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    50821 results match your criteria Enteroviral Infections

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    Infectious diseases causing autonomic dysfunction.
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Jul 20. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Neurology Department, Raigmore Hospital, Inverness, UK.
    Objectives: To review infectious diseases that may cause autonomic dysfunction.

    Methods: Review of published papers indexed in medline/embase.

    Results: Autonomic dysfunction has been reported in retrovirus (human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-lymphotropic virus), herpes viruses, flavivirus, enterovirus 71 and lyssavirus infections. Read More

    Burden and Seasonality of Viral Acute Respiratory Tract Infections among Outpatients in Southern Sri Lanka.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jul;97(1):88-96
    Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.
    In tropical and subtropical settings, the epidemiology of viral acute respiratory tract infections varies widely between countries. We determined the etiology, seasonality, and clinical presentation of viral acute respiratory tract infections among outpatients in southern Sri Lanka. From March 2013 to January 2015, we enrolled outpatients presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI). Read More

    Prevalence of respiratory viruses among adults, by season, age, respiratory tract region and type of medical unit in Paris, France, from 2011 to 2016.
    PLoS One 2017 14;12(7):e0180888. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    IAME, UMR 1137, INSERM, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire de Virologie, Hôpital Bichat, AP-HP, Paris, France.
    Background: Multiplex PCR tests have improved our understanding of respiratory viruses' epidemiology by allowing their wide range detection. We describe here the burden of these viruses in hospital settings over a five-year period.

    Methods: All respiratory samples from adult patients (>20 years old) tested by multiplex-PCR at the request of physicians, from May 1 2011 to April 30 2016, were included retrospectively. Read More

    dsRNA Binding Domain of PKR Is Proteolytically Released by Enterovirus A71 to Facilitate Viral Replication.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017 28;7:284. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung UniversityTaoyuan, Taiwan.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) causes hand, foot and mouth disease in young children and infants, but can also cause severe neurological complications or even death. The double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase R (PKR), an interferon-induced antiviral protein, phosphorylates the regulatory α-subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 in response to viral infection, thereby blocking the translation of cellular and viral mRNA and promoting apoptosis. The cleavage of PKR after infection with poliovirus, a prototype enterovirus, has been reported by others, but the underlying mechanism of this cleavage and its role in viral replication remain unclear. Read More

    Human enteroviruses in cerebrospinal fluid of children with suspected aseptic meningitis: A study in northern Iran.
    Caspian J Intern Med 2017 ;8(2):112-115
    Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.
    Background: Enterovirus (EV) infections are one of the most common causes of aseptic meningitis in pediatrics. To diagnose EV meningitis, virus isolation in cell cultures is often time consuming and lacks sensitivity to be of clinical relevance. This makes the virus culture results difficult to interpret. Read More

    Preponderance of enterovirus C in RD-L20B-cell-culture-negative stool samples from children diagnosed with acute flaccid paralysis in Nigeria.
    Arch Virol 2017 Jul 10. Epub 2017 Jul 10.
    Department of Virology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
    Recently, a reverse transcriptase semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-snPCR) assay was recommended by the WHO for direct detection of enteroviruses in clinical specimens. In this study, we use this assay and a modification thereof to screen acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) samples that had previously tested negative for enteroviruses by the RD-L20B algorithm. Thirty paired stool suspensions collected in 2015 as part of the national AFP surveillance program in different states of Nigeria were analyzed in this study. Read More

    Antiviral effects of Retro-2(cycl) and Retro-2.1 against Enterovirus 71 in vitro and in vivo.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Jul 5;144:311-321. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, China; Key Laboratory for Molecular Enzymology and Engineering of the Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the causative pathogens of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), especially the form associated with fatal neurological disorders. Sustained outbreaks of EV71 infections remain a serious health threat worldwide. However, no antiviral agent against EV71 for clinical therapy has been approved. Read More

    Recurrent and Sustained Viral Infections in Primary Immunodeficiencies.
    Front Immunol 2017 19;8:665. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, United States.
    Viral infections are commonplace and often innocuous. Nevertheless, within the population of patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDDs), viral infections can be the feature that drives a diagnostic evaluation or can be the most significant morbidity for the patient. This review is focused on the viral complications of PIDDs. Read More

