiding the future prevention and treatment of HFMD. Read More

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https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S193578931
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2018.155DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Modeling Host-Virus Interactions in Viral Infectious Diseases Using Stem-Cell-Derived Systems and CRISPR/Cas9 Technology.

Viruses 2019 Jan 30;11(2). Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141, Korea.

Pathologies induced by viral infections have undergone extensive study, with traditional model systems such as two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures and in vivo mouse models contributing greatly to our understanding of host-virus interactions. However, the technical limitations inherent in these systems have constrained efforts to more fully understand such interactions, leading to a search for alternative in vitro systems that accurately recreate in vivo physiology in order to advance the study of viral pathogenesis. Over the last decade, there have been significant technological advances that have allowed researchers to more accurately model the host environment when modeling viral pathogenesis in vitro, including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), adult stem-cell-derived organoid culture systems and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/11/2/124
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11020124DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Identification and characterization of nonpolio enterovirus associated with nonpolio-acute flaccid paralysis in polio endemic state of Uttar Pradesh, Northern India.

PLoS One 2019 30;14(1):e0208902. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Biochemistry, All Indian Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, India.

Despite polio eradication, nonpolio enterovirus (NPEV) detection amid polio surveillance, which is considered to have implications in paralysis, requires attention. The attributes of NPEV infections in nonpolio-AFP (NPAFP) cases from Uttar Pradesh (UP), India, remain undetermined and are thus investigated. A total of 1839 stool samples collected from patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) from UP, India, between January 2010 and October 2011 were analyzed as per the WHO algorithm. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0208902PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6353074PMC
January 2019
4 Reads

miR-545 promoted enterovirus 71 replication via directly targeting phosphatase and tensin homolog and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6.

J Cell Physiol 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Basic Medicine College, Henan University of Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a small, nonenveloped icosahedral RNA virus and is the predominant causative pathogen of hand-foot-and-mouth disease. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) are reported to play important roles in the pathogenesis of EV71 replication. This study investigated the role of miR-545 in the EV71 replication and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.28222DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Low frequency, weak MCP-1 secretion and exhausted immune status of peripheral monocytes were associated with progression of severe enterovirus A71-infected hand, foot and mouth disease.

Clin Exp Immunol 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Microbiology and Infectious Disease Center, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China.

A minority of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) results in severe neural complications. However, whether monocyte-mediated immunity is involved in the disease progression of HFMD remains unknown. One hundred and twenty mild and 103 severe HFMD patients were recruited and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), flow cytometry and Transwell culture were performed in the study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cei.13267DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

"How Can You Help Me If You Don't Believe Me?"

Authors:
Carissa Liu

Headache 2019 Feb;59(2):271-272

California, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/head.13481DOI Listing
February 2019

Presence of bacteroidales as a predicator of human enteric viruses in Haihe River of Tianjin City, China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Tianjin Institute of Environmental and Operational Medicine, Key Laboratory of Risk Assessment and Control for Environment and Food Safety, Tianjin, 300050, China.

Traditional microbe indicators including total bacteria, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, and F+ coliphage are all frequently used to characterize the microbial contamination state of water bodies for their correlation with pathogenic bacteria. However, these indicators have a poor relationship with viruses, which pose serious threat to economic and human health. Alternative indicators such as bacteroidales may be suitable complementary alternatives to traditional microbe indicators and are being increasingly reported. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11356-019-04217-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04217-yDOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Antiviral activity spectrum of phenoxazine nucleoside derivatives.

Antiviral Res 2019 Mar 23;163:117-124. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117997, Russia. Electronic address:

The phenoxazine scaffold is widely used to stabilize nucleic acid duplexes, as a part of fluorescent probes for the study of nucleic acid structure, recognition, and metabolism, etc. Here we present the synthesis of phenoxazine-based nucleoside derivatives and their antiviral activity against a panel of structurally diverse viruses: enveloped DNA herpesviruses varicella zoster virus (VZV) and human cytomegalovirus, enveloped RNA tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and non-enveloped RNA enteroviruses. Studied compounds were effective against DNA and RNA viruses reproduction in cell culture. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2019.01.010DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Rationale for enteroviral vaccination and antiviral therapies in human type 1 diabetes.

Diabetologia 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Diabetes Research Institute, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.

In type 1 diabetes, pancreatic beta cells are destroyed by chronic autoimmune responses. The disease develops in genetically susceptible individuals, but a role for environmental factors has been postulated. Viral infections have long been considered as candidates for environmental triggers but, given the lack of evidence for an acute, widespread, cytopathic effect in the pancreas in type 1 diabetes or for a closely related temporal association of diabetes onset with such infections, a role for viruses in type 1 diabetes remains unproven. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-019-4811-7DOI Listing
January 2019
12 Reads

Validating Enterovirus D68-2A as an Antiviral Drug Target and the Discovery of Telaprevir as a Potent D68-2A Inhibitor.

J Virol 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, USA

Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a viral pathogen that leads to severe respiratory illness and has been linked with the development of acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) in children. No vaccines or antivirals are currently available for EV-D68 infection, and treatment options for hospitalized patients are limited to supportive care. Here, we report the expression of the EV-D68 2A protease (2A) and characterization of its enzymatic activity. Read More

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http://jvi.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JVI.02221-18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02221-18DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

VAPiD: a lightweight cross-platform viral annotation pipeline and identification tool to facilitate virus genome submissions to NCBI GenBank.

BMC Bioinformatics 2019 Jan 23;20(1):48. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: With sequencing technologies becoming cheaper and easier to use, more groups are able to obtain whole genome sequences of viruses of public health and scientific importance. Submission of genomic data to NCBI GenBank is a requirement prior to publication and plays a critical role in making scientific data publicly available. GenBank currently has automatic prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome annotation pipelines but has no viral annotation pipeline beyond influenza virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12859-019-2606-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6343335PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Comparative Assessment of BGM and PLC/PRF/5 Cell Lines for Enteric Virus Detection in Biosolids.

Food Environ Virol 2019 Mar 23;11(1):32-39. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science, Water & Energy Sustainable Technology (WEST) Center, The University of Arizona, 2959 W. Calle Agua Nueva, Tucson, AZ, 85745, USA.

The buffalo green monkey (BGM) cell line is required for the detection of enteric viruses in biosolids through a total culturable viral assay (TCVA) by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. In the present study, BGM and PLC/PRF/5 cell lines were evaluated for TCVA and for their use in determining the incidence of adenoviruses and enteroviruses in raw sludge and Class B biosolids. Six raw sludge and 17 Class B biosolid samples were collected from 13 wastewater treatment plants from seven U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12560-019-09366-4DOI Listing

Genomic Analyses of Acute Flaccid Myelitis Cases among a Cluster in Arizona Provide Further Evidence of Enterovirus D68 Role.

MBio 2019 Jan 22;10(1). Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Pathogen and Microbiome Division, Translational Genomics Research Institute, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA

Enteroviruses are a common cause of respiratory and gastrointestinal illness, and multiple subtypes, including poliovirus, can cause neurologic disease. In recent years, enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been associated with serious neurologic illnesses, including acute flaccid myelitis (AFM), frequently preceded by respiratory disease. A cluster of 11 suspect cases of pediatric AFM was identified in September 2016 in Phoenix, AZ. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02262-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6343034PMC
January 2019
4 Reads

Acute flaccid myelitis caused by enterovirus D68: Case definitions for use in clinical practice.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Paediatric Neurosciences, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh, UK; Child Life and Health, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) was increasingly detected in recent years, coinciding with upsurges of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infections. We reviewed the evidence for a causal relationship between both. Based on reported cases, we provide case definitions for AFM caused by EV-D68 infections to enable a standard procedure for affected patients. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S10903798183028
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpn.2019.01.001DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Emergence of enterovirus D68 clade D1, France, August to November 2018.

Euro Surveill 2019 Jan;24(3)

Université Lyon 1, Faculté de Médecine Lyon Est, CIRI, Inserm U1111, CNRS UMR5308, Virpath, Lyon, France.

We report a seasonal increase of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) cases in France, with 54 cases detected between 19 August and 14 November 2018. Molecular typing revealed that 20 of 32 of the isolates belonged to clade D1, only sporadically detected before in France. Median age of D1-cases was 42 years, 10 developed severe respiratory signs and one had neurological complications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.3.1800699DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6344839PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Monoclonal antibody against EV71 3D inhibits the polymerase activity of RdRp and virus replication.

BMC Immunol 2019 Jan 22;20(1). Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Mucosal Immunity Research Group, State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, People's Republic of China.

