1,384,119 results match your criteria Encephalopathy Uremic


Neurological Complications of Cardiac Procedures.

Semin Neurol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.

Neurological complications after cardiac surgery and percutaneous cardiac interventions are not uncommon. These include periprocedural stroke, postoperative cognitive dysfunction after cardiac surgery, contrast-induced encephalopathy after percutaneous interventions, and seizures. In this article, we review the incidence, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of these complications. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

An analysis of the relative and absolute incidence of somatic morbidity in patients with affective disorders-A nationwide cohort study.

J Affect Disord 2021 Jun 7;292:204-211. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Center for Clinical Research and Prevention, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospitals, Nordre Fasanvej 57, 2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark; Section for Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5, Copenhagen K 1014, Denmark.

Background: Patients with affective disorder seem to experience higher risks of several somatic diseases, but no studies have provided estimates of both absolute and relative risks for these diseases in the same population.

Methods: A prospective cohort of all patients age ≥18 years old with a hospital contact with affective disorder between 1997-2014 (n=246,282) and a random sample from the background population (n=167,562) was followed for hospitalizations with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, hip fracture, psoriasis, migraine, or dementia. Adjusted absolute and relative risk estimates were calculated using multivariable adjusted Aalen's additive and Cox proportional hazard regression models. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Tumefactive demyelination appearing as multiple cystic brain lesions.

World Neurosurg 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, St. Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, 41 Victoria Pde, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065, Australia.

Tumefactive demyelinating lesions (TDL) are a rare sequalae of idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating diseases (IIDD) of the central nervous system (CNS). Their propensity to mimic tumor and abscess poses a diagnostic challenge for the clinician. Our case depicts TDL causing right hand focal sensory seizures in an otherwise healthy 35-year-old female. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Microglia, synaptic dynamics and forgetting.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Center of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, And Department of Neurology of Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310058, China. Electronic address:

Microglia are the major immune cells in the brain parenchyma. Besides their immune functions, microglia are important in regulating the dynamics of synapses. It is believed that the stability of synapses is essential for long-term storage and retrieval of memories, whereas microglial regulation of synaptic dynamics could affect the stability of memories, thus providing a potential mechanism for forgetting. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Multi-cohort profiling reveals elevated CSF levels of brain-enriched proteins in Alzheimer's disease.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Division of Affinity Proteomics, Department of Protein Science, SciLifeLab, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objective: Decreased amyloid beta (Aβ) 42 together with increased tau and phospho-tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is indicative of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular pathophysiology underlying the slowly progressive cognitive decline observed in AD is not fully understood and it is not known what other CSF biomarkers may be altered in early disease stages.

Methods: We utilized an antibody-based suspension bead array to analyze levels of 216 proteins in CSF from AD patients, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and controls from two independent cohorts collected within the AETIONOMY consortium. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

What's not in the news headlines or titles of Alzheimer disease articles? #InMice.

PLoS Biol 2021 Jun 15;19(6):e3001260. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Casa de Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

There is increasing scrutiny around how science is communicated to the public. For instance, a Twitter account @justsaysinmice (with 70.4K followers in January 2021) was created to call attention to news headlines that omit that mice, not humans, are the ones for whom the study findings apply. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cladophialophora bantiana and Nocardia farcinica infection simultaneously occurring in a kidney transplant recipient: Case report and literature review.

Immun Inflamm Dis 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Division of Community Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic Jacksonville, Florida, USA.

Solid organ transplant recipients are at increased risk of acquiring devastating infections with unusual pathogens. Nocardia are aerobic actinomycetes that affect the lungs, brain, skin and soft tissue. Cladophialophora species are dematiaceous fungi that overwhelmingly cause infections in the brain. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Hepatic Encephalopathy: From Metabolic to Neurodegenerative.

Neurochem Res 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Hepato-Neuro Laboratory, CRCHUM, Université de Montréal, 900, rue Saint-Denis Pavillon R, R08.422, Montreal, QC, H2X-0A9, Canada.

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome of both acute and chronic liver disease. As a metabolic disorder, HE is considered to be reversible and therefore is expected to resolve following the replacement of the diseased liver with a healthy liver. However, persisting neurological complications are observed in up to 47% of transplanted patients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Role of lactulose for prophylaxis against hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhotic patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding: A randomized trial.

Indian J Gastroenterol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

NKC Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Songklanagarind Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand.

Background: We aimed to assess the efficacy of lactulose as prophylaxis against hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in cirrhotic patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB).

Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, multicenter study from October 2012 to February 2014. Cirrhotic patients presenting with AUGIB (aged 18-80 years, without HE at the time of admission) were enrolled and randomized to receive blinded medications (both physically indistinguishable), labeled "Lactulose A" and "Lactulose B" for 5 days along with standard treatment depending on the type of bleeding (variceal and nonvariceal). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Neuropathology of dementia].

Wien Med Wochenschr 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Abteilung für Neuropathologie und Neurochemie, Universitätsklinik für Neurologie, Medizinischer Universitätscampus Wien, Ebene 4J, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090, Wien, Österreich.

Dementia is the clinical consequence of various neurological disorders with a multitude of etiologies. Precise knowledge of the underlying pathologies is essential for an accurate treatment of patients and for the development of suitable disease biomarkers. A definite diagnosis of many of the disorders, particularly for neurodegenerative ones, can only be made after a thorough postmortem neuropathological examination. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Probenecid increases renal retention and antitumor activity of DFMO in neuroblastoma.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Pediatrics and Human Development, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, 400 Monroe Ave, NW, Grand Rapids, MI, 49503, USA.

Background: Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. Interference with the polyamine biosynthesis pathway by inhibition of MYCN-activated ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is a validated approach. The ODC inhibitor α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO, or Eflornithine) has been FDA-approved for the treatment of trypanosomiasis and hirsutism and has advanced to clinical cancer trials including NB as well as cancer-unrelated human diseases. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The effect of three-circle post standing (Zhanzhuang) qigong on the physical and psychological well-being of college students: A randomized controlled trial.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(24):e26368

Department of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.

Background: Qigong has a long-term application by integration of mind, breath and body to prevent and cure diseases. Researches show that qigong practice could adjust anxiety, the mechanism may found on brain and heart functions. Currently there are limitations on qigong's anxiety-release mechanism study between mind and body, and existing studies lack of evidence on electrophysiology research. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Efficacy of erythropoietin alone in treatment of neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(24):e26365

Neonatal Medicine, Shanxi Children's Hospital, Shanxi, China.

Background: Multiple clinical trials have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of erythropoietin in improving neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). It is undoubtedly urgent to include only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for more standardized systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The purpose of this study is to examine whether erythropoietin reduces the risk of death and improve neurodevelopmental disorders in infants with HIE. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Brain-gut axis dysfunction in the pathogenesis of traumatic brain injury.

J Clin Invest 2021 Jun;131(12)

Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a chronic and progressive disease, and management requires an understanding of both the primary neurological injury and the secondary sequelae that affect peripheral organs, including the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The brain-gut axis is composed of bidirectional pathways through which TBI-induced neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration impact gut function. The resulting TBI-induced dysautonomia and systemic inflammation contribute to the secondary GI events, including dysmotility and increased mucosal permeability. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The cryptic gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal system of human basal ganglia.

Elife 2021 Jun 15;10. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Laboratory of Reproductive Neurobiology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Budapest, Hungary.

Human reproduction is controlled by ~2,000 hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. Here we report the discovery and characterization of additional ~150,000-200,000 GnRH-synthesizing cells in the human basal ganglia and basal forebrain. Nearly all extrahypothalamic GnRH neurons expressed the cholinergic marker enzyme choline acetyltransferase. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Bariatric surgery and cognitive impairment.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Surgery, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA.

Bariatric surgery has been shown to improve cognition in patients with severe obesity. Bariatric surgery may improve mental function in patient populations with obesity and with cognitive impairment, including nonacquired, dementia, and traumatic brain injury, although studies have been limited. Bariatric surgery provides an opportunity to explore the effects of obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemias, and other expressions of metabolic syndrome on cognition. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Two-Week Cervical Vagus Nerve Stimulation in Chronic Pancreatitis Patients Induces Functional Connectivity Changes of Limbic Structures.

Neuromodulation 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Mech-Sense, Department of Radiology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark.

Objectives: Noninvasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) has not only shown antinociceptive effects, but also demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antidepressant effects. These effects could be beneficial in chronic pancreatitis (CP) patients suffering from chronic abdominal pain, even though the underlying central mechanisms remain unclear. The aim was to investigate the effect of cervical nVNS in patients with painful CP on brain functional connectivity and cerebral metabolites. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Developing Neuroimaging Biomarker for Brain Diseases with a Machine Learning Framework and the Brainnetome Atlas.

Neurosci Bull 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Brainnetome Center, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China.

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Therapeutic potential of ginsenoside Rg3 and Rf for Huntington's disease.

In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Neurology, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-744, South Korea.

Ginseng is a popular herbal medicine and known to have protective and therapeutic effects in various diseases. Ginsenosides are active gradients representing the diverse pharmacological efficacy of ginseng. Huntington's disease (HD) is incurable genetic disorder associated with mutant huntingtin (mHtt) aggregation in the central nervous system. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Implications of Synthetic Modifications of the Cardiotonic Steroid Lactone Ring on Cytotoxicity.

J Membr Biol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Laboratório de Bioquímica Celular, Universidade Federal de São João del Rei, Campus Centro Oeste Dona Lindu, Av Sebastião Gonçalves Coelho, 400, Bairro Chanadour, Divinópolis, MG, 35501-296, Brazil.

Na,K-ATPase (NKA) and cardiotonic steroids (CTS) have shown potent cytotoxic and anticancer effects. Here, we have synthesized a series of CTS digoxin derivatives (γ-benzylidene) with substitutions in the lactone ring and evaluated the cytotoxicity caused by digoxin derivatives in tumor and non-tumor cells lines, as well as their effects on NKA. The cytotoxicity assay was determined in HeLa, A549, and WI-26 VA4 after they were treated for 48 h with increased concentrations of CTS. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Structure of Tau filaments in Prion protein amyloidoses.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.

In human neurodegenerative diseases associated with the intracellular aggregation of Tau protein, the ordered cores of Tau filaments adopt distinct folds. Here, we analyze Tau filaments isolated from the brain of individuals affected by Prion-Protein cerebral amyloid angiopathy (PrP-CAA) with a nonsense mutation in the PRNP gene that leads to early termination of translation of PrP (Q160Ter or Q160X), and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) disease, with a missense mutation in the PRNP gene that leads to an amino acid substitution at residue 198 (F198S) of PrP. The clinical and neuropathologic phenotypes associated with these two mutations in PRNP are different; however, the neuropathologic analyses of these two genetic variants have consistently shown the presence of numerous neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) made of filamentous Tau aggregates in neurons. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Innate immunity stimulation via CpG oligodeoxynucleotides ameliorates Alzheimer's disease pathology in aged squirrel monkeys.

Brain 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Center for Cognitive Neurology and Department of Neurology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.

Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia and the only illness among the top 10 causes of death for which there is no disease-modifying therapy. The failure rate of clinical trials is very high, in part due to the premature translation of successful results in transgenic mouse models to patients. Extensive evidence suggests that dysregulation of innate immunity and microglia/macrophages plays a key role in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Review of Neurofeedback Training for Improving Sport Performance From the Perspective of User Experience.

Front Neurosci 2021 28;15:638369. Epub 2021 May 28.

School of Automation and Information Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, China.

Neurofeedback training (NFT) is a non-invasive, safe, and effective method of regulating the nerve state of the brain. Presently, NFT is widely used to prevent and rehabilitate brain diseases and improve an individual's external performance. Among the various NFT methods, NFT to improve sport performance (SP-NFT) has become an important research and application focus worldwide. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Fungal brain infection modelled in a human-neurovascular-unit-on-a-chip with a functional blood-brain barrier.

Nat Biomed Eng 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

The neurovascular unit, which consists of vascular cells surrounded by astrocytic end-feet and neurons, controls cerebral blood flow and the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to maintain homeostasis in the neuronal milieu. Studying how some pathogens and drugs can penetrate the human BBB and disrupt neuronal homeostasis requires in vitro microphysiological models of the neurovascular unit. Here we show that the neurotropism of Cryptococcus neoformans-the most common pathogen causing fungal meningitis-and its ability to penetrate the BBB can be modelled by the co-culture of human neural stem cells, brain microvascular endothelial cells and brain vascular pericytes in a human-neurovascular-unit-on-a-chip maintained by a stepwise gravity-driven unidirectional flow and recapitulating the structural and functional features of the BBB. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Association between aphasia severity and brain network alterations after stroke assessed using the electroencephalographic phase synchrony index.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 14;11(1):12469. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Neurorehabilitation Research Institute, Morinomiya Hospital, Osaka, 536-0025, Japan.

Electroencephalographic synchrony can help assess brain network status; however, its usefulness has not yet been fully proven. We developed a clinically feasible method that combines the phase synchrony index (PSI) with resting-state 19-channel electroencephalography (EEG) to evaluate post-stroke motor impairment. In this study, we investigated whether our method could be applied to aphasia, a common post-stroke cognitive impairment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[The Diagnosis of Cauda Equina Lesion from the Radiological Aspect].

Brain Nerve 2021 Jun;73(6):697-714

Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine.

The cauda equina itself is an unsuitable site for radiological diagnostic imaging because the cauda equina is anatomically a small structure, and magnetic resonance imaging is of limited value to accurately detect lesions in this area. Therefore, in addition to the imaging findings of the cauda equina itself, it is necessary to consider findings in the spinal cord and other areas, as well as clinically correlate these data. In this article, we discuss diseases that cause cauda equina disorders and describe the characteristic imaging findings in such cases. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Intermittent Claudication Secondary to Spine and/or Spinal Cord Diseases].

Authors:
Toshio Fukutake

Brain Nerve 2021 Jun;73(6):671-683

Department of Neurology, Kameda Medical Center.

Currently, intermittent claudication is classified into the vascular (mainly secondary to peripheral arterial disease) and neurogenic (mainly secondary to lumbar canal stenosis) types. Intermittent claudication due to spinovascular insufficiency (myelopathy) has rarely been reported since it was first described by J. Dejerine in 1894. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Artificial intelligence in neurodegenerative diseases: A review of available tools with a focus on machine learning techniques.

Artif Intell Med 2021 Jul 30;117:102081. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, United States. Electronic address:

Neurodegenerative diseases have shown an increasing incidence in the older population in recent years. A significant amount of research has been conducted to characterize these diseases. Computational methods, and particularly machine learning techniques, are now very useful tools in helping and improving the diagnosis as well as the disease monitoring process. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Multiparametric MRI Protocol for Evaluation of Cognitive Insufficiency, Dementia and Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): A Case Series.

CNS Spectr 2021 Apr;26(2):179

Colorado Springs Neurological Associates, Colorado Springs, CO, USA.

Background: The purpose of this work was to determine the extent to which a multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to patients with dementia and/or traumatic brain injury (TBI) can help to determine the most likely diagnosis and the prognosis of these patients.

Objective: Volumetric brain MRI alone is recognized as a useful imaging tool to differentiate behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) from the more common Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our objective is to create a protocol that will provide additional non-standard, objective imaging data that can be utilized clinically to distinguish common and uncommon forms of dementia and TBI. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Clinical Pharmacology of Hyperammonemia by Sodium Valproate and Carbamazepine in People Living with HIV.

CNS Spectr 2021 Apr;26(2):143

Argentine Society of Neuropsychopharmacology, Buenos Aires City, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Introduction: Hyperammonaemia (HA) is observed in decompensated liver disease. The picture of hyperammonemic encephalopathy in non-cirrhotic patients was reported mostly associated with valproic acid. There are few reports of hyperammonemia in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) and they are associated with other comorbidities and few with antiretrovirals (HAART), but not as adverse drug reactions associated with psychotropic drugs associated with the virus. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF