1,710 results match your criteria Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America[Journal]


Entering an Era of Precision Management of Thyroid Cancer.

Authors:
Mingzhao Xing

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2019 03;48(1):xvii-xviii

School of Medicine, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055, China; Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21207, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.12.001DOI Listing

Thyroid Cancer.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2019 03;48(1):xv-xvi

Emory University School of Medicine, 1365 B Clifton Road, Northeast, B6209, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.12.002DOI Listing

Clinical Assessment and Risk Stratification in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2019 03;48(1):99-108

Endocrinology Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA.

Thyroid cancer management is rapidly evolving to a personalized management approach. Risk stratification systems are designed to assist in personalized management. Differentiating patients who may benefit from aggressive therapy and intense follow-up as opposed to those who can be successfully treated with minimalized initial management options and follow-up is crucial to the development of the right treatment plan for the right patient in order to optimize initial therapy and follow-up testing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.11.002DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Molecular Diagnostic Evaluation of Thyroid Nodules.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2019 03 10;48(1):85-97. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, University of Colorado School of Medicine, MS 8106, 12801 East 17th Avenue, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

The historical management approach for many patients with indeterminate thyroid nodule fine needle aspiration cytology is a diagnostic lobectomy or thyroidectomy. However, the majority of patients undergo surgery unnecessarily, because most are proven to have benign disease on histology. Molecular testing is a diagnostic tool that can be used to help guide the clinical management of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology results. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08898529183058
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.10.004DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Clinical Diagnostic Evaluation of Thyroid Nodules.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2019 03;48(1):61-84

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 1581 Dodd Drive, 5th Floor McCampbell Hall, South, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Electronic address:

The presence of a thyroid nodule may be recognized by the patient or the clinician on palpation of the neck or it may be an incidental finding during an imaging study for some other indication. The method of detection is less important, however, than distinguishing benign lesions from more aggressive neoplasms. This article outlines the diagnostic algorithm for the evaluation of thyroid nodules including biochemical testing, imaging, and, when appropriate, fine-needle aspiration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.11.001DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Coding Molecular Determinants of Thyroid Cancer Development and Progression.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2019 03 23;48(1):37-59. Epub 2018 Dec 23.

Laboratory of Human Thyroid Cancers Preclinical and Translational Research, Division of Experimental Pathology, Department of Pathology, Cancer Research Institute (CRI), Cancer Center, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 99 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA; Department of Pathology, Center for Vascular Biology Research (CVBR), Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 99 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 415 Main Street, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Electronic address:

Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. Its incidence and mortality rates have increased for patients with advanced-stage papillary thyroid cancer. The characterization of the molecular pathways essential in thyroid cancer initiation and progression has made huge progress, underlining the role of intracellular signaling to promote clonal evolution, dedifferentiation, metastasis, and drug resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.10.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6366338PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Management of Medullary Thyroid Cancer.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2019 03 26;48(1):285-301. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Endocrine Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Via Paradisa 2, Pisa 56124, Italy. Electronic address:

Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is rare but aggressive. It can be cured only if intrathyroid at diagnosis. MTC can be sporadic (75%) or familial (25%) and the 2 forms are distinguished by RET mutations analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.11.006DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Diagnosis and Management of Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2019 03;48(1):269-284

Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street Southwest, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address:

Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a devastating and usually incurable diagnosis. Clinical and pathologic diagnosis is best assessed at a tertiary center with concentrated ATC expertise. Expeditious multidisciplinary management is recommended for optimal patient outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.10.010DOI Listing
March 2019
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Novel Drug Treatments of Progressive Radioiodine-Refractory Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2019 03 11;48(1):253-268. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Endocrine Neoplasia and Hormonal Disorders, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1400 Pressler Street, Unit 1461, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Electronic address:

Systemic therapy options have emerged for treatment of progressive, radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Approved therapies that target tumor angiogenesis, lenvatinib and sorafenib, improve progression-free survival and, in an older subset, lenvatinib can prolong overall survival. Treatments based on targeting specific somatic genetic alterations are also available, which potentially also may prolong progression-free survival but are not yet approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration for this specific disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.10.009DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Surveillance for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Recurrence.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2019 03;48(1):239-252

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1830 East Monument Street, Suite 333, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

Serum thyroglobulin monitoring along with anatomic and functional imaging play key roles in the surveillance of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer after initial treatment. Among patients with a disease stage justifying thyroid remnant ablation or with suspected metastatic disease, radioiodine whole-body scans are essential in the months after surgery. For patients with low to moderate-risk cancers, ultrasonography of the neck (with measurement of serum thyroglobulin on thyroid hormone replacement) are the best initial diagnostic modalities, and are often the only tests required. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.11.008DOI Listing
March 2019
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Evolving Understanding of the Epidemiology of Thyroid Cancer.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2019 03 23;48(1):23-35. Epub 2018 Dec 23.

