28,695 results match your criteria Enteroviruses


DGraph Clusters Flaviviruses and β-Coronaviruses According to Their Hosts, Disease Type, and Human Cell Receptors.

Bioinform Biol Insights 2021 7;15:11779322211020316. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.

Motivation: There is a need for rapid and easy-to-use, alignment-free methods to cluster large groups of protein sequence data. Commonly used phylogenetic trees based on alignments can be used to visualize only a limited number of protein sequences. DGraph, introduced here, is an application developed to generate 2-dimensional (2D) maps based on similarity scores for sequences. Read More

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Hydrocele in a case of atypical Kawasaki disease: case report and review of diagnostic criteria.

BMC Pediatr 2021 06 15;21(1):279. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Paediatrics, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore, 229899, Singapore.

Background: Kawasaki Disease (KD) is a self-limiting vasculitis of unknown etiology. Although there are well-recognized clinical features associated with classic KD, there have been increasing numbers of atypical clinical presentations with increased dependence on the American Heart Association diagnostic algorithm for incomplete KD.

Case Presentation: We report on a child who was initially treated for Escherichia coli left pyelonephritis and Influenza A and Rhinovirus / Enterovirus upper respiratory tract infection. Read More

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Enterovirus D68 in hospitalized children with respiratory symptoms in Guangdong from 2014 to 2018: Molecular epidemiology and clinical characteristics.

J Clin Virol 2021 Jun 4;141:104880. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Innovation Platform for Public Health of Guangdong Province, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510282, China; Department of Medical Laboratory, School of Laboratory Medicine and Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515, China. Electronic address:

Background: Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is an emerging pathogen in humans. EV-D68 causes a wide range of respiratory symptoms in children and has the propensity to cause severe complications. EV-D68 outbreaks are rarely investigated in mainland China. Read More

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Detection of Enterovirus, Herpes Simplex, Varicella Zoster, Epstein-Barr and Cytomegalovirus in cerebrospinal fluid in meningitis patients in Iran.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Jun 21:e23836. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Despite medical advances, central nervous system (CNS) diseases put a pressure on the health care system. A number of risk factors, especially infectious agents can accelerate the progression of meningitis. As viruses probably account for most cases of meningitis, the diagnosis of them can reduce antibiotic prescriptions. Read More

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Porcine teschovirus, sapelovirus, and enterovirus in Swiss pigs: multiplex RT-PCR investigation of viral frequencies and disease association.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2021 Jun 21:10406387211025827. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Institute of Virology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Porcine teschovirus (PTV), sapelovirus (PSV-A), and enterovirus (EV-G) are enteric viruses that can infect pigs and wild boars worldwide. The viruses have been associated with several diseases, primarily gastrointestinal, neurologic, reproductive, and respiratory disorders, but also with subclinical infections. However, for most serotypes, proof of a causal relationship between viral infection and clinical signs is still lacking. Read More

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Autophagy Receptor Protein Tax1-Binding Protein 1/TRAF6-Binding Protein Is a Cellular Substrate of Enteroviral Proteinase.

Front Microbiol 2021 4;12:647410. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Centre for Heart Lung Innovation, St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Enteroviruses (EVs) usurp the host autophagy pathway for pro-viral functions; however, the consequence of EV-induced diversion of autophagy on organelle quality control is poorly defined. Using coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) as a model EV, we explored the interplay between EV infection and selective autophagy receptors, i.e. Read More

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Development of an indirect ELISA for detecting Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus IgG antibodies based on a recombinant spike protein.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Science, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510006, China.

Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) is a newly identified swine enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes watery diarrhea in neonatal piglets, leading to significant economic losses to the swine industry. Currently, there are no suitable serological methods to assess the infection of SADS-CoV and effectiveness of vaccines, making an urgent need to exploit effective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to compensate for this deficiency. Here, a recombinant plasmid that expresses the spike (S) protein of SADS-CoV fused to the Fc domain of human IgG was constructed to generate recombinant baculovirus and expressed in HEK 293F cells. Read More

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[Epidemiological and etiological characteristics of hand, foot and mouth disease among children aged 5 years and younger in Ningbo (2016 to 2019)].

Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Jun;53(3):491-497

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University School of Public Health, Beijing 100191, China.

Objective: To describe the epidemiological and etiological characteristics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among children aged 5 years and younger in Ningbo after the access of entero-virus-A71 vaccine (2016 to 2019).

Methods: A retrospective cohort study were performed in children aged 5 years and younger in Ningbo from 2016 to 2019. Data for incidence of HFMD was collected from the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance Reporting System and the Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) System, while the demographic information was derived from the Immunization Information System. Read More

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Respiratory virus surveillance in Canada during the COVID-19 pandemic: An epidemiological analysis of the effectiveness of pandemic-related public health measures in reducing seasonal respiratory viruses test positivity.

PLoS One 2021 18;16(6):e0253451. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang, Republic of Korea.

Background: Various public health measures have been implemented globally to counter the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate respiratory virus surveillance data to determine the effectiveness of such interventions in reducing transmission of seasonal respiratory viruses.

Method: We retrospectively analysed data from the Respiratory Virus Detection Surveillance System in Canada, before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, by interrupted time series regression. Read More

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[Preparation of pan-neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibodies against enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16].

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jul;37(7):645-650

Dongguan Institute of Pediatrics, Dongguan Eighth People's Hospital, Dongguan 523325, China. *Corresponding author, E-mail:

Objective To prepare a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) that can simultaneously block enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) infections. Methods BALB/c mice were immunized with 163-177 amino acids (SP55) of the C-terminal of EV71 virion particle 1 (VP1) protein, and the mAbs were prepared by hybridoma technology. Neutralization antigenic epitope SP55 of EV71 and the highly homologous CV-A16 VP1 protein C-terminal 163-177 amino acids (PEP55) were applied to detect the mAbs that cross-reacted with EV71 and CV-A16 at the same time, and an in vitro neutralization test was conducted to detect the neutralization effect of EV71 and CV-A16, and to analyze the biological characteristics of the mAb. Read More

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Polymer monoliths for the concentration of viruses from environmental waters. A review.

J Sep Sci 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Departamento de Química Fundamental, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, 05508-000, Brazil.

Even at low concentrations in environmental waters, some viruses are highly infective, making them a threat to human health. They are the leading cause of waterborne enteric diseases. In agriculture, plant viruses in irrigation and runoff water threat the crops. Read More

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Enterovirus 71 infection induced Aquaporin-4 depolarization by increasing matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Jun 12;759:136049. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Center for Public Health Research, Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China; State Key Lab of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the key water channel protein that regulates brain water homeostasis. Polarized expression of AQP4 on the astroglial endfeet facilitates its role in bi-directional brain water flux control. In the current study, we found that enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection induced depolarization of AQP4 in mouse brain, and demonstrated that β-dystroglycan (β-DG), the key component of dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC) that anchors AQP4 to the astroglial endfeet, was degraded upon infection. Read More

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Impact of social distancing on the spread of common respiratory viruses during the coronavirus disease outbreak.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(6):e0252963. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

During the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, social distancing was effective in controlling disease spread across South Korea. The impact of national social distancing on the spread of common respiratory virus infections has rarely been investigated. We evaluated the weekly proportion of negative respiratory virus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test results and weekly positive rates of each respiratory virus during the social distancing period (10th-41st weeks of 2020) and the corresponding period in different years, utilizing the national respiratory virus surveillance dataset reported by the Korean Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Read More

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Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Viral Disinfection. A Systematic Review.

Food Environ Virol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, University Campus, Caratheodory 1, 26504, Patras, Greece.

Water and wastewater virological quality is a significant public health issue. Viral agents include emerging and re-emerging pathogens characterized by extremely small size, and high environmental stability. Since the mainly used conventional disinfection methods are usually not able to achieve complete disinfection of viral and other microbial targets, in real water and wastewater matrices, effective strategies for the treatment, use and reuse of water and the development of next-generation water supply systems are required. Read More

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Neonatal Murine Model of Coxsackievirus A2 Infection for the Evaluation of Antiviral Therapeutics and Vaccination.

Front Microbiol 2021 28;12:658093. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Coxsackievirus (CV) A2 has emerged as an important etiological agent in the pathogen spectrum of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). The symptoms of CVA2 infections are generally mild, but worsen rapidly in some people, posing a serious threat to children's health. However, compared with enterovirus 71 detected frequently in fatal cases, limited attention has been paid to CVA2 infections because of its benign clinical course. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2, other respiratory viruses and bacteria in aerosols: Report from Kuwait's hospitals.

Indoor Air 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Environment and Life Sciences Research Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat, Kuwait.

The role of airborne particles in the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is well explored. The novel coronavirus can survive in aerosol for extended periods, and its interaction with other viral communities can cause additional virulence and infectivity. This baseline study reports concentrations of SARS-CoV-2, other respiratory viruses, and pathogenic bacteria in the indoor air from three major hospitals (Sheikh Jaber, Mubarak Al-Kabeer, and Al-Amiri) in Kuwait dealing with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Read More

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Pregnancy and viral infections: Mechanisms of fetal damage, diagnosis and prevention of neonatal adverse outcomes from cytomegalovirus to SARS-CoV-2 and Zika virus.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2021 Jun 10;1867(10):166198. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Fetal and Perinatal Medicine and Surgery Unit, Medical and Surgical Department of Fetus, Newborn and Infant - "Bambino Gesù" Children's Hospital IRCCS, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Some maternal infections, contracted before or during pregnancy, can be transmitted to the fetus, during gestation (congenital infection), during labor and childbirth (perinatal infection) and through breastfeeding (postnatal infection). The agents responsible for these infections can be viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi. Among the viruses most frequently responsible for congenital infections are Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Herpes simplex 1-2, Herpes virus 6, Varicella zoster. Read More

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Chimeric enterovirus 71 virus-like particle displaying conserved coxsackievirus A16 epitopes elicits potent immune responses and protects mice against lethal EV71 and CA16 infection.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China. Electronic address:

Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is an infectious disease of infants and young children frequently caused by the enterovirus A species, mainly enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16). In this study, we prepared the EV71 virus-like particle (EV71-VLP) and its chimeras using recombinant baculovirus (Bac-P1-3CD) co-expressing EV71 P1 (under polyhedrin promoter) and 3CD (under CMV-IE promoter) proteins in Sf9 cells. EV71-VLP chimera ChiEV71(1E)-VLP or ChiEV71(4E)-VLP displayed single CA16 PEP71 epitope in VP1 or four conserved CA16 neutralizing epitopes (PEP71 in VP1, aa136-150 in VP2, aa176-190 in VP3 and aa48-62 in VP4) by substitution of the corresponding regions of EV71 structure proteins, respectively. Read More

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Vaccination coverage estimates and utilization patterns of inactivated enterovirus 71 vaccine post vaccine introduction in Ningbo, China.

BMC Public Health 2021 Jun 10;21(1):1118. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Ningbo Municipal Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Institute of Immunization and Prevention, Yongfeng Road, Haishu District, Ningbo, 315010, China.

Background: In China, enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major etiological agents of hand foot mouth disease that poses severe risks to children's health. Since 2015, three inactivated EV71 vaccines have been approved for use. Previous studies indicated the high willingness of EV71 vaccination in eastern China. Read More

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Enteric viruses seize their immunomodulatory niche.

Cell Host Microbe 2021 06;29(6):858-861

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Edison Family Center for Genome Sciences & Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

Enteric eukaryotic viruses are increasingly recognized as non-pathogenic, immunomodulatory participants in the healthy intestinal microbiota. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Dallari et al. (2021) use a single virus infection approach to reveal both generalized viral immune responses and numerous unique, virus-specific response profiles. Read More

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Noninvasive ventilation use in pediatric status asthmaticus.

J Asthma 2021 Jun 18:1-5. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Introduction: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is sometimes used in refractory pediatric status asthmaticus for its potential benefits of stenting airways and dispersing albuterol. However, its effectiveness in pediatric asthma remains unproven. The usage pattern, outcomes, and safety of NIV in pediatric status asthmaticus are described. Read More

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Incidence and Distribution of the Pathogens Causing Central Nervous System Infections at the University Hospital of Korea.

Clin Lab 2021 Jun;67(6)

Background: The pathogens involved in central nervous system (CNS) infections are various, such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi, so a syndromic approach can be required. In addition, since their rapid and accurate detection is very crucial, molecular diagnostics using cerebrospinal fluid is becoming the emerging standard method.

Methods: The study was conducted retrospectively to identify the incidence and distribution patterns of the pathogens according to gender, age, season, and month and to analyze their codetection from August 2017 to July 2020. Read More

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High genotypic diversity of Rhinoviruses obtained from Tunisian children with severe acute respiratory infection.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2021 May 31;15(5):726-735. Epub 2021 May 31.

