51,698 results match your criteria Enteroviral Infections


Discovery of Enterovirus A71-like nonstructural genomes in recent circulating viruses of the Enterovirus A species.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2018 Jun 21;7(1):111. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is an important nonpolio enterovirus that causes severe neurological complications. In 1998, Taiwan experienced an EV-A71 outbreak that caused 78 deaths. Since then, periodic epidemics of EV-A71 associated with newly emerging strains have occurred. Read More

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Strategic Response to an Outbreak of Circulating Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Type 2 - Syria, 2017-2018.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Jun 22;67(24):690-694. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Since the 1988 inception of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), progress toward interruption of wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has occurred mostly through extensive use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in mass vaccination campaigns and through routine immunization services (1,2). However, because OPV contains live, attenuated virus, it carries the rare risk for reversion to neurovirulence. In areas with very low OPV coverage, prolonged transmission of vaccine-associated viruses can lead to the emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), which can cause outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Ecology and diversity in upper respiratory tract microbial population structures from a cross-sectional community swabbing study.

J Med Microbiol 2018 Jun 21. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

1​Faculty of Medicine and Institute for Life Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Purpose: Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are responsible for over 2.8 million deaths per year worldwide with pathobiont carriage a required precursor to infection. We sought to determine carriage epidemiology for both bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens as part of a large population-based cross-sectional carriage study. Read More

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Epidemiology and Clinical Outcomes of Viral Central Nervous System Infections.

Int J Infect Dis 2018 Jun 15. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA; Doha, Qatar.

Background: Central nervous system (CNS) viral infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. No data are available regarding their epidemiology in Qatar.

Design: We retrospectively evaluated all cerebrospinal fluid findings from January 2011-March 2015 at Hamad Medical Corporation. Read More

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Analytical validation of viral CNS Flow Chip kit for detection of acute meningitis and encephalitis.

J Virol Methods 2018 Jun 12;259:54-59. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de Granada, Avda. Fuerzas Armadas, 2, Granada, 18014, Spain.

A new molecular assay (Viral CNS Flow Chip kit, Master Diagnóstica, Spain) has been developed for the detection of eight viruses causing acute meningitis and encephalitis, i.e. herpes simplex viruses 1-2, varicella zoster virus, human enterovirus, human parechovirus, Toscana virus, human cytomegalovirus and Epstein Barr virus. Read More

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Pathogen Clearance and New Respiratory Tract Infections Among Febrile Children in Zanzibar Investigated With Multitargeting Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction on Paired Nasopharyngeal Swab Samples.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2018 Jul;37(7):643-648

From the Department of Infectious Diseases.

Background: New molecular methods have revealed frequent and often polymicrobial respiratory infections in children in low-income settings. It is not known whether presence of multiple pathogens is due to prolonged infections or to frequent exposure. The aim of this study was to analyze short-term pathogen clearance from nasopharynx and the rate of new respiratory tract infections in febrile preschool children. Read More

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July 2018
2 Reads

A cross-sectional seroepidemiology study of EV-D68 in China.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2018 Jun 6;7(1):99. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

National Institute for Food and Drug Control, Beijing, China.

Enterovirus 68 (EV-D68) is associated with respiratory diseases, such as acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), pneumonia, neurological diseases, and acute flaccid myelitis (AFM). In recent years, there have been global outbreaks of EV-D68 epidemics. However, there is no effective vaccine against EV-D68, and the understanding of the seroprevalence characteristics of EV-D68 is limited. Read More

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[Spatial-temporal analysis of enterovirus infection in Macao Special Administrative Region, China, 2011-2016].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2018 May;39(5):661-663

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China.

To understand the spatial-temporal distribution of enterovirus infection in Macao Special Administrative Region, China, from 2011 to 2016. The incidence data of enterovirus infections in child care settings and primary schools in Macao during this period, which were confirmed by the Health Bureau, were used for the spatial-temporal analysis. Bernoulli model was used as probability model. Read More

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Total hip arthroplasty in patients affected by poliomyelitis.

Bone Joint J 2018 Jun;100-B(6):733-739

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Aims The aims of this study were to determine the clinical and radiographic outcomes, implant survivorship, and complications of patients with a history of poliomyelitis undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) in affected limbs and unaffected limbs of this same population. Patients and Methods A retrospective review identified 51 patients (27 male and 24 female, 59 hips) with a mean age of 66 years (38 to 88) and with the history of poliomyelitis who underwent THA for degenerative arthritis between 1970 and 2012. Immigrant status, clinical outcomes, radiographic results, implant survival, and complications were recorded. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

Age-related prevalence of common upper respiratory pathogens, based on the application of the FilmArray Respiratory panel in a tertiary hospital in Greece.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Jun;97(22):e10903

The FilmArray Respiratory Panel (FA-RP) is an FDA certified multiplex PCR that can detect 17 viruses and 3 bacteria responsible for upper respiratory tract infections, thus it is potentially useful to the assessment of the age-related prevalence of these pathogens.In this observational study, we retrospectively analyzed the results of all the respiratory samples, which had been processed during 1 year-period (November 2015 to November 2016) with the FA-RP, in the Central Laboratories of Hygeia & Mitera General Hospitals of Athens, Greece. In order to have an age-related distribution, the following age groups were implemented: (<2), (≥2, <5), (≥5, <10), (≥10, <18), (≥18, <45), (≥45, <65), and (≥65) years old. Read More

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Nervous System Infections and the Global Traveler.

Semin Neurol 2018 Apr 23;38(2):247-262. Epub 2018 May 23.

Division of Critical Care and Hospitalist Neurology, Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York.

Neurological complications of infectious diseases are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. It is imperative that neurologists be up-to-date on current developments including typical and atypical presentations of neurological infections in travelers, diagnostic and treatment recommendations, and emerging pathogen resistance patterns to avoid fatal outcomes and long-term sequelae. This article will address concepts of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, and will provide updates on the neurological manifestations of select emerging and reemerging infections, including Ebola virus, bacterial meningitis, enterovirus 71, Zika virus, cerebral malaria, and Japanese encephalitis. Read More

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April 2018
1 Read

A reverse genetics system for enterovirus D68 using human RNA polymerase I.

Virus Genes 2018 May 17. Epub 2018 May 17.

School of Life Sciences, Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin, 300072, China.

Human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a highly contagious virus, which causes respiratory tract infections. However, no effective vaccines are currently available for controlling EV-D68 infection. Here, we developed a reverse genetics system to recover EV-D68 minireplicons and infectious EV-D68 from transfected plasmids using the RNA polymerase I (Pol I) promoter. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

A virus-like particle-based tetravalent vaccine for hand, foot, and mouth disease elicits broad and balanced protective immunity.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2018 May 18;7(1):94. Epub 2018 May 18.

Vaccine Research Center, CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology & Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200031, China.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an infectious disease that mainly affects infants and children, causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. HFMD is commonly caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackieviruses A16 (CVA16), A6 (CVA6), and A10 (CVA10). Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccines are currently available in China; however, these vaccines fail to confer cross-protection against infections by other HFMD-causing enteroviruses, highlighting the necessity of developing a multivalent HFMD vaccine. Read More

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Successful treatment of fulminant neonatal enteroviral myocarditis in monochorionic diamniotic twins with cardiopulmonary support, intravenous immunoglobulin and pocapavir.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 May 18;2018. Epub 2018 May 18.

Division of Pediatric Cardiology, St Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA.

Neonatal cardiogenic shock most commonly occurs due to critical congenital heart disease, sepsis, metabolic disorder or arrhythmias. In particular, enterovirus infections are common in the neonatal period, and patients can present with fulminant myocarditis. Early recognition is imperative due to its high morbidity and mortality without prompt and aggressive treatment. Read More

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May 2018
5 Reads

Evaluation of MinION nanopore sequencing for rapid enterovirus genotyping.

Virus Res 2018 07 12;252:8-12. Epub 2018 May 12.

Genecology Research Centre, School of Science and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, 90 Sippy Downs Dr, Sippy Downs, Queensland, Australia; Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Department of Medicine, Columbia University, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Enteroviruses (EV) are associated with a range of serious infections, including aseptic meningitis, hand foot and mouth disease, myocarditis, acute flaccid paralysis and encephalitis. Improved methods for assessing EV genotypic diversity could assist molecular epidemiology studies, clinical diagnosis and environmental surveillance. We report new methods for EV genome amplification, and subsequent genotyping using the miniaturised MinION sequencing device. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

Most commonly isolated viruses in asthma exacerbation and their correlation with eosinophil and total serum immunoglobulin E levels.

