1,204 results match your criteria Enteroviral Infections


Genetic characterization and molecular epidemiological analysis of novel enterovirus EV-B80 in China.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2018 Nov 28;7(1):193. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

WHO WPRO Regional Polio Reference Laboratory and National Health Commission Key Laboratory for Medical Virology, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Enterovirus B80 (EV-B80) is a newly identified serotype belonging to the enterovirus B species. To date, only two full-length genomic sequences of EV-B80 are available in GenBank, and few studies on EV-B80 have been conducted in China or worldwide. More information and research on EV-B80 is needed to assess its genetic characteristics, phylogenetic relationships, and association with enteroviral diseases. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

An upstream protein-coding region in enteroviruses modulates virus infection in gut epithelial cells.

Nat Microbiol 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Division of Virology, Department of Pathology, Addenbrooke's Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Enteroviruses comprise a large group of mammalian pathogens that includes poliovirus. Pathology in humans ranges from sub-clinical to acute flaccid paralysis, myocarditis and meningitis. Until now, all of the enteroviral proteins were thought to derive from the proteolytic processing of a polyprotein encoded in a single open reading frame. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Acute enteroviral meningoencephalitis as unusual cause of diplopia in pregnancy and puerperium.

Ceska Gynekol Fall 2018;83(4):281-285

Objective: To describe unusual cause of diplopia in early puerperal period.

Design: Case report.

Setting: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2nd Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital Motol. Read More

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November 2018

Impact of Drinking Water Quality on the Development of Enteroviral Diseases in Korea.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Nov 14;15(11). Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Korea.

Enterovirus diseases are fecal-orally transmitted, and its transmission may be closely related with the drinking water quality and other environmental factors. This study aimed to assess the association between environmental factors including drinking water quality and the incidence of enteroviral diseases in metropolitan provinces of Korea. Using monthly number of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD), aseptic meningitis (AM) and acute hemorrhage conjunctivitis (AHC) cases, generalized linear Poisson model was applied to estimate the effects of environmental factors on the monthly cases. Read More

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November 2018
9 Reads

Inflammatory profiles revealed the dysregulation of cytokines in adult patients of HFMD.

Int J Infect Dis 2018 Nov 10;79:12-20. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Intensive Care Unit, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, Zhejiang, PR China.

Background: Adult patients of HFMD might act as potential enterovirus reservoirs. As enterovirus infection will cause acute inflammatory response, identifying the association between the dysregulation of cytokines and the development and prognosis of HFMD in adult patients has vital clinical significance.

Methods: 60 patients from 266 laboratory-confirmed adult HFMD cases were included in this study, with 40 healthy adult subjects serving as the controls. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Enteroviral Infection Leads to Transactive Response DNA-Binding Protein 43 Pathology in Vivo.

Am J Pathol 2018 Dec 28;188(12):2853-2862. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Centre for Heart Lung Innovation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Electronic address:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that primarily affects motor neurons in the cerebral cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord, leading to progressive paralysis and eventual death. Approximately 95% of all ALS cases are sporadic without known causes. Enteroviruses have been suspected to play a role in ALS because of their ability to target motor neurons and to cause muscle weakness and paralysis. Read More

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December 2018
34 Reads

Enterovirus infections in pediatric hematologic/oncologic patients.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2019 Jan 30;66(1):e27448. Epub 2018 Sep 30.

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Background: Enteroviruses (EV) are a large group of Picornaviruses associated with respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurologic symptoms in the immunocompetent host. Little is known about the epidemiologic and clinical impact in pediatric hematologic/oncologic patients.

Procedure: From 2001 through 2017, different clinical specimens were collected from pediatric hematologic/oncologic patients and were tested for enteroviral RNA. Read More

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January 2019
1 Read

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) proteomic profiling of cerebrospinal fluid in the diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis: a proof-of-principle study.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Dec 27;37(12):2331-2339. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Microbiology Service, Institute for Research INCLIVA, Hospital Clínico Universitario, Valencia, Spain.

The use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for diagnosing viral infections by directly testing clinical specimens has not previously been explored. In this proof-of-principle study, we tested the hypothesis that proteomic profiling of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by mass spectrometry may be useful in the diagnosis of enteroviral (EV) meningitis. A total of 114 cryopreserved CSF samples were analyzed, of which 47 were positive for EV and 67 were negative. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Enteroviral Infections as a Trigger for Type 1 Diabetes.

