695 results match your criteria Encephalopathy Uremic


Apparent Correlations Between AMPK Expression and Brain Inflammatory Response and Neurological Function Factors in Rats with Chronic Renal Failure.

J Mol Neurosci 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, No. 19 Nonglin Xia Road, Yuexiu District, Guangzhou, 510080, Guangdong Province, China.

To explore the correlations between AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression and brain inflammatory response and neurological function factors in rats with chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure models in rats were established, and the healthy control group (normal group) was set. Chronic renal failure model rats were divided into model group (without any treatment), control group (intraperitoneal injection of normal saline), A-769662 group (intraperitoneal injection of AMPK specific activator), and compound C group (intraperitoneal injection of AMPK specific inhibitor). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-019-01299-8DOI Listing

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and complement blockade: established and emerging uses of complement inhibition.

Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2019 May;28(3):278-287

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a diagnosis that has captured the interest of specialists across multiple fields. The hallmark features of aHUS are microangiopathic hemolysis and thrombocytopenia, which creates a diagnostic dilemma because of the occurrence of these findings in a wide variety of clinical disorders.

Recent Findings: In most of the instances, aHUS is a diagnosis of exclusion after ruling out causes such as Shigella toxin, acquired or genetic a disintegrin and metalloproteinase thrombospondin motif 13 deficiency (thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura), and vitamin B12 deficiency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MNH.0000000000000499DOI Listing
May 2019
3 Reads

Indole-3 acetic acid increased risk of impaired cognitive function in patients receiving hemodialysis.

Neurotoxicology 2019 Feb 28;73:85-91. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Institute of Population Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Patients receiving hemodialysis (HD) have a higher risk of cognitive impairment and dementia than the general population. The accumulation of uremic toxins in the brain causes uremic encephalopathy, however, limited data exists to elucidate the effect of protein-bound uremic toxins on cognitive function. Here we investigate the effect of indole-3 acetic acid (IAA) and hippuric acid (HA), two different protein-bound uremic toxins from amino acid derivatives, on cognitive function by Silico and in a clinical study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2019.02.019DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Indoxyl Sulfate Induces Apoptosis Through Oxidative Stress and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway Inhibition in Human Astrocytes.

J Clin Med 2019 Feb 5;8(2). Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan.

Uremic toxins accumulated in chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases the risk of cognitive impairment. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a well-known protein-bound uremic toxin that is correlated with several systemic diseases, but no studies on human brain cells are available. We investigated the effect of IS on primary human astrocytes through next-generation sequencing and cell experiment confirmation to explore the mechanism of IS-associated brain damage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm8020191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406290PMC
February 2019
1 Read

[The unusual couple: a clinical case of coexistence between aHUS and Fabry's disease].

G Ital Nefrol 2019 Feb;36(1)

Professore Ordinario di Nefrologia, Università degli Studi della Campania, Luigi Vanvitelli.

Atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare, potentially lethal (1-4) systemic disorder, capable of affecting both adults and children, causing thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) (5) that leads to the formation of thrombus within small blood vessels with multiple organ failure. The pathogenesis of the aHUS is part of a sort of chronic and uncontrolled activation of the complement system by genetic mutation of some proteins usually responsible for its self-regulation (6,7). Today, the rapid diagnosis of the disease and the timely start of treatment with eculizumab, improve outcomes of renal failure, stroke and heart attack (8-10). Read More

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February 2019
1 Read

Cerebral pontine infarctions during pregnancy - A case report and review of the literature.

Case Rep Womens Health 2019 Jan 23;21:e00097. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

University of South Alabama, Children's and Women's Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 251 Cox Street, Mobile, AL 36604, United States.

Cerebrovascular disease is not uncommon during pregnancy as a result of either venous or arterial occlusion, or a hemorrhagic event, resulting in ischemia. Pregnancy may alter the prognosis of these neurologic disorders, with increased risks of morbidity and mortality for the mother and the developing fetus. Etiologies of stroke during pregnancy and the postpartum period include preeclampsia, eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), amniotic fluid embolism, postpartum angiopathy, postpartum cardiomyopathy, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), cerebral venous thrombosis, CNS infections, and maternal thrombophilia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crwh.2019.e00097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6358547PMC
January 2019
10 Reads

Shiga toxin 2 from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli induces reactive glial cells and neurovascular disarrangements including edema and lipid peroxidation in the murine brain hippocampus.

J Biomed Sci 2019 Feb 7;26(1):16. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Universidad de Buenos Aires, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Instituto de Fisiología y Biofísica ''Houssay" (IFIBIO), Laboratorio de Neurofisiopatología, Facultad de Medicina, Paraguay 2155 piso 7, 1121, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Background: Shiga toxin 2 from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli is the etiologic agent of bloody diarrhea, hemolytic uremic syndrome and derived encephalopathies that may result to death in patients. Being a Gram negative bacterium, lipopolysaccharide is also released. Particularly, the hippocampus has been found affected in patients intoxicated with Shiga toxin 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12929-019-0509-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6366040PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Multiple Factors Including Infections and Antibiotics Affecting New-Onset Epilepsy in Hemodialysis Patients.

Ther Apher Dial 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Nephrology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, China.

This study investigates some clinical characteristics of maintenance hemodialysis patients with new-onset epilepsy. Thirty-five patients with new-onset epilepsy who underwent maintenance hemodialysis were selected for study. Sixty patients undergoing routine hemodialysis were selected as the control group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1744-9987.12793DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Profile and outcome of patients with emergency complications of renal failure presenting to an urban emergency department of a tertiary hospital in Tanzania.

BMC Emerg Med 2019 01 22;19(1):11. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Emergency Medicine Department, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Science, P.O Box 65001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Background: Renal failure carries high mortality even in high-resource countries. Little attention has been paid to renal failure patients presenting acutely in emergency care settings in low-to-middle income countries (LMIC). Our aim was to describe the profile, management strategies and outcome of renal failure patients presenting with indications for emergent dialysis to an urban Emergency Department (ED) in a tertiary public hospital in Tanzania. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12873-019-0229-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6341653PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Brain consequences of acute kidney injury: Focusing on the hippocampus.

Authors:
Maryam Malek

Kidney Res Clin Pract 2018 Dec 31;37(4):315-322. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

The high mortality rates associated with acute kidney injury are mainly due to extra-renal complications that occur following distant-organ involvement. Damage to these organs, which is commonly referred to as multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, has more severe and persistent effects. The brain and its sub-structures, such as the hippocampus, are vulnerable organs that can be adversely affected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23876/j.krcp.18.0056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6312775PMC
December 2018
5 Reads

Paraneoplastic Encephalopathy in a Patient With Metastatic Lung Cancer: A Case Study.

Authors:
Scott M Rowley

J Adv Pract Oncol 2018 Mar 1;9(2):216-221. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute.

RS, a 36-year-old female, presented to the emergency department (ED) of a large academic medical center upon the advice of her primary care provider because of 3 weeks of progressive mental status changes, weakness, and decreased oral intake. According to her husband, RS was diagnosed with stage IIIA large cell lung cancer 8 months earlier and was treated with concurrent chemotherapy (carboplatin, pemetrexed, and bevacizumab) and radiation therapy that was completed 4 months prior to admission. No other specific information about her treatment or outside health records was available. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6303004PMC
March 2018
33 Reads

Syndrome of uremic encephalopathy and bilateral basal ganglia lesions in non-diabetic hemodialysis patient: a case report.

BMC Nephrol 2018 Dec 19;19(1):370. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Division of Nephrology, Department of medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510630, Guangdong, China.

Background: Uremic encephalopathy (UE), a toxic metabolic encephalopathy, is an uncommon complication resulting from endogenous uremic toxins in patients with severe renal failure. UE syndrome can range from mild inattention to coma. The imaging findings of UE include cortical or subcortical involvement, basal ganglia involvement and white matter involvement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-018-1174-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6299987PMC
December 2018
4 Reads

Neurologic conditions and disorders of uremic syndrome of chronic kidney disease: Presentations, causes and treatment strategies.

Authors:
Sherifa A Hamed

Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

a Department of Neurology and Psychiatry , Assiut University Hospital , Assiut , Egypt.

Introduction: Uremic syndrome of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a term used to describe clinical, metabolic and hormonal abnormalities associated with progressive kidney failure. It is a rapidly growing public health problem worldwide. Nervous system complications occur in every patient with uremic syndrome of CKD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17512433.2019.1555468DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Interleukin-33/ST2 signaling contributes to the severity of hemolytic uremic syndrome induced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

Clin Exp Nephrol 2019 Apr 22;23(4):544-550. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa, 920-8641, Japan.

Objectives: Interleukin (IL)-33 plays an important role in host defense, immune regulation, and inflammation. This study assessed IL-33's role in the pathogenesis of severe hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) induced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). We also investigated the clinical significance of IL-33 and soluble ST2 (soluble form of IL-33 receptor) serum levels in patients with EHEC-induced HUS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10157-018-1675-yDOI Listing
April 2019
15 Reads

Virulence genes in Escherichia coli isolates from commercialized saltwater mussels Mytella guyanensis (Lamarck, 1819).

Braz J Biol 2018 Oct 25. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Complexo Multidisciplinar de Estudos e Pesquisas em Saúde - COMEPS, Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia - UFRB, Avenida Carlos Amaral, 1015, Cajueiro, CEP 44574-490, Santo Antônio de Jesus, BA, Brasil.

The isolation of Escherichia coli from food is a major concern. Pathogenic strains of these bacteria cause diseases which range from diarrhea to hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Therefore the virulence genes in E. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.185930DOI Listing
October 2018
5 Reads

An adult case of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome presented with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: Successful response to late-onset eculizumab treatment.

Hematol Rep 2018 Sep 24;10(3):7553. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Nephrology, Bozyaka Teaching and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey.

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare and progressive disease caused by uncontrolled alternative complement activation. Dysregulatıon of the complement activation results in thrombotic microangiopathy and multiorgan damage. A 29-yearold woman who was admitted with complaints of vomiting and headache was detected to have acute renal failure with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA). Read More

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https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/hr/article/view
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/hr.2018.7553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6176395PMC
September 2018
20 Reads

AST-120 Reduces Neuroinflammation Induced by Indoxyl Sulfate in Glial Cells.

J Clin Med 2018 Oct 17;7(10). Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, Fisciano, I-84084 Salerno, Italy.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) involves multiple organ dysfunction, and the neurological complications that are often present in CKD patients support the idea of a crosstalk between the kidneys and the brain. Evidence suggests a possible role for products accumulating in these patients as uremic toxins in various CKD complications, including neurodegeneration. Indoxyl sulfate (IS), derived from tryptophan metabolism, is well-known as a uremic nephron-vascular toxin, and recent evidence suggests it also has a role in the immune response and in neurodegeneration. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2077-0383/7/10/365
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm7100365DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6210605PMC
October 2018
17 Reads

A rare condition mimicking stroke: Diabetic uremic encephalopathy.

Ideggyogy Sz 2018 Sep;71(9-10):358-360

Department of Neurology, Istanbul Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Uremic encephalopathy (UE) is a metabolic disorder associated with acute or chronic renal failure. It is characterized by the acute or subacute onset of reversible neurological symptoms and specific imaging findings. It is uncommon for uremic encephalopathy to be associated with acute bilateral lesions of the basal ganglia in diabetic uremic patients, and this can be seen most often in Asian patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18071/isz.71.0358DOI Listing
September 2018
4 Reads

Anti-inflammatory agents reduce microglial response, demyelinating process and neuronal toxin uptake in a model of encephalopathy produced by Shiga Toxin 2.

Int J Med Microbiol 2018 Dec 4;308(8):1036-1042. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Laboratorio de Neurofisiopatología, Instituto de Fisiología y Biofisica "Houssay"-CONICET-UBA, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

Infections by Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli may cause in addition to hemolytic uremic syndrome neurological disorders which may lead to fatal outcomes in patients. The brain striatum is usually affected during this outcome. The aim of this study was to determine in this area the role of the microglia in pro-inflammatory events that may occur during Shiga toxin 2 intoxication and consequently to this, whether oligodendrocytes were being affected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmm.2018.09.007DOI Listing
December 2018
6 Reads

Shiga toxin-glycosphingolipid interaction: Status quo of research with focus on primary human brain and kidney endothelial cells.

Int J Med Microbiol 2018 Dec 8;308(8):1073-1084. Epub 2018 Sep 8.

Institute for Hygiene, University of Münster, D-48149 Münster, Germany; Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Research (IZKF), University of Münster, D-48149 Münster, Germany. Electronic address:

Shiga toxin (Stx)-mediated injury of the kidneys and the brain represent the major extraintestinal complications in humans upon infection by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Damage of renal and cerebral endothelial cells is the key event in the pathogenesis of the life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Stxs are AB toxins and the B-pentamers of the two clinically important Stx subtypes Stx1a and Stx2a preferentially bind to the glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer, Galα4Galβ4Glcβ1Cer) and to less extent to globotetraosylceramide (Gb4Cer, GalNAcβ3Galα4Galβ4Glcβ1), which are expected to reside in lipid rafts in the plasma membrane of the human endothelium. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmm.2018.09.003DOI Listing
December 2018
7 Reads

Bilateral thalamic and basal ganglia lesions in an old woman: unusual involvement of uremic encephalopathy.

Acta Neurol Belg 2019 Mar 8;119(1):133-135. Epub 2018 Sep 8.

Department of Neurology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Soonchunhyang University School of Medicine, Seoul, 04491, Republic of Korea.

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13760-018-1020-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13760-018-1020-yDOI Listing
March 2019
13 Reads

Simultaneous, Non-traumatic, Bilateral Neck Femur Fractures in Uremic Renal Osteodystrophy: A Report of Three Cases and Literature Review.

J Orthop Case Rep 2018 Mar-Apr;8(2):90-94

Department of Orthopaedics, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Introduction: Bilateral, simultaneous, non-traumatic, pathological femur neck fractures due to renal osteodystrophy (RO) in chronic renal failure cases are uncommon but are increasingly being reported in the literature. Seizure episodes due to uremic encephalopathy could lead to such fractures.

Case Reports: We describe three cases of patients with end-stage renal disease and RO, who presented with bilateral, non-traumatic femur neck fractures after episodes of grand mal con-vulsions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.13107/jocr.2250-0685.1066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6114199PMC
September 2018
4 Reads

The effect of hemodialysis on the body composition and cardiovascular disease markers in recently diagnosed end stage renal disease patients.

Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) 2018 Apr;64(4):354-360

Adnan Menderes University, Medical School, Department of Nephrology, Aydın/Turkey.

Aim: Uremic toxins and excess fluid contributes to increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. We aimed to determine the body fluid status in patients who are just starting hemodialysis (HD) and to determine the effects of excess fluid removed by HD on the CV system.

Methods: A total of 52 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who had just started HD were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1806-9282.64.04.354DOI Listing
April 2018
4 Reads

Favorable course of previously undiagnosed Methylmalonic Aciduria with Homocystinuria (cblC type) presenting with pulmonary hypertension and aHUS in a young child: a case report.

Ital J Pediatr 2018 Aug 13;44(1):90. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Florence, Anna Meyer Children's University Hospital, 50139, Florence, Italy.

Background: Cobalamin C (cblC) defect is the most common inborn error of Vitamin B12 metabolism often causing severe neurological, renal, gastrointestinal and hematological symptoms. Onset with pulmonary hypertension (PAH) and atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome (aHUS) is rare.

Case Presentation: We describe the case of a 2-years old child, previously in good health, admitted to the hospital with severe respiratory symptoms, rapid worsening of clinical conditions, O desaturation and palmo-plantar edema. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13052-018-0530-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6205155PMC
August 2018
6 Reads

Uremia induces upregulation of cerebral tissue oxidative/inflammatory cascade, down-regulation of Nrf2 pathway and disruption of blood brain barrier.

Am J Transl Res 2018 15;10(7):2137-2147. Epub 2018 Jul 15.

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of California Irvine, USA.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) results in various central nervous systems (CNS) disorders including cognitive dysfunction, depression, anxiety, movement disorders, seizures and encephalopathy. Uremic retention products, oxidative stress, inflammation and impaired blood-brain barrier have been implicated as the major mediators of CKD-induced CNS disorders. However, mechanisms of CKD-induced cerebral tissue oxidative stress, inflammation and impaired blood brain barrier have not been fully elucidated and were explored. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6079125PMC
July 2018
10 Reads

Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome after Augmentation Cystoplasty in a Child with Neurogenic Bladder.

J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg 2018 Jul-Sep;23(3):158-160

Department of Pediatric Surgery, SKIMS, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) or leukoencephalopathy syndrome was introduced into clinical practice in 1996 by Hinchey ., to describe unique syndrome, clinically expressed during hypertensive and uremic encephalopathy, eclampsia, and immunosuppressive therapy. Hyperperfusion with resultant disruption of the blood-brain barrier results in vasogenic edema, but not infarction, most commonly in the parieto-occipital regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_204_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6042172PMC
July 2018
4 Reads

The Impact of Uremic Toxins on Cerebrovascular and Cognitive Disorders.

Toxins (Basel) 2018 07 22;10(7). Epub 2018 Jul 22.

MP3CV, EA7517, CURS, Jules Verne University of Picardie, 80054 Amiens, France.

Individuals at all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a higher risk of developing cognitive disorders and dementia. Stroke is also highly prevalent in this population and is associated with a higher risk of neurological deterioration, in-hospital mortality, and poor functional outcomes. Evidence from in vitro studies and in vivo animal experiments suggests that accumulation of uremic toxins may contribute to the pathogenesis of stroke and amplify vascular damage, leading to cognitive disorders and dementia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins10070303DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6071092PMC
July 2018
3 Reads

Recurrent posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome with cerebellar involvement leading to acute hydrocephalus.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2018 Sep 5;172:120-123. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Department of Pediatrics, Saint George Hospital University Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon.

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome or PRES is a proposed cliniconeuroradiological entity that is characterized by headache, confusion, seizure, cortical visual disturbances or even blindness and, to a lesser extent, focal neurological signs. The etiology of this entity includes a sudden increase in blood pressure, renal failure, immunosuppressive drugs, infections, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Classically, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings show a symmetric reversible vasogenic edema in the parietooccipital lobes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2018.07.005DOI Listing
September 2018
13 Reads

[Strategies of interventing complications in hemodialysis with classical prescriptions from clinical cases].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2018 Jun;43(12):2470-2473

Putuo Clinical Medical College Affiliated Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200062, China.

There are 400 thousand patients with long-term hemodialysis in China nowadays. Hemodialysis, as the most common alternative to renal replacement therapy, prolongs the life span of patients with end stage renal failure. However, there are still many complications of hemodialysis treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20180115.001DOI Listing
June 2018
3 Reads

Thrombomodulin and Endothelial Dysfunction: A Disease-Modifier Shared between Malignant Hypertension and Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome.

Nephron 2018 25;140(1):63-73. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Renal Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.

Thrombomodulin (TM) is an endothelial glycoprotein that is present in all blood vessels. Five percent of all patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) have mutations in the gene coding for TM, with a peak presentation in young children. Mutations often translate into quantitative and qualitative abnormalities of this endothelial glycoprotein. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000490201DOI Listing
June 2018
1 Read

Genotype-phenotype correlations of low-frequency variants in the complement system in renal disease and age-related macular degeneration.

Clin Genet 2018 Oct 10;94(3-4):330-338. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Department of Ophthalmology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Genetic alterations in the complement system have been linked to a variety of diseases, including atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), C3 glomerulopathy (C3G), and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We performed sequence analysis of the complement genes complement factor H (CFH), complement factor I (CFI), and complement C3 (C3) in 866 aHUS/C3G and 697 AMD patients. In total, we identified 505 low-frequency alleles, representing 121 unique variants, of which 51 are novel. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.13392DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6175426PMC
October 2018
5 Reads

An outbreak of hemolytic uremic syndrome in southern Romania during 2015-2016: Epidemiologic, clinical, laboratory, microbiologic, therapeutic and outcome characteristics.

Pediatr Neonatol 2019 02 8;60(1):87-94. Epub 2018 May 8.

Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit, Soroka University Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: To describe the epidemiologic, clinical, microbiological, therapeutic and outcome characteristics of a HUS outbreak occurring in southern Romania from 2015 to 2016.

Methods: We retrospectively collected data from the medical records of all HUS cases hospitalized at the pediatric nephrology department of Marie Curie Children's Hospital of Bucharest, Romania.

Results: There were 32 HUS cases (19 girls/13 boys, 87. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pedneo.2018.04.011DOI Listing
February 2019
7 Reads

Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome.

Pediatr Clin North Am 2018 06;65(3):509-525

Division of Hematology, Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA. Electronic address:

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare life-threatening disease of unregulated complement activation. Untreated, the prognosis is generally poor; more than one-half of patients die or develop end-stage renal disease within 1 year. Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is characterized by thrombotic microangiopathy with evidence of hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and renal impairment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pcl.2018.02.003DOI Listing
June 2018
5 Reads

Seizures, Antiepileptic Drugs, and CKD.

Am J Kidney Dis 2019 Jan 18;73(1):90-101. Epub 2018 May 18.

Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, PA. Electronic address:

There are 2 major categories of patients with seizures and chronic kidney disease (CKD): patients who develop acute symptomatic seizures in the setting of CKD and patients with epilepsy who at some point develop CKD. The incidence of uremic seizures with kidney failure is ∼10%. These seizures are often nonconvulsive and may mimic uremic encephalopathy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2018.03.021DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Clinical Profile and Outcome of Patients with Acute Kidney Injury Requiring Hemodialysis: Two Years' Experience at a Tertiary Hospital in Rwanda.

Biomed Res Int 2018 27;2018:1716420. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda, Rwanda.

Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring renal replacement therapy is associated with high mortality. The study assessed the impact of the introduction of hemodialysis (HD) on outcomes of patients with AKI in Rwanda.

Methods: A single center retrospective study that evaluated the clinical profile and survival outcomes of patients with AKI requiring HD [AKI-D] at a tertiary hospital in Rwanda. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/1716420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5892305PMC
October 2018
6 Reads

Overview of the role of Shiga toxins in porcine edema disease pathogenesis.

Toxicon 2018 Jun 24;148:149-154. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Instituto de Patobiología, Centro de Investigación en Ciencias Veterinarias y Agronómicas, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) have been implicated as the cause of enterotoxemias, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans and edema disease (ED) of pigs. Stx1 and Stx2 are the most common types found in association with illness, but only Stx2e is associated with disease in the animal host. Porcine edema disease is a serious affection which can lead to dead causing great losses of weaned piglets. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00410101183016
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2018.04.019DOI Listing
June 2018
10 Reads

Uremic encephalopathy in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta): A case report and a brief review of the veterinary literature.

J Med Primatol 2018 Apr 25. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Southwest National Primate Research Center, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Background: Uremic encephalopathy is uncommon yet is one of the most severe complications of renal failure. We present a case of acute renal failure and associated cerebral and vascular lesions consistent with uremic encephalopathy in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

Methods: A 14-year-old, female, specific-pathogen-free rhesus macaque presented in lateral recumbency, obtunded, severely dehydrated, and hypothermic, with severe azotemia, mild hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, increased anion gap, and hypercholesterolemia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jmp.12348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6202283PMC
April 2018
5 Reads

Oxidative stress in the brain caused by acute kidney injury.

Metab Brain Dis 2018 06 7;33(3):961-967. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Institute of Molecular Biomedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Sasinkova 4, 841 01, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Uremic encephalopathy is a severe complication of renal failure. The underlying pathogenesis is unknown although several mechanisms have been suggested. Renal failure causes oxidative stress leading to cardiovascular complications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11011-018-0204-8DOI Listing
June 2018
13 Reads

[Purple urine-bag syndrome: A case report].

Nephrol Ther 2018 May 4;14(3):172-174. Epub 2018 Feb 4.

Service de néphrologie, CHU de Yopougon, BP 632, Abidjan 21, Côte d'Ivoire.

Purple urine-bag syndrome is a rare condition that occurs in patients with indwelling urinary catheters carried over a long period and frequently associated with a urinary tract infection. It is characterized by the appearance of a violet coloration of the probe and/or the urine collection bag. We report the first case in West Africa that occurred in a 47-year-old woman in uremic encephalopathy and carrier of a urinary catheter, which presented a violet color of the tubing and urine-bag associated with a urinary tract infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nephro.2017.11.004DOI Listing
May 2018
9 Reads

[Bardet-Biedl syndrome and Kidney failure: a case report].

G Ital Nefrol 2018 Feb;35(1)

S.C. Nefrologia e Dialisi ASLCN1, Ospedali di Ceva, Mondovì, Savigliano e Saluzzo.

Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS) is a rare multi-systemic disease with autosomal recessive transmission. BBS was at first considered to be homogeneous as for its genetics, but subsequent studies have shown an extensive gene variability. Currently, 21 genes (BBS1-21) present on different chromosomes have been mapped: these genes are responsible for BBS phenotypes and they show a great heterogeneity of mutations. Read More

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February 2018
5 Reads

Neurological variability in chemotherapy-induced posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome associated with thrombotic microangiopathy: Case reports and literature review.

Mol Clin Oncol 2018 Jan 2;8(1):178-182. Epub 2017 Nov 2.

Department of Oncology and Neurology, Leslie and Michael Gaffin Center for Neuro-Oncology, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem 91120, Israel.

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical syndrome characterized by headaches, seizures, a confusional state and visual disturbances associated with transient predominantly bilateral posterior white mater magnetic resonance imaging lesions. It is primarily reported in the setting of hypertension, acute renal failure, peripartum eclampsia, autoimmune disease, immunosuppression and chemotherapy. Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), including hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) has also been reported as potential PRES inducer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mco.2017.1476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5768066PMC
January 2018
12 Reads

Excitotoxicity in encephalopathy associated with STEC O-157 infection.

Brain Dev 2018 Apr 14;40(4):357-360. Epub 2017 Dec 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Women's Medical University Yachiyo Medical Center, Yachiyo, Japan. Electronic address:

Cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of the severe complications of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and acute encephalopathy. A 3-year-old boy with acute encephalopathy associated with STEC O-157 HUS showed increased levels of IL-6 and IL-10, which normalized after methylprednisolone pulse therapy, and additionally exhibited a transient increase of glutamine on MR spectroscopy. This finding suggests that excitotoxicity, in addition to hypercytokinemia, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of HUS encephalopathy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2017.11.008DOI Listing
April 2018
11 Reads

[Screening for newborn organic aciduria in Zhejiang province:prevalence, outcome and follow-up].

Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2017 May;46(3):240-247

Department of Genetics and Metabolic Diseases, the Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Neonatal Screening Center of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310003, China.

Objective: To analyze the results and follow up data of screening for newborn organic aciduria in Zhejiang province.

Methods: The results and follow-up data of 1 861 262 newborns from Zhejiang province undergoing screening for organic aciduria during January 2009 and December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. The acylcarnitine spectrum in urine samples was detected by tandem mass spectrum (MS/MS) and the positive patients were confirmed by urine gas chromatography mass spectrometry and/or gene analysis. Read More

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May 2017
19 Reads

Nutritional and systemic metabolic disorders.

Handb Clin Neurol 2017 ;145:167-173

Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany.

Vitamin deficiency disorders display a wide variety of neurologic signs and symptoms, the pathogenesis of which is not clearly understood. Metabolic encephalopathies (hepatic, hypoglycemic, and uremic) have to be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with cognitive impairment, motor disturbances, psychiatric symptoms, seizures, and neuropathies. Calcifications (vascular wall and parenchymal) occur in the normal aging brain and in neurodegeneration; some associated genes are already described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-802395-2.00012-2DOI Listing
January 2018
10 Reads

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome-associated Encephalopathy Successfully Treated with Corticosteroids.

Intern Med 2017 Nov 25;56(21):2937-2941. Epub 2017 Sep 25.

Department of Neurology, Division of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Japan.

The encephalopathy that occurs in association with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which is caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (E. coli), has a high mortality rate and patients sometimes present sequelae. We herein describe the case of a 20-year-old woman who developed encephalopathy during the convalescent stage of HUS caused by E. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.8341-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5709643PMC
November 2017
23 Reads

Acute Generalized Chorea as Presenting Manifestation of Uremic Encephalopathy.

J Neurosci Rural Pract 2017 Aug;8(Suppl 1):S156-S158

Department of Neurology, MS Ramaiah Medical College and Hospital, Bengaluru - 560 054, Karnataka, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_158_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5602251PMC
August 2017
5 Reads

Emergency medicine evaluation and management of the end stage renal disease patient.

Am J Emerg Med 2017 Dec 5;35(12):1946-1955. Epub 2017 Sep 5.

Joint Base Elmendorf Richardson Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, 5955 Zeamer Ave, JBER, AK, 99506, United States.

Background: End stage renal disease (ESRD) is increasing in the U.S., and these patients demonstrate greater all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization rates when compared to those with normal renal function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2017.09.002DOI Listing
December 2017
17 Reads

Beyond stroke-uncommon causes of diffusion restriction in the basal ganglia.

Emerg Radiol 2018 Feb 4;25(1):87-92. Epub 2017 Sep 4.

Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, PO Box 648, Rochester, NY, 14642, USA.

In the emergency setting, a regional area of restricted diffusion involving the basal ganglia typically represents an acute infarct due to small vessel occlusion. However, it is important to consider additional differentials, specifically systemic causes. This article will review anatomy of the basal ganglia and pertinent associated vasculature, followed by other entities that can be a cause of restricted diffusion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10140-017-1550-2DOI Listing
February 2018
10 Reads

The nature, consequences, and management of neurological disorders in chronic kidney disease.

Hemodial Int 2018 04 11;22(2):150-160. Epub 2017 Aug 11.

Departments of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of California, Irvine, USA.

Perhaps no other organ in the body is affected as often and in as many ways as the brain is in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Several factors contribute to the neurological disorders in CKD including accumulation of uremic toxins, metabolic and hemodynamic disorders, oxidative stress, inflammation, and impaired blood brain barrier among others. The neurological disorders in CKD involve both peripheral and central nervous system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hdi.12587DOI Listing
April 2018
13 Reads