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    The Origin, Dynamic Morphology, and PI4P-Independent Formation of Encephalomyocarditis Virus Replication Organelles.
    MBio 2018 Apr 17;9(2). Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Department of Cell and Chemical Biology, Section Electron Microscopy, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Picornaviruses induce dramatic rearrangements of endomembranes in the cells that they infect to produce dedicated platforms for viral replication. These structures, termed replication organelles (ROs), have been well characterized for the genus of the However, it is unknown whether the diverse RO morphologies associated with enterovirus infection are conserved among other picornaviruses. Here, we use serial electron tomography at different stages of infection to assess the three-dimensional architecture of ROs induced by encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), a member of the genus of the family of picornaviruses that is distantly related. Read More

    Adverse effects of maternal enterovirus infection on the pregnancy outcome: a prospective and retrospective pilot study.
    Virol J 2018 04 16;15(1):70. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    Service de gynécologie et obstétrique and Risk in pregnancy university department, Hôpital Louis-Mourier, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 178, rue des Renouillers, 92700, Colombes, France.
    Background: Enteroviruses account for about one billion infections worldwide each year, the majority remain asymptomatic. Data on enterovirus infections during pregnancy appear to be very rare. Several cases have been reported in the literature of fetal and neonatal complications attributed to these viruses, but prospective data on these infections during pregnancy are not available. Read More

    Surveillance for the identification of cases of acute respiratory infection by enterovirus D68 in children in a tertiary level care hospital during 2014-2016.
    Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex 2018 ;75(1):23-30
    Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Secretaría de Salud, Ciudad de México, México.
    Background: The reemergence of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infections in the United States was reported from August-October 2014 (691 cases). In Mexico, an outbreak at the National Institute of Respiratory Diseases was reported (24 cases). The results of epidemiological surveillance of Enterovirus sp. Read More

    Enterovirus serotypes in patients with central nervous system and respiratory infections in Viet Nam 1997-2010.
    Virol J 2018 04 12;15(1):69. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam.
    Background: Enteroviruses are the most common causative agents of human illness. Enteroviruses have been associated with regional and global epidemics, recently, including with severe disease (Enterovirus A71 and D68), and are of interest as emerging viruses. Here, we typed Enterovirus A-D (EV) from central nervous system (CNS) and respiratory infections in Viet Nam. Read More

    Surveillance to Track Progress Toward Polio Eradication - Worldwide, 2016-2017.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Apr 13;67(14):418-423. Epub 2018 Apr 13.
    Global efforts to eradicate polio began in 1988, and four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions currently have achieved poliofree certification. Within the remaining two regions with endemic poliomyelitis (African and Eastern Mediterranean), Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan have never interrupted transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV). The primary means of detecting poliovirus transmission is surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) among children aged <15 years, combined with collection and testing of stool specimens for detection of WPV and vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs)* in WHO-accredited laboratories within the Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN) (1,2). Read More

    [Rare Differential Diagnosis of a Neonatal Bacterial Sepsis: The Neonatal Viral Myocarditis].
    Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol 2018 Apr 10;222(2):82-85. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Kinderklinik und Poliklinik, Universitätsklinikum Würzburg.
    The neonatal bacterial infection is a potentially life-threatening condition that justifies intravenous antibiotic therapy. However, clinical symptoms are often unspecific. Particularly in the absence of a response to antibiotic therapy, various differential diagnoses can be considered. Read More

    Bayesian evidence and epidemiological implications of environmental contamination from acute respiratory infection in long-term care facilities.
    Epidemiol Infect 2018 Apr 10:1-7. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    LA BioMed at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center,Torrance,CA,USA.
    Skilled nursing home facilities (SNFs) house a vulnerable population frequently exposed to respiratory pathogens. Our study aims to gain a better understanding of the transmission of nursing home-acquired viral respiratory infections in non-epidemic settings. Symptomatic surveillance was performed in three SNFs for residents exhibiting acute respiratory symptoms. Read More

