1,221,936 results match your criteria Encephalopathy Uremic


Headache in Pregnancy, the Puerperium, and menopause.

Semin Neurol 2018 Dec 6;38(6):627-633. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Neurology, University at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, The State University of New York, Buffalo, New York.

Headache is a neurologic disorder that displays gender dichotomy. It is well established that there is a strong link between migraine headache and sex hormones, specifically estrogen, which influences the severity of migraines during the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and menopause. Furthermore, the epidemiology of headaches during pregnancy and the postpartum period is very distinct from that in males or nonpregnant females, in part due to the hemodynamic and hematologic changes that occur during pregnancy. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Early-Stage Translational Research in Perinatal Medicine.

Neonatology 2018 Dec 6;115(2):182-188. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New

Background: Pre-clinical research, which encompasses studies in animals and in the laboratory, has made significant contributions to the improvement of neonatal outcomes.

Methods: Here, we describe examples of how pre-clinical research can be the starting point on the journey to the development of new interventions to improve neonatal care and outcomes and discuss recent progress in ensuring methodological and ethical rigour in pre-clinical research involving animal models.

Results: Studies in pregnant sheep led to the serendipitous discovery that preterm lambs born after exogenous corticosteroid exposure were able to aerate their lungs. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

Prediction of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in the diagnosis and progression of autoimmune encephalitis.

Neurosci Lett 2018 Dec 3;694:129-135. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Neurology, Shandong Provincial Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Jing Wu Road, Huaiyin District, Jinan, 250021, Shandong, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Autoimmune encephalitis (AIE) is a group of inflammatory disorders of the brain. The severity of AIE vary among individuals and it is always a challenge to predict. In this study, we measured the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a novel potential biomarker of inflammatory status in other inflammatory diseases, in AIE patients and evaluated NLR as a biomarker for monitoring AIE progression. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Downregulation of RTN1-C attenuates MPP-induced neuronal injury through inhibition of mGluR5 pathway in SN4741 cells.

Brain Res Bull 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Encephalopathy, Shaanxi Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710003, China. Electronic address:

Reticulons (RTNs) are a group of membrane-bound proteins that are dominantly localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). RTN1-C, one isoform of RTNs highly expressed in the brain, has been shown to mediate neuronal injury in cerebral ischemia models. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RTN1-C in an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease (PD) mimicked by 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP) treatment in SN4741 cells. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

The allosteric dopamine D1 receptor potentiator, DETQ, ameliorates subchronic phencyclidine-induced object recognition memory deficits and enhances cortical acetylcholine efflux in male humanized D1 receptor knock-in mice.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.

Diminished dopamine D1 stimulation may contribute to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, schizophrenia, and other neuropsychiatric disorders. However, orthosteric D1 receptor (D1R) agonists produce receptor desensitization and an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve, but positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) do not. We examined the cognitive effects of DETQ, a D1R PAM, in mice genetically modified to express the human D1 receptor ("hD1 mice"). Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Oxidation of cystatin imparted by riboflavin generated free radicals: Spectral analysis.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of life sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP 202002, India. Electronic address:

Thiol Protease inhibitors (cystatins) are endogenous natural inhibitors of cysteine proteases. They are present in all mammalians cells and body fluids. Cystatin are allocated into three major families. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Classic Psychedelics: An integrative review of epidemiology, mystical experience, brain network function, and therapeutics.

Pharmacol Ther 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.

The purpose of this paper is to provide an integrative review and offer novel insights regarding human research with classic psychedelics (classic hallucinogens), which are 5HT2AR agonists such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin. Classic psychedelics have been administered as sacraments since ancient times. They were of prominent interest within psychiatry and neuroscience in the 1950s to 1960s, and during this time contributed to the emergence of the field of molecular neuroscience. Read More

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December 2018
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Comparison of brain magnetic resonance imaging between myotonic dystrophy type 1 and cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208620. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Neurology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Anterior temporal lobe hyperintensities detected by brain MRI are a recognized imaging hallmark of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). Because similar findings may be present in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), the brain MRI in these two diseases is often misinterpreted. We compared the MRI findings between the two entities to examine whether they display distinctive characteristics. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Bayesian adaptive dual control of deep brain stimulation in a computational model of Parkinson's disease.

PLoS Comput Biol 2018 Dec 6;14(12):e1006606. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America.

In this paper, we present a novel Bayesian adaptive dual controller (ADC) for autonomously programming deep brain stimulation devices. We evaluated the Bayesian ADC's performance in the context of reducing beta power in a computational model of Parkinson's disease, in which it was tasked with finding the set of stimulation parameters which optimally reduced beta power as fast as possible. Here, the Bayesian ADC has dual goals: (a) to minimize beta power by exploiting the best parameters found so far, and (b) to explore the space to find better parameters, thus allowing for better control in the future. Read More

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December 2018

Inflammatory and Infectious Syndromes Associated with Cancer Immunotherapies.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Immunotherapy using antibodies to immune checkpoint molecules or targeted chimeric antigen receptor-modified T (CAR-T) cells represent dramatic advances in cancer treatment. These therapies mediate immune-related adverse events (irAEs) which may mimic or amplify infectious presentations. Checkpoint inhibitor therapy may be associated with diverse irAEs including mild skin, endocrine and autoimmune manifestations or severe inflammatory processes including colitis, pneumonitis, myocarditis, and shock. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Impaired Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction in a Mouse Model of Leigh Syndrome.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Anesthesia, Massachusetts General Hospital, United States.

Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is a physiological vasomotor response that maintains systemic oxygenation by matching perfusion to ventilation during alveolar hypoxia. Although mitochondria appear to play an essential role in HPV, the impact of mitochondrial dysfunction on HPV remains incompletely defined. Mice lacking the mitochondrial complex I (CI) subunit Ndufs4 (Ndufs4-/-) develop a fatal progressive encephalopathy and serve as a model for Leigh syndrome, the most common mitochondrial disease in children. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii clinical isolates from Thailand display diverse phenotypic interactions with macrophages.

Virulence 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

a Department of Medical Technology, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences , Thammasat University , Pathumthani 12120 Thailand.

Cryptococcus-macrophage interaction is crucial in the development of cryptococcocal diseases. C. neoformans and C. Read More

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December 2018

Ultra high field Imaging of Myelin Disease Models: Towards Specific Markers of Myelin Integrity?

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 06, Brain and Spine Institute, ICM, Hôpital de la Pitié Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

Specific Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) markers of myelin are critical for the evaluation and development of regenerative therapies for demyelinating diseases. Several MRI methods have been developed for myelin imaging, based either on acquisition schemes or on mathematical modeling of the signal. They generally showed good sensitivity but validation for specificity towards myelin is still warranted to allow a reliable interpretation in an in vivo complex pathological environment. Read More

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December 2018

Central PRES (posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome) in HELLP syndrome.

Intern Emerg Med 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Neuroradiology, Erasme Hospital, University of Brussels (ULB), Route de Lennik 808, 1070, Brussels, Belgium.

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December 2018

Fatty acids and selected endocannabinoids content in cerebrospinal fluids from patients with neuroinfections.

Metab Brain Dis 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.

Neuroinfections are a significant medical problem and can have serious health consequences for patients. Their outcome, if not fatal, can be associated with permanent residual deficits. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination is commonly used for meningitis confirmation. Read More

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December 2018
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Severe Familial Hypertriglyceridemia: Successful Treatment With Insulin and a Modified Meal Plan.

J Endocr Soc 2018 Dec 1;2(12):1357-1362. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Context: Mutations in genes encoding the lipoprotein lipase enzyme, its cofactor, or transport proteins can cause severe familial hypertriglyceridemia, resulting in serious complications, such as severe pancreatitis, hepatosplenomegaly, lipid encephalopathy, and failure to thrive. Current treatment includes a low-saturated-fat formula enriched with high medium-chain triglyceride (TGs), oral fibrates, omega-3 fatty acids, or plasmapheresis.

Case Description: A 71-day-old infant with very severe hypertriglyceridemia and recurrent pancreatitis associated with a likely pathogenic variant in the gene was treated successfully with insulin infusion and a locally prepared low-fat formula feed after stopping breast milk. Read More

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December 2018
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Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Presenting as Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus.

Case Rep Neurol Med 2018 4;2018:3092018. Epub 2018 Nov 4.

Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, University of Tartu, Estonia.

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare, rapidly progressive spongiform encephalopathy in humans. EEG plays an important role in diagnosing this disease. In some patients, epileptic activity and encephalopathy from various aetiologies may share morphological features on EEG. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Assessment of survival in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis using quantitative HRCT indexes.

Multidiscip Respir Med 2018 1;13:43. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

1Regional Referral Centre for Rare Lung Diseases, A.O.U. Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, via Santa Sofia 78, Catania, Italy.

Background: The assessment of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) using HRCT requires great experience and is limited by a significant inter-observer variability, even between trained radiologists. The evaluation of HRCT through automated quantitative analysis may hopefully solve this problem. The accuracy of CT-histogram derived indexes in the assessment of survival in IPF patients has been poorly studied. Read More

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December 2018

Risk Assessment of Etanercept in Mice Chronically Infected With .

Front Microbiol 2018 21;9:2822. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

() is a zoonotic parasite that severely harms the health of the host. The cysts of can reactivate from bradyzoites to tachyzoites, if the individual develops low or defective immunity, causing lethal toxoplasmosis. The host resists infection by mediating Th1-type cellular immunity to generate pro-inflammatory cytokines. Read More

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November 2018

Human pharmacology of positive GABA-A subtype-selective receptor modulators for the treatment of anxiety.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Centre for Human Drug Research, Leiden, 2333 CL, The Netherlands.

Anxiety disorders arise from disruptions among the highly interconnected circuits that normally serve to process the streams of potentially threatening stimuli. The resulting imbalance among these circuits can cause a fundamental misinterpretation of neural sensory information as threatening and can lead to the inappropriate emotional and behavioral responses observed in anxiety disorders. There is considerable preclinical evidence that the GABAergic system, in general, and its α2- and/or α5-subunit-containing GABA(A) receptor subtypes, in particular, are involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders. Read More

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December 2018

Fluid restriction in moderate and severe hypoxemic-ischemic encephalopathy: more evidence is needed.

Authors:
Jogender Kumar

J Perinatol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Neonatology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur (Raj.), India.

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December 2018

Zhongfenggao protects brain microvascular endothelial cells from oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation-induced injury by angiogenesis.

Biol Pharm Bull 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of encephalopathy, Gansu Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

Zhongfenggao (ZFG) is prescribed for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases in critical projects of the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. ZFG has been found to nourish qi, activate blood circulation, remove blood stasis, dredge collaterals, and strengthen the brain and mind. The present study investigated the effects of ZFG on oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) induced injury to brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), and the mechanisms underlying such effects. Read More

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December 2018

Epigenetic dysregulation of Oxtr in Tet1-deficient mice has implications for neuropsychiatric disorders.

JCI Insight 2018 Dec 6;3(23). Epub 2018 Dec 6.

University Program in Genetics and Genomics and.

OXTR modulates a variety of behaviors in mammals, including social memory and recognition. Genetic and epigenetic dysregulation of OXTR has been suggested to be implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While the involvement of DNA methylation is suggested, the mechanism underlying epigenetic regulation of OXTR is largely unknown. Read More

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December 2018

Murine -linked hydrocephalus is caused by hyperpermeability of the choroid plexus.

EMBO Mol Med 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Cardeza Center for Vascular Biology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Though congenital hydrocephalus is heritable, it has been linked only to eight genes, one of which is Humans and mice that carry a truncated version of MPDZ incur severe hydrocephalus resulting in acute morbidity and lethality. We show by magnetic resonance imaging that contrast medium penetrates into the brain ventricles of mice carrying a loss-of-function mutation, whereas none is detected in the ventricles of normal mice, implying that the permeability of the choroid plexus epithelial cell monolayer is abnormally high. Comparative proteomic analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid of normal and hydrocephalic mice revealed up to a 53-fold increase in protein concentration, suggesting that transcytosis through the choroid plexus epithelial cells of KO mice is substantially higher than in normal mice. Read More

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December 2018
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Multi-Study Proteomic and Bioinformatic Identification of Molecular Overlap between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA).

Brain Sci 2018 Dec 4;8(12). Epub 2018 Dec 4.

School of Medicine, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK.

Unravelling the complex molecular pathways responsible for motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) remains a persistent challenge. Interest is growing in the potential molecular similarities between these two diseases, with the hope of better understanding disease pathology for the guidance of therapeutic development. The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative analysis of published proteomic studies of ALS and SMA, seeking commonly dysregulated molecules to be prioritized as future therapeutic targets. Read More

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December 2018
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Pseudane-VII Regulates LPS-Induced Neuroinflammation in Brain Microglia Cells through the Inhibition of iNOS Expression.

Molecules 2018 Dec 4;23(12). Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Life Science, Immunology Research Lab, BK21-plus Research Team for Bioactive Control Technology, College of Natural Sciences, Chosun University, Dong-gu, Gwangju 61452, Korea.

We previously isolated pseudane-VII from the secondary metabolites of sp. M2 in marine water, and demonstrated its anti-inflammatory efficacy on macrophages. However, the molecular mechanism by which pseudane-VII suppresses neuroinflammation has not yet been elucidated in brain microglia. Read More

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December 2018
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Using the Probability of Cesarean from a Validated Cesarean Prediction Calculator to Predict Labor Length and Morbidity.

Am J Perinatol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Maternal and Child Health Research Center, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Objective:  To determine if increasing predicted risk of cesarean was associated with longer labor length and increased morbidity among women undergoing induction with an unfavorable cervix.

Study Design:  Using a publically available database, we evaluated whether a previously validated prediction model for cesarean delivery after induction was associated with labor length, maternal morbidity (third-/fourth-degree lacerations, endometritis, blood transfusion, wound infection, venous thromboembolism, hysterectomy, intensive care unit admission, and death), and neonatal morbidity (blood transfusion, encephalopathy, intraventricular hemorrhage, severe respiratory distress syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis). Full-term (≥37 weeks) singleton gestations with intact membranes and an unfavorable cervix (Bishop score ≤6 and dilation ≤2 cm) undergoing induction of labor were included. Read More

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December 2018

Preliminary validation of natural depression in macaques with acute treatments of the fast-acting antidepressant ketamine.

Authors:
Xunxun Chu

Behav Brain Res 2018 Nov 30;360:60-68. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Interdisciplinary Institute of Neuroscience and Technology, Qiushi Academy for Advanced Studies, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310012, PR China; Center for Neuroscience, Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of the Ministry of Health of China, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, PR China. Electronic address:

Non-human primates have become one of the most important model animals for the investigation of brain diseases because they share a wide-range of genetics and social similarities with human beings. Naturally-evoked depression models in macaques may offer a full spectrum of similarity to human depression states, but they require validation and corroboration of specific phenotypes to depression-associated states before they can be used in research into more effective interventions. It is reported here that depressed cynomolgus monkeys developed in the natural condition display higher levels of typical depressive-like huddling behavior than healthy monkeys. Read More

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November 2018

TRPV4 channels stimulate Ca-induced Ca release in mouse neurons and trigger endoplasmic reticulum stress after intracerebral hemorrhage.

Brain Res Bull 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Cerebrovascular Diseases Laboratory, Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing medical university, Chongqing, 400016, China. Electronic address:

Individuals with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) suffer varying degrees of neurological dysfunction as a result of neuronal apoptosis, and thus, maintenance of neuronal survival may be crucial to prevent ICH brain injury. Here, we report that the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) was upregulated in mouse neurons after ICH. The selective TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790 A aggravated neuronal death whereas the TRPV4 antagonist HC-067047 promoted neuronal survival after ICH. Read More

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November 2018

Age-related alteration in the distribution of methylglyoxal and its metabolic enzymes in the mouse brain.