Arch Argent Pediatr 2018 06;116(3):192-197

Departamento de Pediatría, Hospital Civil de Guadalajara Dr. Juan I. Menchaca, Jalisco, México.

Background: Asthma exacerbations are still a cause of hospitalization at the Emergency Department. The triggers of asthma exacerbations include allergens and infections -mostly viral-. The objective of this study was to establish the relationship between viruses detected during an asthma exacerbation and eosinophil and serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in pediatric patients. Read More

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Detection of nineteen enteric viruses in raw sewage in Japan.

Infect Genet Evol 2018 May 16;63:17-23. Epub 2018 May 16.

Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Developmental Medical Sciences, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

One-year surveillance for enteric viruses in raw sewage was conducted in Kansai area, central part of Japan from July 2015 to June 2016. The raw sewage was collected monthly from an inlet polluted pool and was concentrated by polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation. Twelve sewage samples were screened for nineteen kinds of enteric viruses by using RT-PCR method and further analyzed by nucleotide sequencing. Read More

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May 2018
2 Reads

Contribution of the FilmArray Gastrointestinal Panel in the laboratory diagnosis of gastroenteritis in a cohort of children: a two-year prospective study.

Int J Med Microbiol 2018 Jul 2;308(5):514-521. Epub 2018 May 2.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.

This study represents a 2-year picture of the epidemiology of enteric pathogens in children suffering from gastroenteritis using the FilmArray® Gastrointestinal Panel (FA-GP), a multiplex molecular assay that allows to simultaneously detect a large panel of pathogens independently of the etiological suspicion and to evaluate its potential contribution to the diagnosis compared to the conventional methods. A total of 1716 stool samples, collected from children with clinical suspicion of bacterial and/or viral gastroenteritis attending the University Hospital of Parma, was submitted to the FA-GP and, when an adequate aliquot was available, to electron microscopy (n = 1163) for virus detection and to an enterovirus-targeting real-time PCR (n = 1703). Specimens with positive results for Salmonella, Yersinia enterocolitica, Vibrio, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli/Shigella, Campylobacter, Plesiomonas shigelloides and/or parasites by the FA-GP were also submitted to conventional diagnostic methods. Read More

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July 2018
4 Reads

Enterovirus and Parechovirus Surveillance - United States, 2014-2016.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 May 11;67(18):515-518. Epub 2018 May 11.

Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Disease, CDC.

Infections caused by enteroviruses (EV) and parechoviruses (PeV), members of the Picornaviridae family, are associated with various clinical manifestations, including hand, foot, and mouth disease; respiratory illness; myocarditis; meningitis; and sepsis; and can result in death. The genus Enterovirus includes four species of enterovirus (A-D) known to infect humans, and the genus Parechovirus includes one species (A) that infects humans. These species are further divided into types, some of which are associated with specific clinical manifestations. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

Progress Toward Polio Eradication - Worldwide, January 2016-March 2018.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 May 11;67(18):524-528. Epub 2018 May 11.

In 1988, when an estimated 350,000 cases of poliomyelitis occurred in 125 countries, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate polio globally. Transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) continues uninterrupted in only three countries (Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan) (1), and among the three serotypes, WPV type 1 (WPV1) remains the only confirmed circulating type. This report describes global progress toward polio eradication during January 2016-March 2018, and updates previous reports (2). Read More

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May 2018
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Design, synthesis & structure-activity relationships of a new class of antihuman enterovirus D68 & A71 agents.

Future Med Chem 2018 Jun 10;10(11):1333-1347. Epub 2018 May 10.

Graduate Institute of Biomedical Science, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, 33302, Taiwan.

Aim: No antiviral medications are currently approved to treat enterovirus (EV)-associated disease or prevent EV infection.

Methods: In this study, a series of probenecid derivatives were designed via a rational strategy and synthesized to obtain more potent anti-EV agents.

Results: Compounds 8 and 24 exhibited the most potent activity against EV D68 and A71, with half maximal effective concentration (EC) values of 2. Read More

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June 2018
9 Reads

Abundance of enterovirus C in RD-L20B cell culture-negative stool samples from acute flaccid paralysis cases in Nigeria is geographically defined.

J Med Microbiol 2018 Jun 30;67(6):854-865. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

2​Department of Virology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Purpose: We recently showed that enteroviruses (EVs) andenterovirus species C (EV-C) in particular were abundant in faecal samples from children who had been diagnosed with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Nigeria but declared to be EV-free by the RD-L20B cell culture-based algorithm. In this study, we investigated whether this observed preponderance of EVs (and EV-Cs) in such samples varies by geographical region.

Methodology: One hundred and eight samples (i. Read More

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Association between enterovirus infection and speech and language impairments: A nationwide population-based study.

Res Dev Disabil 2018 Jun 27;77:76-86. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

Department of Speech Language Pathology and Audiology, Chung Shan Medical University and Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Delay and impairment in Speech and language are common developmental problems in younger populations. Hitherto, there has been minimal study of the association between common childhood infections (e.g. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

[Data analysis on hepatitis B through pilot surveillance reporting system in Henan province, 2012-2016].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2018 Apr;39(4):500-504

Henan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zhengzhou 450016, China.

To standardize the reporting system on hepatitis B in order to improve the quality of monitoring program in Henan province. A total of 6 sites of Hepatitis B pilot surveillance were selected in Xinzheng of Zhengzhou city, Linzhou of Anyang city, Shanyang district of Jiaozuo city, Shaoling district of Luohe city, Yongcheng of Shangqiu city, Pingqiao district of Xinyang city in Henan province. Subjects under study were those reported hepatitis B cases, from 2012 to 2016. Read More

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Spectrum of Enterovirus Serotypes Causing Uncomplicated Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease and Enteroviral diagnostic yield of different clinical samples.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Apr 24. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Division of Infectious Disease, Key Laboratory of Surveillance and Early-warning on Infectious Disease, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Background: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) represents a substantial disease burden in the Western Pacific region. We investigated the spectrum of causative enteroviruses of HFMD, and evaluated different clinical samples' diagnostic yield for enteroviruses.

Methods: We enrolled pediatric patients hospitalized for HFMD among six hospitals in Anhua County, Hunan Province, China between October 2013 and September 2016. Read More

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April 2018
2 Reads

microRNA-4516 Contributes to Different Functions of Epithelial Permeability Barrier by Targeting Poliovirus Receptor Related Protein 1 in Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 Infections.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 9;8:110. Epub 2018 Apr 9.

Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Yunnan Key Laboratory of Vaccine Research and Development on Severe Infectious Diseases, Kunming, China.

Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) remain the predominant etiological agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). The clinical manifestations caused by the two viruses are obviously different. CV-A16 usually triggers a repeated infection, and airway epithelial integrity is often the potential causative factor of respiratory repeated infections. Read More

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April 2018
2 Reads

Detection of hand-foot-mouth disease and its spatial-temporal Epidemiological characteristics with GIS platform.

J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2018 Mar-Apr;32(2):371-377

Information and Management School, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China.

The aim of this study is to investigate the main category of hand-foot-mouth (HFM) virus and analyze the distribution characteristics and susceptible population of HFM disease in China. Infants who have had HFM disease for less than 7 days were selected from the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Guangxi, China. Various specimens were collected from the infants, and EV71 and CA16 nucleic acid detections were performed using fluorescence quantitative assay. Read More

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The Origin, Dynamic Morphology, and PI4P-Independent Formation of Encephalomyocarditis Virus Replication Organelles.

MBio 2018 Apr 17;9(2). Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Department of Cell and Chemical Biology, Section Electron Microscopy, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

Picornaviruses induce dramatic rearrangements of endomembranes in the cells that they infect to produce dedicated platforms for viral replication. These structures, termed replication organelles (ROs), have been well characterized for the genus of the However, it is unknown whether the diverse RO morphologies associated with enterovirus infection are conserved among other picornaviruses. Here, we use serial electron tomography at different stages of infection to assess the three-dimensional architecture of ROs induced by encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), a member of the genus of the family of picornaviruses that is distantly related. Read More

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Adverse effects of maternal enterovirus infection on the pregnancy outcome: a prospective and retrospective pilot study.