    The life cycle of non-polio enteroviruses and how to target it.
    Nat Rev Microbiol 2018 Apr 6. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Virology Division, Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    The genus Enterovirus (EV) of the family Picornaviridae includes poliovirus, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, numbered enteroviruses and rhinoviruses. These diverse viruses cause a variety of diseases, including non-specific febrile illness, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, neonatal sepsis-like disease, encephalitis, paralysis and respiratory diseases. In recent years, several non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) have emerged as serious public health concerns. Read More

    Inhibition of coxsackievirus B4 by Lactobacillus plantarum.
    Microbiol Res 2018 May 19;210:59-64. Epub 2018 Mar 19.
    Université de Lille, Faculté de Médecine, CHRU Lille, Laboratoire de Virologie/EA3610, F-59000 Lille, France.
    The enterovirus Coxsackievirus B4 (CV-B4) can infect different human tissues and provoke abnormal function or destruction of various organs and cells. Moreover, its infections have been linked to the onset of type 1 diabetes. Coxsackievirus B4 is classified as a "challenging virus", due to the intense yet vain efforts to find effective prevention and therapeutic agents, especially within biological compounds. Read More

    Antiviral effects of ferric ammonium citrate.
    Cell Discov 2018 27;4:14. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    1CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 200031 Shanghai, China.
    Iron is an essential nutrient for cell survival and is crucial for DNA replication, mitochondrial function and erythropoiesis. However, the immunological role of iron in viral infections has not been well defined. Here we found the iron salt ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) inhibited Influenza A virus, HIV virus, Zika virus, and Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections. Read More

    Non-neutralizing Antibody Responses against VP1 in Enterovirus A, B, C and Rhinovirus A species among Infants and Children in Shanghai.
    Sci Rep 2018 Apr 3;8(1):5455. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Basic Medicine, Second Military Medical University, No. 8 Panshan Road, Shanghai, 200433, China.
    The overall non-neutralizing antibody responses against EV infections among infants and children remain unknown. The non-neutralizing antibody responses against VP1 of EV-A species (Enterovirus 71 (EV71), Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16)), EV-B species (Coxsackievirus B3 (CB3)), EV-C species (Poliovirus 1 (PV1)) and RV-A species (Rhinovirus A N13 (RV13)) were detected and analyzed using a novel evolved immunoglobulin-binding molecule (NEIBM)-based ELISA among infants and children aged 1 day to 6 years in Shanghai. The anti-VP1 reactivity against these EVs changed similarly in an age-related dynamic: being high level in the 1-28-day age group, declining to the lowest level in the 1-12-month age group, gradually increasing to the peak level in the 13-60-month age group, and remarkably declining in the 61-72-month age group, which reflects the conversion from maternally-derived to primary antibody responses. Read More

    Infectious Myelopathies.
    Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2018 Apr;24(2, Spinal Cord Disorders):441-473
    Purpose Of Review: This article reviews bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic pathogens associated with myelopathy. Infectious myelopathies may be due to direct infection or parainfectious autoimmune-mediated mechanisms; this article focuses primarily on the former.

    Recent Findings: Some microorganisms exhibit neurotropism for the spinal cord (eg, enteroviruses such as poliovirus and flaviviruses such as West Nile virus), while others are more protean in neurologic manifestations (eg, herpesviruses such as varicella-zoster virus), and others are only rarely reported to cause myelopathy (eg, certain fungal and parasitic infections). Read More

    Multicenter Evaluation of the BioFire FilmArray Respiratory Panel 2 for the Detection of Viruses and Bacteria in Nasopharyngeal Swab Samples.
    J Clin Microbiol 2018 Mar 28. Epub 2018 Mar 28.
    BioFire Diagnostics, LLC, Salt Lake City, UT.
    The FilmArray® Respiratory Panel 2 (RP2) is a multiplex diagnostic test for the simultaneous and rapid (∼45 minutes) detection of 22 pathogens directly from nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) samples. It contains updated (and in some instances redesigned) assays that improve upon the FilmArray® Respiratory Panel (RP; version 1.7), with a faster run time. Read More

