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    UGGT1 enhances enterovirus 71 pathogenicity by promoting viral RNA synthesis and viral replication.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 May 17;13(5):e1006375. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
    Positive-strand RNA virus infections can induce the stress-related unfolded protein response (UPR) in host cells. This study found that enterovirus A71 (EVA71) utilizes host UDP-glucose glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 1 (UGGT1), a key endoplasmic reticulum protein (ER) involved in UPR, to enhance viral replication and virulence. EVA71 forms replication complexes (RCs) on cellular membranes that contain a mix of host and viral proteins to facilitate viral replication, but the components and processes involved in the assembly and function of RCs are not fully understood. Read More

    Dynamic Interaction of Enterovirus 71 and Dendritic Cells in Infected Neonatal Rhesus Macaques.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017 10;7:171. Epub 2017 May 10.
    Yunnan Key Laboratory of Vaccine Research and Development on Severe Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical CollegeKunming, China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main pathogens responsible for hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Infection with EV71 can lead to severe clinical disease via extensive infections of either the respiratory or alimentary tracts in children. Based on the previous pathological study of EV71 infections in neonatal rhesus macaques, our work using this animal model and an EV71 chimera that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-EV71) primarily explored where EV71 localizes and proliferates, and the subsequent initiation of the pathological process. Read More

    Different microRNA profiles reveal the diverse outcomes induced by EV71 and CA16 infection in human umbilical vein endothelial cells using high-throughput sequencing.
    PLoS One 2017 22;12(5):e0177657. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Yunnan Key Laboratory of Vaccine Research & Development on Severe Infections Disease, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) remain the predominant pathogens in hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), but the factors underlying the pathogenesis of EV71 and CA16 infections have not been elucidated. Recently, the functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) in pathogen-host interactions have been highlighted. In the present study, we performed comprehensive miRNA profiling in EV71- and CA16-infected human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) at multiple time points using high-throughput sequencing. Read More

    [Importance of enteroviruses in neuropaediatrics: from polioviruses to other enteroviruses].
    Rev Neurol 2017 May;64(s03):S35-S38
    Instituto de Salud Carlos III , Majadahonda, Espana.
    Enteroviruses are among the most common human viruses around the world. More than 100 different serotypes that can cause a range of clinical pathologies have been identified, although the most frequent are those that affect the central nervous system, such as aseptic meningitis, encephalitis or paralysis, which in some cases can be very severe or even fatal. In recent years, enterovirus outbreaks associated to new diseases have been reported all over the world, and as a result some serotypes have been considered 'emerging' pathogens. Read More

    Surveillance for enterovirus D68 in colorado children reveals continued circulation.
    J Clin Virol 2017 May 11;92:39-41. Epub 2017 May 11.
    Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA; University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: The largest, most widespread outbreak of enterovirus D68 respiratory disease occurred from August to December of 2014 in the United States with 1153 confirmed infections in 49 states. The epidemiology of enterovirus D68 following the 2014 outbreak is unknown.

    Objectives: This study seeks to describe the epidemiology of enterovirus D68 circulation amongst Colorado children from 2014 to 2016. Read More

    The role of the persistent enterovirus infection in development of acute stroke.
    Wiad Lek 2017 ;70(2):187-191
    Introduction: The role of enteroviruses in development of dilated cardiomyopathy, myocardial infarction, myocarditis, pericarditis is known.

    The Aim: To examine the role of chronic enterovirus infections in development of acute stroke.

    Material And Methods: Blood samples from 72 patients with acute stroke (study group) and 35 patients without vascular disease (control group) were investigated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for the presence of enterovirus RNA, by using virological method to detect enteroviruses, by ELISA for the levels of IgM and IgG antibodies to enteroviruses. Read More

    Nasal Infection of Enterovirus D68 Leading to Lower Respiratory Tract Pathogenesis in Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).
    Viruses 2017 May 10;9(5). Epub 2017 May 10.
    Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Kunming 650118, China.
    Data from EV-D68-infected patients demonstrate that pathological changes in the lower respiratory tract are principally characterized by severe respiratory illness in children and acute flaccid myelitis. However, lack of a suitable animal model for EV-D68 infection has limited the study on the pathogenesis of this critical pathogen, and the development of a vaccine. Ferrets have been widely used to evaluate respiratory virus infections. Read More

    [Observation on intestinal viral shedding time of hand, foot and mouth disease induced by coxsackievirus A6].
    Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2017 May;55(5):369-372
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou Children's Hospital, Hangzhou 310014, China.
    Objective: To observe the intestinal viral shedding time in patients with hand, food and mouth disease (HFMD) induced by coxsackievirus A6 (CA6). Method: Throat swab specimens and stool specimens of HFMD children were collected from those admitted to Hangzhou Children's Hospital between May and October 2015, while fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect the viral load.Eeighteen cases of HFMD children were followed up, who were confirmed as CA6 infection via laboratory tests. Read More

    High prevalence of coxsackievirus A2 in children with herpangina in Thailand in 2015.
    Virusdisease 2017 Mar 14;28(1):111-114. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Faculty of Medicine, Center of Excellence in Clinical Virology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330 Thailand.
    Coxsackievirus (CV) is a member of the genus Enterovirus and the family Picornaviridae. CV infection can cause herpangina, a disease characterized by multiple ulcers on the tonsils and soft palate affecting mostly young children. CV strains are categorized by serotypes. Read More

    Diagnostic Practices for Suspected Community-Acquired Central Nervous System Infection in the Post-Conjugate Vaccine Era.
    Pediatr Emerg Care 2017 May 1. Epub 2017 May 1.
    From the Department of Pediatrics, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY.
    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic practices for suspected community-acquired central nervous system (CNS) infection in an urban pediatric population.

    Methods: This is an observational, retrospective single-center review of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies in children, 1 month to 21 years old, evaluated for suspected CNS infection from 2004 to 2014. Cases of suspected nosocomial meningitis were excluded. Read More

    Structure of EV71 3C(pro) in complex with NK-1.8k: Indications for the development of anti-enterovirus protease inhibitor.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2017 May 1. Epub 2017 May 1.
    College of Pharmacy & State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus is a threat to public health in worldwide. Up-to-date, enterovirus 71 (EV71) becomes one of the major causative agents of HFMD in Pacific-Asia region and causes millions of infections from its outbreak. However, no drug is currently available for clinical therapeutics. Read More

    Enterovirus 71 Suppresses Interferon Responses by Blocking JAK/STAT Signaling through Inducing Karyopherin-α1 Degradation.
    J Biol Chem 2017 Apr 28. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    University of Minnesota, United States
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as one of the most important enteroviruses since the eradication of poliovirus, and causes severe neurological symptoms for which no effective antiviral drugs are available. Type I interferons (IFN-α/β) have been used clinically as antiviral therapy as the first line of defense against virus infections successfully for decades. However, treatment with Type I interferons has not been effective in patients with EV71 infection. Read More

    A prospective, comparative study of severe neurological and uncomplicated hand, foot and mouth forms of paediatric enterovirus 71 infections.
    Int J Infect Dis 2017 Apr 22;59:69-76. Epub 2017 Apr 22.
    Virology Unit, Institut Pasteur in Cambodia, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Electronic address:
    Objectives: In this study, we document the clinical characteristics and investigated risk factors for uncomplicated and severe forms of EV-A71 disease in Cambodian children.

    Methods: From March to July 2014 inclusive, all patients with suspicion of EV-A71 infection presenting to Kantha Bopha Hospitals in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap and confirmed by the Virology Unit at the Institut Pasteur du Cambodge were prospectively enrolled in this study. Throat swabs, rectal swabs and serum samples were collected from all consecutive patients with suspected EV-A71 infection. Read More

    The clinical significance of neutrophilic pleocytosis in cerebrospinal fluid in patients with viral central nervous system infections.
    Int J Infect Dis 2017 Apr 20;59:77-81. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 6431 Fannin St., MSB 2.112, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.
    Background: Viral central nervous system (CNS) infections are typically characterized by a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocytic pleocytosis. A CSF neutrophilic pleocytosis presentation has been described, but its prognostic and clinical significance is unknown. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the clinical and laboratory characteristics of viral CNS infections with a CSF neutrophilic pleocytosis to those with a lymphocytic pleocytosis, and (2) evaluate factors associated with an adverse clinical outcome. Read More

    Antiviral activities of Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq. against enterovirus 71 in vitro and in vivo.
    Sci Rep 2017 Apr 20;7(1):935. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Healthy Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, Guishan, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
    No effective drug is currently available for treatment of enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection. Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq. (ST) has been used as a herbal constituent of traditional Chinese medicine. Read More

    Incidence of respiratory viral infections and associated factors among children attending a public kindergarten in Taipei City.
    J Formos Med Assoc 2017 Apr 15. Epub 2017 Apr 15.
    Departments of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Background: Kindergarteners frequently encounter various infectious diseases, so surveillance of viral infectious diseases would provide information for their health promotion.

    Methods: We enrolled kindergarten attendees, age 2-5 years, during the academic years of 2006 and 2007 in a Taipei City kindergarten. Daily monitoring of illness and regular biweekly physical examinations were undertaken. Read More

    Viral exanthems: An update on laboratory testing of the adult patient.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2017 Mar 26;76(3):538-550. Epub 2016 Oct 26.
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, Ohio. Electronic address:
    Although classic viral exanthems of childhood are well described, they are rarely differentiated in adults. Laboratory techniques for viral identification have advanced without substantial literature to suggest how a dermatologist ought to conduct a cost-effective and diagnostic viral panel. Certain clinical features such as petechiae, vesicles, and dusky macular or morbilliform exanthems point strongly toward a viral exanthem. Read More

    Influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates in the Dutch population from 2003 to 2014: The test-negative design case-control study with different control groups.
    Vaccine 2017 May 12;35(21):2831-2839. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    Unit of PharmacoTherapy, -Epidemiology & -Economics (PTE(2)), Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands; Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Information about influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) is important for vaccine strain selection and immunization policy decisions. The test-negative design (TND) case-control study is commonly used to obtain IVE estimates. However, the definition of the control patients may influence IVE estimates. Read More

    Pediatric Acute Flaccid Paralysis: Enterovirus D68-Associated Anterior Myelitis.
    J Emerg Med 2017 Apr 12. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Naval Medical Center, Portsmouth, Virginia.
    Background: Enteroviral infections can cause acute flaccid paralysis secondary to anterior myelitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is important in the diagnosis of this potentially devastating pediatric disease. Before the 2014 outbreak of Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68), the virus was considered a relatively benign disease. Read More

    Direct-acting antivirals and host-targeting strategies to combat enterovirus infections.
    Curr Opin Virol 2017 Apr 12;24:1-8. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    Department of Infectious Diseases & Immunology, Virology Division, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Enteroviruses (e.g., poliovirus, enterovirus-A71, coxsackievirus, enterovirus-D68, rhinovirus) include many human pathogens causative of various mild and more severe diseases, especially in young children. Read More

    Evaluation of TaqMan Array Card (TAC) for the Detection of Central Nervous System Infections in Kenya.
    J Clin Microbiol 2017 Apr 12. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    Division of Global Health Protection, CDC-Kenya.
    Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are often acute with significant morbidity and mortality. Routine diagnosis of such infections is limited in developing countries and requires modern equipment in advanced laboratories that may be unavailable to a number of patients in sub-Saharan Africa. We developed a TaqMan Array Card (TAC) that detects multiple pathogens simultaneously from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Read More

    Bacteriophages as enteric viral indicators in bivalve mollusc management.
    Food Microbiol 2017 Aug 6;65:284-293. Epub 2017 Mar 6.
    South Australian Research and Development Institute, G.P.O Box 397, Adelaide, South Australia, 5001, Australia. Electronic address:
    Human enteric viruses, such as norovirus and hepatitis A virus, are spread by a variety of routes including faecal-oral transmission. Contaminated bivalve shellfish are regularly implicated in foodborne viral disease outbreaks internationally. Traditionally indicator bacteria, the coliforms and Escherichia coli, have been used to detect faecal pollution in growing waters and shellfish. Read More

    Real-time PCR Detection of the Most Common Bacteria and Viruses Causing Meningitis.
    Clin Lab 2017 Apr;63(4):827-832
    Background: Central nervous system (CNS) infections require prompt diagnosis, as the clinical condition progresses rapidly and may lead to severe permanent sequelae or death. The causative agents include viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. In this study, samples with the diagnosis of CNS infection based on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sent to us from other hospitals/labs, were studied by multiplex real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. Read More

    Impact of genetic changes, pathogenicity and antigenicity on Enterovirus- A71 vaccine development.
    Virology 2017 Jun 4;506:121-129. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    Research Centre for Biomedical Sciences, Sunway University, Bandar Sunway, Kuala Lumpur, Selangor 47500, Malaysia. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus-A71 (EV-A71) is an etiological agent of the hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). EV-A71 infection produces high fever and ulcers in children. Some EV-A71 strains produce severe infections leading to pulmonary edema and death. Read More

    Surveillance Systems to Track Progress Toward Polio Eradication - Worldwide, 2015-2016.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Apr 7;66(13):359-365. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Global measures to eradicate polio began in 1988; as of 2014, four of six World Health Organization (WHO) regions have been certified polio-free. Within the two endemic regions (African and Eastern Mediterranean), Nigeria, Afghanistan, and Pakistan have never interrupted transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) (1). The primary means of detecting poliovirus transmission is surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) among children aged <15 years, combined with collection and testing of stool specimens from persons with AFP for detection of WPV and vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) (viruses that differ genetically from vaccine viruses and can emerge in areas with low vaccination coverage and cause paralysis) in WHO-accredited laboratories within the Global Polio Laboratory Network (2,3). Read More

    Rule-Out Outbreak: 24-Hour Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing for Characterizing Respiratory Virus Source for Infection Prevention.
    J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2017 Jun;6(2):168-172
    Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington ; and.
    Background.: Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) has been used to uncover unusual causes of infectious diseases but has not been used routinely for the investigation of putative nosocomial outbreaks. Here, we describe the use of mNGS during investigation of a cluster of human rhinovirus (HRV)-positive infections on a high-risk pulmonary ward. Read More

    A novel enterovirus species identified from severe diarrheal goats.
    PLoS One 2017 4;12(4):e0174600. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China.
    Backgrounds: The Enterovirus genus of the family of Picornaviridae consists of 9 species of Enteroviruses and 3 species of Rhinoviruses based on the latest virus taxonomy. Those viruses contribute significantly to respiratory and digestive disorders in human and animals. Out of 9 Enterovirus species, Enterovirus E-G are closely related to diseases affecting on livestock industry. Read More

    [Enterovirus infection during pregnancy: Underestimated cause of fetal and neonatal complications?]
    Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol 2017 Apr 31;45(4):231-237. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Department of obstetrics and gynecology, hôpital Foch, 92120 Suresnes, France; EA2493, UFR des sciences de la santé Simone-Veil, université Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, 78180 Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France.
    Enteroviruses are responsible for about one billion infections every year in the world. The clinical expression is in the vast majority asymptomatic cases (90%). Its consequences during pregnancy are rarely described. Read More

    The emergence of enterovirus D68 in England in autumn 2014 and the necessity for reinforcing enterovirus respiratory screening.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 Apr 3:1-10. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    Public Health England (PHE),London,UK.
    In autumn 2014, enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) cases presenting with severe respiratory or neurological disease were described in countries worldwide. To describe the epidemiology and virological characteristics of EV-D68 in England, we collected clinical information on laboratory-confirmed EV-D68 cases detected in secondary care (hospitals), between September 2014 and January 2015. In primary care (general practitioners), respiratory swabs collected (September 2013-January 2015) from patients presenting with influenza-like illness were tested for EV-D68. Read More

    [Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of infants admitted to hospital due to human parechovirus infections: A prospective study in Spain].
    An Pediatr (Barc) 2017 Mar 29. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Unidad de Enterovirus, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid, España; Red de Investigación Traslacional en Infectología Pediátrica (RITIP).
    Introduction: Human parechovirus (HPeV) is one of the recently described picornaviridae viruses that have been associated with fever of unknown origin (FUO), clinical sepsis, gastroenteritis, meningitis, or encephalitis in very young infants. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of these viruses.

    Patients And Methods: A prospective multicentre 3-year study was conducted in 12 hospitals in Spain. Read More

    Increased Risk of Tics in Children Infected with Enterovirus: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.
    J Dev Behav Pediatr 2017 May;38(4):276-282
    *Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, E-Da Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; †School of Medicine, College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; ‡Management Office for Health Data, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; §College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; ‖Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, China Medical University & Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; ¶Department of Biological Science and Technology, Meiho University, Pingtung, Taiwan; **Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science and School of Medicine, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; ††Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; ‡‡Department of Bioinformatics and Medical Engineering, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan.
    Objective: Both tics and enterovirus (EV) infections are common in children. The association between EV infections and tics has been seldom evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of diagnosed tics after EV infections in children. Read More

    Berberine Restricts Coxsackievirus B Type 3 Replication via Inhibition of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK Activation In Vitro.
    Med Sci Monit 2017 Mar 25;23:1448-1455. Epub 2017 Mar 25.
    Central Laboratory, Xinqiao Hospital, 3rd Military Medical University, Chongqing, China (mainland).
    BACKGROUND At present, the treatment of coxsackievirus-induced myocarditis remains difficult. Berberine (BBR), an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from traditional medicine herbs, exhibits significant anti-viral efficacy against various viruses. However, the underlying mechanism by which BBR controls CVB3 infection has not yet been reported. Read More

    Epidemiology of infectious encephalitis causes in 2016.
    Med Mal Infect 2017 May 22;47(3):221-235. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Direction des maladies infectieuses, santé publique France - "European Study Group for the Infections of the Brain (ESGIB)", 94410 Saint-Maurice, France.
    We performed a literature search in the Medline database, using the PubMed website. The incidence of presumably infectious encephalitis is estimated at 1.5-7 cases/100,000 inhabitants/year, excluding epidemics. Read More

    Serum IFN-γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10) as a biomarker for severity of acute respiratory infection in healthy adults.
    J Clin Virol 2017 May 16;90:32-37. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Department of Family Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, United States.
    Background: The inflammatory chemokine, interferon-gamma inducible protein of 10kDa (IP-10), is a biomarker associated with several conditions.

    Objectives: This study investigated serum concentrations of IP-10 in healthy individuals who developed acute respiratory infection (ARI). The hypothesis is that serum IP-10 concentrations correlate with ARI severity and detection of viral pathogens. Read More

    Herpes simplex virus-1 and cytomegalovirus DNAs detection in the inner ear of implanted patients with non-congenital infection.
    Acta Otolaryngol 2017 Mar 23:1-6. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    a Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Institute of Otorhinolaryngology , Catholic University of Sacred Heart , Rome , Italy.
    Conclusions: The detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) genome in perilymph of patients with negative serology or clinical history for congenital infections supports the hypothesis that Herpesviridae, even after acquired postnatal infections, could remain in latent phase in the spiral ganglion and damage the cochlea by a possible subsequent reactivation. Further studies are needed to identify the markers of such reactivation.

    Objective: To identify the presence of certain viral species in the endolabyrinthic fluid of deaf patients with non-congenital infection. Read More

    Etiological agents of viral meningitis in children from a dengue-endemic area, Southeast region of Brazil.
    J Neurol Sci 2017 Apr 16;375:390-394. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Departamento de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Meningitis is a disease with a global distribution that constitutes a worldwide burden, with viruses as the primary etiologic agents. The range of viral meningitis severity depends mainly on age, immune status and etiological agent. The aim of this work was to investigate the suspected cases of viral meningitis using molecular techniques to confirm the viral infection. Read More

    Best practices to prevent transmission and control outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease in childcare facilities: a systematic review.
    Hong Kong Med J 2017 Apr 17;23(2):177-90. Epub 2017 Mar 17.
    Communicable Diseases Policy Research Group, Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Bangkok Office, Thailand.
    Introduction: Hand, foot, and mouth disease continues to cause seasonal epidemics in the Asia-Pacific Region. Since the current Enterovirus 71 vaccines do not provide cross-protection for all Enterovirus species that cause hand, foot, and mouth disease, there is an urgent need to identify appropriate detection tools and best practice to prevent its transmission and to effectively control its outbreaks. This systematic review aimed to identify characteristics of outbreak and assess the impact and effectiveness of detection tools and public health preventive measures to interrupt transmission. Read More

    [Acute myelitis and viral hepatitis: about a case].
    Pan Afr Med J 2016 4;25:71. Epub 2016 Oct 4.
    Service de Neurologie, Hôpital Militaire d'Instruction Mohamed V, Rabat, Maroc.
    Hepatitis A virus can manifest with severe and unusual neurological attack. We report the case of a 59-year old man with balance disorder associated with lower limb paresthesias and sphincter disorders. Spinal MRI was in favor of acute myelitis. Read More

    Antiviral activity of cationic amphiphilic drugs.
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2017 May 20;15(5):483-492. Epub 2017 Mar 20.
    a Department of Molecular Medicine , University of Padova , Padova , Italy.
    Introduction: Emerging and reemerging viral infections represent a major concern for human and veterinary public health and there is an urgent need for the development of broad-spectrum antivirals. Areas covered: A recent strategy in antiviral research is based on the identification of molecules targeting host functions required for infection of multiple viruses. A number of FDA-approved drugs used to treat several human diseases are cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) that have the ability to accumulate inside cells affecting several structures/functions hijacked by viruses during infection. Read More

    Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance inaugural annual report, 2014.
    Commun Dis Intell Q Rep 2016 Sep 30;40(3):E391-E400. Epub 2016 Sep 30.
    Deputy Director, National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance of Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Kids Research Institute, The Children's Hospital at Westmead; New South Wales.
    Introduction: The Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network is a hospital-based active surveillance system employing prospective case ascertainment of selected uncommon vaccine preventable diseases and potential adverse events following immunisation (AEFI). PAEDS enhances other Australian surveillance systems by providing prospective detailed clinical and laboratory data for the same child.

    Methods: Specialist surveillance nurses screen hospital admissions, emergency department records, laboratory and other data, to prospectively identify hospitalised children aged under 15 years in 5 paediatric tertiary referral hospitals in New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia and Queensland. Read More

    Enhancing enterovirus A71 vaccine production yield by microcarrier profusion bioreactor culture.
    Vaccine 2017 Mar 6. Epub 2017 Mar 6.
    National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan Town, Miaoli County, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Immunology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.
    Hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) are mainly caused by Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) infections. Clinical trials in Asia conducted with formalin-inactivated EV-A71 vaccine candidates produced from serum-free Vero cell culture using either roller bottle or cell factory technology, are found to be safe and highly efficacious. To increase vaccine yields and reduce the production costs, the bioprocess improvement for EV-A71 vaccine manufacturing is currently being investigated. Read More

    In vivo T2* weighted MRI visualizes cardiac lesions in murine models of acute and chronic viral myocarditis.
    PLoS One 2017 6;12(3):e0172084. Epub 2017 Mar 6.
    Department of Molecular Pathology, Institute for Pathology and Neuropathology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany.
    Objective: Acute and chronic forms of myocarditis are mainly induced by virus infections. As a consequence of myocardial damage and inflammation dilated cardiomyopathy and chronic heart failure may develop. The gold standard for the diagnosis of myocarditis is endomyocardial biopsies which are required to determine the etiopathogenesis of cardiac inflammatory processes. Read More

    Response to a Large Polio Outbreak in a Setting of Conflict - Middle East, 2013-2015.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Mar 3;66(8):227-231. Epub 2017 Mar 3.
    As the world advances toward the eradication of polio, outbreaks of wild poliovirus (WPV) in polio-free regions pose a substantial risk to the timeline for global eradication. Countries and regions experiencing active conflict, chronic insecurity, and large-scale displacement of persons are particularly vulnerable to outbreaks because of the disruption of health care and immunization services (1). A polio outbreak occurred in the Middle East, beginning in Syria in 2013 with subsequent spread to Iraq (2). Read More

    Enterovirus D68-Associated Community-Acquired Pneumonia in the Pediatric Age Group.
    Curr Infect Dis Rep 2017 Mar;19(3):12
    Pediatric Highly Intensive Care Unit, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.
    Purpose Of Review: This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the role of Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children.

    Recent Findings: EV-D68 is an emergent viral pathogen. Since its first isolation in 1962 in California in four children suffering from CAP and bronchiolitis, EV-D68 has been rarely detected from respiratory specimens. Read More

    A Neonatal Murine Model of Coxsackievirus A6 Infection for Evaluation of Antiviral and Vaccine Efficacy.
    J Virol 2017 May 13;91(9). Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Institute of Pathogen Biology, Taishan Medical College, Taian, Shandong, China
    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a global health concern. Family Picornaviridae members, particularly enterovirus A71 (EVA71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), are the primary etiological agents of HFMD; however, a third enterovirus A species, CVA6, has been recently associated with epidemic outbreaks. Study of the pathogenesis of CVA6 infection and development of antivirals and vaccines are hindered by a lack of appropriate animal models. Read More

    Serosurveillance of hepatitis A in a region which adopted the universal mass vaccination.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Mar;96(9):e5884
    Department of Biomedical Science and Human Oncology, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.
    Hepatitis A is a common infectious disease worldwide that was endemic in many regions of Southern Italy, such as Apulia region. After a large hepatitis A outbreak occurred between 1996 and 1997, in Apulia an active-free immunization program that was targeted to new-borns and adolescents was started. The aim of this study is to investigate the hepatitis A seroprevalence in the adult Apulian population 18 years after the immunization program introduction, in order to evaluate the risk of new epidemics onset. Read More

    MicroRNA-20b suppresses the expression of ZFP-148 in viral myocarditis.
    Mol Cell Biochem 2017 May 28;429(1-2):199-210. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    Department of Forensic Medicine, Soochow University, Suzhou Dushuhu High Educational Town, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215123, People's Republic of China.
    Viral myocarditis is a common cardiovascular disease, which seriously endangers the health of people and even leads to sudden unexpected death. MicroRNAs play very important roles in various physical and pathological processes including cardiogenesis and heart diseases. In recent years, miR-20b has been implicated in various diseases such as breast cancer, gastric cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases. Read More

    A retrospective study of viral central nervous system infections: relationship amongst aetiology, clinical course and outcome.
    Infection 2017 Apr 24;45(2):227-231. Epub 2017 Feb 24.
    Infectious and Tropical Diseases Unit, Amedeo di Savoia Hospital, Corso Svizzera 164, Turin, Italy.
    Purpose: To describe the clinical pattern of viral central nervous system (CNS) infections and compare meningitis and encephalitis.

    Methods: This is a retrospective study reporting the clinical characteristics and outcome of 138 cases of viral meningitis and meningoencephalitis in a real life experience at a referral centre in Turin, Northern Italy.

    Results: Enteroviruses were predominant in younger patients who were mainly presenting with signs of meningitis, had shorter hospital admission and absence of complications, whereas herpesviruses had more often signs of encephalitis, were more frequent in elderly patients, had longer hospital admission and frequent complications and sequelae. Read More

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