Department of Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, Suite S320, Box 0104, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA; Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, Suite S320, Box 0104, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. Electronic address:

The incidence of thyroid cancer worldwide has increased significantly over the past 3 decades, due predominantly to an increase in papillary thyroid cancer. Although most of these cancers are small and localized, population-based studies have documented a significant increase in thyroid cancers of all sizes and stages, in addition to incidence-based mortality for papillary thyroid cancer. This suggests that the increasing incidence of thyroid cancer is due in large part to increasing surveillance and overdiagnosis, but that there also appears to be a true increase in new cases of thyroid cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.10.002DOI Listing
March 2019
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Thyroid Hormone Suppression Therapy.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2019 03 4;48(1):227-237. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1830 East Monument Street, Suite 333, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. Electronic address:

Thyroid hormone suppression therapy is designed to lower serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels using doses of thyroid hormone in excess of what would normally be required to maintain a euthyroid state. The basis of this therapy is the knowledge that TSH is a growth factor for thyroid cancer, so that lower serum TSH levels might be associated with decreased disease activity. However, clinical studies have not documented improved outcomes with TSH suppression, except in patients with the most advanced disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.10.008DOI Listing
March 2019
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Conservative Surveillance Management of Low-Risk Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2019 03 23;48(1):215-226. Epub 2018 Dec 23.

Department of Surgery, Kuma Hospital, 8-2-35 Shimoyamate-dori, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0011, Japan.

Most low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinomas are indolent. Ten years of active surveillance at Kuma Hospital revealed that only 8.0% of patients showed enlargement of 3 mm or greater, whereas only 3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.10.007DOI Listing
March 2019
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Management of Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2019 03 23;48(1):199-213. Epub 2018 Dec 23.

Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street Southwest, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

The worldwide incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing. A third of new thyroid cancer cases are papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTM), which are 1 cm or less. These tumors are mostly indolent with excellent prognosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.10.006DOI Listing
March 2019
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Conventional Radioiodine Therapy for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2019 03;48(1):181-197

Thyroid Cancer Research Center, MedStar Health Research Institute, 110 Irving Street, Washington, DC 20010, USA. Electronic address:

This article presents an overview of the use of radioactive iodine (131-I) in the treatment of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Topics reviewed include definitions; staging; the 2 principal methods for selection of 131-I dosage; the indications for ablation, adjuvant treatment, and treatment; the recommendations for the use of 131-I contained in the guidelines of the American Thyroid Association and the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; the dosage recommendations and selection of dosage approach for 131-I by these organizations; the use of recombinant human thyrotropin for radioiodine ablation, adjuvant therapy, or treatment; and the MedStar Washington Hospital Center approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.11.005DOI Listing

Transoral Endoscopic Thyroidectomy for Thyroid Cancer.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2019 03;48(1):165-180

Minimally Invasive and Endocrine Surgery Division, Department of Surgery, Police General Hospital, 492/1, Rama 1 Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. Electronic address:

The prevalence of low-risk differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is dramatically increasing because of superior diagnostic imaging technologies. Remote-access endoscopic thyroidectomy is becoming more popular for the lack of a noticeable neck scar. Transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy, vestibular approach (TOETVA) is the only technique that could be called a true scarless surgery; however, there is a scarcity of long-term studies about its safety and feasibility. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08898529183059
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.11.009DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Conventional Robotic Endoscopic Thyroidectomy for Thyroid Cancer.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2019 03 5;48(1):153-163. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Surgery, Tulane University School of Medicine, 1430 Tulane Avenue, SL-22, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA. Electronic address:

The conventional robotic endoscopic remote access techniques detailed in this article have been discussed in a series of increasing volumes in the literature, including for the treatment of thyroid cancer. Lower-volume centers now perform most robotic thyroidectomies in the United States and are responsible for recent increases in utilization patterns despite higher complication rates. These trends highlight the importance of increasing surgeon exposure to and experience with these techniques in order to improve procedure safety. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.10.005DOI Listing

Neck Dissection in the Surgical Treatment of Thyroid Cancer.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2019 03 26;48(1):143-151. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Otolaryngology Department, Augusta University, Thyroid and Parathyroid Center, 1120 Fifteenth Street, BP-4109, Augusta, GA 30912-4060, USA. Electronic address:

The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing, largely attributable to overdetection related to prevalent diagnostic and radiologic imaging modalities. Papillary thyroid cancer remains the most common thyroid malignancy. It has a high tendency for regional metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08898529183059
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.11.004DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Conventional Thyroidectomy in the Treatment of Primary Thyroid Cancer.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2019 03;48(1):125-141

Department of Otolaryngology, Division of Thyroid and Parathyroid Endocrine Surgery, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, 243 Charles Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

This article focuses on conventional surgical management of thyroid cancer, reviewing long-standing and well-accepted main principles and practices. It also covers newer controversies and techniques to conventional thyroidectomy, including changes in the indications for thyroidectomy, the intraoperative management of the recurrent and superior laryngeal nerves and parathyroid glands, the extent of thyroidectomy, and the importance of outcomes measurement and quality improvement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.11.003DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Genetic-guided Risk Assessment and Management of Thyroid Cancer.

Authors:
Mingzhao Xing

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2019 03;48(1):109-124

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1830 East Monument Street, Suite 333, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. Electronic address:

Controversies exist on how to optimally manage thyroid cancer because the prognosis is often uncertain based on clinical backgrounds. This can now be helped with prognostic genetic markers in thyroid cancer, exemplified by BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutations, which have been well characterized and widely appreciated. The genetic duet of BRAF V600E/RAS and TERT promoter mutations is a most robust prognostic genetic pattern for poor prognosis of differentiated thyroid cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.11.007DOI Listing

The Current Histologic Classification of Thyroid Cancer.

Authors:
Sylvia L Asa

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2019 03;48(1):1-22

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Elizabeth Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4, Canada. Electronic address:

Thyroid cancers of follicular cell derivation provide excellent phenotype-genotype correlations. Current morphologic classifications are complex and require simplification. Benign adenomas have follicular or papillary architecture and bland cytology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.10.001DOI Listing
March 2019
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The Coming of Age of Hypoparathyroidism: Novel Insights into Causation, Innovative Options for Management.

Authors:
Michael A Levine

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 12;47(4):xv-xvi

Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, University of Pennsylvania, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Abramson Research Building, 510A, 3615 Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.09.001DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Hypoparathyroidism.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 12;47(4):xiii

Emory University School of Medicine, 1365 B Clifton Road, Northeast, B6209, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.09.002DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

New Directions in Treatment of Hypoparathyroidism.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 12;47(4):901-915

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address:

The history of parathyroid hormone (PTH) replacement therapy for hypoparathyroidism begins in 1929. In 2015, the Food and Drug Administration approved recombinant human PTH(1-84) [rhPTH(1-84)] as a treatment for hypoparathyroidism. Long-term studies of rhPTH(1-84), up to 6 years, have demonstrated continued efficacy of this replacement agent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.07.013DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Conventional Treatment of Hypoparathyroidism.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 12;47(4):889-900

Endocrine Research Unit, Department of Medicine, San Francisco Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, 111N, 1700 Owens Street, 3rd Floor Room 369, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address:

Conventional therapy of hypoparathyroidism consists of oral calcium and either activated vitamin D or vitamin D supplements at varying doses. Although adjusting dosing of calcium and/or activated vitamin D or vitamin D itself, the serum calcium should be obtained weekly or monthly depending on the clinical situation. Calcium supplementation in hypoparathyroidism usually consists of calcium carbonate because it is 40% elemental calcium by weight. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.07.012DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Pseudohypoparathyroidism.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 12 12;47(4):865-888. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Endocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 50 Blossom street, Boston, MA 02114, USA; Pediatric Nephrology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 50 Blossom street, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) refers to a heterogeneous group of uncommon, yet related metabolic disorders that are characterized by impaired activation of the Gsα/cAMP/PKA signaling pathway by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and other hormones that interact with Gsa-coupled receptors. Proximal renal tubular resistance to PTH and thus hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, frequently in presence of brachydactyly, ectopic ossification, early-onset obesity, or short stature are common features of PHP. Registries and large cohorts of patients are needed to conduct clinical and genetic research, to improve the still limited knowledge regarding the underlying disease mechanisms, and allow the development of novel therapies. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08898529183054
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.07.011DOI Listing
December 2018
16 Reads

Quality of Life in Hypoparathyroidism.