    Maternal virus infections in pregnancy and type 1 diabetes in their offspring: Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.
    Rev Med Virol 2018 Mar 22:e1974. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    School of Women's and Children's Health, University of New South Wales Medicine, Sydney, Australia.
    Virus infections are implicated in the development of type 1 diabetes based on epidemiological, clinical, in vitro cell-based and molecular studies, and animal models. We reviewed the association between virus infections in pregnant women and development of islet autoimmunity or type 1 diabetes in their offspring. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis, analysed using random effects models, of human studies from Medline and EMBASE without language restriction. Read More

    First trimester enterovirus IgM and beta cell autoantibodies in mothers to children affected by type 1 diabetes autoimmunity before 7 years of age.
    J Reprod Immunol 2018 Mar 2;127:1-6. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University Clinical Research Center, Skåne University Hospital, 205 02 Malmö, Sweden. Electronic address:
    Background: Autoimmune (type 1) diabetes (T1D) is a frequent chronic disease in children and adolescents globally. Gestational enterovirus (EV) infections have been associated with an increased risk for T1D in the offspring. We test the hypothesis that EV infections during the first trimester were associated with beta cell autoantibodies in mothers of children who developed islet autoantibodies before 7 years of age. Read More

    Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Outbreaks and Events - Three Provinces, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2017.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Mar 16;67(10):300-305. Epub 2018 Mar 16.
    The last confirmed wild poliovirus (WPV) case in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) had paralysis onset in December 2011 (1). DRC has had cases of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) documented since 2004 (Table 1) (1-6). After an outbreak of 30 circulating VDPV type 2 (cVDPV2) cases during 2011-2012, only five VDPV2 cases were reported during 2013-2016 (Table 1) (1-6). Read More

    Congenital cytomegalovirus, parvovirus and enterovirus infection in Mozambican newborns at birth: A cross-sectional survey.
    PLoS One 2018 14;13(3):e0194186. Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    Centro de Investigação em Saúde de Manhiça (CISM), Maputo, Mozambique.
    Background: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most prevalent congenital infection acquired worldwide, with higher incidence in developing countries and among HIV-exposed children. Less is known regarding vertical transmission of parvovirus B19 (B19V) and enterovirus (EV). We aimed to assess the prevalence of CMV, B19V and EV vertical transmission and compare results of screening of congenital CMV obtained from two different specimens in a semirural Mozambican maternity. Read More

    Neonatal nonpolio enterovirus and parechovirus infections.
    Semin Perinatol 2018 Mar 8. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Children's National Health System, Washington, DC; Department of Pediatrics, The George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC; Department of Microbiology/Immunology/Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC.
    Nonpolio enteroviruses and parechoviruses are frequent causes of neonatal infection. Clinical manifestations of infection range from asymptomatic infection to mild infection without sequelae to septic shock with muiltiorgan failure. Neonates with clinically apparent infection typically have mothers and/or other contacts with recent symptoms consistent with a viral illness. Read More

    Enteroviruses: Classification, Diseases They Cause, and Approaches to Development of Antiviral Drugs.
    Biochemistry (Mosc) 2017 Dec;82(13):1615-1631
    Institute of Protein Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region, 142290, Russia.
    The genus Enterovirus combines a portion of small (+)ssRNA-containing viruses and is divided into 10 species of true enteroviruses and three species of rhinoviruses. These viruses are causative agents of the widest spectrum of severe and deadly epidemic diseases of higher vertebrates, including humans. Their ubiquitous distribution and high pathogenicity motivate active search to counteract enterovirus infections. Read More

