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    193 results match your criteria Endoscopic Forehead Lift

    1 OF 4

    [Forehead rejuvenation].
    Ann Chir Plast Esthet 2017 Oct 22;62(5):406-423. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    50, rue de la République, 69002 Lyon, France. Electronic address:
    The goal of this article is to provide a systemic approach to forehead rejuvenation. Fillers, botulinic toxin injections, transpalpebral, endoscopic or bicoronal brow lift must be usual techniques for every plastic surgeon in overall facial rejuvenation. Achieving a long lasting and aesthetically pleasing forehead is possible only with surgical techniques when aging is obvious. Read More

    [Endoscopic Browlift via Endotine Forehead Device in Patients with Facial Palsy].
    Laryngorhinootologie 2017 Oct 30;96(10):691-697. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    Universitätsklinikum Essen, Klinik für Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde, Kopf- und Hals-Chirurgie.
    Objective Forehead and brows form a critical aesthetic and functional subunit of the face. Chronical pPeripheral paralysis of the facial nerve or its frontal branch may cause brow ptosis and eyelid deformities with a limited field of vision and loss of facial symmetry. Techniques, especially endoscopic methods have evolved significantly. Read More

    Transpalpebral Eyebrow Lift.
    Facial Plast Surg 2016 Dec 29;32(6):631-635. Epub 2016 Dec 29.
    Department of Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery, Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlandia, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
    Forehead rejuvenation goals are to raise the eyebrow, attenuate forehead wrinkles, and decrease glabellar frown lines. Endoscopic forehead lift represents a significant progress, even replacing the classic coronal and pretriquial techniques. The transpalpebral eyebrow lift allows safe direct visualization of anatomic structures comparable to the allowed by the endoscopic-assisted technique but dispenses the endoscopic instrumentation, is less expensive, and takes less time to learn. Read More

    Surgical Adhesives in Facial Plastic Surgery.
    Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2016 Jun;49(3):585-99
    Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
    In facial plastic surgery, attaining hemostasis may require adjuncts to traditional surgical techniques. Fibrin tissue adhesives have broad applications in surgery and are particularly useful when addressing the soft tissue encountered in facial plastic surgery. Beyond hemostasis, tissue adhesion and enhanced wound healing are reported benefits associated with a decrease in operating time, necessity for drains and pressure dressings, and incidence of wound healing complications. Read More

    Endoscopic Browlift in the Receding Hairline Patient.
    J Craniofac Surg 2016 Jan;27(1):156-8
    Division of Plastic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
    Unlabelled: The upper third of the face, composed of the forehead and the brow, is a critical aesthetic subunit. Brow ptosis is a common presenting complaint for patients seeking elective improvement of their facial appearance. Browlift surgery has a long history of technique evolution, with various reported methods and refinements. Read More

    [Lifting procedures in cosmetic facial surgery].
    Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd 2014 Oct;121(10):507-15
    A prominent characteristic of the aging face is the descent of skin and subcutaneous tissues. In order to reduce this and create a more youthful appearance, several lifting procedures can be employed. In the forehead and eyebrow region the transblepharoplastic brow lift, the direct brow lift, the temporal brow lift, the coronal brow lift and the endoscopic brow lift can be distinguished. Read More

    Transtemporal midface lifting to blend the lower eyelid-cheek junction.
    Clin Plast Surg 2015 Jan;42(1):103-14
    Marcelo Antunes Center for Facial Plastic Surgery, 3807 Spicewwod Springs Road, Suite 201, Austin, TX 78759, USA.
    When examining the results of this technique, improvement is noticed in the infraorbital hollowing, midface tissue ptosis, depth of nasolabial folds, and degree of jowling. The greatest overall improvement is the extent of midface ptosis and infraorbital hollowing at the lower eyelid-cheek junction followed by improvement in the nasolabial region. Improvement in jowling was common but less significant than the improvement of the midface structures. Read More

    Electron microscopic and proteomic comparison of terminal branches of the trigeminal nerve in patients with and without migraine headaches.
    Plast Reconstr Surg 2014 Nov;134(5):796e-805e
    Cleveland, Ohio From the Departments of Plastic Surgery, Neurosciences, and Neurology, the Center for Proteomics and Bioinformatics, and the American Migraine Center, Case Western Reserve University.
    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the ultrastructural appearance and protein expression of the zygomaticotemporal branch of the trigeminal nerve in patients with and without migraine headaches.

    Methods: After confirmation of migraine headache diagnosis on 15 patients, a 5-mm segment of the zygomaticotemporal branch of the trigeminal nerve that is routinely removed during migraine surgery was compared to similarly sized nerve segments obtained from 15 control patients without a history of migraine headaches, who underwent an endoscopic forehead lift where this nerve is routinely transected. The segments were snap-frozen at -80°C for the downstream proteomics analysis. Read More

    Concentric double cables fixation as an alternative suspension method for the endoscopic forehead lift.
    J Plast Surg Hand Surg 2015 Jun 1;49(3):141-6. Epub 2014 Oct 1.
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University , Cairo , Egypt.
    Fixation of the elevated eyebrow is an important final step in endoscopic forehead lifting. One of the most common methods of fixation includes temporal fasciae sutures for the tail of the eyebrow, and mini-screws for the body of the eyebrow. The concentric cables fixation is an alternative method for elevation of both the tail and the body of the eyebrow. Read More

    Finesse in forehead and brow rejuvenation: modern concepts, including endoscopic methods.
    Plast Reconstr Surg 2014 Dec;134(6):1141-50
    Providence, R.I.; St. Louis, Mo.; Newark, Del.; and Palo Alto, Calif. From the Department of Plastic Surgery, Rhode Island Hospital and the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University; the Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Washington University; Premier Dermatology & Cosmetic Surgery; and the Department of Plastic Surgery, Palo Alto Medical Foundation.
    Background: The brow and forehead are essential elements of the facial aesthetic architecture. Although frequently overlooked in youth, signs of facial aging are often most noticeable in the upper third of the face. Ptosis and loss of contour in the brows, along with temporal volume loss, sagging of periorbital tissue, and rhytides in the forehead, are common presenting complaints for aesthetic surgery. Read More

    Endoscopic-assisted facelifting.
    Facial Plast Surg 2014 Aug 30;30(4):413-21. Epub 2014 Jul 30.
    Devenir Aesthetics, Austin, Texas.
    Over the past two decades the use of endoscopes for facial rejuvenation gained wide popularity due to its reliable and reproducible results and limitation of the morbidity related to the open approaches. A thorough knowledge of the anatomy is of paramount importance to safely release all the fascial attachments while avoiding injuries to the facial nerve. The authors find the endoscopic forehead midface lift to be a reliable and safe procedure for facial rejuvenation. Read More

    Effect of endoscopic brow lift on contractures and synkinesis of the facial muscles in patients with a regenerated postparalytic facial nerve syndrome.
    Plast Reconstr Surg 2014 Jan;133(1):121-9
    Wiesbaden, Germany; Zeist, The Netherlands; and Baltimore, Md. From the Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Center for Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Dr. Horst-Schmidt-Kliniken; the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Center for Facial Plastic Reconstructive Surgery, Diakonessen Hospital Zeist; and the Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
    Background: Delayed recovery after facial palsy results in aberrant nerve regeneration with symptomatic movement disorders, summarized as the postparalytic facial nerve syndrome. The authors present an alternative surgical approach for improvement of periocular movement disorders in patients with postparalytic facial nerve syndrome. The authors proposed that endoscopic brow lift leads to an improvement of periocular movement disorders by reducing pathologically raised levels of afferent input. Read More

    Rhinoplasty and brow modification: a powerful combination.
    Aesthet Surg J 2013 Sep 9;33(7):983-94. Epub 2013 Sep 9.
    Dr Daniel is a Clinical Professor and Dr Kosins is a Clinical Assistant Professor WOS at The Aesthetic & Plastic Surgery Institute, University of California-Irvine, Orange, California.
    Background: Plastic surgeons have long recognized the importance of performing chin augmentation concurrent with a rhinoplasty to achieve facial balance. However, few surgeons consider the benefits of combining a rhinoplasty with brow modification to achieve a better aesthetic result. By increasing the size of the middle third of the face, the nose will automatically appear smaller. Read More

    The impact of endoscopic brow lift on eyebrow morphology, aesthetics, and longevity: objective and subjective measurements over a 5-year period.
    Plast Reconstr Surg 2013 Aug;132(2):226e-238e
    King Edward VII Hospital, London, UK.
    Background: The longevity of a brow lift, its morphology, and its contribution to overall facial aesthetics have not been addressed in previous studies using both objective measurements and validated subjective aesthetic scoring systems.

    Methods: Thirty-one patients with a 5.4-year follow-up after subperiosteal endoscopic brow lift were assessed by (1) objective measurements using computer software, (2) validated regional aesthetic scoring systems, and (3) global aesthetic scoring systems. Read More

    Minimal incisions vertical endoscopic lifting and fat grafting as a systematic approach to the rejuvenation of the periocular esthetic unit.
    Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2013 Jul-Aug;29(4):308-15
    Oculoplastica Bernardini, Genova, Italy.
    Purpose: The forehead/brow complex, the temporal region, the upper eyelid, the zygomatic area, the lower eyelid, and the cheek comprise the periocular esthetic unit. The combination of variable degrees of tissue descent and fat deflation of the component parts of the unit determine its appearance with age. The authors report the results of tissue repositioning through a minimal incisions vertical endoscopic lift and volume restoration used in combination to restore the natural youthful appearance of the periocular esthetic unit. Read More

    A quantitative analysis of lateral canthal position following endoscopic forehead-midface-lift surgery.
    JAMA Facial Plast Surg 2013 Sep-Oct;15(5):352-7
    Department of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Lindsay House Center for Cosmetic and Reconstructive Surgery, Rochester, New York2now with the Department of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Kolstad Facial Plastic Surgery, La Jolla, California.
    Importance: The value of this study is to evaluate outcomes of endoscopic forehead-midface-lift surgery. Many surgeons are reluctant to offer this procedure for fear of change in the shape and appearance of the eyelid.

    Objective: To objectively evaluate the change in lateral canthal position following endoscopic forehead-midface-lift surgery. Read More

    Endoscopic brow lifts: have they replaced coronal lifts?
    Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 2013 May;21(2):191-9
    Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology, UC Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA.
    This article describes the use of the endoscopic brow-lifting technique in addressing periorbital aging. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantage of the endoscopic versus traditional techniques of brow lifting and gives our treatment algorithm depending on patient needs. Read More

    Safety of cranial fixation in endoscopic brow lifts.
    Am J Otolaryngol 2013 Nov-Dec;34(6):690-4. Epub 2013 Apr 22.
    Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey - New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA. Electronic address:
    Introduction: The endoscopic brow lift technique relies on brow mobilization and often soft fixation to the underlying calvarium. While the endoscopic brow lift has been used safely, there are anecdotal reports of cerebrospinal fluid leak. We sought to measure calvarial thickness to improve the safety of cranial fixation. Read More

    Morphometric long-term evaluation and comparison of brow position and shape after endoscopic forehead lift and transpalpebral browpexy.
    Plast Reconstr Surg 2012 Dec;130(6):830e-840e
    Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
    Background: Although a multitude of proposed forehead rejuvenation procedures have been described, long-term and systematic morphometric evaluation is rare. There are no studies comparing endoscopic forehead lifts and transpalpebral browpexy techniques according to their efficacy in raising and reshaping the brow.

    Methods: In a retrospective study, standardized photographic documentations of patients undergoing an endoscopic forehead lift or a transpalpebral browpexy were morphometrically analyzed. Read More

    Ideal female brow aesthetics.
    Clin Plast Surg 2013 Jan 8;40(1):147-55. Epub 2012 Sep 8.
    Division of Facial Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, Keck School of Medicine at USC, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    The concept of the ideal female eyebrow has changed over time. Modern studies examining youthful brow aesthetics are reviewed. An analysis of ideal female brow characteristics as depicted in the Western print media between 1945 and 2011 was performed. Read More

    Technical considerations in endoscopic brow lift.
    Clin Plast Surg 2013 Jan 27;40(1):105-15. Epub 2012 Aug 27.
    Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA.
    The authors discuss how, in performing an endoscopic brow lift, meticulous surgical technique, adherence to anatomic dissection planes, and direct visualization used at key points in the procedure enable a safer, more-complete dissection and a better outcome. Anatomy as it relates to the procedure is discussed. Patient evaluation and patient expectations are reviewed with a discussion of the points to present to patients about outcomes of this surgery. Read More

    The varied options in brow lifting.
    Clin Plast Surg 2013 Jan 23;40(1):101-4. Epub 2012 Oct 23.
    Paces Plastic Surgery, Atlanta, GA 30327, USA.
    Numerous options in brow lifting exist that can be broadly categorized as open and minimally invasive or endoscopic. Proper patient evaluation, procedural goals, and surgeon preference all play into procedure choice. There are common desirable traits of the esthetic brow. Read More

    A review of 13 years of experience with endoscopic forehead-lift.
    Arch Facial Plast Surg 2012 Sep-Oct;14(5):336-41
    Department of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery, University Hospital rechts der Isar, Munich Technical University, Munich, Germany.
    Objective: To conduct objective quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the long-term result in endoscopic forehead-lift.

    Methods: Medical charts of 143 patients who underwent endoscopic forehead-lift between 1994 and 2007 were reviewed for postoperative complications and the duration of complaints. Patients received a questionnaire to evaluate satisfaction and social restriction after surgery. Read More

    Morphological and morphometric analysis of supraorbital foramen and supraorbital notch: a study on dry human skulls.
    Oman Med J 2012 Mar;27(2):129-33
    Objectives: A clear knowledge of the location of the maxillo-facial foramina is essential for clinicians while performing endoscopic surgeries and regional nerve blocks. In the present study, a detailed analysis of the supraorbital foramen (SOF) and supraorbital notch (SON) of South Indian skulls is reported and the data are compared with those from other races and regions.

    Methods: Anatomical variation of SOF/SON was studied in 83 adult human skulls bilaterally, using "travelling Vernier's microscope". Read More

    Endoscopic forehead lift in patients with male pattern baldness.
    Am J Otolaryngol 2012 Sep-Oct;33(5):519-22. Epub 2012 Feb 1.
    Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46290, USA.
    Purpose: The presence of male pattern baldness poses a significant challenge when attempting to optimize treatment of the upper third of the face. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate and discuss results of the endoscopic forehead lift in patients with male pattern baldness.

    Materials And Methods: This was a retrospective case series done in an academic medical center. Read More

    Objective assessment of change in apparent age after facial rejuvenation surgery.
    J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2011 Sep 22;64(9):1124-31. Epub 2011 Apr 22.
    Background: Facial "rejuvenation" procedures make an implicit claim to provide a more youthful appearance. However, any benefit from such procedures has not been objectively evaluated and validated. This study was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of facial rejuvenation using a deep-plane facelift and other cosmetic procedures. Read More

    Eliminating frown lines with an endoscopic forehead lift procedure (corrugator muscle disinsertion).
    Aesthetic Plast Surg 2011 Aug 7;35(4):516-21. Epub 2011 Feb 7.
    Department of Plastic Surgery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, St. Fatima Hospital, No. 8, Esmaeeli St., Keyhan Ave., Zaferanieh, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: In certain cases of endoscopic forehead lift without muscle resection, patients were incidentally noted to develop weakness or loss of their ability to frown during the postoperative period despite intact musculature. This finding suggested the possibility of decreasing frown strength using the disinsertion of the relevant muscles. This finding persuaded the authors to try to eliminate or decrease the sensory problems resulting from open or endoscopic frowning muscle resection by disinserting these muscles. Read More

    Forehead lifting: state of the art.
    Facial Plast Surg 2011 Feb 18;27(1):50-7. Epub 2011 Jan 18.
    Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 29239, USA.
    Forehead lifting serves to restore a more youthful appearance as well as a more functional and aesthetically pleasing brow position. The purpose of this review is to describe the pertinent anatomy and forehead aesthetics, then to discuss the patient evaluation, surgical approaches, complications, and nonsurgical adjuncts. Anatomic features reviewed include the layers of the forehead and scalp, blood supply, innervation, musculature, and the temporal branch of the facial nerve anatomy. Read More

    Transblepharoplasty brow suspension with a biodegradable fixation device.
    Aesthet Surg J 2010 Nov-Dec;30(6):802-9
    Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.
    Background: Brow droop, eyelid tissue excess, and hyperfunction of the muscles of forehead facial expression may contribute to the aging diathesis of the upper one-third of the face. Many approaches to the brow have been described, including coronal or pretricheal incisions, direct incision of the suprabrow or forehead, and endoscopic techniques. A less frequent technique, the transblepharoplasty browlift (TBBL), has a role in rejuvenating brow position, especially in patients in whom both the eyelids and brows need to be addressed. Read More

    Subcutaneous temporal browlift under local anesthesia: a useful technique for periorbital rejuvenation.
    Aesthet Surg J 2010 Nov-Dec;30(6):783-8
    Institute of Reconstructive Plastic Surgery, The Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA.
    Background: Various techniques have been described for periorbital rejuvenation and correction of the ptotic brow, including the coronal brow lift, the endoscopic brow lift, anterior hairline foreheadplasty in the subgaleal, subperiosteal, or subcutaneous planes, and the subcutaneous temporal brow lift.

    Objectives: The authors present results from a series of 28 patients treated with subcutaneous temporal brow lift over nearly four years.

    Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted of 28 patients who were treated with subcutaneous temporal brow lift by the senior author (JDF) between July 2003 and January 2007. Read More

    Forehead and scalp sensation after brow-lift: a comparison between open and endoscopic techniques.
    Arch Facial Plast Surg 2011 Mar-Apr;13(2):109-16. Epub 2010 Nov 15.
    Facial Plastic Surgery Clinic, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.
    Objective: To compare postoperative forehead and scalp sensation for the "open" brow-lift (OBL) (coronal and trichophytic) with that of the endoscopic brow-lift (EBL).

    Methods: A controlled outcome evaluation study was designed to objectively (mechanoceptive and thermoceptive) and subjectively (visual analog scale) test forehead and scalp sensation in a group of patients having undergone or scheduled to undergo either OBL or EBL in a single, private facial plastic surgery clinic. Prospectively enrolled participants were tested at defined intervals (A, preoperation; B,1-2 weeks after; C, 4-6 weeks after; D, 12-14 weeks after; and E, 24-26 weeks after). Read More

    Outcome analysis in 93 facial rejuvenation patients treated with a deep-plane face lift.
    Plast Reconstr Surg 2011 Feb;127(2):823-34
    Background: This prospective study assessed outcomes in patients undergoing a deep-plane face lift and other simultaneous facial cosmetic procedures. It is the first prospective outcome study to assess and compare these patients and provide data on patient satisfaction and quality of life—the most important determinants of surgical success.

    Methods: From 2002 to 2007, in-person interviews were conducted with 93 patients who attended a follow-up appointment at least 1 month after surgery from a total of 122 consecutive patients treated with a deep-plane face lift and other facial rejuvenation procedures (response rate, 76 percent). Read More

    Blepharoplasty and brow lift.
    Plast Reconstr Surg 2010 Jul;126(1):1e-17e
    Paces Plastic Surgery, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30327, USA.
    Brow lift and blepharoplasty are among the most commonly requested procedures in facial aesthetic surgery. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of current concepts, including goals, surgical options, and outcomes for aesthetic improvement of the forehead and periorbital region. Preoperative patient assessment, anatomical and surgical concepts, advantages and disadvantages, and prevention and management of complications and expected results are discussed. Read More

    Endoscopic forehead and brow-lift.
    Facial Plast Surg 2010 Aug 3;26(3):239-51. Epub 2010 Jun 3.
    Division of Head and Neck Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California 93105, USA.
    The endoscopic method of rejuvenating the brow-forehead complex has evolved into the procedure of choice for many aesthetic surgeons. Safe and reliable application of the endoscopic technique depends on several important factors. These include technical expertise with the endoscopic equipment, understanding of the surgical goals in patients seeking rejuvenation in the forehead region, and detailed comprehension of the steps involved in altering forehead anatomy during endoscopic lifting. Read More

    Endoscopically assisted limited-incision rhytidectomy: a 10-year prospective study.
    J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2010 Nov 4;63(11):1842-8. Epub 2009 Dec 4.
    Department of Plastic Surgery, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro and the Carlos Chagas Postgraduate Medical Institute, Av. Beira Mar 406, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    The ability to bring aesthetic harmony back into the ageing face requires the blending of surgical technique, anatomic knowledge and artistic sensitivity to individualise the surgical approach for each given patient. Since the advent of endoscopic techniques for facial rejuvenation, there has been an increase in the number of patients who seek alternative facial procedures, refusing a conventional face-lift. Limited-scar rhytidectomies offer patients with mild-to-moderate facial ageing an alternative to traditional face-lift surgery. Read More

    Anatomic concepts for brow lift procedures.
    Plast Reconstr Surg 2009 Dec;124(6):2118-26
    Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, CO, USA.
    Background: Brow lifting became a component of the facialplasty procedure 45 years ago, and the original brow-lifting technique incorporating a coronal incision approach is still practiced by many surgeons today. Over the past 15 years, however, the endoscope-assisted procedure and the limited incision, nonendoscopic techniques have evolved as alternate procedures for brow lifting. The level of artistry in performing any brow lift technique is raised when the surgeon acquires knowledge of upper facial anatomy and integrates that knowledge into a working concept of the aging process of the upper face. Read More

    Browlift--a South East Asian experience.
    Orbit 2009 ;28(6):347-53
    National University Health System, Singapore.
    Background: To describe the indications, techniques and outcomes of various browlift procedures in a predominantly East-Asian community.

    Patients And Methods: Retrospective review of patients who underwent browlift procedures performed by 2 oculoplastic surgeons or under their direct supervision, in a tertiary referral hospital in South East Asia from 2002 to 2007.

    Results: Forty-six patients (30 female, 16 male) had browlift surgery for 89 sides from 2002 to 2007. Read More

    Endoscopic forehead and brow lift.
    Facial Plast Surg 2009 Nov 18;25(4):222-33. Epub 2009 Nov 18.
    Division of Head and Neck Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Endoscopic method of rejuvenating the brow-forehead complex has evolved into the procedure of choice for many aesthetic surgeons. Safe and reliable application of the endoscopic technique depends on several important factors. These include technical expertise with the endoscopic equipment, understanding of the surgical goals in patients seeking rejuvenation in the forehead region, and detailed comprehension of the steps involved in altering forehead anatomy during endoscopic lifting. Read More

    Experience with cortical tunnel fixation in endoscopic brow lift: the "bevel and slide" modification.
    Int J Surg 2009 Dec 1;7(6):510-5. Epub 2009 Oct 1.
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Addenbrooke's University Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Trust, Cambridge, UK.
    Background: Endoscopic brow lift has become a popular method for rejuvenation of the upper third of the face and in the treatment of functional brow ptosis. Controversy, however, remains over the optimum technique for the fixation of the forehead and brow. This paper presents a single surgeon's experience with a technical modification to McKinney's original description of paramedian cortical tunnel fixation in patients undergoing endoscopic brow lifts. Read More

    Lateral brow fixation in endoscopic forehead lift: long-term results with braided nylon percutaneous sutures.
    Aesthetic Plast Surg 2010 Feb 29;34(1):78-87. Epub 2009 Sep 29.
    Centro Medico Athena, Rua Desembargador Vieira, Cavalcanti, 604 Bairro Mercês, Curitiba, Paraná 80510090, Brazil.
    Background: Since the introduction of endoscopic forehead surgery, several fixation techniques have been described to remediate the fall of the lateral portion of the brow. Unfortunately, few studies demonstrate good long-term results with these methods.

    Methods: This study evaluates long-term results of a lateral brow fixation technique that uses two points in the lateral eyebrow: one in the distal extremity and another corresponding to the midpoint between the pupil and the lateral canthus of the eye. Read More

    Brow elevation ratio: a new method of brow analysis.
    Arch Facial Plast Surg 2009 Jan-Feb;11(1):34-9
    Facial Plastic Surgery Division, Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, San Mateo, CA 94401, USA.
    Objective: To introduce a novel quantitative method measuring preoperative and postoperative brow position and apply it to a cohort of patients undergoing endoscopic brow suspension.

    Design: Retrospective review of patients who underwent endoscopic brow- and forehead-lift using a consistent operative technique and method of fixation. Changes in brow position were measured using standardized digital photographs of patients taken before and after surgery. Read More

    The case for open forehead rejuvenation: a review of 1004 procedures.
    Arch Facial Plast Surg 2009 Jan-Feb;11(1):13-7
    Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Naval Medical Center, 620 John Paul Jones Cir, Portsmouth, VA 23708-2197, USA.
    Objective: To review the role of open forehead procedures in upper-face rejuvenation.

    Methods: The clinical records of consecutive patients undergoing a coronal or trichophytic brow-lift from July 1, 1993, to June 30, 2005, were reviewed. Patient demographics and complication rates were tabulated and compared with published rates for endoscopic brow-lifts. Read More

    Preliminary evaluation of a fast-absorbing multipoint fixation device.
    Aesthet Surg J 2008 Sep-Oct;28(5):584-8
    Stanford University Medical Center, Palo Alto, CA, USA.
    Background: Since the Endotine forehead fixation device (Coapt Systems, Palo Alto, CA) was introduced in 2003, a small percentage of surgeons and patients have complained of persistent palpability and sensitivity related to its 12- to 15-month absorption time. Therefore, a refinement of the original design, the Ultratine (Coapt Systems), consisting of a polymer blend altered for faster absorption and biodegradability, was introduced in 2006.

    Objective: The authors report early results of fixation using the Ultratine with respect to permanence of elevation and the duration of visibility, palpability, and sensitivity of the implant. Read More

    Update on minimally invasive face lift technique.
    Aesthet Surg J 2008 Jan-Feb;28(1):51-61; discussion 62
    Private practice in Mexico City, Mexico, USA.
    Background: The aging face is characterized by loss of skin elasticity, fat resorption, loss of muscle tone and volume, and loss of bone volume. Restorative procedures should be based on the condition of the soft tissues and the relationship between these tissues and the existing skeletal volume and can be performed through open, endoscopic, or minimally invasive approaches.

    Objective: A minimally invasive approach to the face lift is presented, updated with useful details that the author has incorporated into his clinical technique on the basis of 15 years of experience. Read More

    How to make a long forehead more aesthetic.
    Aesthet Surg J 2008 Jan-Feb;28(1):46-50
    Department of Plastic Surgery, University Hospitals of Cleveland and Case Western University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
    Background: Aesthetic analysis of the face is best accomplished by dividing the face into equal thirds. A long forehead may lend the appearance of a less attractive, disproportionate, and senescent face.

    Objective: To provide data regarding options for surgical correction of the long forehead. Read More

    Video endoscopic-assisted brow lift: comparison of the eyebrow position after Endotine tissue fixation versus suture fixation.
    J Craniofac Surg 2008 Jul;19(4):1140-7
    University Hospital and Medical School of Goettingen, Germany.
    To improve brow ptosis and forehead rhytids, minimal invasive surgery has successfully been applied more recently. Clinical studies have revealed that inadequate fixation for anchoring a transposed released soft tissue will result in a loss of suspension of the lateral eyebrow. Therefore, we evaluated the results of eyebrow position in a series of endoscopic-assisted eyebrow lift cases by comparing broad base of fixation with an Endotine device versus conventional single-point tissue fixation with suture loop fixation of the soft forehead tissue. Read More

    Lower eyelid aesthetics after endoscopic forehead midface-lift.
    Arch Facial Plast Surg 2008 Jul-Aug;10(4):267-72
    Marotta Facial Plastic Surgery, 267 E Main St, Smithtown, NY 11787, USA.
    Objective: To assess and quantitate the immediate effect of endoscopic forehead midface-lift on infraorbital hollowing and lower eyelid skin excision.

    Methods: Twenty-five patients who underwent an endoscopic forehead midface-lift with a lower eyelid blepharoplasty or lower eyelid blepharoplasty without a midface-lift between January 1, 2005, and May 15, 2005, were included in the study. Preoperative and immediate postoperative measurements of the vertical height of the lower eyelid were taken in all patients. Read More

    The subcutaneous brow- and forehead-lift: a face-lift for the forehead and brow.
    Dermatol Surg 2008 Oct 3;34(10):1350-61; discussion 1362. Epub 2008 Jul 3.
    Group Private Practice, Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Richmond, Virginia 23235, USA.
    Purpose: The purpose is to present a less invasive and technically simpler method for brow and forehead rejuvenation and literature review on the subject.

    Materials And Methods: Fifty consecutive female patients were treated with the subcutaneous brow-lift technique over a 30-month period by the same surgeon. This surgical technique is performed under direct vision utilizing an extreme beveled incision made 4 to 5 mm into the anterior hairline with subcutaneous dissection of the anterior forehead only with the excision of 1. Read More

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