Laboratory of Microbiology of Bechir Hamza Children's Hospital, Tunis, Bab Saadoun Square, Tunisia.

Introduction: Rhinoviruses (HRV) are among the leading causes of Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI). Their burden and genetic diversity vary from one region to another and little is known in Northern African regions. This study describes epidemiological patterns and genotypic diversity of HRV in SARI cases during a two and half year's study, in Northern Tunisia. Read More

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Enterovirus-A71 Rhombencephalitis Outbreak in Catalonia: Characteristics, Management and Outcome.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 Jul;40(7):628-633

From the Pediatric Emergency Department, Department of Pediatrics, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Between April and June 2016, an outbreak of rhombencephalitis (RE) caused by enterovirus (EV) A71 was detected in Catalonia, Spain-the first documented in Western Europe. The clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with this condition differed from those reported in outbreaks occurring in Southeast Asia.

Methods: Observational, multicenter study analyzing characteristics, treatment and outcome of patients with EV-A71 rhombencephalitis diagnosed in 6 publicly funded hospitals within the Catalonian Health Institute. Read More

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Engineering a novel IgG-like bispecific antibody against enterovirus A71.

Biochem Biophys Rep 2020 Dec 5;24:100860. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan.

Frequent outbreaks of enterovirus A71 (EVA71) occur in the Asia-Pacific area, and these are closely associated with severe neurological symptoms in young children. No effective antiviral therapy is currently available for the treatment of EVA71 infection. The development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has demonstrated promise as a novel therapy for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. Read More

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December 2020

Reverse Genetic Approaches for the Generation of Full Length and Subgenomic Replicon of EV71 Virus.

Front Microbiol 2021 20;12:665879. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Pathogen Biology and Immunology, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, China.

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic pathogen that causes hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and it has been consistently associated with severe neurological, cardiac, and respiratory complications. Yet there is no specific treatment for this virus and we still know little about the viral pathogenesis. In this study, we first generated an infectious cDNA clone of EV71 virus from a patient virus strain and made a full-length virus with a NanoLuc reporter gene through reverse genetic approaches. Read More

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The impact of viral infections on childhood central nervous system infections.

J Clin Virol 2021 Jul 11;140:104853. Epub 2021 May 11.

Laboratório de Vírus, Departamento de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Viruses are a common cause of central nervous system (CNS) infections. However, studies of CNS viral pathogens in pediatric patients are poorly explored because viral infections are often erroneously diagnosed as bacterial infections.

Methods: 299 CNS samples were collected from pediatric patients aged from one month to 14 years old. Read More

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Enterovirus Meningitis in Adults: A Prospective Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

Neurology 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that enterovirus meningitis (EM) is a frequent and self-limiting condition, the epidemiology of enterovirus meningitis (EM) in adults was examined.

Methods: Using a prospective, nationwide, population-based database, all adults with EM confirmed by PCR of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 2015-2019 were included. Unfavorable outcome was defined as Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores of 1-4 at discharge. Read More

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Preclinical safety assessment of a combined vaccine against Hepatitis a virus and enterovirus 71.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 2;39(29):3952-3963. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

The Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, China. Electronic address:

Since 2007, Hepatitis A (HAV) vaccination has been a part of the National Immunization Program of China. Recognizing enterovirus 71 (EV71) as the most important pathogen in severe hand, foot and mouth disease, an inactivated EV71 vaccine was successfully marketed in 2015. Based on the concept of one vaccine preventing two diseases and owing to similarities in vaccine preparation and the overlap of the eligible population, a combination of the inactivated HAV vaccine and inactivated EV71 vaccine is theoretically feasible and desirable. Read More

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Genetic diversity and evolution of enterovirus A71 subgenogroup C1 from children with hand, foot, and mouth disease in Thailand.

Arch Virol 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Center of Excellence in Clinical Virology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) can cause hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in children and may be associated with severe neurological complications. There have been numerous reports of increased incidence of EV-A71 subgenogroup C1 (EV-A71 C1) infections associated with neurological diseases since the first occurrence in Germany in 2015. Here, we describe 11 full-length genome sequences of 2019 EV-A71 C1 strains isolated from HFMD patients in Thailand from 2019 to early 2020. Read More

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