    Murine model of acute myocarditis and cerebral cortical neuron edema induced by coxsackievirus B4.
    Zool Res 2018 Jan;39(1):52-57
    Key Laboratory of Etiology and Epidemiology of Emerging Infectious Diseases in Universities of Shandong, Taishan Medical University, Taian Shandong 271000, China.
    Globally, coxsackievirus B4 (CV-B4) has been continuously isolated and evidence suggests an association with the development of pancreatitis and type I diabetes. In addition, CV-B4 is also associated with myocarditis and severe central nervous system (CNS) complications, which remain poorly studied and understood. In the present study, we established an Institute for Cancer Research (ICR) mouse model of CV-B4 infection and examined whether CV-B4 infection resulted in a predisposition to myocarditis and CNS infection. Read More

    The seasonality of nonpolio enteroviruses in the United States: Patterns and drivers.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Mar 5;115(12):3078-3083. Epub 2018 Mar 5.
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom.
    Nonpolio enteroviruses are diverse and common viruses that can circulate year-round but tend to peak in summer. Although most infections are asymptomatic, they can result in a wide range of neurological and other diseases. Many serotypes circulate every year, and different serotypes predominate in different years, but the drivers of their geographical and temporal dynamics are not understood. Read More

    The genetic diversity of hepatitis A genotype I in Bulgaria.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Jan;97(3):e9632
    Unit of Clinical Laboratory Science, University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome.
    The purpose of this study was to analyze sequences of hepatitis A virus (HAV) Ia and Ib genotypes from Bulgarian patients to investigate the molecular epidemiology of HAV genotype I during the years 2012 to 2014. Around 105 serum samples were collected by the Department of Virology of the National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases in Bulgaria. The sequenced region encompassed the VP1/2A region of HAV genome. Read More

    Enterovirus D-68 in children presenting for acute care in the hospital setting.
    Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2018 Mar 2. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Background: Severe respiratory disease associated with enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been reported in hospitalized pediatric patients. Virologic and clinical characteristics of EV-D68 infections exclusively in patients presenting to a hospital Emergency Department (ED) or urgent care have not been well defined.

    Methods: Mid-nasal swabs from pediatric patients with respiratory symptoms presenting to the ED or urgent care were evaluated using a commercial multiplex PCR platform. Read More

    Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication - Nigeria, January-December 2017.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Mar 2;67(8):253-256. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    Nearly three decades after the World Health Assembly launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988, four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions have been certified polio-free (1). Nigeria is one of three countries, including Pakistan and Afghanistan, where wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has never been interrupted. In September 2015, after >1 year without any reported WPV cases, Nigeria was removed from WHO's list of countries with endemic WPV transmission (2); however, during August and September 2016, four type 1 WPV (WPV1) cases were reported from Borno State, a state in northeastern Nigeria experiencing a violent insurgency (3). Read More

    Monitoring human enteric viruses in wastewater and relevance to infections encountered in the clinical setting: a one-year experiment in central France, 2014 to 2015.
    Euro Surveill 2018 Feb;23(7)
    CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Centre National de Référence Entérovirus et parechovirus - Laboratoire Associé, Laboratoire de Virologie, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    BackgroundHuman enteric viruses are resistant in the environment and transmitted via the faecal-oral route. Viral shedding in wastewater gives the opportunity to track emerging pathogens and study the epidemiology of enteric infectious diseases in the community. The aim of this study was to monitor the circulation of enteric viruses in the population of the Clermont-Ferrand area (France) by analysis of urban wastewaters. Read More

    Viral and Bacterial Etiologies of Acute Respiratory Infections Among Children Under 5 Years in Senegal.
    Microbiol Insights 2018 13;11:1178636118758651. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Laboratory of Bacteriology and Virology, Aristide Le Dantec Teaching Hospital, Dakar, Senegal.
    Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are the leading cause of infectious disease-related morbidity, hospitalization, and morbidity among children worldwide. This study aimed to assess the viral and bacterial causes of ARI morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years in Senegal. Nasopharyngeal samples were collected from children under 5 years who had ARI. Read More