Background: Enterovirus A 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic virus that may lead to acute flaccid paralysis, encephalitis, cardiopulmonary failure or even death. No vaccine and defensive drug controlling EV71 is currently available, novel and efficient antiviral drug or vaccine is therefore urgently needed. 3D (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)) has been an important target for anti-EV71 drug development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12865-019-0288-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6343263PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Surveillance for severe hand, foot, and mouth disease from 2009 to 2015 in Jiangsu province: epidemiology, etiology, and disease burden.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Jan 22;19(1):79. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, China.

Background: Severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood illness caused by various enteroviruses. The disease has imposed increased burden on children younger than 5 years old. We aimed to determine the epidemiology, CNS complication, and etiology among severe HFMD patients, in Jiangsu, China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3659-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6341624PMC
January 2019
1 Read

[Hospitalization burden of hand, foot and mouth disease in Anhua county of Hunan province, 2013-2016].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2019 Jan;40(1):79-83

Division of Infectious Disease, Key Laboratory of Surveillance and Early-warning on Infectious Disease, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China; School of Public Health, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 200032, China.

To estimate the serotype and age-specific hospitalization burden associated with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Anhua county of Hunan province, between October 2013 and September 2016. We collected hospitalization records of HFMD patients from 6 virological surveillance hospitals, and reimbursement records through new rural cooperative medical system from 23 township health centers to estimate the age-specific hospitalization burden of HFMD in Anhua. Combined with the results of virological surveillance, the serotype-specific hospitalization burden of HFMD in Anhua, was estimated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2019.01.016DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

The diabetes pandemic and associated infections: suggestions for clinical microbiology.

Rev Med Microbiol 2019 Jan 1;30(1):1-17. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR, Pisa, Italy.

There are 425 million people with diabetes mellitus in the world. By 2045, this figure will grow to over 600 million. Diabetes mellitus is classified among noncommunicable diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MRM.0000000000000155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6319590PMC
January 2019
7 Reads

History of detention and the risk of hepatitis C among people who inject drugs in Germany.

Int J Infect Dis 2019 Jan 15. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department for Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Division for HIV/AIDS, STI and Blood-borne Infections, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Objectives: To investigate the association between detention experience and HCV status, the role of detention duration and frequency and whether risk behaviours practiced in detention could explain an observed increase in risk.

Methods: Current drug injectors (injecting in the last 12 months) were recruited to participate in a sero-behavioural, cross-sectional survey using respondent-driven sampling in eight German cities, 2011-2014. Using multivariable logistic regression the association between HCV status and reported detention experience was investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2019.01.015DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Identification of a short, highly conserved, motif required for picornavirus capsid precursor processing at distal sites.

PLoS Pathog 2019 Jan 18;15(1):e1007509. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

DTU National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Lindholm, Kalvehave, Denmark.

Many picornaviruses cause important diseases in humans and other animals including poliovirus, rhinoviruses (causing the common cold) and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). These small, non-enveloped viruses comprise a positive-stranded RNA genome (ca. 7-9 kb) enclosed within a protein shell composed of 60 copies of three or four different capsid proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007509DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6338358PMC
January 2019

Lung Lavage Granulocyte Patterns and Clinical Phenotypes in Children with Severe, Therapy-Resistant Asthma.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Division of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, Department of Medicine; Beirne Carter Immunology Center; Department of Microbiology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908.

Background: Children with severe asthma have frequent exacerbations despite guidelines-based treatment with high-dose corticosteroids. The importance of refractory lung inflammation and infectious species as factors contributing to poorly-controlled asthma in children are poorly understood.

Objective: To identify prevalent granulocyte patterns and potential pathogens as targets for revised treatment, 126 children with severe asthma underwent clinically-indicated bronchoscopy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2018.12.027DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

[Infantile atypical hand-foot-mouth disease with features of eczema herpeticum and acrodermatitis].

Arch Argent Pediatr 2019 02;117(1):e59-e62

Servicio de Pediatría, Hospital Juan Ramón Jiménez, Huelva. España.

Hand-foot-mouth disease can present atypically, including forms with more numerous lesions and/or morphologically different from the classic presentation. It may even mimic other viral diseases. We present the case of a 2-year-old child previously diagnosed with atopic dermatitis, who presented with papules and umbilicated vesicles affecting the perioral area and limbs, predominantly in pressure areas, as well as in areas with previous atopic lesions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5546/aap.2019.e59DOI Listing
February 2019
14 Reads