Virol J 2018 04 16;15(1):70. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Service de gynécologie et obstétrique and Risk in pregnancy university department, Hôpital Louis-Mourier, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 178, rue des Renouillers, 92700, Colombes, France.

Background: Enteroviruses account for about one billion infections worldwide each year, the majority remain asymptomatic. Data on enterovirus infections during pregnancy appear to be very rare. Several cases have been reported in the literature of fetal and neonatal complications attributed to these viruses, but prospective data on these infections during pregnancy are not available. Read More

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April 2018
1 Read

Surveillance for the identification of cases of acute respiratory infection by enterovirus D68 in children in a tertiary level care hospital during 2014-2016.

Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex 2018 ;75(1):23-30

Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Secretaría de Salud, Ciudad de México, México.

Background: The reemergence of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infections in the United States was reported from August-October 2014 (691 cases). In Mexico, an outbreak at the National Institute of Respiratory Diseases was reported (24 cases). The results of epidemiological surveillance of Enterovirus sp. Read More

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January 2018
2 Reads

Enterovirus serotypes in patients with central nervous system and respiratory infections in Viet Nam 1997-2010.

Virol J 2018 04 12;15(1):69. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam.

Background: Enteroviruses are the most common causative agents of human illness. Enteroviruses have been associated with regional and global epidemics, recently, including with severe disease (Enterovirus A71 and D68), and are of interest as emerging viruses. Here, we typed Enterovirus A-D (EV) from central nervous system (CNS) and respiratory infections in Viet Nam. Read More

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April 2018
3 Reads

Surveillance to Track Progress Toward Polio Eradication - Worldwide, 2016-2017.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Apr 13;67(14):418-423. Epub 2018 Apr 13.

Global efforts to eradicate polio began in 1988, and four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions currently have achieved poliofree certification. Within the remaining two regions with endemic poliomyelitis (African and Eastern Mediterranean), Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan have never interrupted transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV). The primary means of detecting poliovirus transmission is surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) among children aged <15 years, combined with collection and testing of stool specimens for detection of WPV and vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs)* in WHO-accredited laboratories within the Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN) (1,2). Read More

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April 2018
3 Reads

Diagnostic Use of Base Excess in Acid-Base Disorders.

Authors:
Kenrick Berend

N Engl J Med 2018 04;378(15):1419-1428

From St. Elisabeth Hospital, Willemstad, Curaçao.

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[Rare Differential Diagnosis of a Neonatal Bacterial Sepsis: The Neonatal Viral Myocarditis].

Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol 2018 04 10;222(2):82-85. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Kinderklinik und Poliklinik, Universitätsklinikum Würzburg.

The neonatal bacterial infection is a potentially life-threatening condition that justifies intravenous antibiotic therapy. However, clinical symptoms are often unspecific. Particularly in the absence of a response to antibiotic therapy, various differential diagnoses can be considered. Read More

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April 2018
1 Read

Bayesian evidence and epidemiological implications of environmental contamination from acute respiratory infection in long-term care facilities.

Epidemiol Infect 2018 May 10;146(7):832-838. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

LA BioMed at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center,Torrance,CA,USA.

Skilled nursing home facilities (SNFs) house a vulnerable population frequently exposed to respiratory pathogens. Our study aims to gain a better understanding of the transmission of nursing home-acquired viral respiratory infections in non-epidemic settings. Symptomatic surveillance was performed in three SNFs for residents exhibiting acute respiratory symptoms. Read More

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May 2018
5 Reads

The life cycle of non-polio enteroviruses and how to target it.

Nat Rev Microbiol 2018 Jun;16(6):368-381

Virology Division, Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

The genus Enterovirus (EV) of the family Picornaviridae includes poliovirus, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, numbered enteroviruses and rhinoviruses. These diverse viruses cause a variety of diseases, including non-specific febrile illness, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, neonatal sepsis-like disease, encephalitis, paralysis and respiratory diseases. In recent years, several non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) have emerged as serious public health concerns. Read More

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June 2018
12 Reads

Inhibition of coxsackievirus B4 by Lactobacillus plantarum.

Microbiol Res 2018 May 19;210:59-64. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

Université de Lille, Faculté de Médecine, CHRU Lille, Laboratoire de Virologie/EA3610, F-59000 Lille, France.

The enterovirus Coxsackievirus B4 (CV-B4) can infect different human tissues and provoke abnormal function or destruction of various organs and cells. Moreover, its infections have been linked to the onset of type 1 diabetes. Coxsackievirus B4 is classified as a "challenging virus", due to the intense yet vain efforts to find effective prevention and therapeutic agents, especially within biological compounds. Read More

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Antiviral effects of ferric ammonium citrate.

Cell Discov 2018 27;4:14. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

1CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 200031 Shanghai, China.

Iron is an essential nutrient for cell survival and is crucial for DNA replication, mitochondrial function and erythropoiesis. However, the immunological role of iron in viral infections has not been well defined. Here we found the iron salt ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) inhibited Influenza A virus, HIV virus, Zika virus, and Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections. Read More

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March 2018
3 Reads

Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in an Adult.

N Engl J Med 2018 Apr;378(14):e20

Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan

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April 2018
1 Read

Non-neutralizing Antibody Responses against VP1 in Enterovirus A, B, C and Rhinovirus A species among Infants and Children in Shanghai.

Sci Rep 2018 Apr 3;8(1):5455. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Basic Medicine, Second Military Medical University, No. 8 Panshan Road, Shanghai, 200433, China.

The overall non-neutralizing antibody responses against EV infections among infants and children remain unknown. The non-neutralizing antibody responses against VP1 of EV-A species (Enterovirus 71 (EV71), Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16)), EV-B species (Coxsackievirus B3 (CB3)), EV-C species (Poliovirus 1 (PV1)) and RV-A species (Rhinovirus A N13 (RV13)) were detected and analyzed using a novel evolved immunoglobulin-binding molecule (NEIBM)-based ELISA among infants and children aged 1 day to 6 years in Shanghai. The anti-VP1 reactivity against these EVs changed similarly in an age-related dynamic: being high level in the 1-28-day age group, declining to the lowest level in the 1-12-month age group, gradually increasing to the peak level in the 13-60-month age group, and remarkably declining in the 61-72-month age group, which reflects the conversion from maternally-derived to primary antibody responses. Read More

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April 2018
1 Read

Infectious Myelopathies.

Authors:
Marie F Grill

Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2018 Apr;24(2, Spinal Cord Disorders):441-473

Purpose Of Review: This article reviews bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic pathogens associated with myelopathy. Infectious myelopathies may be due to direct infection or parainfectious autoimmune-mediated mechanisms; this article focuses primarily on the former.

Recent Findings: Some microorganisms exhibit neurotropism for the spinal cord (eg, enteroviruses such as poliovirus and flaviviruses such as West Nile virus), while others are more protean in neurologic manifestations (eg, herpesviruses such as varicella-zoster virus), and others are only rarely reported to cause myelopathy (eg, certain fungal and parasitic infections). Read More

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[Epidemiological characteristics of Coxsackie virus A16 caused hand foot and mouth disease cases in Guangdong province, 2012-2016].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2018 Mar;39(3):342-346

Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou 511430, China.

To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) cases caused by Coxsackie virus A16 (Cox A16) in Guangdong province from 2012 to 2016. The data of mild HFMD cases caused by Cox A16 were collected from 8 sentinel hospitals in 8 prefecture-level cities in Guangdong to estimate Cox A16 infection status and its population and time distribution characteristics. (1) The highest estimated incidence of Cox A16 infection was in 2014 (113. Read More

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Three-dimensional Culture of Human Airway Epithelium in Matrigel for Evaluation of Human Rhinovirus C and Bocavirus Infections.

Biomed Environ Sci 2018 Feb;31(2):136-145

Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine of Chinese Academy of Sciences & Key Laboratory of Space Radiobiology of Gansu Province, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, China.

Objective: Newly identified human rhinovirus C (HRV-C) and human bocavirus (HBoV) cannot propagate in vitro in traditional cell culture models; thus obtaining knowledge about these viruses and developing related vaccines are difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a novel platform for the propagation of these types of viruses.