    Honeysuckle-encoded microRNA2911 inhibits Enterovirus 71 replication via targeting VP1 gene.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Apr 16;152:117-123. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Central Laboratory, Nanjing Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine Hospital, Affiliated with Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the primary pathogen of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) in children and virus infections are associated with severe neurological dysfunctions and even death. MIR2911 is a honeysuckle-encoded atypical microRNA with extreme stability. Here, we report that MIR2911 directly inhibits EV71 replication by targeting the VP1 gene. Read More

    Profiling of novel microRNAs elicited by EV71 and CA16 infection in human bronchial epithelial cells using high-throughput sequencing.
    Virus Res 2018 03 13;247:111-119. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Yunnan Key Laboratory of Vaccine Research & Development on Severe Infections Disease, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, 650118, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are two major etiologic agents associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide. Despite that they both belong to the Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family, there are many differences in the infection process of these viruses. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. Read More

    Pyroptosis induced by enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus B3 infection affects viral replication and host response.
    Sci Rep 2018 Feb 13;8(1):2887. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Harbin, 150081, China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the primary causative pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), affecting children with severe neurological complications. Pyroptosis is a programmed cell death characterized by cell lysis and inflammatory response. Although proinflammatory response has been implicated to play important roles in EV71-caused diseases, the involvement of pyroptosis in the pathogenesis of EV71 is poorly defined. Read More

    Detection and molecular characterization of enteric viruses in children with acute gastroenteritis in Northern Italy.
    Infect Genet Evol 2018 Jun 10;60:35-41. Epub 2018 Feb 10.
    Institute of Microbiology, Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia-Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy. Electronic address:
    Enteric viral infections are a major concern for public health, and viral acute gastroenteritis is the principal cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide, mostly in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of different enteric viruses detected in a pediatric population with acute gastroenteritis symptoms, and to characterize the strains detected. Stools were collected from children, aged from 2 months to 15 years old, admitted to one of the main hospitals of Northern Italy, between November 2015 and October 2016. Read More

    [Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Aseptic Meningitis, and Encephalitis Caused by Enterovirus].
    Brain Nerve 2018 Feb;70(2):121-131
    Infectious Disease Surveillance Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases.
    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16), and CV-A6 are the major causative agents of Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). These viruses belong to the species Enterovirus A of the genus Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae. These viruses can also cause aseptic meningitis (AM), encephalitis and/or paralysis. Read More

    Recommendations for enterovirus diagnostics and characterisation within and beyond Europe.
    J Clin Virol 2018 Apr 6;101:11-17. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Enteroviruses (EV) can cause severe neurological and respiratory infections, and occasionally lead to devastating outbreaks as previously demonstrated with EV-A71 and EV-D68 in Europe. However, these infections are still often underdiagnosed and EV typing data is not currently collected at European level. In order to improve EV diagnostics, collate data on severe EV infections and monitor the circulation of EV types, we have established European non-polio enterovirus network (ENPEN). Read More

    Cerebrospinal fluid features in adults with enteroviral nervous system infection.
    Int J Infect Dis 2018 Mar 2;68:94-101. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Clinical Neuroimmunology and Neurochemistry, Department of Neurology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. Electronic address:
    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and laboratory features of adults with nervous system infections caused by enteroviruses, with special emphasis on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

    Methods: The data of 46 patients who were PCR-positive for enteroviruses in the CSF between 2002 and 2017 were evaluated.

    Results: Meningitis was the most common clinical manifestation (89%), followed by encephalitis (7%) and isolated cranial nerve involvement (4%). Read More

    Infectious meningitis and encephalitis in adults in Denmark: a prospective nationwide observational cohort study (DASGIB).
    Clin Microbiol Infect 2018 Feb 23. Epub 2018 Feb 23.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Objectives: To monitor epidemiological trends of infectious meningitis (bacterial and viral) and encephalitis in Denmark.

    Methods: Nationwide prospective observational study of all cases of proven community-acquired infectious meningitis and encephalitis in adults treated in all infectious diseases departments in Denmark from 1 January 2015 to 30 June 2016. We included data on symptoms, aetiology, treatment and outcome assessed by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) 30 days after discharge. Read More

    Assessment of a swab collection method without virus transport medium for PCR diagnosis of coxsackievirus infections.
    J Virol Methods 2018 Apr;254:18-20
    Enterovirus Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava, Slovak Republic. Electronic address:
    Classically, detection of human enterovirus (EV) infections is based on virus isolation in tissue culture, proper sample collection and handling that optimizes virus viability. Samples are collected in virus transport medium (VTM) to ensure virus stability. High sensitivity and rapid results have made polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis increasingly popular for routine diagnosis. Read More

    Impact of Cerebrospinal Fluid Multiplex Assay on Diagnosis and Outcomes of Central Nervous System Infections in Children: A Before and After Cohort Study.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2018 Feb 5. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Department of Microbiology, Royal Darwin Hospital, TIWI, Northern Territory, Australia 0810.
    Background: This study evaluated the performance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) multiplex assay in the diagnosis of pediatric CNS infection, and assessed for the effect on clinical management.

    Study Design: A 15-month prospective cohort of pediatric patients with confirmed CNS infection was compared with a 15-month retrospective cohort from the Top End region of the Northern Territory, Australia. The study characterized all the CNS infections over the 30-month period and compared the time to organism identification and antibiotic management before and after the introduction of the multiplex assay. Read More

    Enterovirus-D68 (EV-D68) in pediatric patients with respiratory infection: The circulation of a new B3 clade in Italy.
    J Clin Virol 2018 Feb - Mar;99-100:91-96. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Pediatric Clinic, Department of Surgical and Biomedical Sciences, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Piazza Menghini 1, 06129, Perugia, Italy. Electronic address:
    Background: In recent years, several outbreaks due to Enterovirus D-68 (EV-D68) have been reported, and it was confirmed that the virus can cause upper and lower respiratory tract diseases and be associated with the development of neurological problems.

    Objectives: The main aim of this research was to study the genetic characteristics of EV-D68 strains that were circulating in Italy identified during an outbreak of an EV-D68 infection that occurred in Italy during the period March-October 2016.

    Study Design: A retrospective study of the circulation of different types and subtypes of EV-D68 was performed. Read More

    Molecular surveillance of norovirus, 2005-16: an epidemiological analysis of data collected from the NoroNet network.
    Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Jan 25. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands; Centre for Infectious Diseases Research, Diagnostics and Screening, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Background: The development of a vaccine for norovirus requires a detailed understanding of global genetic diversity of noroviruses. We analysed their epidemiology and diversity using surveillance data from the NoroNet network.

    Methods: We included genetic sequences of norovirus specimens obtained from outbreak investigations and sporadic gastroenteritis cases between 2005 and 2016 in Europe, Asia, Oceania, and Africa. Read More

    Respiratory infections in elderly people: Viral role in a resident population of elderly care centers in Lisbon, winter 2013-2014.
    Int J Infect Dis 2018 Apr 31;69:1-7. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Centro de Estudos de Doenças Crónicas, CEDOC, NOVA Medical School-Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, CEDOC I, Rua do Instituto Bacteriológico, n.°s 5, 5-A e 5-B, 1150-190 Lisboa, Portugal. Electronic address:
    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the etiology and clinical consequences of viral respiratory infections in 18 elderly care centers (ECC) in Lisbon, which housed a total of 1022 residents.

    Methods: Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected whenever an elderly had symptoms of acute respiratory infections (ARI). PCR and RT-PCR were performed for influenza A/B, human parainfluenza virus 1-4, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus (HMPV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus, enterovirus, human coronavirus and human Bocavirus (HBoV). Read More

    Experimental infection of Marmota monax with a novel hepatitis A virus.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 31;163(5):1187-1193. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, CDC China, Beijing, 100052, China.
    To establish an animal model for the newly identified Marmota Himalayana hepatovirus, MHHAV, so as to develop a better understanding of the infection of hepatitis A viruses. Five experimental woodchucks (Marmota monax) were inoculated intravenously with the purified MHHAV from wild woodchuck feces. One animal injected with PBS was defined as a control. Read More

    Detection of Respiratory Viruses from ARTI Patients by xTAG RVP Fast v2 Assay and Conventional Methods.
    Malays J Med Sci 2017 Oct 26;24(5):33-43. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Introduction: Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in paediatric patients. Therefore, early detection of the viral aetiologies of ARTIs is essential for patient management and infection control. In this study, we evaluated the performance of a new multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay (xTAG Respiratory Viral Panel [RVP] Fast v2) in the detection of respiratory viruses by comparing it with that of viral culture and direct immunofluorescence (IF) staining. Read More

    The association between acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) and Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) - what is the evidence for causation?
    Euro Surveill 2018 Jan;23(3)
    College of Public Service and Community Solutions and College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States.
    BackgroundEnterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has historically been a sporadic disease, causing occasional small outbreaks of generally mild infection. In recent years, there has been evidence of an increase in EV-D68 infections globally. Large outbreaks of EV-D68, with thousands of cases, occurred in the United States, Canada and Europe in 2014. Read More

    A novel role of ER stress signal transducer ATF6 in regulating enterovirus A71 viral protein stability.
    J Biomed Sci 2018 Jan 31;25(1). Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, 333, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
    Background: Due to limited coding capacity of viral genome, enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) co-opts host nuclear proteins for its replication. Upon ER stress, the ER-localized 90 kDa activating transcription factor 6 (p90ATF6) is proteolytically cleaved to produce the transcriptionally active amino-terminal 50 kDa (p50ATF6) product where it enters the nucleus to activate a subset of unfolded protein response and ER-associated degradation (also known as ERAD) genes. During EV-A71 infection, however, this p50ATF6 product was not detected in the nucleus, and its downstream target genes were not activated. Read More

    A Mouse Model of Enterovirus D68 Infection for Assessment of the Efficacy of Inactivated Vaccine.
    Viruses 2018 01 30;10(2). Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Joint Center for Infection and Immunity, Guangzhou Institute of Pediatrics, Department of Gastroenterology, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510623, China.
    In recent years, enterovirus D68 (EVD68) has been reported increasingly to be associated with severe respiratory tract infections and acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) in children all over the world. Yet, no effective vaccines or antiviral drugs are currently available for EVD68. Although several experimental animal models have been developed, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of inactivated EVD68 vaccines has not been fully evaluated. Read More

    Viral Infections in Pregnancy: A Focus on Ebola Virus.
    Curr Pharm Des 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, West Virginia. United States.
    During gestation, the immune response of the placenta to viruses and other pathogens plays an important role in determining a pregnant woman's vulnerability toward infectious diseases. Located at the maternal- fetal interface, trophoblast cells serve to minimize the spread of viruses between the host and developing fetus through an intricate system of innate antiviral immune signaling. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, ranging from learning disabilities to preterm birth and fetal death, are all documented results of a viral breach in the placental barrier. Read More

    Gemcitabine, a broad-spectrum antiviral drug, suppresses enterovirus infections through innate immunity induced by the inhibition of pyrimidine biosynthesis and nucleotide depletion.
    Oncotarget 2017 Dec 15;8(70):115315-115325. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Center for Convergent Research of Emerging Virus Infection, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon, South Korea.
    Gemcitabine, an anti-cancer chemotherapy drug, has additionally shown the antiviral activity against a broad range of viruses and we also have previously reported its synergistic antiviral activity with ribavirin against enteroviruses. As a cytidine analog, gemcitabine has been reported to have an inhibitory activity on the pyrimidine biosynthesis. In addition, a few inhibitors of the pyrimidine biosynthesis have shown to induce the innate immunity in a yet-to-be-determined manner and inhibit the virus infection. Read More

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