    Respiratory viruses detected in Mexican children younger than 5 years old with community-acquired pneumonia: a national multicenter study.
    Int J Infect Dis 2017 Jun 30. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    Unidad de Investigación en Medicina Experimental, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    Background: Acute respiratory infections are the leading cause of mortality in children worldwide, especially in developing countries. Pneumonia accounts for 16% of all deaths of children under 5 years of age and was the cause of death of 935000 children in 2015. Despite its frequency and severity, information regarding its etiology is limited. Read More

    First Cases of Severe Flaccid Paralysis Associated with Enterovirus D68 Infection in Spain, 2015-2016.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Jun 28. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    1Spanish National Poliovirus Laboratory, National Centre for Microbiology, Institute of Health "Carlos III", Madrid, Spain 2Department of Pediatrics, Miguel Servet Hospital, Zaragoza, Spain 3Department of Pediatrics, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital and Autonoma University, Barcelona, Spain *University Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol School of Medicine, Barcelona, Spain 4Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Vigo (Alvaro Cunqueiro Hospital), Vigo, Pontevedra, Spain 5Department of Microbiology, University Hospital of Vigo (Meixoeiro Hospital), Vigo, Spain 6Department of Microbiology, Miguel Servet Hospital, Zaragoza, Spain 7Department of Microbiology, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital - Vall d'Hebron Research Institute, Barcelona, Spain 8Department of Microbiology, Santa Creu i Sant Pau Hospital, Barcelona, Spain 9Department of Preventive Medicine, University Hospital of Vigo (Alvaro Cunqueiro Hospital), Vigo, Spain 10National Centre for Epidemiology, Institute of Health "Carlos III" and CIBERESP, Madrid, Spain.
    Enterovirus D68 was known to be the cause of mild to severe respiratory infections, but in the last few years it has also been associated with myelitis and paralysis. This report describes the first EV-D68 detections in acute flaccid paralysis cases occurring between December 2015 and March 2016 in Spain. Read More

    Case control comparison of enteric viromes in captive rhesus macaques with acute or idiopathic chronic diarrhea.
    J Virol 2017 Jun 28. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California, USA
    Diarrhea is the major cause of non-research associated morbidity and mortality affecting the supply of rhesus macaques and, potentially, their responses to experimental treatments. Idiopathic chronic diarrhea (ICD) in rhesus macaques also resembles ulcerative colitis, a form of human inflammatory bowel disease. To test for viral etiologies we characterized and compared the fecal virome from 32 healthy, 31 with acute diarrhea, and 29 with ICD animals. Read More

    Phylogeography of coxsackievirus A16 reveals global transmission pathways and recent emergence and spread of a recombinant genogroup.
    J Virol 2017 Jun 28. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, LMGE, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
    Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16; Picornaviridae) is an enterovirus (EV) type associated with hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) in children. To investigate the spatial spread of CV-A16, we used viral sequence data sampled during a prospective sentinel surveillance of HFMD in France (2010--2014) and phylogenetic reconstruction. A dataset of 168 VP1 sequences was assembled with 416 publicly available sequences of various geographic origins. Read More

    Crystal structure and thermostability characterization of EV-D68-3D(pol).
    J Virol 2017 Jun 28. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, The Sun Yat-Sen University, 135 W. Xingang Rd., Guangzhou, Guangdong 510275, People's Republic of China.
    Enterovirus-D68 (EV-D68) is one of the many non-polio enteroviruses that cause mild-to-severe respiratory illness. The non-structural protein 3D(pol) is an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) of EV-D68, which plays a critical role in the replication of the viral genome and represents a promising drug target. Here we report the first three-dimensional crystal structure of RdRP from EV-D68 in complex with the substrate GTP to 2. Read More

    A Three-Dimensional Cell Culture System To Model RNA Virus Infections at the Blood-Brain Barrier.
    mSphere 2017 May-Jun;2(3). Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) comprises the foremost protective barrier in the brain and is composed in part of a layer of microvascular endothelial cells that line the capillaries surrounding the brain. Here, we describe a human three-dimensional (3-D) cell-based model of the BBB microvascular endothelium that recapitulates properties of these cells in vivo, including physiologically relevant transcriptional profiles, the capacity to induce potent antimicrobial innate immune signaling, and the ability to resist infection by diverse RNA viruses, including members of the enterovirus (coxsackievirus B, echovirus 11, enterovirus 71, poliovirus) and flavivirus (dengue virus, Zika virus [ZIKV]) families. We show that disruption of apical tight junctions by proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) sensitizes 3-D-cultured BBB cells to ZIKV infection and that 3-D derived BBB cells can be used to model the transmigration of ZIKV-infected monocytes across the endothelial barrier to access underlying astrocytes. Read More

    [Clinical stages and outcomes of severe cases on hand, foot and mouth disease].
    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2017 May;38(5):651-655
    Institute of Infectious Disease, Sichuan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Chengdu 610041, China.
    Objective: To understand the characteristics and relation of clinical stage and outcome of severe cases on hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and to establish the evaluation method for understanding severity of this disease. Methods: According to factors as geographical location, economic and epidemic levels, five provinces (Henan, Shandong, Yunnan, Zhejiang and Sichuan provinces) were selected. Reported severe cases of HFMD from the National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System were selected randomly in the five provinces. Read More

    Electrophysiological alterations in a murine model of chronic coxsackievirus B3 myocarditis.
    PLoS One 2017 23;12(6):e0180029. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Division of Electrophysiology, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.
    Introduction: Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is known to induce acute and chronic myocarditis. Most infections are clinically unapparent but some patients suffer from ventricular arrhythmias (VA) and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Studies showed that acute CVB3 infection may cause impaired function of cardiac ion channels, creating a proarrhythmic substrate. Read More

    Progress Toward Containment of Poliovirus Type 2 - Worldwide, 2017.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Jun 23;66(24):649-652. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) continues to make progress toward the eradication target. Only one of the three serotypes, wild poliovirus (WPV) type 1 (WPV1), is still circulating, and the numbers of cases and countries with endemic transmission are at record lows. With the certification of wild poliovirus type 2 (WPV2) eradication in 2015 and the global replacement of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) containing Sabin poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 with bivalent OPV containing only Sabin poliovirus types 1 and 3 during April-May 2016, poliovirus type 2 (PV2) is now an eradicated pathogen. Read More

    Viral aetiology of wheezing in children under five.
    Indian J Med Res 2017 Feb;145(2):189-193
    Department of Paediatrics, Hitech Medical College & Hospital, Bhubaneswar, India.
    Background & Objectives: Wheezing is a common problem in children under five with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). Viruses are known to be responsible for a considerable proportion of ARIs in children. This study was undertaken to know the viral aetiology of wheezing among the children less than five years of age, admitted to a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. Read More

    The spectrum of aseptic central nervous system infections in southern Germany - demographic, clinical and laboratory findings.
    Eur J Neurol 2017 Aug 21;24(8):1062-1070. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.
    Background And Purpose: Aseptic infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are frequently observed in Germany. However, no study has systematically addressed the spectrum of aseptic CNS infections in Germany.

    Methods: Data on 191 adult patients diagnosed from January 2007 to December 2014 with aseptic meningitis or encephalitis/meningoencephalitis at our hospital were collected by chart review and analyzed for demographic, clinical and laboratory findings. Read More

    Human picornaviruses associated with neurological diseases and their neutralization by antibodies.
    J Gen Virol 2017 Jun 20;98(6):1145-1158. Epub 2017 Jun 20.
    1​Institute of Biotechnology and Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Viikinkaari 1, 00790 Helsinki, Finland.
    Picornaviruses are the most commonly encountered infectious agents in mankind. They typically cause mild infections of the gastrointestinal or respiratory tract, but sometimes also invade the central nervous system. There, they can cause severe diseases with long-term sequelae and even be lethal. Read More

    Retrospective Surveillance of Wastewater To Examine Seasonal Dynamics of Enterovirus Infections.
    mSphere 2017 May-Jun;2(3). Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.
    Enteroviruses are RNA viruses that are responsible for both mild gastroenteritis and mild respiratory illnesses as well as debilitating diseases such as meningitis and myocarditis. The disease burden of enteroviruses in the United States is difficult to assess because most infections are not recorded. Since infected individuals shed enterovirus in feces and urine, surveillance of municipal wastewater can reveal the diversity of enteroviruses circulating in human populations. Read More

    The Impact of Multiple Viral Respiratory Infections on Outcomes for Critically Ill Children.
    Pediatr Crit Care Med 2017 Jun 16. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    All authors: Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE.
    Objective: Advances in molecular diagnosis have led to increased testing for single and multiviral respiratory infection in routine clinical practice. This study compares outcomes between single and multiviral respiratory infections in children younger than 5 years old admitted to the PICU with respiratory failure.

    Design: Retrospective, single-center, cohort study. Read More

    An enhanced Enterovirus surveillance system allows identification and characterization of rare and emerging respiratory enteroviruses in Denmark, 2015-16.
    J Clin Virol 2017 Aug 29;93:40-44. Epub 2017 May 29.
    Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark; University of Southern Denmark, Denmark. Electronic address:
    Background: The potential for outbreaks due to Enteroviruses (EV) with respiratory tropism, such as EV-D68, and the detection of new and rare EV species C is a concern. These EVs are typically not detected in stool specimens and may therefore be missed by standard EV surveillance systems. Following the North American outbreak of EV-D68 in 2014, Denmark piloted an enhanced EV surveillance system that included the screening of respiratory samples. Read More

    Reliability of pathogen control in direct potable reuse: Performance evaluation and QMRA of a full-scale 1 MGD advanced treatment train.
    Water Res 2017 Jun 6;122:258-268. Epub 2017 Jun 6.
    Trussell Technologies, 232 North Lake Avenue, Suite 300, Pasadena, CA 91101, USA.
    To safely progress toward direct potable reuse (DPR), it is essential to ensure that DPR systems can provide public health protection equivalent to or greater than that of conventional drinking water sources. This study collected data over a one-year period from a full-scale DPR demonstration facility, and used both performance distribution functions (PDFs) and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to define and evaluate the reliability of the advanced water treatment facility (AWTF). The AWTF's ability to control enterovirus, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium was characterized using online monitoring of surrogates in a treatment train consisting of ozone, biological activated carbon, microfiltration, reverse osmosis, and ultraviolet light with an advanced oxidation process. Read More

    Risk factors and short-term projections for serotype-1 poliomyelitis incidence in Pakistan: A spatiotemporal analysis.
    PLoS Med 2017 Jun 12;14(6):e1002323. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, St Mary's Campus, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Background: Pakistan currently provides a substantial challenge to global polio eradication, having contributed to 73% of reported poliomyelitis in 2015 and 54% in 2016. A better understanding of the risk factors and movement patterns that contribute to poliovirus transmission across Pakistan would support evidence-based planning for mass vaccination campaigns.

    Methods And Findings: We fit mixed-effects logistic regression models to routine surveillance data recording the presence of poliomyelitis associated with wild-type 1 poliovirus in districts of Pakistan over 6-month intervals between 2010 to 2016. Read More

    Cytokine Signatures Discriminate Highly Frequent Acute Hepatitis a Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Coinfections from Monoinfections in Mexican Pediatric Patients.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Jul;36(7):689-692
    From the *Departamento de Medicina Veterinaria, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Biológicas y Agropecuarias, Universidad de Guadalajara, †Unidad de Inmunovirología, Servicio de Biología Molecular en Medicina, Hospital Civil de Guadalajara "Fray Antonio Alcalde," ‡Departamento de Fisiologia, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, §Centro de Investigación y Asistencia en Tecnología y diseño del Estado de Jalisco, A.C., Biotecnología Biomédica, ¶Servicio de Biología Molecular en Medicina, Hospital Civil of Guadalajara "Fray Antonio Alcalde," and ‖Departamento de Clínicas Médicas, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, México.
    The frequency of hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus infections and their cytokine profiles were analyzed in Mexican pediatric patients with acute hepatitis. A high frequency of coinfections was found. Significant overexpression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-12, IL-13 and interferon-gamma during hepatitis A virus monoinfections and limited secretion of cytokines in hepatitis E virus infections were observed. Read More

    Persistent coxsackievirus B4 infection induces microRNA dysregulation in human pancreatic cells.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Jun 10. Epub 2017 Jun 10.
    Univ Lille Faculté de Médecine, CHU Lille, Laboratoire de Virologie EA3610, Lille, F-59000, France.
    Enterovirus infections are implicated in the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D). MicroRNAs as regulators of gene expression are involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Given that viral infections dysregulate cellular microRNAs, we investigated the impact of persistent coxsackievirus B4 infection on microRNA expression of human pancreatic cells. Read More

    A porcine enterovirus G associated with enteric disease contains a novel papain-like cysteine protease.
    J Gen Virol 2017 Jun 8;98(6):1305-1310. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    1​Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108, USA.
    Identification of unknown pathogens in pigs displaying enteric illness is difficult due to the large diversity of bacterial and viral species found within faecal samples. Current methods often require bacterial or viral isolation, or testing only a limited number of known species using quantitative PCR analysis. Herein, faeces from two 25-day-old piglets with diarrhoea from Texas, USA, were analysed by metagenomic next-generation sequencing to rapidly identify possible pathogens. Read More

    High-Flow Nasal Cannula Utilization in Pediatric Critical Care.
    Respir Care 2017 Jun 6. Epub 2017 Jun 6.
    Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland.
    Background: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is increasingly utilized in pediatrics, delivering humidified air and oxygen for respiratory conditions causing hypoxia and distress. In the neonatal ICU, it has been associated with better tolerance, lower complications, and lower cost. Few data exist regarding indications for use and the epidemiology of disease/pathology that warrants HFNC in the pediatric ICU. Read More

    Management of Viral Central Nervous System Infections: A Primer for Clinicians.
    J Cent Nerv Syst Dis 2017 1;9:1179573517703342. Epub 2017 May 1.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA.
    Viruses are a common cause of central nervous system (CNS) infections with many host, agent, and environmental factors influencing the expression of viral diseases. Viruses can be responsible for CNS disease through a variety of mechanisms including direct infection and replication within the CNS resulting in encephalitis, infection limited to the meninges, or immune-related processes such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Common pathogens including herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster, and enterovirus are responsible for the greatest number of cases in immunocompetent hosts. Read More

    Optimized production and purification of Coxsackievirus B1 vaccine and its preclinical evaluation in a mouse model.
    Vaccine 2017 Jun 1;35(30):3718-3725. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, FI-33520 Tampere, Finland; Fimlab Laboratories, FI-33520 Tampere, Finland. Electronic address:
    Coxsackie B viruses are among the most common enteroviruses, causing a wide range of diseases. Recent studies have also suggested that they may contribute to the development of type 1 diabetes. Vaccination would provide an effective way to prevent CVB infections, and the objective of this study was to develop an efficient vaccine production protocol for the generation of novel CVB vaccines. Read More

    Severe hand, foot and mouth disease associated with Coxsackievirus A10 infections in Xiamen, China in 2015.
    J Clin Virol 2017 Aug 11;93:20-24. Epub 2017 May 11.
    National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, Xiamen University, Xiang'an Campus of Xiamen University, South Xiang'an Rd., Xiamen, China; State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, Xiamen University, Xiang'an Campus of Xiamen University, South Xiang'an Rd., Xiamen, China; School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiang'an Campus of Xiamen University, South Xiang'an Rd., Xiamen, China. Electronic address:
    Background: Coxsackievirus A10 (CV-A10) is one of the etiological agents associated with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and usually causes mild cases. During 2009-2014, no severe cases caused by CV-A10 was reported in Xiamen, China, however, an increase in cases was seen in 2015.

    Objectives: We aimed to perform a retrospective molecular epidemiological analysis of HFMD associated with CV-A10 infections in Xiamen. Read More

    Viral etiologies in adult patients with encephalitis in Poland: A prospective single center study.
    PLoS One 2017 1;12(6):e0178481. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Department of Immunopathology of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw, Poland.
    Encephalitis is a severe neurological syndrome associated with high morbidity and mortality as well as long-term neurological sequelae. Despite being an important public health problem, very few extensive population-based studies were conducted so far in the world and none in Central Europe. Altogether 114 consecutive patients meeting the initial criteria for encephalitis were enrolled at the Warsaw Hospital for Infectious Diseases between June 2012 and July 2015. Read More

    [Multicenter investigation of bufavirus in the etiology of viral central nervous system infections of adults and children].
    Mikrobiyol Bul 2017 Apr;51(2):191-194
    Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology, Ankara, Turkey.
    Bufavirus (BuV) is a newly-identified parvovirus in the family of Parvoviridae. Metagenomic analysis of fecal samples from children in Burkina Faso with acute diarrhea showed a highly divergent parvovirus, which was named bufavirus (BuV). The global distribution, epidemiology and genetic characteristics of BuVs infections are obscure. Read More

    [Evaluation of viral etiology in central nervous system infections from a university hospital point of view in Izmir based on seven years data].
    Mikrobiyol Bul 2017 Apr;51(2):127-135
    Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology, Izmir, Turkey.
    The serious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS); encephalitis and meningitis, have high mortality and morbidity rate especially not diagnosed and treated in time. Nucleic acid testing (NAT) is the tool of choice for viral diagnosis in CNS infections. In this study, viral etiological agents found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples sent to our university hospital virology laboratory for laboratory diagnosis of CNS infections were retrospectively evaluated and results were compared with other reports from our country. Read More

    Broad-spectrum inhibition of common respiratory RNA viruses by a pyrimidine synthesis inhibitor with involvement of the host antiviral response.
    J Gen Virol 2017 May 30;98(5):946-954. Epub 2017 May 30.
    1​Department of Microbiology, HKU Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, PR China 2​State Key Laboratory for Emerging Infectious Disease and the Research Centre of Infection and Immunology, HKU Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, PR China.
    Our previous screening of 50 240 structurally diverse compounds led to the identification of 39 influenza A virus infection inhibitors (Kao R.Y., Yang D. Read More

    UGGT1 enhances enterovirus 71 pathogenicity by promoting viral RNA synthesis and viral replication.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 May 17;13(5):e1006375. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
    Positive-strand RNA virus infections can induce the stress-related unfolded protein response (UPR) in host cells. This study found that enterovirus A71 (EVA71) utilizes host UDP-glucose glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 1 (UGGT1), a key endoplasmic reticulum protein (ER) involved in UPR, to enhance viral replication and virulence. EVA71 forms replication complexes (RCs) on cellular membranes that contain a mix of host and viral proteins to facilitate viral replication, but the components and processes involved in the assembly and function of RCs are not fully understood. Read More

    Virologic Monitoring of Poliovirus Type 2 after Oral Poliovirus Vaccine Type 2 Withdrawal in April 2016 - Worldwide, 2016-2017.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 May 26;66(20):538-542. Epub 2017 May 26.
    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has made substantial progress since its launch in 1988; only 37 wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were detected in 2016, the lowest annual count ever. Wild poliovirus type 3 has not been detected since November 2012, and wild poliovirus type 2 was officially declared eradicated in September 2015. This success is attributable to the wide use of live oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs). Read More

    Dynamic Interaction of Enterovirus 71 and Dendritic Cells in Infected Neonatal Rhesus Macaques.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017 10;7:171. Epub 2017 May 10.
    Yunnan Key Laboratory of Vaccine Research and Development on Severe Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical CollegeKunming, China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main pathogens responsible for hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Infection with EV71 can lead to severe clinical disease via extensive infections of either the respiratory or alimentary tracts in children. Based on the previous pathological study of EV71 infections in neonatal rhesus macaques, our work using this animal model and an EV71 chimera that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-EV71) primarily explored where EV71 localizes and proliferates, and the subsequent initiation of the pathological process. Read More

