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    Identification and production of mouse scFv to specific epitope of enterovirus-71 virion protein-2 (VP2).
    Arch Virol 2018 Jan 22. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Center of Research Excellence on Therapeutic Proteins and Antibody Engineering, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Enterovirus-71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus-A16 (CA16) frequently cause hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics among infants and young children. CA16 infections are usually mild, while EV71 disease may be fatal due to neurologic complications. As such, the ability to rapidly and specifically recognize EV71 is needed to facilitate proper case management and epidemic control. Read More

    VPg unlinkase/TDP2 in cardiovirus infected cells: Re-localization and proteolytic cleavage.
    Virology 2018 Jan 16;516:139-146. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA. Electronic address:
    Cardioviruses cause diseases in many animals including, in rare cases, humans. Although they share common features with all picornaviruses, cardioviruses have unique properties that distinguish them from other family members, including enteroviruses. One feature shared by all picornaviruses is the covalent attachment of VPg to the 5' end of genomic RNA via a phosphotyrosyl linkage. Read More

    Lethal Respiratory Disease Associated with Human Rhinovirus C in Wild Chimpanzees, Uganda, 2013.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Feb;24(2):267-274
    We describe a lethal respiratory outbreak among wild chimpanzees in Uganda in 2013 for which molecular and epidemiologic analyses implicate human rhinovirus C as the cause. Postmortem samples from an infant chimpanzee yielded near-complete genome sequences throughout the respiratory tract; other pathogens were absent. Epidemiologic modeling estimated the basic reproductive number (R0) for the epidemic as 1. Read More

    Mass-spectrometric profiling of cerebrospinal fluid reveals metabolite biomarkers for CNS involvement in varicella zoster virus reactivation.
    J Neuroinflammation 2018 Jan 17;15(1):20. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    TWINCORE Centre for Experimental and Clinical Infection Research GmbH, Feodor-Lynen-Str. 7, 30625, Hannover, Germany.
    Background: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation spans the spectrum from uncomplicated segmental herpes zoster to life-threatening disseminated CNS infection. Moreover, in the absence of a small animal model for this human pathogen, studies of pathogenesis at the organismal level depend on analysis of human biosamples. Changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolites may reflect critical aspects of host responses and end-organ damage in neuroinfection and neuroinflammation. Read More

    The rapid diagnosis of viral respiratory tract infections and its impact on antimicrobial stewardship programs.
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Jan 13. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Clinical Microbiology Department, Koç University, School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.
    We aimed to describe the potential benefit of new rapid molecular respiratory tests (MRT) in decreasing inappropriate antibiotic use among the inpatients presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI). We included patients from inpatient and outpatient departments who had ILI and performed MRT between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2016 in a 265-bed private hospital in Istanbul. At the end of 2015, we implemented antimicrobial stewardship including systematic use of MRT. Read More

    Reduction in Rate of Nosocomial Respiratory Virus Infections in a Children's Hospital Associated With Enhanced Isolation Precautions.
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018 Jan 14:1-5. Epub 2018 Jan 14.
    3Division of Infection Control and Prevention,Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York of Northwell Health,New Hyde Park,New York.
    OBJECTIVE To determine whether the use of enhanced isolation precautions (droplet and contact precautions) for inpatients with respiratory tract viral infections is associated with a reduction in rate of nosocomial viral respiratory infections. DESIGN Quasi-experimental study with the rate of nosocomial respiratory virus infection as the primary dependent variable and rate of nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection as a nonequivalent dependent variable comparator. SETTING Cohen Children's Medical Center of NY, a tertiary-care children's hospital attached to a large general hospital. Read More

    Persistent mammalian orthoreovirus, coxsackievirus and adenovirus co-infection in a child with a primary immunodeficiency detected by metagenomic sequencing: a case report.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jan 11;18(1):33. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Institute of Medical Virology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Background: We report a rare case of Mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV) infection in a child with a primary immunodeficiency (PID). Infections with Mammalian orthoreovirus are very rare and probably of zoonotic origin. Only a few cases have been described so far, including one with similar pathogenesis as in our case. Read More

    Serological survey of neutralizing antibodies to eight major enteroviruses among healthy population.
    Emerg Microbes Infect 2018 Jan 10;7(1). Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, School of Life Sciences, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361102, China.
    Human enteroviruses (EVs) are the most common causative agents infecting human, causing many harmful diseases, such as hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), herpangina (HA), myocarditis, encephalitis, and aseptic meningitis. EV-related diseases pose a serious worldwide threat to public health. To gain comprehensive insight into the seroepidemiology of major prevalent EVs in humans, we firstly performed a serological survey for neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), Coxsackie virus A16 (CV-A16), Coxsackie virus A6 (CV-A6), Coxsackie virus A10 (CV-A10), Coxsackie virus B3 (CV-B3), Coxsackie virus B5 (CV-B5), Echovirus 25 (ECHO25), and Echovirus 30 (ECHO30) among the healthy population in Xiamen City in 2016, using micro-neutralization assay. Read More

    Enterovirus D68 virus-like particles expressed in Pichia pastoris potently induce neutralizing antibody responses and confer protection against lethal viral infection in mice.
    Emerg Microbes Infect 2018 Jan 10;7(1). Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Joint Center for Infection and Immunity, Guangzhou Institute of Pediatrics, Department of Gastroenterology, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, 510623, Guangzhou, China.
    Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been increasingly associated with severe respiratory illness and neurological complications in children worldwide. However, no vaccine is currently available to prevent EV-D68 infection. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of developing a virus-like particle (VLP)-based EV-D68 vaccine. Read More

    Enteroviral Encephalitis in a Child With CNS Relapse of Burkitt Leukemia Treated With Rituximab.
    J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2018 Jan 8. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    Birmingham Children's Hospital, Steelhouse Lane, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    A boy with central nervous system relapse of Burkitt leukemia developed fever and neurological symptoms and cognitive impairment. He had received multi-drug chemotherapy including rituximab. Enterovirus (EV) was detected in cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction, and magnetic resonance imaging findings were consistent with viral infection. Read More

    Enhanced human enterovirus 71 infection by endocytosis inhibitors reveals multiple entry pathways by enterovirus causing hand-foot-and-mouth diseases.
    Virol J 2018 Jan 3;15(1). Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Background: Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) was previously known to enter cells through clathrin or caveolar mediated endocytic pathways. However, we observed chlorpromazine (CPZ) or dynasore (DNS), which inhibit clathrin and dynamin mediated endocytosis, did not suppress EV71 cell entry in particular cell types. So the current knowledge of entry mechanisms by EV71 is not complete. Read More

    Rotavirus Infection as a Frequent Cause of Neonatal Fever.
    Pediatr Int 2017 Dec 31. Epub 2017 Dec 31.
    Departments of Pediatrics, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Background: Fever rather than diarrhea or vomiting was the most common symptom of neonatal rotavirus(RV) infection in our previous study. We investigated if RV infection is a major cause of neonatal fever and we compared the clinical characteristics of bacterial infections, viral infections and unknown causes of neonatal fever.

    Method: We reviewed the electronic medical records of 48 newborns of ≤ 28 days who were admitted to the Special Care Nursery of Hanyang University Guri Hospital for fever (≥ 38°C) from 2005 to 2009. Read More

    Epidemiological study of people living in rural North Carolina for novel respiratory viruses.
    Zoonoses Public Health 2018 Feb 19;65(1):e265-e269. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Global Health Research Center, Duke Kunshan University, Kunshan, Jiangsu, China.
    During the last 10 years, scientists have grown increasingly aware that emerging respiratory viruses are often zoonotic in their origin. These infections can originate from or be amplified in livestock. Less commonly recognized are instances when humans have transmitted their respiratory pathogens to animals (reverse zoonoses). Read More

    Coxsackievirus-Induced Proteomic Alterations in Primary Human Islets Provide Insights for the Etiology of Diabetes.
    J Endocr Soc 2017 Oct 11;1(10):1272-1286. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Department of Internal Medicine and Strelitz Diabetes Center, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia 23501.
    Enteroviral infections have been associated with the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D), a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Cultured human islets, including the insulin-producing beta cells, can be infected with coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4) and thus are useful for understanding cellular responses to infection. We performed quantitative mass spectrometry analysis on cultured primary human islets infected with CVB4 to identify molecules and pathways altered upon infection. Read More

