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    Enterovirus 71 antagonizes the antiviral activity of host STAT3 and IL-6R with partial dependence on virus-induced miR-124.
    J Gen Virol 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    2​Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Laboratory of Medical Microbiology, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, 138 Yixueyuan Road, Shanghai 200032, PR China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused major outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease. EV71 infections increase the production of many host cytokines and pro-inflammatory factors, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and COX-2. Some of these molecules could stimulate the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which plays a key role in regulating host immune responses and several viral diseases. Read More

    Clinical characteristics of children infected with enterovirus D68 in an outpatient clinic and the association with bronchial asthma.
    Infect Dis (Lond) 2017 Nov 9:1-10. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    c Department of Infectious Diseases , Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine , Iida-Nishi , Japan.
    Background: All reports of increases in severe respiratory disease associated with human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) are from hospital settings. However, there are few reports describing clinical characteristics in less severely affected populations.

    Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study from January 2010 to December 2015 in Yamagata, Japan. Read More

    Enterovirus-associated changes in blood transcriptomic profiles of children with genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes.
    Diabetologia 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, Tykistökatu 6, FI-20520, Turku, Finland.
    Aims/hypothesis: Enterovirus infections have been associated with the development of type 1 diabetes in multiple studies, but little is known about enterovirus-induced responses in children at risk for developing type 1 diabetes. Our aim was to use genome-wide transcriptomics data to characterise enterovirus-associated changes in whole-blood samples from children with genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes.

    Methods: Longitudinal whole-blood samples (356 samples in total) collected from 28 pairs of children at increased risk for developing type 1 diabetes were screened for the presence of enterovirus RNA. Read More

    Chronic meningoencephalitis caused by Echo virus 6 in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency : Successful treatment with pleconaril.
    Wien Klin Wochenschr 2017 Nov 7. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    School of Medicine, University Hospital for Infectious Diseases "Dr. Fran Mihaljević", Department of Intensive Care Medicine and Neuroinfectology, University of Zagreb, Mirogojska cesta 8, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Chronic enteroviral meningoencephalitis, most commonly caused by echoviruses, can particularly be seen in agammaglobulinemic patients. In spite of the fact that no specific treatment for enteroviral infections exists, pleconaril is an antiviral drug reported to be efficient against enteroviral infections in infants and adults. We present a case of a 42-year-old male, previously diagnosed with common variable immunodeficiency, who presented with severe chronic meningoencephalitis caused by Echo virus 6 and was successfully treated with pleconaril. Read More

    Antimicrobial, Anthelmintic, and Antiviral Activity of Plants Traditionally Used for Treating Infectious Disease in the Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India.
    Front Pharmacol 2017 23;8:658. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Department of Biology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    In the present study, we tested in vitro different parts of 35 plants used by tribals of the Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR, Mayurbhanj district, India) for the management of infections. From each plant, three extracts were prepared with different solvents (water, ethanol, and acetone) and tested for antimicrobial (E. coli, S. Read More

    A Multicenter Consortium to Define the Epidemiology and Outcomes of Inpatient Respiratory Viral Infections in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients.
    J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2017 Jul 1. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    Departments of Pediatrics and Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.
    Background: Respiratory virus infections (RVIs) pose a threat to children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In this era of sensitive molecular diagnostics, the incidence and outcome of HSCT recipients who are hospitalized with RVI (H-RVI) are not well described.

    Methods: A retrospective observational cohort of pediatric HSCT recipients (between January 2010 and June 2013) was assembled from 9 US pediatric transplant centers. Read More

    Epidemiology and molecular characterization of influenza viruses, human parechoviruses and enteroviruses in children up to 5 years with influenza-like illness in Northern Italy during seven consecutive winter seasons (2010-2017).
    J Gen Virol 2017 Nov;98(11):2699-2711
    1​Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, University of Milan, Via Carlo Pascal, 36 - 20133 Milan, Italy.
    Besides the influenza virus (IV), several other viruses are responsible for influenza-like illness (ILI). Although human parechoviruses (HPeVs) and enteroviruses (EVs) may impact on ILI, limited data on their epidemiological characteristics are available. During seven consecutive winter seasons (from 2010-2011 to 2016-2017), within the framework of an influenza surveillance system (InfluNet), 593 respiratory swabs were collected from children ≤5 years of age with ILIs. Read More

    Modelling Risk to US Military Populations from Stopping Blanket Mandatory Polio Vaccination.
    Comput Math Methods Med 2017 14;2017:7981645. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, CA, USA.
    Objectives: Transmission of polio poses a threat to military forces when deploying to regions where such viruses are endemic. US-born soldiers generally enter service with immunity resulting from childhood immunization against polio; moreover, new recruits are routinely vaccinated with inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), supplemented based upon deployment circumstances. Given residual protection from childhood vaccination, risk-based vaccination may sufficiently protect troops from polio transmission. Read More

    Update on Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses - Worldwide, January 2016-June 2017.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Nov 3;66(43):1185-1191. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    In 1988, the World Health Assembly launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) (1). Among the three wild poliovirus (WPV) serotypes, only type 1 (WPV1) has been detected since 2012. Since 2014, detection of WPV1 has been limited to three countries, with 37 cases in 2016 and 11 cases in 2017 as of September 27. Read More

    Seroprevalence and disease burden of acute hepatitis A in adult population in South Korea.
    PLoS One 2017 24;12(10):e0186257. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Background: Adult seroprevalence of HAV is decreasing in developed countries including South Korea, due to general sanitation improvement. Although hepatitis A vaccination was introduced in South Korea more than 20 years ago, recent infection rates have not decreased. In this study, we investigate the seroprevalence of anti-HAV IgG, and estimate the national disease burden of acute hepatitis A in adult population. Read More

    Expansion of Vaccination Services and Strengthening Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Surveillance in Haiti, 2010-2016.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Oct;97(4_Suppl):28-36
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Port-au-Prince, Haiti.
    Following the 2010 earthquake, Haiti was at heightened risk for vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) outbreaks due to the exacerbation of long-standing gaps in the vaccination program and subsequent risk of VPD importation from other countries. Therefore, partners supported the Haitian Ministry of Health and Population to improve vaccination services and VPD surveillance. During 2010-2016, three polio, measles, and rubella vaccination campaigns were implemented, achieving a coverage > 90% among children and maintaining Haiti free of those VPDs. Read More

    Suppression of the toll-like receptor 7-dependent type I interferon production pathway by autophagy resulting from enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 infections facilitates their replication.
    Arch Virol 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, 935 Jiaoling Road, Kunming, 650118, Yunnan, China.
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) act as molecular sentinels, detecting invading viral pathogens and triggering host innate immune responses, including autophagy. However, many viruses have evolved a series of strategies to manipulate autophagy for their own benefit. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), as the primary agents causing hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), can induce autophagy leading to their replication. Read More

    Case report: Features of hand, foot and mouth disease in neonates.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Oct;96(42):e8307
    aDepartment of Neonatology bInternal Medicine Intensive Care Unit, Zhangzhou Municipal Hospital affiliated to Fujian Medical School, Zhangzhou, China.
    Rationale: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by enterovirus. The virus may exist in secretions.

    Patient Concerns: Five neonates had symptoms of fever and maculopapular rashes involving face, trunk, breech, arms, and legs, especially scattering on palms and feet. Read More

    Evolution of hepatitis A virus seroprevalence among HIV-positive adults in Taiwan.
    PLoS One 2017 16;12(10):e0186338. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Objectives: The study aimed to describe the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in HIV-positive adult patients in Taiwan between 2012 and 2016 and to examine the evolution of HAV seroprevalence between 2004-2007 and 2012-2016.

    Methods: Clinical information and data of anti-HAV antibody results were collected from 2,860 antiretroviral-naïve HIV-positive Taiwanese aged 18 years or older who initiated combination antiretroviral therapy at 11 hospitals around Taiwan between 2012 and 2016 (2012-2016 cohort). A multivariate logistic regression model was applied to identify independent variables associated with HAV seropositivity. Read More

    Cholic acid attenuate ER stress induced cell death in coxsackievirus-B3 infection.
    J Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Oct 14. Epub 2017 Oct 14.
    Department of Biomedical Science, Jungwon University, Goesan-gun, Chungbuk, 367-805, Korea.
    Coxsackievirus Type B3 (CVB3) is an enterovirus that belongs to the Picornaviridae and causes of various diseases such as myocarditis and hand-foot-mouth diseases. But effective antiviral drug was still not developed. In this study, we looking for potential inhibitors of CVB3 replication by examining survival of CVB3-infected HeLa cells. Read More

    Effect of enterovirus infections on asthma in young children: A national cohort study.
    Eur J Clin Invest 2017 Oct 15. Epub 2017 Oct 15.
    Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science and School of Medicine, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.
    Background: We conducted a cohort study to determine the relationship between enterovirus (EV) infection and asthma.

    Materials And Methods: From the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, we identified patients who received a new diagnosis of asthma and concurrent treatment between January 2000 and December 2011 (EV cohort: n = 208 213; non-EV cohort: n = 208 213). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to determine and compare the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of asthma between these 2 cohorts. Read More

    Assessing the individual risk of fecal poliovirus shedding among vaccinated and non-vaccinated subjects following national health weeks in Mexico.
    PLoS One 2017 12;12(10):e0185594. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México.
    Background: Mexico introduced inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into its routine immunization (RI) schedule in 2007 but continued to give trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) twice a year during national health weeks (NHW) through 2015.

    Objectives: To evaluate individual variables associated with poliovirus (PV) shedding among children with IPV-induced immunity after vaccination with tOPV and their household contacts.

    Materials And Methods: We recruited 72 children (both genders, ≤30 months, vaccinated with at least two doses of IPV) and 144 household contacts (both genders, 2 per household, children and adults) between 08/2010 and 09/2010 in Orizaba, Veracruz. Read More

    Violence, insecurity, and the risk of polio: A systematic analysis.
    PLoS One 2017 11;12(10):e0185577. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.
    Background: Since the introduction of polio vaccines in the 1950's and 60's, eradication of poliovirus from the world has been technically feasible. Progress towards this goal, however, has been uneven and influenced by social and political factors that challenge the implementation of robust immunization programs. While violence and insecurity are often cited as barriers to eradication, current global risk models are largely based on virologic and immunologic indicators measured at national levels. Read More

    Innate Viral Receptor Signaling Determines Type 1 Diabetes Onset.
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2017 26;8:249. Epub 2017 Sep 26.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Heritable susceptibility of the autoimmune disorder, type 1 diabetes (T1D), only partially equates for the incidence of the disease. Significant evidence attributes several environmental stressors, such as vitamin D deficiency, gut microbiome, dietary antigens, and most notably virus infections in triggering the onset of T1D in these genetically susceptible individuals. Extensive epidemiological and clinical studies have provided credibility to this causal relationship. Read More

    Long non-coding RNA expression profiles in different severity EV71-infected hand foot and mouth disease patients.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2017 Dec 7;493(4):1594-1600. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is associated with the severe hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) outcomes, however the host-virus interaction mechanism and the pathogenesis remain poorly understood. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in variety physiological and pathological processes, but the functions of lncRNAs in EV71 infection remain elusive. Here we profiled the expression of lncRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from EV71-infected mild patients, severe patients as well as the healthy controls, and identified 8541 lncRNAs were differentially expressed. Read More

    Multiple enterovirus genotypes circulating in children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Thailand.
    Infect Genet Evol 2017 Nov 3;55:324-331. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus (EV) infection is widespread and can lead to a broad range of clinical symptoms, from mild to severe forms of disease. EVs are not always classified as pathogen and the epidemiological surveillance of EV infection in acute gastroenteritis cases in Thailand remains unexplored. This study aims to investigate the frequency, seasonality and molecular characteristics of EV circulating in children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Chiang Mai, Thailand from 2010 to 2014. Read More

    Assessment of reporting sites for acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in Ethiopia: implications for planning of active case search visits.
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 9;27(Suppl 2). Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Center for Public Health Emergency Management, Ethiopian Public Health Institute.
    Introduction: The World Health Organization acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance standards recommend documentation of the role of each potentially reporting site for evidence -based planning and tailoring support for active surveillance visits. This study assessed the contribution of various sites as source and quality of AFP cases reported over a five -year period in Ethiopia.

    Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of AFP surveillance data collected from 2010-2014 in Ethiopia. Read More

    Assessment of source of information for polio supplementary immunization activities in 2014 and 2015, Somali, Ethiopia.
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 9;27(Suppl 2). Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    World Health Organization, Benin.
    Introduction: Communication is key for the successful implementation of polio vaccination campaigns. The purpose of this study is to review and analyse the sources of information utilized by caregivers during polio supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in Somali, Ethiopia in 2014 and 2015.

    Methods: Data on sources of information about the polio campaign were collected post campaign from caregivers by trained data collectors as part of house to house independent monitoring. Read More

    Status of surveillance and routine immunization performances in Amhara Region, Ethiopia: findings from in-depth peer review.
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 9;27(Suppl 2). Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    World Health Organization, Ethiopia.
    Introduction: Trend analyses of non-polio AFP and stool adequacy rates in Amhara Region showed optimal performance over the years. However, sub regional gaps continue to persist in certain zones where the reasons for low performance were not well documented. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of the disease surveillance and immunization system in Amhara Region, Ethiopia with emphasis on low performing woredas and zones. Read More

    Effects of polio eradication activities on routine immunization: lessons from the 2013 outbreak response in Somali region of Ethiopia.
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 9;27(Suppl 2). Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    World Health Organization, Ethiopia.
    Introduction: Ethiopia experienced several WPV importations with a total of 10 WPV1 cases confirmed during the 2013 outbreak alone before it is closed in 2015. We evaluated supplemental immunization activities (SIAs), including lessons learned for their effect on the routine immunization program during the 2013 polio outbreak in Somali regional state.

    Methods: We used descriptive study to review documents and analyse routine health information system reports from the polio outbreak affected Somali regional state. Read More

    Health care seeking behavior of parents with acute flaccid paralysis child.
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 9;27(Suppl 2). Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    World Health Organization Country Office, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Introduction: Despite the tremendous increase in the number of modern health institutions, traditional medical practices still remain alternative places of health care service delivery and important sites for disease notification in the disease surveillance system. The objectives of this study are to describe the patterns and factors associated with health care seeking behavior of parents and care takers with acute flaccid paralysis child and see how the traditional practice affect the surveillance system.

    Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to assess the health seeking behavior of parents with an acute flaccid paralysis child. Read More

    [Mixed infections and inflammatory ophthalmic diseases: clinical and laboratory observations].
    Vestn Oftalmol 2017 ;133(4):74-82
    Herpes clinic Ltd., 21B Michurinskiy prospekt, Moscow, Russia, 119192.
    In recent years, all medical specialists, including ophthalmologists, have been facing the problem of mixed infections. Recurrent inflammation in the anterior and posterior eye segments is often a result of infection by more than one variety of pathogens.

    Material And Methods: Over the period 2013-2016, 34 patients (14 men and 20 women) with different inflammatory processes in the eye who appeared DNA-positive for mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum) and/or chlamydiae (Chlamydia trachomatis) (PCR testing of tear fluid and/or urine) were followed up. Read More

    Coxsackievirus B escapes the infected cell in ejected mitophagosomes.
    J Virol 2017 Oct 4. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    The Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute and the Barbra Streisand Women's Heart Center Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA
    Coxsackievirus B (CVB) is a common enterovirus that can cause various systemic inflammatory diseases. Because CVB lacks an envelope, it has been thought to be inherently cytolytic, wherein CVB can only escape from the infected host cell by causing it to rupture. In recent years, however, we and others have observed that various naked viruses such as CVB can trigger the release of infectious extracellular microvesicles (EMVs) that contain viral material. Read More

    Seroprevalence of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and Ljungan virus in Finnish patients with suspected neurological infections.
    J Med Virol 2017 Oct 4. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Department of Virology and Immunology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Directly-transmitted rodent-borne zoonotic viruses, such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) can cause nervous system infections. Rodent-borne Ljungan virus (LV) is considered potentially zoonotic possibly causing neurological symptoms. Our objective was to understand the role of these two viruses compared to other pathogens in causing neurological infections in Finnish patients. Read More

    TLR3 is required for survival following Coxsackievirus B3 infection by driving T lymphocyte activation and polarization: The role of dendritic cells.
    PLoS One 2017 3;12(10):e0185819. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.
    Type B coxsackievirus (CVB) is a common cause of acute and chronic myocarditis, meningitis and pancreatitis, often leading to heart failure and pancreatic deficiency. The polarization of CD4+ T lymphocytes and their cytokine milieu are key factors in the outcome of CVB-induced diseases. Thus, sensing the virus and driving the adaptive immune response are essential for the establishment of a protective immune response. Read More

    Epitope-associated and specificity-focused features of EV71-neutralizing antibody repertoires from plasmablasts of infected children.
    Nat Commun 2017 Oct 2;8(1):762. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, 33305, Taiwan.
    Protective antibody levels are critical for protection from severe enterovirus 71 infection. However, little is known about the specificities and functional properties of the enterovirus 71-specific antibodies induced by natural infection in humans. Here we characterize 191 plasmablast-derived monoclonal antibodies from three enterovirus 71-infected children, each of whom shows a distinct serological response. Read More

    A Link Between a Common Mutation in CFTR and Impaired Innate and Adaptive Viral Defence.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Sep 9. Epub 2017 Sep 9.
    Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine HS.
    Acute respiratory virus infections predispose the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) lung to chronic bacterial colonization, which contributes to high mortality. For reasons unknown, respiratory virus infections have a prolonged duration in CF. Here, we demonstrate that mice carrying the most frequent CFTR mutation in humans, F508del, show increased morbidity and mortality following infection with a common human enterovirus. Read More

    The spectrum of care for pediatric refugees and asylum seekers at a tertiary health care facility in Switzerland in 2015.
    Eur J Pediatr 2017 Dec 30;176(12):1681-1687. Epub 2017 Sep 30.
    University of Basel Children's Hospital, Spitalstrasse 33, 4056, Basel, Switzerland.
    The aim of this retrospective study was to describe the epidemiology and spectrum of infections of admitted pediatric refugees and asylum seekers in a tertiary referral hospital in a high-income country in Europe. We identified recent refugees and asylum seekers < 18 years of age admitted to the University Children's Hospital in Basel, Switzerland, in 2015. A retrospective analysis was performed using electronic patient records. Read More

    Acute localized exanthem due to Coxsackievirus A4.
    Infez Med 2017 Sep;25(3):274-276
    DISSAL Department of Dermatology, IRCCS A.O.U. San Martino-IST, Genoa, Italy.
    Enteroviruses are the leading cause of exanthems in children, especially during summer and autumn. Enterovirus infections may occur in epidemics or small outbreaks. A 30-year-old woman presented with a three-day history of an erythematous maculopapular skin rash with petechiae localized exclusively under the nipple of the right breast. Read More

    HERP Binds TBK1 To Activate Innate Immunity and Repress Virus Replication in Response to Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.
    J Immunol 2017 Nov 27;199(9):3280-3292. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China; and
    Host innate immunity is crucial for cellular responses against viral infection sensed by distinct pattern recognition receptors and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease and neurological diseases. However, the exact mechanism underlying the link between ER stress induced by EV71 infection and host innate immunity is largely unknown. Read More

    Differential Detection of Enterovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus in Cerebrospinal Fluid by Real-Time RT-PCR.
    Intervirology 2017 Sep 28. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Laboratorio Central de Epidemiología, Instituto Mexicano de Seguridad Social (IMSS), Mexico City, México.
    Background: Enterovirus (EV) and herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2) are the main etiologic agents of central nervous system infections. Early laboratory confirmation of these infections is performed by viral culture of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or the detection of specific antibodies in serum (e.g. Read More

    Immunological and pathological consequences of coxsackievirus RNA persistence in the heart.
    Virology 2017 Dec;512:104-112
    Dept. of Immunology and Microbiology, SP30-2110, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N. Torrey Pines Rd., La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Electronic address:
    Type B coxsackieviruses (CVB) can cause myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), a potentially-fatal sequela that has been correlated to the persistence of viral RNA. Herein, we demonstrate that cardiac RNA persistence can be established even after an inapparent primary infection. Using an inducible Cre/lox mouse model, we ask: (i) Does persistent CVB3 RNA cause ongoing immune activation? (ii) If T1IFN signaling into cardiomyocytes is ablated after RNA persistence is established, is there any change in the abundance of persistent CVB3 RNA and/or does cytopathic infectious virus re-emerge? (iii) Does this loss of T1IFN responsiveness by cardiomyocytes lead to the recurrence/exacerbation of myocarditis? Our findings suggest that persistent enteroviral RNAs probably do not contribute to ongoing myocardial disease, and are more likely to be the fading remnants of a recent, possibly sub-clinical, primary infection which may have set in motion the process that ultimately ends in DCM. Read More

    Vitamin D receptor protects glioblastoma A172 cells against Coxsackievirus A16 infection induced cell death in the pathogenesis of hand, foot, and mouth disease.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2017 Nov 21;493(2):952-956. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Harbin Children's Hospital, Harbin 150010, China.
    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) was one of the most common children illnesses. Coxsackievirus A16 was one of the major pathogens that cause HFMD. However, the role of vitamin D underlying this common illness has not been elucidated. Read More

    A highly conserved amino acid in VP1 regulates maturation of enterovirus 71.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Sep 22;13(9):e1006625. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical School, Beijing, PR China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children, causing severe clinical outcomes and even death. Here, we report an important role of the highly conserved alanine residue at position 107 in the capsid protein VP1 (VP1A107) in the efficient replication of EV71. Substitutional mutations of VP1A107 significantly diminish viral growth kinetics without significant effect on viral entry, expression of viral genes and viral production. Read More

    Economic costs and health-related quality of life for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) patients in China.
    PLoS One 2017 21;12(9):e0184266. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    School of Public Health, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, Shanghai, China.
    Background: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common illness in China that mainly affects infants and children. The objective of this study is to assess the economic cost and health-related quality of life associated with HFMD in China.

    Method: A telephone survey of caregivers were conducted in 31 provinces across China. Read More

    Notes from the Field: Increase in Reported Hepatitis A Infections Among Men Who Have Sex with Men - New York City, January-August 2017.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Sep 22;66(37):999-1000. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Since 2011, the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) has typically been notified of three or fewer cases of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection each year among men who have sex with men (MSM) who reported no travel to countries where HAV is endemic. This year, DOHMH noted an increase in HAV infections among MSM with onsets in January-March 2017, and notified other public health jurisdictions via Epi-X, CDC's communication exchange network. As a result, 51 patients with HAV infection involving MSM were linked to the increase in NYC. Read More

    [Investigation of bacterial and viral etiology in community acquired central nervous system infections with molecular methods].
    Mikrobiyol Bul 2017 Jul;51(3):277-285
    Sabuncuoglu Serefeddin Training and Research Hospital, Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Amasya, Turkey.
    In this multicenter prospective cohort study, it was aimed to evaluate the bacterial and viral etiology in community-acquired central nervous system infections by standart bacteriological culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Patients hospitalized with central nervous system infections between April 2012 and February 2014 were enrolled in the study. Demographic and clinical information of the patients were collected prospectively. Read More

    NOD2 (Nucleotide-Binding Oligomerization Domain 2) Is a Major Pathogenic Mediator of Coxsackievirus B3-Induced Myocarditis.
    Circ Heart Fail 2017 Sep;10(9)
    From the Department of Cardiology and Pneumology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Germany (C.T., Y.X., K.S., F.S., B.P., U.K., S.V.L.); DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Berlin, Germany (C.T., I.M., K.P., B.P., S.V.L.); Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies, Charité, University Medicine Berlin, Campus Virchow, Germany (C.T., I.M., K.P., K.M., S.V.L.); Department of Applied Biochemistry, Institute of Biotechnology, Technische Universität Berlin, Germany (S.P., H.F.); Institut Kardiale Diagnostik und Therapie (IKDT), Berlin, Germany (D.L., H.-P.S.); Institut für Mikrobiologie und Infektionsmedizin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany (M.M.H., S.B.); and Department of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin (DHZB), Germany (B.P.).
    Background: The cytoplasmatic pattern recognition receptor, NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2), belongs to the innate immune system and is among others responsible for the recognition of single-stranded RNA. With Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) being a single-stranded RNA virus, and the recent evidence that the NOD2 target, NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3) is of importance in the pathogenesis of CVB3-induced myocarditis, we aimed to unravel the role of NOD2 in CVB3-induced myocarditis.

    Methods And Results: Endomyocardial biopsy NOD2 mRNA expression was higher in CVB3-positive patients compared with patients with myocarditis but without evidence of persistent CVB3 infection. Read More

    Exosome-mediated miR-146a transfer suppresses type I interferon response and facilitates EV71 infection.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Sep 14;13(9):e1006611. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Center for Public Health Research, Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing, PR China.
    Exosomes can transfer genetic materials between cells. Their roles in viral infections are beginning to be appreciated. Researches have shown that exosomes released from virus-infected cells contain a variety of viral and host cellular factors that are able to modulate recipient's cellular response and result in productive infection of the recipient host. Read More

    Updated Dosing Instructions for Immune Globulin (Human) GamaSTAN S/D for Hepatitis A Virus Prophylaxis.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Sep 15;66(36):959-960. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC.
    GamaSTAN S/D (Grifols Therapeutics, Inc., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina) is a sterile, preservative-free solution of immune globulin (IG) for intramuscular administration and is used for prophylaxis against disease caused by infection with hepatitis A, measles, varicella, and rubella viruses (1). GamaSTAN S/D is the only IG product approved by the Food and Drug Administration for hepatitis A virus (HAV) prophylaxis. Read More

    Evaluation of the acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance system, Gokwe North district, Zimbabwe, 2015: a descriptive cross sectional study.
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 18;27:203. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Department of Community Medicine, University of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe.
    Introduction: AFP surveillance was adopted globally as a key strategy for monitoring the progress of the polio eradication initiative. Gokwe North district with an estimated 119 655 children <15 years detected 2 cases, 4 cases and 1 case of AFP in 2012, 2013 and 2014 respectively against a target of 5 cases per year. We therefore set out to evaluate the system and find out why it was failing to detect at least 5 cases per year. Read More

    Identification of vaccine-derived rotavirus strains in children with acute gastroenteritis in Japan, 2012-2015.
    PLoS One 2017 13;12(9):e0184067. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Developmental Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Two live attenuated oral rotavirus vaccines, Rotarix and RotaTeq, have been introduced as voluntary vaccination in Japan since 2011 and 2012, respectively. Effectiveness of the vaccines has been confirmed, whereas concerns such as shedding of the vaccine strains and gastroenteritis cases caused by vaccine strains are not well assessed. We aimed to identify the vaccine strains in children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) to investigate the prevalence of AGE caused by vaccination or horizontal transmission of vaccine strains. Read More

    Distinct genetic clades of enterovirus D68 detected in 2010, 2013, and 2015 in Osaka City, Japan.
    PLoS One 2017 13;12(9):e0184335. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Division of Microbiology, Osaka Institute of Public Health, Osaka, Japan.
    The first upsurge of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68), a causative agent of acute respiratory infections (ARIs), in Japan was reported in Osaka City in 2010. In this study, which began in 2010, we surveyed EV-D68 in children with ARIs and analyzed sequences of EV-D68 strains detected. Real-time PCR of 19 respiratory viruses or subtypes of viruses, including enterovirus, was performed on 2,215 specimens from ARI patients (<10 years of age) collected between November 2010 and December 2015 in Osaka City, Japan. Read More

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