    Molecular identification of viral agents associated with acute conjunctivitis: a prospective controlled study.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Jul - Aug;21(4):391-395. Epub 2017 May 20.
    Yıldırım Beyazıt, University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Ankara, Turkey.
    Background: Viral conjunctivitis are the most frequent infections in ophthalmology clinics. The diagnosis is usually relying on clinical findings and medical history. However, topical antibiotics are often used unnecessarily addition to symptomatic treatment because of unsure agents. Read More

    Different microRNA profiles reveal the diverse outcomes induced by EV71 and CA16 infection in human umbilical vein endothelial cells using high-throughput sequencing.
    PLoS One 2017 22;12(5):e0177657. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Yunnan Key Laboratory of Vaccine Research & Development on Severe Infections Disease, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) remain the predominant pathogens in hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), but the factors underlying the pathogenesis of EV71 and CA16 infections have not been elucidated. Recently, the functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) in pathogen-host interactions have been highlighted. In the present study, we performed comprehensive miRNA profiling in EV71- and CA16-infected human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) at multiple time points using high-throughput sequencing. Read More

    [Importance of enteroviruses in neuropaediatrics: from polioviruses to other enteroviruses].
    Rev Neurol 2017 May;64(s03):S35-S38
    Instituto de Salud Carlos III , Majadahonda, Espana.
    Enteroviruses are among the most common human viruses around the world. More than 100 different serotypes that can cause a range of clinical pathologies have been identified, although the most frequent are those that affect the central nervous system, such as aseptic meningitis, encephalitis or paralysis, which in some cases can be very severe or even fatal. In recent years, enterovirus outbreaks associated to new diseases have been reported all over the world, and as a result some serotypes have been considered 'emerging' pathogens. Read More

    Surveillance for enterovirus D68 in colorado children reveals continued circulation.
    J Clin Virol 2017 Jul 11;92:39-41. Epub 2017 May 11.
    Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA; University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: The largest, most widespread outbreak of enterovirus D68 respiratory disease occurred from August to December of 2014 in the United States with 1153 confirmed infections in 49 states. The epidemiology of enterovirus D68 following the 2014 outbreak is unknown.

    Objectives: This study seeks to describe the epidemiology of enterovirus D68 circulation amongst Colorado children from 2014 to 2016. Read More

    The role of the persistent enterovirus infection in development of acute stroke.
    Wiad Lek 2017;70(2):187-191
    Introduction: The role of enteroviruses in development of dilated cardiomyopathy, myocardial infarction, myocarditis, pericarditis is known.

    The Aim: To examine the role of chronic enterovirus infections in development of acute stroke.

    Material And Methods: Blood samples from 72 patients with acute stroke (study group) and 35 patients without vascular disease (control group) were investigated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for the presence of enterovirus RNA, by using virological method to detect enteroviruses, by ELISA for the levels of IgM and IgG antibodies to enteroviruses. Read More

    Inhibition of 12/15-LO ameliorates CVB3-induced myocarditis by activating Nrf2.
    Chem Biol Interact 2017 Jun 12;272:65-71. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Henan Provincal People's Hospital, Zhengzhou 450000, China. Electronic address:
    Cardiac 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO) was reported to be markedly up-regulated and involved in the development of heart failure. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidation roles in response to oxidative stress. However, the role of 12/15-LO in viral myocarditis (VMC) and its underlying molecular mechanism have not yet been elucidated. Read More

    Nasal Infection of Enterovirus D68 Leading to Lower Respiratory Tract Pathogenesis in Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).
    Viruses 2017 May 10;9(5). Epub 2017 May 10.
    Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Kunming 650118, China.
    Data from EV-D68-infected patients demonstrate that pathological changes in the lower respiratory tract are principally characterized by severe respiratory illness in children and acute flaccid myelitis. However, lack of a suitable animal model for EV-D68 infection has limited the study on the pathogenesis of this critical pathogen, and the development of a vaccine. Ferrets have been widely used to evaluate respiratory virus infections. Read More

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