Brain Res Bull 2018 Nov 30;144:164-170. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Analytical Biochemistry, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, 2-522-1 Noshio, Kiyose, Tokyo, 204-8588, Japan. Electronic address:

Methylglyoxal (MG) is an α-dicarbonyl compound that is naturally produced in vivo through glucose metabolism. In general, MG is metabolized by the glyoxalase 1(GLO1)/GLO2 system and aldose reductase (AR); however, excessive MG can react with proteins and nucleic acids to induce the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Recently, the accumulation of AGEs in the brain has been presumed to be related to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, respectively. Read More

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November 2018

A systematic review of physical rehabilitation interventions for stroke in low and lower-middle income countries.

Disabil Rehabil 2018 Dec 3:1-29. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

a UCD School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Population Science , University College Dublin , Dublin , Ireland.

Purpose: Approximately 70% of strokes occur in low and middle income countries, yet the effectiveness of physical rehabilitation in these contexts remains undetermined. This systematic review identifies and summarises the current evidence supporting physical rehabilitation interventions post-stroke in low and lower-middle income countries.

Methods: Five databases were comprehensively searched (April 2017) for randomised controlled trials, clinical controlled trials, and cohort studies testing rehabilitation interventions post-stroke in these countries. Read More

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December 2018

Spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) in hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP): A sham-controlled crossover study.

J Spinal Cord Med 2018 Dec 3:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

d Neurology Unit , Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico , Milan , Italy.

Objective: Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) represents a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by progressive spasticity and lower limb weakness. We assessed the effects of transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) in HSP.

Design: A double-blind, randomized, crossover and sham-controlled study. Read More

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December 2018

Distinct functional roles of Vps41-mediated neuroprotection in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease models of neurodegeneration.

Hum Mol Genet 2018 Dec;27(24):4176-4193

Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USA.

Commonalities and, in some cases, pathological overlap between neurodegenerative diseases have led to speculation that targeting of underlying mechanisms might be of potentially shared therapeutic benefit. Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the formation of plaques, composed primarily of the amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ) peptide in the brain, resulting in neurodegeneration. Previously, we have shown that overexpression of the lysosomal-trafficking protein, human Vps41 (hVps41), is neuroprotective in a transgenic worm model of Parkinson's disease, wherein progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration is induced by α-synuclein overexpression. Read More

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December 2018

Integrated clinical and omics approach to rare diseases: novel genes and oligogenic inheritance in holoprosencephaly.

Brain 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Univ Rennes, CNRS, IGDR (Institut de génétique et développement de Rennes) - UMR 6290, F-35000 Rennes, France.

Holoprosencephaly is a pathology of forebrain development characterized by high phenotypic heterogeneity. The disease presents with various clinical manifestations at the cerebral or facial levels. Several genes have been implicated in holoprosencephaly but its genetic basis remains unclear: different transmission patterns have been described including autosomal dominant, recessive and digenic inheritance. Read More

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November 2018
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Association of Cerebrospinal Fluid Neurofilament Light Protein Levels With Cognition in Patients With Dementia, Motor Neuron Disease, and Movement Disorders.

JAMA Neurol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden.

Importance: Neuronal and axonal destruction are hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases, but it is difficult to estimate the extent and progress of the damage in the disease process.

Objective: To investigate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of neurofilament light (NFL) protein, a marker of neuroaxonal degeneration, in control participants and patients with dementia, motor neuron disease, and parkinsonian disorders (determined by clinical criteria and autopsy), and determine its association with longitudinal cognitive decline.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In this case-control study, we investigated NFL levels in CSF obtained from controls and patients with several neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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December 2018

A Protocol for Transcranial Photobiomodulation Therapy in Mice.

J Vis Exp 2018 Nov 18(141). Epub 2018 Nov 18.

Neurosciences Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences;

Transcranial photobiomodulation is a potential innovative noninvasive therapeutic approach for improving brain bioenergetics, brain function in a wide range of neurological and psychiatric disorders, and memory enhancement in age-related cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases. We describe a laboratory protocol for transcranial photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) in mice. Aged BALB/c mice (18 months old) are treated with a 660 nm laser transcranially, once daily for 2 weeks. Read More

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November 2018

Cognitive function in hypothyroidism: what is that deiodinase again?

Authors:
Arturo Hernandez

J Clin Invest 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Treatment of hypothyroidism involves the endogenous conversion of thyroxine (T4) to 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and may not be optimal in some cases when based on T4 alone. In the current issue of the JCI, Jo et al. present results that explain the reduced enzymatic activity of a common genetic variant of the enzyme responsible for this conversion, type 2 deiodinase (DIO2). Read More

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December 2018

Tau Abnormalities and the Potential Therapy in Alzheimer's Disease.

J Alzheimers Dis 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

The Institute of Brain Research, Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P.R. China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases that is characterized by progressive memory loss and two main pathological hallmarks, including the extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. The microtubule-related protein tau is involved in the pathogenesis of many neurological diseases commonly known as tauopathies and is found to be abnormally hyperphosphorylated in AD and accumulated in neurons. Besides hyperphosphorylation, tau also undergoes abnormal glycosylation, ubiquitination, glycation, and other posttranslational modifications. Read More

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November 2018
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The Role of Cognitive Reserve in Alzheimer's Disease and Aging: A Multi-Modal Imaging Review.

J Alzheimers Dis 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Brain Investigation and Neuromodulation Lab, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience, Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology Section, University of Siena, Italy.

Comforts in modern society have generally been associated with longer survival rates, enabling individuals to reach advanced age as never before in history. With the increase in longevity, however, the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer's disease, has also doubled. Nevertheless, most of the observed variance, in terms of time of clinical diagnosis and progression, often remains striking. Read More

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November 2018

Advances in acoustic monitoring and control of focused ultrasound-mediated increases in blood-brain barrier permeability.

Br J Radiol 2018 Dec 3:20180601. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

1 Physical Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute , Toronto, ON , Canada.

Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) combined with intravenously circulating microbubbles can transiently and selectively increase blood-brain barrier permeability to enable targeted drug delivery to the central nervous system, and is a technique that has the potential to revolutionize the way neurological diseases are managed in medical practice. Clinical testing of this approach is currently underway in patients with brain tumors, early Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A major challenge that needs to be addressed in order for widespread clinical adoption of FUS-mediated blood-brain barrier permeabilization to occur is the development of systems and methods for real-time treatment monitoring and control, to ensure that safe and effective acoustic exposure levels are maintained throughout the procedures. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Risk factors and drug resistance in early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease.

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2018 Dec.;19(12):973-978

Key Laboratory of Tumor Molecular Diagnosis and Individualized Medicine of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou 310014, China.

In recent years, group B streptococcus (GBS) has become an important pathogen that causes infections in many neonatal organs, including the brain, lung, and eye (Ballard et al., 2016). A series of studies performed on GBS infections in western countries have revealed that GBS is one of the primary pathogens implicated in perinatal infection, and GBS infections are a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in the United States (Decheva et al. Read More

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December 2018

Optimization and Pharmacological Characterization of Receptor-Mediated G Activation in Postmortem Human Prefrontal Cortex.

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Laboratory of Neuropharmacology, Institut Universitari d'Investigació en Ciències de la Salut (IUNICS), University of the Balearic Islands (UIB), and Institut d'investigació Sanitària Illes Balears (IdISBa), Palma de Mallorca, Spain.

The biochemical abnormalities in transmembrane signal transduction mediated through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been postulated as underlying pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and mood disorders. In the present study, the experimental conditions of agonist-induced [ S]GTPγS binding in postmortem human brain membranes were optimized, and the responses induced by a series of agonists were pharmacologically characterized. The [ S]GTPγS binding assay was performed in postmortem human prefrontal cortical membranes by means of filtration techniques, and standardized as to GDP concentration, membrane protein content, MgCl and NaCl concentrations in assay buffer, incubation period, and effect of white matter contamination. Read More

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December 2018
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Acute liver failure in two dogs following ingestion of cheese tree (Glochidion ferdinandi) roots.

J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

Objective: To describe the management and resolution of acute liver failure (ALF) in two dogs following ingestion of cheese tree (Glochidion ferdinandi) roots.

Case Summaries: A 2-year-old male entire Bullmastiff and a 5-year-old female neutered German Shepherd dog were presented for acute-onset lethargy and vomiting after chewing on tree roots of a cheese tree. Both dogs developed clinical abnormalities consistent with ALF, including hepatic encephalopathy, marked increase in alanine aminotransferase activity and bilirubin concentration, and prolonged coagulation times. Read More

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December 2018

Anesthesia for endovascular treatment in anterior circulation stroke: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Brain Behav 2018 Dec 3:e01178. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Neurology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Endovascular treatment in patients with acute anterior circulation stroke could be performed under either conscious sedation (CS) or general anesthesia (GA). Although several studies have investigated the association between the clinical outcomes and the two anesthesia methods, consensus is lacking.

Methods: PubMed and EMBASE searches were used to select full-text articles comparing the effects of GA and CS on functional outcome and complications in patients with anterior circulation ischemic stroke. Read More

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December 2018

Oxytocin receptor agonist reduces perinatal brain damage by targeting microglia.

Glia 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

PROTECT, Inserm U1141, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France.

Prematurity and fetal growth restriction (FGR) are frequent conditions associated with adverse neurocognitive outcomes. We have previously identified early deregulation of genes controlling neuroinflammation as a putative mechanism linking FGR and abnormal trajectory of the developing brain. While the oxytocin system was also found to be impaired following adverse perinatal events, its role in the modulation of neuroinflammation in the developing brain is still unknown. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

The choice of embedding media affects image quality, tissue R , and susceptibility behaviors in post-mortem brain MR microscopy at 7.0T.

Magn Reson Med 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Charité-Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin, Germany.

Purpose: The quality and precision of post-mortem MRI microscopy may vary depending on the embedding medium used. To investigate this, our study evaluated the impact of 5 widely used media on: (1) image quality, (2) contrast of high spatial resolution gradient-echo (T and T -weighted) MR images, (3) effective transverse relaxation rate (R ), and (4) quantitative susceptibility measurements (QSM) of post-mortem brain specimens.

Methods: Five formaldehyde-fixed brain slices were scanned using 7. Read More

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December 2018
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Investigation of platelet-rich plasma in increasing proliferation and migration of endometrial mesenchymal stem cells and improving pregnancy outcome of patients with thin endometrium.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Reproductive Medicine, The Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University, Yantai, Shandong, China.

Background: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains abundant growth factors and is gradually used in the field of reproduction. A thin endometrium is recognized as a critical factor in embryo implantation failure. Endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (EnMSCs), which were isolated from human menstrual blood, are highly proliferative and show multiple differentiation capacity. Read More

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December 2018

Deciphering the SUMO code in the kidney.

J Cell Mol Med 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Nephrology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Air Force Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

SUMOylation of proteins is an important regulatory element in modulating protein function and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous human diseases such as cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, brain injuries, diabetes, and familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Growing evidence has pointed to a significant role of SUMO in kidney diseases such as DN, RCC, nephritis, AKI, hypertonic stress and nephrolithiasis. Recently, emerging studies in podocytes demonstrated that SUMO might have a protective role against podocyte apoptosis. Read More

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December 2018

Integrative analyses of genes associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Department of Radiotherapy, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, PR China.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), characterized by irreversible scarring and progressive destruction of the lung tissue, is one of the most common types of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia worldwide. However, there are no reliable candidates for curative therapies. Hence, elucidation of the mechanisms of IPF genesis and exploration of potential biomarkers and prognostic indicators are essential for accurate diagnosis and treatment of IPF. Read More

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December 2018

Late Initiation of Therapeutic Hypothermia: Not the New Standard of Care.

Acta Paediatr 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA.

We appreciate the comprehensive and thoughtful review of the late hypothermia study from Dr. Walløe and colleagues, recently published in Acta Paediatrica (1). This group has raised a number of excellent points to consider while interpreting the results of this randomized control trial which sought to evaluate the effectiveness of late therapeutic hypothermia (TH) initiated between 6 and 24 hours of age for infants diagnosed with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) This article is protected by copyright. Read More

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December 2018
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