Curr Diab Rep 2018 Sep 19;18(11):106. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Diabetes Research, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764, Munich-Neuherberg, Germany.

Purpose Of Review: To provide an overview of studies that have detected enteroviruses (EV) in samples from people with type 1 diabetes (T1D), the techniques they have used, and which challenges they have encountered.

Recent Findings: Recent studies have detected EVs in serum, blood, stools, nasal swabs, and pancreas of people with T1D before or around clinical onset of disease, indicating that an association between EV infections and T1D exists. However, definitive evidence for its role as disease triggers is lacking. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Clinical benefits of introducing real-time multiplex PCR for cerebrospinal fluid as routine diagnostic at a tertiary care pediatric center.

Infection 2018 Sep 5. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Dr. v. Hauner Children's Hospital, LMU Munich, University of Munich (LMU), Lindwurmstraße 4, 80337, Munich, Germany.

Background: Sepsis-like illness with suspected meningitis or encephalitis is a common reason for using empiric antimicrobial therapy in infants and children. However, in cases of viral meningitis not covered by these antimicrobials, this management is ineffective and due to side effects potentially harmful.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) multiplex PCRs (Biofire FilmArray) in children with clinical suspicion of meningitis, encephalitis or sepsis-like illness was performed over the period of 1 year. Read More

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September 2018
4 Reads

CCR5del32 genotype in human enteroviral cardiomyopathy leads to spontaneous virus clearance and improved outcome compared to wildtype CCR5.

J Transl Med 2018 Sep 4;16(1):249. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Institute of Cardiac Diagnostics and Therapy (IKDT), Berlin, Germany.

Background: Enteroviral cardiomyopathy is a life-threatening disease, and detection of enterovirus (EV) RNA in the initial endomyocardial biopsy is associated with adverse prognosis and increased mortality. Some patients with EV infection may spontaneously eliminate the virus and recover, whereas those with virus persistence deteriorate and progress to heart failure. Interferon-beta (IFN-β) therapy eliminates the virus, resulting in increased survival of treated patients. Read More

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September 2018
4 Reads

Acute-Onset Flaccid Hemiparesis in a 9-Year-Old Boy With Presumed Enteroviral Infection.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2018 Sep;34(9):e171-e174

From the Division of Emergency Medicine, Children's National Health System, and.

In the summer and autumn of 2014, a cluster of cases of flaccid paralysis were seen in the United States related to patients infected with enterovirus D68 (EV-D68). We present here a case of acute-onset flaccid hemiparesis in a previously healthy boy with altered mental status, hypothermia, and bowel incontinence. Read More

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September 2018
3 Reads

[Pathogen spectrum in enteroviral infections among children in Beijing from 2010 to 2016].

Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2018 Aug;56(8):575-581

Laboratory of Virology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Etiology of Viral Diseases in Children, Capital Institute of Pediatrics-Peking University Teaching Hospital, Beijing 100020, China.

To understand the epidemiological and etiological characteristics of enterovirus (EV)-associated diseases among children in Beijing from 2010 to 2016. This was a repeated cross-sectional study. The throat swabs were collected from children with probable EV-associated diseases at the Children' s Hospital Affiliated to Capital Institute of Pediatrics from 2010 to 2016. Read More

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August 2018
20 Reads

Unexpected subcellular distribution of a specific isoform of the Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor, CAR-SIV, in human pancreatic beta cells.

Diabetologia 2018 11 3;61(11):2344-2355. Epub 2018 Aug 3.

Islet Biology Exeter (IBEx), Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, University of Exeter Medical School, RILD Building (Level 4), Barrack Road, Exeter, EX2 5DW, UK.

Aims/hypothesis: The Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a transmembrane cell-adhesion protein that serves as an entry receptor for enteroviruses and may be essential for their ability to infect cells. Since enteroviral infection of beta cells has been implicated as a factor that could contribute to the development of type 1 diabetes, it is often assumed that CAR is displayed on the surface of human beta cells. However, CAR exists as multiple isoforms and it is not known whether all isoforms subserve similar physiological functions. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Enteroviral infections in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes: new insights for therapeutic intervention.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2018 Dec 29;43:11-19. Epub 2018 Jul 29.

Institute of Biomedical & Clinical Science, University of Exeter Medical School, Exeter, Devon, UK. Electronic address:

The development of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes has long been linked with enteroviral infection but a causal relationship has proven hard to establish. This is partly because much of the epidemiological evidence derives from studies of neutralising antibody generation in blood samples while less attention has been paid to the pancreatic beta cell as a site of infection. Nevertheless, recent studies have revealed that beta cells express specific enteroviral receptors and that they can sustain a productive enteroviral infection. Read More

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December 2018

Comparison of Cerebrospinal Fluid Cytokine Levels in Children of Enteroviral Meningitis With Versus Without Pleocytosis.

J Interferon Cytokine Res 2018 Aug 27;38(8):348-355. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

1 Department of Pediatrics, Pusan National University Children's Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine , Yangsan, Korea.

In viral meningitis, proinflammatory cytokines were detected at higher levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and might play an important role in the inflammatory process. Our goal was to compare the cytokine profiles in the CSF of children of enteroviral meningitis (EVM) with versus without CSF pleocytosis. In total, 158 patients were enrolled in this prospective cohort study and were classified as EVM (group-A, n = 101), nonenteroviral aseptic meningitis (group-B, n = 27), and control (group-C, n = 30) groups. Read More

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August 2018
10 Reads

In vitro antiviral activity of twenty-seven medicinal plant extracts from Southwest Nigeria against three serotypes of echoviruses.

Virol J 2018 07 18;15(1):110. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Department of Virology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Echoviruses, a serotype of enteroviruses, infect millions of people globally and there is no specific drug treatment or vaccine available for its management. The screening of medicinal plants used locally for the treatment of infectious diseases, can provide a reliable option in the discovery of potent therapeutic compounds. This study was carried out to investigate the antiviral activities of 27 medicinal plant extracts, belonging to 26 different plant species, selected from Nigerian ethnobotany, against echovirus 7, 13 and 19 serotypes (E7, E13 and E19, respectively). Read More

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July 2018
8 Reads

Assessing medicinal plants traditionally used in the Chirang Reserve Forest, Northeast India for antimicrobial activity.

J Ethnopharmacol 2018 Oct 11;225:220-233. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Department of Biology, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Knowledge on the use of plants for different ailments by the tribals of the Chirang Reserve Forest (CRF, Northeast India) was used to assess the potential of these plants for treating viral, bacterial and fungal infections.

Materials And Methods: Fieldwork in the CRF documented the use of plants for the treatment of various human ailments. The ethnobotanical data were analysed using different quantitative indices viz. Read More

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October 2018
15 Reads

Cerebrospinal fluid non-pleocytosis in pediatric enteroviral meningitis: Large-scale review.

Pediatr Int 2018 Sep;60(9):855-861

Department of Pediatrics, Pusan National University Children's Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan, Korea.

Background: Lack of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis has been reported in some children with enteroviral meningitis (EVM). The aim of this paper was to investigate the clinical spectrum and related factors in EVM with CSF non-pleocytosis.

Methods: The databases of children diagnosed with EVM on CSF polymerase chain reaction between 2011 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

Acute Flaccid Paralysis and Enteroviral Infections.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Jun 29;20(9):34. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Division of Neurology, The Hospital for Sick Children and Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurosciences and Mental Health, SickKids Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: The focus of this review is on enterovirus (EV)-associated acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) due to spinal cord anterior horn cell disease. Emphasis is placed on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of AFP caused by polioviruses, vaccine-derived polioviruses, EV-D68, and EV-A71.

Recent Findings: Since the launch of The Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988, the worldwide incidence of polio has been reduced by 99. Read More

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June 2018
48 Reads

Clearing Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Infection Following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: a Case Report and Review of Literature.

J Clin Immunol 2018 Jul 14;38(5):610-616. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children's Medical Center Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The use of oral poliovirus vaccine in a worldwide scale has led to a 99.9% decrease in annual incidence of wild-type poliomyelitis and the eradication of serotype 2 poliovirus. However, the emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) is endangering the eradication program. Read More

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July 2018
6 Reads
3.184 Impact Factor

A Pilot Study Evaluating Cerebral Vasculitis in Kawasaki's Disease.

Neuropediatrics 2018 Dec 18;49(6):392-396. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Gyeongsang National University of Hospital, Jinju, Republic of Korea.