    RSAD2 and AIM2 modulate CV-A16 and EV-A71 replication in neuronal cells in different ways that may be associated with their 5' non-translated regions.
    J Virol 2017 Dec 20. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Departments of Pathology and Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) are closely related enteroviruses that cause the same hand, foot and mouth disease but neurological complications occur only very rarely in CV-A16 compared to EV-A71 infections. To elucidate host responses that may be able to explain these differences, we performed transcriptomic analysis and qRT-PCR in CV-A16 infected neuroblastoma cells (SK-N-SH) which showed that the radical s-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2 (RSAD2) was the highest up-regulated gene in the anti-microbial pathway. Increased RSAD2 expression was correlated with reduced viral replication while RSAD2 knockdown cells were correlated with increased replication. Read More

    Risk factors for death in children with critical and severe hand-foot-and-mouth disease in Chongqing, China: An observational study.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Dec;96(49):e8934
    Infection Department of the Children's Hospital, The Pediatrics Institution of Chongqing Medical University, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing, The Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, P.R. China.
    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood infection that may lead to serious complications and even death. Globally, epidemics of HFMD are increasing each year, especially in China. This study aimed to identify risk factors for death in children with critical and severe HFMD in Chongqing, China. Read More

    Introduction of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine and Impact on Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis - Beijing, China, 2014-2016.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Dec 15;66(49):1357-1361. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    When included in a sequential polio vaccination schedule, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) reduces the risk for vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP), a rare adverse event associated with receipt of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). During January 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended introduction of at least 1 IPV dose into routine immunization schedules in OPV-using countries (1). The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 recommended completion of IPV introduction in 2015 and globally synchronized withdrawal of OPV type 2 in 2016 (2). Read More

    Immunopathogenesis and Virus-Host Interactions of Enterovirus 71 in Patients with Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease.
    Front Microbiol 2017 28;8:2249. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a global infectious disease that affects millions of people. The virus is the main etiological agent for hand, foot, and mouth disease with outbreaks and epidemics being reported globally. Infection can cause severe neurological, cardiac, and respiratory problems in children under the age of 5. Read More

    Cleavage of osmosensitive transcriptional factor NFAT5 by Coxsackieviral protease 2A promotes viral replication.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Dec 8;13(12):e1006744. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5)/Tonicity enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) is a transcription factor induced by hypertonic stress in the kidney. However, the function of NFAT5 in other organs has rarely been studied, even though it is ubiquitously expressed. Indeed, although NFAT5 was reported to be critical for heart development and function, its role in infectious heart diseases has remained obscure. Read More

    Epidemiological and genetic characteristics of EV71 in hand, foot, and mouth disease in Guangxi, southern China, from 2010 to 2015.
    PLoS One 2017 7;12(12):e0188640. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Institute of Acute Infectious Diseases Control and Prevention, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Nanning, Guangxi, China.
    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a significant public health challenge in China. Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is regarded as the predominant causative pathogen of HFMD. Since 2015, two inactivated EV71 vaccines have been approved in mainland China, and because their use could change the HFMD pathogen spectrum, this should now be monitored. Read More

    Etiology of respiratory tract infections in the community and clinic in Ilorin, Nigeria.
    BMC Res Notes 2017 Dec 7;10(1):712. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Computer Science & Engineering and College of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY, USA.
    Objective: Recognizing increasing interest in community disease surveillance globally, the goal of this study was to investigate whether respiratory viruses circulating in the community may be represented through clinical (hospital) surveillance in Nigeria.

    Results: Children were selected via convenience sampling from communities and a tertiary care center (n = 91) during spring 2017 in Ilorin, Nigeria. Nasal swabs were collected and tested using polymerase chain reaction. Read More

    Sibling visitations and viral infections in the neonatal intensive care unit.
    Pediatr Int 2017 Dec 5. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center.
    Background: Sibling visitations to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are a part of family-centered care, which is now being increasingly endorsed as a positive development in patient care. However, sibling visitations pose a risk of viral infections such that many NICUs in Japan impose strict limits on the practice. The aim of our study was to assess whether sibling visitations to the NICU are related to an increase in the nosocomial viral infection rate. Read More

    Prevalence and characteristics of human parechovirus and enterovirus infections in febrile infants.
    Pediatr Int 2017 Dec 5. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Women's Medical University Yachiyo Medical Center, 477-96, Owada shinden, Yachiyo, Chiba, 276-0046, Japan.
    Background: Human parechovirus (HPeV) and human non-polio enterovirus (EV) are important causes of fever without sources (FWS) in young infants. Their prevalence and clinical characteristics are largely unknown in Asian countries. This study was conducted to elucidate the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of HPeV and EV infections in febrile young infants in Japan. Read More

    Fractional-Dose Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine Campaign - Sindh Province, Pakistan, 2016.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Dec 1;66(47):1295-1299. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Following the declaration of eradication of wild poliovirus (WPV) type 2 in September 2015, trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) was withdrawn globally to reduce the risk for type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV2) transmission; all countries implemented a synchronized switch to bivalent OPV (type 1 and 3) in April 2016 (1,2). Any isolation of VDPV2 after the switch is to be treated as a potential public health emergency and might indicate the need for supplementary immunization activities (3,4). On August 9, 2016, VDPV2 was isolated from a sewage sample taken from an environmental surveillance site in Hyderabad, Sindh province, Pakistan. Read More

    Concurrent Community Transmission of Enterovirus D68 with Human Rhinoviruses and Respiratory Syncytial Virus among Children in Sendai, Japan.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Nov 17. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Department of Pediatrics, Sendai Medical Center, Sendai, Japan.
    Background: In the autumn of 2015, we experienced a surge in the number of pediatric cases of wheeze in our hospital, which was suspected to be caused by enterovirus (EV)-D68 transmission in the community. Thus, we implemented an ad hoc retrospective surveillance for EV-D68.

    Methods: Patients aged < 15 years old with acute respiratory infection were eligible for inclusion in this study. Read More

    How viruses infiltrate the central nervous system.
    Acta Virol 2017 ;61(4):393-400
    Central nervous system is protected by the blood-brain barrier, which represents a physical, metabolic and transport barrier and is considered to be a part of a highly dynamic system termed neurovascular unit. Several pathogens, among them viruses, are able to invade the brain. Traversal of viruses across the blood-brain barrier is an essential step for the invasion of the central nervous system and can occur by different mechanisms - by paracellular, transcellular and/or by "Trojan horse" pathway. Read More

    Ultrasound indications for maternal STORCH testing in pregnancy.
    Swiss Med Wkly 2017 Nov 29;147:w14534. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    Department of Obstetrics, University Hospital Basel, Switzerland.
    Aims Of The Study: Fetal abnormalities found on ultrasonography lead to a variety of diagnostic procedures, including a panel of serologies to detect possible maternal STORCH infections encompassing syphilis, Toxoplasma gondii, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, and others (human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C, parvovirus B19, enterovirus, varicella zoster, and Leptospira interrogans). The value of indiscriminate testing for infections upon the detection of fetal ultrasound abnormalities has been questioned. The aim of this study was to review the ultrasonographic abnormalities leading to maternal STORCH panels at the obstetrics department of a university hospital. Read More

    Hsc70 regulates the IRES activity and serves as an antiviral target of enterovirus A71 infection.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 24;150:39-46. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; Biotechnology and Health Center, CityU Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is a small positive-stranded RNA virus that causes human hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and fatal neurological disorders in some cases without effective treatment. Here we show that heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70), a molecular chaperone, displays pivotal role in viral infections. Knockdown of Hsc70 significantly suppresses viral replication evidenced by reducing not only the level of both viral replication intermediates (negative stranded RNA) and viral genomic RNA (positive stranded RNA), but also the level of viral protein expression; whereas ectopic expression of Hsc70 markedly promotes viral replication. Read More

    [Detection of herpes virus and human enterovirus in pathology samples using low-density arrays].
    Rev Esp Patol 2017 Jan - Mar;50(1):8-14. Epub 2016 Aug 6.
    Servicio de Anatomía Patológica, Complejo Asistencial de Salamanca, Salamanca, España.
    Despite the frequency of infections with herpesviridae family, only eight subtypes affect humans (Herpex Simplex Virus types 1 and 2, Varicella Zoster Virus, Epstein-Barr Virus, Citomegalovirus and Human Herpes Virus types 6, 7 and 8). Amongst enteroviruses infections, the most important are Poliovirus, Coxackievirus and Echovirus. Symptoms can vary from mild to severe and early diagnosis is of upmost importance. Read More

    The role of enterovirus infections in type 1 diabetes in Tunisia.
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2017 Nov;30(12):1245-1250
    Background: Enteroviral infections have long been suspected in having a role in β cell destruction and therefore leading to the onset of clinical type 1 diabetes (T1D). The frequency of enterovirus (EV)-related T1D in North Africa is still unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between infection with EV and T1D in Tunisia. Read More

    Nonstructural protein 2A modulates replication and virulence of enterovirus 71.
    Virus Res 2017 Nov 21;244:262-269. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan, 250012 Shandong Province, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) can cause hand, foot, and mouth disease in children, and severe infections can induce neurological complications and even death. However, the pathogenesis of EV71 remains unknown. The 2A proteinase (2Apro) of EV71 plays an important role in segmenting the precursor polyprotein during viral replication, inhibiting host protein synthesis, and evading innate immunity. Read More

    Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication - Pakistan, January 2016-September 2017.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Nov 24;66(46):1276-1280. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    In 1988, the World Health Assembly launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Among the three wild poliovirus serotypes, only wild poliovirus (WPV) type 1 (WPV1) has been detected since 2012. Since 2014, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria remain the only countries with continuing endemic WPV1 transmission. Read More

    Prevention and treatment of respiratory viral infections: Presentations on antivirals, traditional therapies and host-directed interventions at the 5th ISIRV Antiviral Group conference.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jan 21;149:118-142. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Canada.
    The International Society for Influenza and other Respiratory Virus Diseases held its 5th Antiviral Group (isirv-AVG) Conference in Shanghai, China, in conjunction with the Shanghai Public Health Center and Fudan University from 14-16 June 2017. The three-day programme encompassed presentations on some of the clinical features, management, immune responses and virology of respiratory infections, including influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H7N9) viruses, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, adenovirus Type 80, enterovirus D68, metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Updates were presented on several therapeutics currently in clinical trials, including influenza polymerase inhibitors pimodivir/JNJ6362387, S033188, favipiravir, monoclonal antibodies MHAA45449A and VIS410, and host directed strategies for influenza including nitazoxanide, and polymerase ALS-008112 and fusion inhibitors AK0529, GS-5806 for RSV. Read More

    Pathogenic Role of the Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns S100A8 and S100A9 in Coxsackievirus B3-Induced Myocarditis.
    Circ Heart Fail 2017 Nov;10(11)
    From the Department of Cardiology and Pneumology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Germany (I.M., K.P., K.M., B.P., U.K., S.V.L., C.T., K.S.); Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies, Charité, University Medicine Berlin, Campus Virchow, Germany (I.M., K.P., K.M., K.S., S.V.L., C.T.); DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Berlin (I.M., K.P., B.P., S.V.L., C.T.); Department of Immunology, University of Münster, Germany (T.V.); Inherited Cardiovascular Diseases Unit, Barts Health NHS Trust, Barts Heart Centre, London, United Kingdom (K.S.); William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University London, United Kingdom (K.S.); Department of Internal Medicine III, Center for Molecular and Translational Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, Germany (D.R., P.M.); DZHK, (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Heidelberg/Mannheim, Germany (P.M.); Institut Kardiale Diagnostik und Therapie (IKDT), Berlin, Germany (D.L.); and Department of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin (DHZB), Germany (B.P.).
    Background: The alarmins S100A8 and S100A9 are damage-associated molecular patterns, which play a pivotal role in cardiovascular diseases, inflammation, and viral infections. We aimed to investigate their role in Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis.

    Methods And Results: S100A8 and S100A9 mRNA expression was 13. Read More

    Superoxide Production by NADPH Oxidase Intensifies Macrophage Antiviral Responses during Diabetogenic Coxsackievirus Infection.
    J Immunol 2018 Jan 20;200(1):61-70. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Comprehensive Diabetes Center, Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL 35294-2182
    Coxsackievirus B infections are suspected environmental triggers of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and macrophage antiviral responses may provide a link to virus-induced T1D. We previously demonstrated an important role for NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived superoxide production during T1D pathogenesis, as NOX-deficient NOD mice (NOD.Ncf1m1J ) were protected against T1D due, in part, to impaired proinflammatory TLR signaling in NOD. Read More

    [Fatal case of enterovirus A71 hand, foot, and mouth disease infection].
    Arch Pediatr 2017 Dec 20;24(12):1253-1258. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    CHU Clermont-Ferrand, CNR des entérovirus et parechovirus (laboratoire associé), 58, rue Montalembert, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France; Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, LMGE, équipe épidémiologie et physiopathologie des infections à entérovirus, place Henri-Dunant, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France. Electronic address:
    Hand, foot, and mouth disease associated with enterovirus (EV) infections is a common pediatric pathology that is usually considered as benign. However, neurological complications of varying severity, sometimes fatal, are possible, particularly when EV-A71 is involved. Several Asian countries are regularly affected by large-scale epidemics of EV infections with substantial morbidity and mortality, where early screening and appropriate therapeutic management are a public health challenge. Read More

    [Genotypes of rhinoviruses in children and adults patients with acute respiratory tract infections].
    Mikrobiyol Bul 2017 Oct;51(4):350-360
    Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biostatistics, Aydın, Turkey.
    Rhinovirus (RV) is one of the most frequent causative agent of acute respiratory tract infections in the world. The virus may cause a mild cold, as well as more serious clinical symptoms in patients with immune system deficiency or comorbidities. Rhinoviruses have been identified by molecular methods under three types: RV-A, RV-B and RV-C. Read More

    Reverse Less Invasive Stabilization System (LISS) Plating for Proximal Femur Fractures in Poliomyelitis Survivors: A Report of Two Cases.
    Am J Case Rep 2017 Nov 15;18:1209-1214. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Jiaotong University affiliated Shanghai No. 6 People's Hospital, Shanghai, China (mainland).
    BACKGROUND Poliomyelitis is a neuromuscular disease which causes muscle atrophy, skeletal deformities, and disabilities. Treatment of hip fractures on polio-affect limbs is unique and difficult, since routine fixation methods like nailing may not be suitable due to abnormal skeletal structures. CASE REPORT We report one femoral neck fracture and one subtrochanteric fracture in polio survivors successfully treated with reverse less invasive stabilization system (LISS) plating technique. Read More

    Virus detection in critically ill children with acute respiratory disease: a new profile in view of new technology.
    Acta Paediatr 2017 Nov 13. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Aim: To describe the epidemiology of critically ill children admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with acute respiratory disease. The association with intubation was analysed for the three most prevalent viruses and in those with and without viral co-infection.

    Methods: Patients admitted to the PICU (2004-2014) with acute respiratory disease were included. Read More

    A large ongoing outbreak of hepatitis A predominantly affecting young males in Lazio, Italy; August 2016 - March 2017.
    PLoS One 2017 10;12(11):e0185428. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Dipartimento di Epidemiologia Ricerca Pre-Clinica e Diagnostica Avanzata, National Institute for Infectious diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani, Rome, Italy.
    The hepatitis A virus (HAV) is mainly transmitted through the faecal-oral route. In industrialized countries HAV infection generally occurs as either sporadic cases in travelers from endemic areas, local outbreak within closed/semi-closed population and as foodborne community outbreak. Recently, an increasing number of HAV infection clusters have been reported among young men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM). Read More

    Enterovirus 71 antagonizes the antiviral activity of host STAT3 and IL-6R with partial dependence on virus-induced miR-124.
    J Gen Virol 2017 Dec 9;98(12):3008-3025. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    1​Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology of Ministries of Education and Health, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, PR China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused major outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease. EV71 infections increase the production of many host cytokines and pro-inflammatory factors, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and COX-2. Some of these molecules could stimulate the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which plays a key role in regulating host immune responses and several viral diseases. Read More

    Clinical characteristics of children infected with enterovirus D68 in an outpatient clinic and the association with bronchial asthma.
    Infect Dis (Lond) 2017 Nov 9:1-10. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    c Department of Infectious Diseases , Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine , Iida-Nishi , Japan.
    Background: All reports of increases in severe respiratory disease associated with human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) are from hospital settings. However, there are few reports describing clinical characteristics in less severely affected populations.

    Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study from January 2010 to December 2015 in Yamagata, Japan. Read More

    Enterovirus-associated changes in blood transcriptomic profiles of children with genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes.
    Diabetologia 2018 Feb 8;61(2):381-388. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, Tykistökatu 6, FI-20520, Turku, Finland.
    Aims/hypothesis: Enterovirus infections have been associated with the development of type 1 diabetes in multiple studies, but little is known about enterovirus-induced responses in children at risk for developing type 1 diabetes. Our aim was to use genome-wide transcriptomics data to characterise enterovirus-associated changes in whole-blood samples from children with genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes.

    Methods: Longitudinal whole-blood samples (356 samples in total) collected from 28 pairs of children at increased risk for developing type 1 diabetes were screened for the presence of enterovirus RNA. Read More

    Chronic meningoencephalitis caused by Echo virus 6 in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency : Successful treatment with pleconaril.
    Wien Klin Wochenschr 2018 Jan 7;130(1-2):70-72. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    School of Medicine, University Hospital for Infectious Diseases "Dr. Fran Mihaljević", Department of Intensive Care Medicine and Neuroinfectology, University of Zagreb, Mirogojska cesta 8, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Chronic enteroviral meningoencephalitis, most commonly caused by echoviruses, can particularly be seen in agammaglobulinemic patients. In spite of the fact that no specific treatment for enteroviral infections exists, pleconaril is an antiviral drug reported to be efficient against enteroviral infections in infants and adults. We present a case of a 42-year-old male, previously diagnosed with common variable immunodeficiency, who presented with severe chronic meningoencephalitis caused by Echo virus 6 and was successfully treated with pleconaril. Read More

    Antimicrobial, Anthelmintic, and Antiviral Activity of Plants Traditionally Used for Treating Infectious Disease in the Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India.
    Front Pharmacol 2017 23;8:658. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Department of Biology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    In the present study, we tested in vitro different parts of 35 plants used by tribals of the Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR, Mayurbhanj district, India) for the management of infections. From each plant, three extracts were prepared with different solvents (water, ethanol, and acetone) and tested for antimicrobial (E. coli, S. Read More

    A Multicenter Consortium to Define the Epidemiology and Outcomes of Inpatient Respiratory Viral Infections in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients.
    J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2017 Jul 1. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    Departments of Pediatrics and Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.
    Background: Respiratory virus infections (RVIs) pose a threat to children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In this era of sensitive molecular diagnostics, the incidence and outcome of HSCT recipients who are hospitalized with RVI (H-RVI) are not well described.

    Methods: A retrospective observational cohort of pediatric HSCT recipients (between January 2010 and June 2013) was assembled from 9 US pediatric transplant centers. Read More

    Epidemiology and molecular characterization of influenza viruses, human parechoviruses and enteroviruses in children up to 5 years with influenza-like illness in Northern Italy during seven consecutive winter seasons (2010-2017).
    J Gen Virol 2017 Nov;98(11):2699-2711
    1​Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, University of Milan, Via Carlo Pascal, 36 - 20133 Milan, Italy.
    Besides the influenza virus (IV), several other viruses are responsible for influenza-like illness (ILI). Although human parechoviruses (HPeVs) and enteroviruses (EVs) may impact on ILI, limited data on their epidemiological characteristics are available. During seven consecutive winter seasons (from 2010-2011 to 2016-2017), within the framework of an influenza surveillance system (InfluNet), 593 respiratory swabs were collected from children ≤5 years of age with ILIs. Read More

    Modelling Risk to US Military Populations from Stopping Blanket Mandatory Polio Vaccination.
    Comput Math Methods Med 2017 14;2017:7981645. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, CA, USA.
    Objectives: Transmission of polio poses a threat to military forces when deploying to regions where such viruses are endemic. US-born soldiers generally enter service with immunity resulting from childhood immunization against polio; moreover, new recruits are routinely vaccinated with inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), supplemented based upon deployment circumstances. Given residual protection from childhood vaccination, risk-based vaccination may sufficiently protect troops from polio transmission. Read More

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