Methods: A platform for culturing human airway epithelia in a three-dimensional (3D) pattern using Matrigel as scaffold was developed. Read More

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February 2018
2 Reads

Multicenter Evaluation of BioFire FilmArray Respiratory Panel 2 for Detection of Viruses and Bacteria in Nasopharyngeal Swab Samples.

J Clin Microbiol 2018 Jun 25;56(6). Epub 2018 May 25.

BioFire Diagnostics, LLC, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

The FilmArray Respiratory Panel 2 (RP2) is a multiplex diagnostic test for the simultaneous and rapid (∼45-min) detection of 22 pathogens directly from nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) samples. It contains updated (and in some instances redesigned) assays that improve upon the FilmArray Respiratory Panel (RP; version 1.7), with a faster run time. Read More

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June 2018
6 Reads

An emerging and expanding clade accounts for the persistent outbreak of Coxsackievirus A6-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease in China since 2013.

Virology 2018 05 26;518:328-334. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, Xiamen University, Xiang'an Campus of Xiamen University, South Xiang'an Rd., Xiamen, China; National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, Xiamen University, Xiang'an Campus of Xiamen University, South Xiang'an Rd., Xiamen, China; School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiang'an Campus of Xiamen University, South Xiang'an Rd., Xiamen, China. Electronic address:

Enterovirus (EV)-A71 and Coxsackievirus (CV)-A16 have historically been the major pathogens of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HMFD) in China; however, CV-A6, which had previously received little attention, became the predominant pathogen in 2013, and has remained one of the common pathogens since then. In this work, we conducted a molecular epidemiology study of CV-A6-associated HFMD in Xiamen from 2009 to 2015. The data showed CV-A6 pandemics had a certain periodicity rather than occurring randomly. Read More

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May 2018
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Maternal virus infections in pregnancy and type 1 diabetes in their offspring: Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

Rev Med Virol 2018 May 22;28(3):e1974. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

School of Women's and Children's Health, University of New South Wales Medicine, Sydney, Australia.

Virus infections are implicated in the development of type 1 diabetes based on epidemiological, clinical, in vitro cell-based and molecular studies, and animal models. We reviewed the association between virus infections in pregnant women and development of islet autoimmunity or type 1 diabetes in their offspring. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis, analysed using random effects models, of human studies from Medline and EMBASE without language restriction. Read More

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May 2018
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First trimester enterovirus IgM and beta cell autoantibodies in mothers to children affected by type 1 diabetes autoimmunity before 7 years of age.

J Reprod Immunol 2018 Jun 2;127:1-6. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University Clinical Research Center, Skåne University Hospital, 205 02 Malmö, Sweden. Electronic address:

Background: Autoimmune (type 1) diabetes (T1D) is a frequent chronic disease in children and adolescents globally. Gestational enterovirus (EV) infections have been associated with an increased risk for T1D in the offspring. We test the hypothesis that EV infections during the first trimester were associated with beta cell autoantibodies in mothers of children who developed islet autoantibodies before 7 years of age. Read More

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June 2018
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Vaccine-derived polioviruses outbreaks and events in 3 provinces of Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2017.

Authors:

Wkly Epidemiol Rec 2018 Mar 16;93(11):117-25. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

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March 2018
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Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Outbreaks and Events - Three Provinces, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2017.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Mar 16;67(10):300-305. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

The last confirmed wild poliovirus (WPV) case in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) had paralysis onset in December 2011 (1). DRC has had cases of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) documented since 2004 (Table 1) (1-6). After an outbreak of 30 circulating VDPV type 2 (cVDPV2) cases during 2011-2012, only five VDPV2 cases were reported during 2013-2016 (Table 1) (1-6). Read More

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March 2018
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Congenital cytomegalovirus, parvovirus and enterovirus infection in Mozambican newborns at birth: A cross-sectional survey.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(3):e0194186. Epub 2018 Mar 14.

Centro de Investigação em Saúde de Manhiça (CISM), Maputo, Mozambique.

Background: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most prevalent congenital infection acquired worldwide, with higher incidence in developing countries and among HIV-exposed children. Less is known regarding vertical transmission of parvovirus B19 (B19V) and enterovirus (EV). We aimed to assess the prevalence of CMV, B19V and EV vertical transmission and compare results of screening of congenital CMV obtained from two different specimens in a semirural Mozambican maternity. Read More

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