Cerebral vasculitis is thought to be a possible underlying mechanism of severe neurological complications of Kawasaki's disease (KD), such as cerebral infarct or aneurysm rupture. To evaluate the intracranial inflammatory response in patients with acute-stage KD, we measured the levels of cytokines (interleukin [IL]-6 and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) and pentraxin-3 (PTX3) in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with KD ( = 7) and compared the levels to those of the age- and sex-matched febrile control patients (bacterial meningitis [ = 5], enteroviral meningitis [ = 10], nonspecific viral illness without central nervous system involvement [ = 10]). PTX3 and TNF-α were rarely detected and only in trace concentration in KD, and the levels of IL-6 were not different from those of nonspecific viral illnesses. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Successful treatment of fulminant neonatal enteroviral myocarditis in monochorionic diamniotic twins with cardiopulmonary support, intravenous immunoglobulin and pocapavir.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 May 18;2018. Epub 2018 May 18.

Division of Pediatric Cardiology, St Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA.

Neonatal cardiogenic shock most commonly occurs due to critical congenital heart disease, sepsis, metabolic disorder or arrhythmias. In particular, enterovirus infections are common in the neonatal period, and patients can present with fulminant myocarditis. Early recognition is imperative due to its high morbidity and mortality without prompt and aggressive treatment. Read More

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May 2018
53 Reads

Hand, foot, and mouth disease photolocalized to sunburn.

Pediatr Dermatol 2018 Jul 16;35(4):e239-e240. Epub 2018 May 16.

Phoenix Children's Hospital, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a common exanthem linked to infection with several non-polio enteroviruses. This case of an 11-year-old boy with an enteroviral infection limited to areas of sunburn is an atypical presentation of hand, foot, and mouth disease. Recognition of this unusual distribution will allow pediatricians and pediatric dermatologists to appropriately manage and counsel patients and parents. Read More

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July 2018
6 Reads

Clinical and biological features of enteroviral meningitis among adults and children and factors associated with severity and length of stay.

J Clin Virol 2018 Jul 1;104:56-60. Epub 2018 May 1.

Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Bordeaux University Hospital, Place Amélie Raba-Léon 33000 Bordeaux, France; Bordeaux University Hospital, France.

Background: Enterovirus (EV) meningitis is the most common form of meningitis. Clinical and biological manifestations may be non-specific, leading to prolonged and costly investigations.

Objectives: To determine the different aspects of EV meningitis and the variables associated with length of stay (LOS) in hospital independently of patients' age. Read More

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Alteration in CD8 T cell subsets in enterovirus-infected patients: An alarming factor for type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Kaohsiung J Med Sci 2018 May 20;34(5):274-280. Epub 2018 Jan 20.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Basic Health Sciences Institute, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.

Type 1 diabetes is a multi-factorial disease that can develop due to the combination of genetic and environmental factors. Viruses, particularly enteroviruses, are major environmental candidates in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, even though the mechanisms of pathogenicity of these viruses and their effects on the immune system have not been understood very well yet. Previous studies show that any imbalance in the population of different lymphocyte subsets could develop autoimmune diseases. Read More

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May 2018
6 Reads

Spectrum of Enterovirus Serotypes Causing Uncomplicated Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease and Enteroviral Diagnostic Yield of Different Clinical Samples.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Nov;67(11):1729-1735

Division of Infectious Disease, Key Laboratory of Surveillance and Early Warning on Infectious Disease, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Background: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) represents a substantial disease burden in the Western Pacific region. We investigated the spectrum of causative enteroviruses of HFMD, and evaluated different clinical samples' diagnostic yield for enteroviruses.

Methods: We enrolled pediatric patients hospitalized for HFMD among 6 hospitals in Anhua County, Hunan Province, China between October 2013 and September 2016. Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

Retrospective Evaluation of Infants Aged 1 to 60 Days with Residual Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Tested Using the FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) Panel.

J Clin Microbiol 2018 Jul 25;56(7). Epub 2018 Jun 25.

BioFire Diagnostics, LLC, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

In pediatric practice it is common for infants under 2 months of age to undergo evaluation for sepsis when they are ill, often including lumbar puncture to assess for central nervous system (CNS) infection. The FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) panel is a newly approved test for rapid identification of CNS pathogens. Our objective was to study the epidemiology of CNS infection in young infants and the potential impact of rapid multiplex PCR on their care. Read More

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July 2018
16 Reads

Higher parental occupational social contact is associated with a reduced risk of incident pediatric type 1 diabetes: Mediation through molecular enteroviral indices.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(4):e0193992. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

School of Women's and Children's Health, University of New South Wales, New South Wales, Australia.

We aimed to examine the association between parental occupational social contact and hygiene factors on type 1 diabetes (T1D) risk and possible mediation of these effects through child enteroviral infection. We interviewed 333 incident T1D cases and 660 controls from 2008-2011 in Melbourne, Australia. Enteroviral indices (ribonucleic acid by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Coxsackie B virus antibody levels) in peripheral blood were measured in nested case control samples. Read More

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July 2018
10 Reads

Enteroviral Infection: The Forgotten Link to Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis?

Front Mol Neurosci 2018 12;11:63. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Centre for Heart and Lung Innovation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease that primarily attacks motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord, leading to progressive paralysis and ultimately death. Currently there is no effective therapy. The majority of ALS cases are sporadic, with no known family history; unfortunately the etiology remains largely unknown. Read More

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March 2018
6 Reads

Vitamin D status, enterovirus infection, and type 1 diabetes in Italian children/adolescents.

Pediatr Diabetes 2018 Aug 17;19(5):923-929. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Biotechnology, University of Insubria and Ospedale di Circolo, Varese, Italy.

At the time of the clinical onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D), we investigated 82 pediatric cases in parallel with 117 non-diabetic controls matched by age, geographic area, and time of collection. The occurrence of an enteroviral infection was evaluated in peripheral blood using a sensitive method capable of detecting virtually all human enterovirus (EV) types. While non-diabetic controls were consistently EV-negative, 65% of T1D cases carried EVs in blood. Read More

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August 2018
3 Reads

Enteroviral Infection Inhibits Autophagic Flux via Disruption of the SNARE Complex to Enhance Viral Replication.

Cell Rep 2018 Mar;22(12):3292-3303

Center for Heart Lung Innovation, St. Paul's Hospital and Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6Z 1Y6, Canada. Electronic address:

Picornaviruses have evolved to hijack host cellular machinery, including the autophagic pathway. However, the mechanisms remain largely unclear. We use coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) as a model organism to explore the possible role of picornavirus subversion of the autophagic pathway in viral infection. Read More

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Enteroviruses: Classification, Diseases They Cause, and Approaches to Development of Antiviral Drugs.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2017 Dec;82(13):1615-1631

Institute of Protein Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region, 142290, Russia.

The genus Enterovirus combines a portion of small (+)ssRNA-containing viruses and is divided into 10 species of true enteroviruses and three species of rhinoviruses. These viruses are causative agents of the widest spectrum of severe and deadly epidemic diseases of higher vertebrates, including humans. Their ubiquitous distribution and high pathogenicity motivate active search to counteract enterovirus infections. Read More

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December 2017
30 Reads

Complete genome sequence of a multi-recombinant echovirus 6 strain isolated from CSF in Ahvaz, Southwestern Iran.

J Chin Med Assoc 2018 04 21;81(4):340-347. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Health Research Institute, Infectious and Tropical Disease Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran; Department of Virology, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background: Echovirus 6 (E6), is one of the main enteroviral serotypes, was initially isolated from patients with aseptic meningitis (AM) and is a major cause of hospitalization among children and adults worldwide.

Methods: A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample was collected from patient with clinically suspected aseptic meningitis (AM) in August 2011. Following detection of a virus and subsequent virus serotyping, the whole genome sequence was determined. Read More

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April 2018
3 Reads

Strain-dependent effects of clinical echovirus 30 outbreak isolates at the blood-CSF barrier.

J Neuroinflammation 2018 Feb 20;15(1):50. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University Children's Hospital Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany.

Background: Echovirus (E) 30 (E-30) meningitis is characterized by neuroinflammation involving immune cell pleocytosis at the protective barriers of the central nervous system (CNS). In this context, infection of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), which has been demonstrated to be involved in enteroviral CNS pathogenesis, may affect the tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) function and morphology.

Methods: We used an in vitro human choroid plexus epithelial (HIBCPP) cell model to investigate the effect of three clinical outbreak strains (13-311, 13-759, and 14-397) isolated in Germany in 2013, and compared them to E-30 Bastianni. Read More

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February 2018
7 Reads

Virus-like infection induces human β cell dedifferentiation.

JCI Insight 2018 Feb 8;3(3). Epub 2018 Feb 8.

INSERM U1016, Cochin Institute, Paris, France.

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic disease characterized by an autoimmune-mediated destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β cells. Environmental factors such as viruses play an important role in the onset of T1D and interact with predisposing genes. Recent data suggest that viral infection of human islets leads to a decrease in insulin production rather than β cell death, suggesting loss of β cell identity. Read More

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February 2018
46 Reads

Cerebrospinal fluid features in adults with enteroviral nervous system infection.

Int J Infect Dis 2018 Mar 2;68:94-101. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

Clinical Neuroimmunology and Neurochemistry, Department of Neurology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and laboratory features of adults with nervous system infections caused by enteroviruses, with special emphasis on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

Methods: The data of 46 patients who were PCR-positive for enteroviruses in the CSF between 2002 and 2017 were evaluated.

Results: Meningitis was the most common clinical manifestation (89%), followed by encephalitis (7%) and isolated cranial nerve involvement (4%). Read More

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March 2018
1 Read

Gemcitabine, a broad-spectrum antiviral drug, suppresses enterovirus infections through innate immunity induced by the inhibition of pyrimidine biosynthesis and nucleotide depletion.

Oncotarget 2017 Dec 15;8(70):115315-115325. Epub 2017 Dec 15.

Center for Convergent Research of Emerging Virus Infection, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon, South Korea.

Gemcitabine, an anti-cancer chemotherapy drug, has additionally shown the antiviral activity against a broad range of viruses and we also have previously reported its synergistic antiviral activity with ribavirin against enteroviruses. As a cytidine analog, gemcitabine has been reported to have an inhibitory activity on the pyrimidine biosynthesis. In addition, a few inhibitors of the pyrimidine biosynthesis have shown to induce the innate immunity in a yet-to-be-determined manner and inhibit the virus infection. Read More

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December 2017
2 Reads

Inhibition of EV71 by curcumin in intestinal epithelial cells.

PLoS One 2018 25;13(1):e0191617. Epub 2018 Jan 25.

Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan.

EV71 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Picornaviridae family. EV71 infection may cause various symptoms ranging from hand-foot-and-mouth disease to neurological pathological conditions such as aseptic meningitis, ataxia, and acute transverse myelitis. There is currently no effective treatment or vaccine available. Read More

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March 2018
2 Reads

Mass-spectrometric profiling of cerebrospinal fluid reveals metabolite biomarkers for CNS involvement in varicella zoster virus reactivation.

J Neuroinflammation 2018 Jan 17;15(1):20. Epub 2018 Jan 17.

TWINCORE Centre for Experimental and Clinical Infection Research GmbH, Feodor-Lynen-Str. 7, 30625, Hannover, Germany.

Background: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation spans the spectrum from uncomplicated segmental herpes zoster to life-threatening disseminated CNS infection. Moreover, in the absence of a small animal model for this human pathogen, studies of pathogenesis at the organismal level depend on analysis of human biosamples. Changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolites may reflect critical aspects of host responses and end-organ damage in neuroinfection and neuroinflammation. Read More

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January 2018
50 Reads

Phenylthiomethyl Ketone-Based Fragments Show Selective and Irreversible Inhibition of Enteroviral 3C Proteases.

J Med Chem 2018 Feb 27;61(3):1218-1230. Epub 2018 Jan 27.

Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Institute of Pharmacy, Freie Universität Berlin , Königin-Luise Straße 2+4, Berlin 14195, Germany.

Lead structure discovery mainly focuses on the identification of noncovalently binding ligands. Covalent linkage, however, is an essential binding mechanism for a multitude of successfully marketed drugs, although discovered by serendipity in most cases. We present a concept for the design of fragments covalently binding to proteases. Read More

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February 2018

Enteroviral Encephalitis in a Child With CNS Relapse of Burkitt Leukemia Treated With Rituximab.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2018 Jan 8. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Birmingham Children's Hospital, Steelhouse Lane, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

A boy with central nervous system relapse of Burkitt leukemia developed fever and neurological symptoms and cognitive impairment. He had received multi-drug chemotherapy including rituximab. Enterovirus (EV) was detected in cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction, and magnetic resonance imaging findings were consistent with viral infection. Read More

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January 2018
1 Read

Coxsackievirus-Induced Proteomic Alterations in Primary Human Islets Provide Insights for the Etiology of Diabetes.

J Endocr Soc 2017 Oct 11;1(10):1272-1286. Epub 2017 Sep 11.

Department of Internal Medicine and Strelitz Diabetes Center, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia 23501.

Enteroviral infections have been associated with the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D), a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Cultured human islets, including the insulin-producing beta cells, can be infected with coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4) and thus are useful for understanding cellular responses to infection. We performed quantitative mass spectrometry analysis on cultured primary human islets infected with CVB4 to identify molecules and pathways altered upon infection. Read More

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October 2017
9 Reads

RSAD2 and AIM2 Modulate Coxsackievirus A16 and Enterovirus A71 Replication in Neuronal Cells in Different Ways That May Be Associated with Their 5' Nontranslated Regions.

J Virol 2018 03 26;92(6). Epub 2018 Feb 26.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) are closely related enteroviruses that cause the same hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), but neurological complications occur only very rarely in CV-A16 compared to EV-A71 infections. To elucidate host responses that may be able to explain these differences, we performed transcriptomic analysis and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in CV-A16-infected neuroblastoma cells (SK-N-SH), and the results showed that the radical -adenosylmethionine domain containing 2 (RSAD2) was the highest upregulated gene in the antimicrobial pathway. Increased RSAD2 expression was correlated with reduced viral replication, while RSAD2 knockdown cells were correlated with increased replication. Read More

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March 2018
18 Reads

The role of enterovirus infections in type 1 diabetes in Tunisia.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2017 Nov;30(12):1245-1250

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Background: Enteroviral infections have long been suspected in having a role in β cell destruction and therefore leading to the onset of clinical type 1 diabetes (T1D). The frequency of enterovirus (EV)-related T1D in North Africa is still unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between infection with EV and T1D in Tunisia. Read More

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November 2017
8 Reads

Comparison of the prevalence of enteroviruses in blood samples of patients with and without unstable angina.

ARYA Atheroscler 2017 Jul;13(4):161-166

Assistant Professor, Atherosclerosis Prevention Research Center AND Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Although the role of enteroviruses has been proved in heart diseases, extensive information is not available on the association between enteroviruses and unstable angina. In the present study, the authors compared the prevalence of enteroviruses in patients with and without unstable angina.

Methods: Blood samples were taken from 51 patients with unstable angina and 55 patients without unstable angina or myocardial infarction that were admitted to Imam Reza and Ghaem hospitals (Mashhad, northeast of Iran). Read More

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July 2017
24 Reads

Chronic meningoencephalitis caused by Echo virus 6 in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency : Successful treatment with pleconaril.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2018 Jan 7;130(1-2):70-72. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

School of Medicine, University Hospital for Infectious Diseases "Dr. Fran Mihaljević", Department of Intensive Care Medicine and Neuroinfectology, University of Zagreb, Mirogojska cesta 8, Zagreb, Croatia.

Chronic enteroviral meningoencephalitis, most commonly caused by echoviruses, can particularly be seen in agammaglobulinemic patients. In spite of the fact that no specific treatment for enteroviral infections exists, pleconaril is an antiviral drug reported to be efficient against enteroviral infections in infants and adults. We present a case of a 42-year-old male, previously diagnosed with common variable immunodeficiency, who presented with severe chronic meningoencephalitis caused by Echo virus 6 and was successfully treated with pleconaril. Read More

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January 2018
9 Reads

Antimicrobial, Anthelmintic, and Antiviral Activity of Plants Traditionally Used for Treating Infectious Disease in the Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India.

Front Pharmacol 2017 23;8:658. Epub 2017 Oct 23.

Department of Biology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

In the present study, we tested different parts of 35 plants used by tribals of the Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR, Mayurbhanj district, India) for the management of infections. From each plant, three extracts were prepared with different solvents (water, ethanol, and acetone) and tested for antimicrobial (); anthelmintic (); and antiviral () bioactivity. In total, 35 plant species belonging to 21 families were recorded from tribes of the SBR and periphery. Read More

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October 2017
11 Reads

Onychomadesis as a Late Complication of Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease: A Case Series Shedding Light on Nail Shedding.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2017 Nov;33(11):e122-e123

From the Department of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

Hand-foot-mouth disease is a viral illness frequently caused by enterovirus and coxsackievirus. Traditionally, this disease initially causes malaise, fever, and rash with vesicles in the mouth, as well as on the hands and feet. Occasionally, more severe presentations and late postinfectious sequelae occur, including onychomadesis, nail matrix arrest. Read More

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November 2017
3 Reads