Authors:
Tamara J Vokes

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 12 11;47(4):855-864. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Section of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland, MC1027, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. Electronic address:

Patients with hypoparathyroidism have a multitude of physical, emotional, and cognitive complaints consistent with reduced quality of life (QOL). Impaired QOL in patients treated with conventional therapy with calcium and active vitamin D has been documented in epidemiologic (registry) studies, case-controlled studies, and surveys, and at baseline in clinical trials of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Treatment with PTH has been shown to improve QOL in some but not all studies. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08898529183054
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.07.010DOI Listing
December 2018
10 Reads

Hypoparathyroidism and the Kidney.

Authors:
Munro Peacock

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 12 11;47(4):839-853. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 1120 West Michigan Street Cl 365, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA. Electronic address:

Hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia are the pathognomonic biochemical features of hypoparathyroidism, and result directly from lack of parathyroid hormone (PTH) action on the kidney. In the absence of PTH action, the renal mechanisms transporting calcium and phosphate reabsorption deregulate, resulting in hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. Circulating calcium negatively regulates PTH secretion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.07.009DOI Listing
December 2018
10 Reads

Skeletal Manifestations of Hypoparathyroidism.

Authors:
Mishaela R Rubin

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 12;47(4):825-837

Metabolic Bone Disease Unit, Columbia University College of P&S, PH8W-864, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address:

Chronic parathyroid hormone (PTH) deficiency has a marked effect on the skeleton, leading to characteristic decreases in bone remodeling and increases in bone mass. Numerous lines of evidence using biochemical, imaging, and histomorphometric methodologies have demonstrated that the skeleton is altered when PTH is absent and that these abnormalities might be reversed with PTH treatment. More evidence is needed to determine whether fracture risk is altered in hypoparathyroidism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.07.008DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Genetic Disorders of Parathyroid Development and Function.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 12 12;47(4):809-823. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, The Center for Bone Health, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, 3615 Civic Center Boulevard, Abramson Research Building, Room 510A, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Hypoparathyroidism is characterized by hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia and is due to insufficient levels of circulating parathyroid hormone. Hypoparathyroidism may be an isolated condition or a component of a complex syndrome. Although genetic disorders are not the most common cause of hypoparathyroidism, molecular analyses have identified a growing number of genes that when defective result in impaired formation of the parathyroid glands, disordered synthesis or secretion of parathyroid hormone, or postnatal destruction of the parathyroid glands. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.07.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6233988PMC
December 2018
3 Reads

Medical Hypoparathyroidism.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 12 11;47(4):797-808. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Calcium Disorders Clinic, McMaster University, 50 Charlton Ave East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 4A6, Canada. Electronic address:

Hypoparathyroidism is a metabolic disorder characterized by hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and inadequate levels of or function of parathyroid hormone (PTH). The authors review the nonsurgical or medical causes of hypoparathyroidism. The most common of the nonsurgical causes is autoimmune destruction of the parathyroid. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.07.006DOI Listing
December 2018
6 Reads

Surgical Hypoparathyroidism.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 12 12;47(4):783-796. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Department of Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, Suite S320, Box 0104, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. Electronic address:

Surgical hypoparathyroidism is the most common cause of hypoparathyroidism and the result of intentional or inadvertent extirpation, trauma, or devascularization of the parathyroid glands. Surgical hypoparathyroidism may present as a medical emergency. Pediatric patients, those with Graves disease, and those undergoing extensive neck dissections or reoperative neck surgery are at particular risk for this complication. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08898529183053
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.07.005DOI Listing
December 2018
13 Reads

Epidemiology and Complications of Hypoparathyroidism.

Authors:
Bart L Clarke

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 12 11;47(4):771-782. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Metabolism, and Nutrition, Mayo Clinic, E18-A, 200 1st Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address:

Until recently, very few studies have described the epidemiology of this rare disorder. Several large population-based studies have recently been published describing the prevalence and incidence of hypoparathyroidism in various countries. Some of these studies have described the epidemiology of both postsurgical and nonsurgical hypoparathyroidism. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08898529183053
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.07.004DOI Listing
December 2018
11 Reads

Signs and Symptoms of Hypoparathyroidism.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 12;47(4):759-770

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 630 West 168th Street, PH 8W-864, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Hypoparathyroidism is associated with a spectrum of clinical manifestations in the acute and chronic settings, from mild to debilitating. Although the acute symptoms of hypocalcemia are primarily due to neuromuscular irritability, the chronic manifestations of hypoparathyroidism may be due to the disease itself or to complications of therapy or to both. The chronic complications of hypoparathyroidism can affect multiple organ systems, including the renal, neurologic, neuropsychiatric, skeletal, and immune systems. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08898529183053
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.07.001DOI Listing
December 2018
9 Reads

Physiology of Parathyroid Hormone.

Authors:
David Goltzman

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 12 11;47(4):743-758. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Medicine and Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, 1001 Decarie Boulevard, Montreal, Quebec H4A 3J1, Canada; Departments of Medicine and of Physiology, McGill University, 845 Sherbrooke St West, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0B9, Canada. Electronic address:

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the major secretory product of the parathyroid glands, and in hypocalcemic conditions, can enhance renal calcium reabsorption, increase active vitamin D production to increase intestinal calcium absorption, and mobilize calcium from bone by increasing turnover, mainly but not exclusively in cortical bone. PTH has therefore found clinical use as replacement therapy in hypoparathyroidism. PTH also may have a physiologic role in augmenting bone formation, particularly in trabecular and to some extent in cortical bone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.07.003DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Embryology of the Parathyroid Glands.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 12;47(4):733-742

Department of Genetics, University of Georgia, 500 DW Brooks Drive, Coverdell Building Suite 270, Athens, GA 30602, USA. Electronic address:

The parathyroid glands are essential for regulating calcium homeostasis in the body. The genetic programs that control parathyroid fate specification, morphogenesis, differentiation, and survival are only beginning to be delineated, but are all centered around a key transcription factor, GCM2. Mutations in the Gcm2 gene as well as in several other genes involved in parathyroid organogenesis have been found to cause parathyroid disorders in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.07.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6226091PMC
December 2018
1 Read

NET-Working for the Future.

Authors:
Ashley Grossman

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 09 11;47(3):xv-xvi. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Neuroendocrine Tumour, Royal Free Hospital, Pond Street, London NW3 2QG, UK. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.05.004DOI Listing
September 2018
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Management of Neuroendocrine Tumors in the Twenty-First Century.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 09 11;47(3):xiii-xiv. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Emory University School of Medicine, 1365 B Clifton Road, Northeast, B6209, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.05.005DOI Listing
September 2018
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The Genesis of the Neuroendocrine Tumors Concept: From Oberndorfer to 2018.

Authors:
Kjell Öberg

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 09;47(3):711-731

Department of Endocrine Oncology, Uppsala University Hospital, Entrance 40:5, SE-75185, Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address:

The concept of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) began in the 1900s with Oberndorfer's description of carcinoid tumors, followed by specific cytotoxic agents and the identification of somatostatin. NETs diagnosis was confirmed by World Health Organization classification. Histopathology included immunohistochemistry with specific antibodies. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08898529183052
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.05.003DOI Listing
September 2018
4 Reads

Lung and Thymic Carcinoids.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 09;47(3):699-709

Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Program, Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA.

Carcinoids of the lung and thymus are rare thoracic cancers. In general, lung carcinoid tumors have a favorable prognosis, particularly when diagnosed at an early stage and treated with surgical resection. Thymic neuroendocrine tumors may be associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia-1 syndrome, tend to have a more aggressive natural history, and relatively frequently secrete ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.04.011DOI Listing
September 2018
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The Problem of High-Grade Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms: Well-Differentiated Neuroendocrine Tumors, Neuroendocrine Carcinomas, and Beyond.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 09 11;47(3):683-698. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Department of Pathology, University of Bern, Murtenstrasse 31, Bern 3008, Switzerland.

High-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms are well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors or poorly differentiated small/large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Distinguishing these entities relies on different genetic backgrounds and resulting different biology. The new classification creates several problems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.05.001DOI Listing
September 2018
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Carcinoid Heart Disease: A Review.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 09;47(3):671-682

Neuroendocrine Tumour Unit, Royal Free Hospital, Pond Street, London NW3 2QG, UK. Electronic address:

Carcinoid heart disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with carcinoid syndrome and metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. Screening of all patients with N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and transthoracic echocardiography is critical for early detection, as early symptoms and signs have low sensitivity for the disease. Cardiac surgery, in appropriate cases, is the only definitive therapy for advanced carcinoid heart disease, and it improves patient symptoms and survival. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.04.012DOI Listing
September 2018
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The Problem of Appendiceal Carcinoids.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 09 13;47(3):661-669. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Neuroendocrine Tumour Unit, ENETS Centre of Excellence, Royal Free Hospital, 8 South, Pond Street, London NW3 2QG, UK. Electronic address:

Appendiceal neuroendocrine neoplasms are uncommon, mostly discovered coincidentally during appendectomy. They usually show a benign clinical course and appendectomy alone is curative. However, some cases may harbor malignant potential; therefore, additional/prophylactic operations, such as right hemicolectomy, are offered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.04.004DOI Listing
September 2018
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Gastric Carcinoids.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 09 11;47(3):645-660. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

1st Department of Propaedeutic Internal Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Mikras Asias 75, Athens 11527, Greece. Electronic address:

Gastric carcinoids, formally named gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs), are derived from enterochromaffin-like cells of the stomach and are increasingly diagnosed. A majority are designated as type I (related to autoimmune gastritis) and type II (related to gastrinoma) neoplasms that develop secondary to gastrin hypersecretion. Types I and II gastric carcinoids are mostly small-sized (1-2 cm), multiple, low-malignancy potential lesions mainly confined to the gastric mucosa/submucosa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.04.013DOI Listing
September 2018
4 Reads
3.404 Impact Factor

Surgical Approaches to the Management of Neuroendocrine Liver Metastases.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 09 11;47(3):627-643. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0HS, UK.

Surgical approaches to hepatic metastases occupy an important role in the management of patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms and may have curative or palliative intentions. Resection of hepatic disease with curative intent is the only modality offering potential cure for patients with liver metastases; however, only a minority of patients are eligible. Regardless of resection margin, disease recurrence almost invariably occurs and novel adjuvant/neoadjuvant therapies are mandated to be included within multimodal treatment concepts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.04.001DOI Listing
September 2018
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Peptide Receptor Radiotherapy Comes of Age.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 09;47(3):615-625

Department of GI Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL 33612, USA. Electronic address:

Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy is a form of systemic radiotherapy shown to be effective in treating neuroendocrine tumors expressing somatostatin receptors. The NETTER-1 trial was the first randomized phase III clinical trial evaluating a radiolabeled somatostatin analog, and demonstrated significant improvement in progression-free survival among patients with midgut neuroendocrine tumors treated with Lu-DOTATATE versus high-dose octreotide. This article discusses the evolution of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, side effects, and potential future treatment approaches. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.04.005DOI Listing
September 2018
14 Reads

Current Chemotherapy Use in Neuroendocrine Tumors.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 09;47(3):603-614

Department of Medical Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, ON M4N3M5, Canada; Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, King's College Cir, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada. Electronic address:

The role of chemotherapy in neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) has evolved with the development of other effective systemic therapies. At the same time, the evolving classification of NETs by grade has allowed for prognostic stratification. Chemotherapy is not routinely used for grade 1 to 2 NETs, but capecitabine (CAPTEM) or streptozocin-based regimens may be used, particularly for pancreatic NETs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.04.006DOI Listing
September 2018
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Gastrinomas: Medical or Surgical Treatment.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 09;47(3):577-601

Digestive Diseases Branch, NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 9C-103, Bethesda, MD 20892-1804, USA. Electronic address:

This article reviews the role of surgical and medical management in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) due to a gastrin-secreting neuroendocrine tumor (gastrinoma). It concentrates on the status at present but also briefly reviews the changes over time in treatment approaches. Generally, surgical and medical therapy are complementary today; however, in some cases, such as patients with ZES and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, the treatment approach remains controversial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.04.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6092039PMC
September 2018
4 Reads

New Treatments for the Carcinoid Syndrome.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 09 11;47(3):557-576. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, 700 Tiverton Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, 700 Tiverton Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. Electronic address:

Neuroendocrine tumors, including carcinoids, are rare and insidiously growing tumors. Related to their site of origin, tumors can be functional, causing various forms of the carcinoid syndrome, owing to the overproduction of serotonin, histamine, or other bioactive substances. They often invade adjacent structures or metastasize to the liver and elsewhere. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.04.014DOI Listing
September 2018
17 Reads

When and How to Use Somatostatin Analogues.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 09 11;47(3):549-555. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Department of Internal Medicine, Sector of Endocrinology, ENETS Center of Excellence for Neuroendocrine Tumors, Erasmus MC, Dr. Molewaterplein 40, Rotterdam 3015 GD, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Long-acting depot formulations of the currently available somatostatin analogues are considered the first-line treatment for control of hormonal excess by hormone-producing neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. These drugs are currently also considered the first-line treatment for tumor control of both hormone-producing and non-hormone-producing neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. These drugs need coupling and interaction with specific somatostatin receptor subtypes, which are expressed on the cells of neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.04.010DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads