2,997 results match your criteria Encephalopathy Hypertensive


A Case of Pediatric Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) Secondary to Post-streptococcal Glomerulonephritis: A Literature Review and Assessment of Treatment Modalities.

Cureus 2022 May 18;14(5):e25113. Epub 2022 May 18.

Pediatrics, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, USA.

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a disorder that most commonly affects adults, and is characterized by neurologic symptoms such as encephalopathy, seizures, headaches, and visual disturbances. It usually occurs in the context of other systemic disturbances that result in hypertensive crises, such as renal failure, cytotoxic drugs, and autoimmune conditions. In children, it rarely manifests following chemotherapy induction or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Read More

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Anti-MDA5 antibody-positive dermatomyositis with mild encephalopathy with reversible splenial lesion: a possible rare association?

Wien Med Wochenschr 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Neuroscience Research Laboratory, Marrakech Medical School, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech, Morocco.

Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in dermatomyositis (DM) is seldom observed. However, there are very rare case reports of CNS involvement with juvenile dermatomyositis. Encephalopathy in DM may occur for a number of reasons, such as cerebral vasculitis and hypoperfusion/hypertensive encephalopathy, but mostly as a consequence of immunosuppressant treatment. Read More

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Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome secondary to acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis in a child: a case report from the Tibetan plateau.

BMC Neurol 2022 Jun 18;22(1):225. Epub 2022 Jun 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, Shigatse People's Hospital, Tibet, China.

Background: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a disorder of reversible vasogenic brain oedema with acute neurologic symptoms. It is a rare but serious disease that affects the central nervous system. PRES is a rare complication of acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN). Read More

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Atypical Presentation of Antenatal Eclampsia.

Cureus 2022 May 5;14(5):e24745. Epub 2022 May 5.

Interventional Neuroradiology, Medicover Hospitals, Visakhapatnam, IND.

Most women who develop eclampsia have preceding preeclampsia (proteinuria and hypertension). This is especially true for otherwise healthy nulliparous women. However, recently, there has been a paradigm shift in this philosophy. Read More

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Clinical and Imaging Data-Based Model for Predicting Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome (RPLS) in Pregnant Women With Severe Preeclampsia or Eclampsia and Analysis of Perinatal Outcomes.

Int J Clin Pract 2022 15;2022:6990974. Epub 2022 Apr 15.

Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Chinese Medicine, The First Clinical Medical College, 155 Hanzhong Road, Nanjing 210029, Jiangsu, China.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the risk factors of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) in pregnant women with severe preeclampsia or eclampsia (SPE/E) based on a predicting model and to analyze the perinatal outcomes.

Methods: From January 2015 to March 2020, 78 pregnant women data diagnosed with severe preeclampsia or eclampsia with cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transcranial Doppler (TCD) screening in Xiangyang No. 1 People's Hospital and Jiangsu Province Hospital of Chinese Medicine were analyzed retrospectively. Read More

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Impact of Hyponatremia on Morbidity, Mortality, and Resource Utilization in Portal Hypertensive Ascites: A Nationwide Analysis.

J Clin Exp Hepatol 2022 May-Jun;12(3):871-875. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Institute of Digestive Health & Liver Diseases, Mercy Medical Center, Baltimore MD, USA.

Background And Aims: Ascites and hyponatremia are important milestones of worsening portal hypertension in those with cirrhosis. The objective of our study was to evaluate the differences in clinical characteristics, resource utilization, and disposition of hospitalized cirrhotic patients with ascites with and without hyponatremia.

Methods: The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was used to identify all adult hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of cirrhosis and ascites with or without hyponatremia from 2016 to 2017 using ICD-10 codes. Read More

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October 2021

Primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease presenting as hypertensive crisis.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Jun 1;15(6). Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Growth and Endocrine Unit, Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute, Pune, Maharashtra, India

We present a case of a young girl who presented with hypertensive crisis and recent onset weight gain with hirsutism. On evaluation for Cushing syndrome (CS), her cortisol concentration was high, showed a paradoxical cortisol rise on dexamethasone suppression and the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) was low. Adrenal imaging showed normal adrenal morphology. Read More

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Breath-Hold Diving-Related Decompression Sickness with Brain Involvement: From Neuroimaging to Pathophysiology.

Tomography 2022 04 19;8(3):1172-1183. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital Complex of Cartagena (Santa Lucia University Hospital-Santa María del Rosell University Hospital), 30202 Cartagena, Spain.

Central nervous system involvement related to decompression sickness (DCS) is a very rare complication of breath-hold diving. So far, it has been postulated that repeated dives with short surface intervals represent a key factor in the development of breath-holding-related DCS. We report the case of a breath-hold diver who, after repeated immersion, developed DCS with brain involvement. Read More

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Dialysis in disaster: Using continuous renal replacement therapy for end-stage renal disease patients, a pilot proof of concept study.

Am J Emerg Med 2022 May 11. Epub 2022 May 11.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Louisiana State University Health, Shreveport, LA, United States of America.

Introduction: Each dialysis session uses approximately 150 to 200 L of water. The winter storm that swept southwest USA saw an unprecedented disruption of water supplies due to which intermittent hemodialysis could not be performed for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. We present 4 cases when continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) was utilized to provide urgent hemodialysis in hemodynamically stable, non-critically ill ESRD patients during this time of water supply crisis. Read More

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Spectrum of Neurological Illnesses in Pregnancy - An Observational Study from a Tertiary Care Centre of Eastern India.

J Assoc Physicians India 2022 May;70(5):11-12

Professor, Bangur Institute of Neurosciences IPGMER & SSKM Hospital Annex-1, , Kolkata, West Bengal; * Corresponding Author.

Introduction: Neurological disorders in pregnancy may be observed in patients with a pre-existing neurological disorder; patients developing a primary neurological disorder during the course of pregnancy or puerperium; and in patients with primary medical disorders presenting with neurological manifestations.

Objectives: The objectives of the study were to find out the magnitude of neurological disorders in pregnancy in a tertiary care hospital along with assessment of proportion of women with particular disorders among total number of neurological disorders during the course of pregnancy or puerperium (6 weeks after child birth) and also to elicit the effect of neurological disorders on pregnancy outcome, if any.

Methods: A prospective observational longitudinal study was carried out in a tertiary care centre of Eastern India from July 2018 to June 2020 including all pregnant women attending the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Read More

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A Promising Insight: The Potential Influence and Therapeutic Value of the Gut Microbiota in GI GVHD.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2022 5;2022:2124627. Epub 2022 May 5.

Department of Hematology, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510623, China.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a reconstruction process of hematopoietic and immune functions that can be curative in patients with hematologic malignancies, but it carries risks of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, cytomegalovirus infection, secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH), macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), bronchiolitis obliterans, and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease (GI GVHD), a common complication of allo-HSCT, is one of the leading causes of transplant-related death because of its high treatment difficulty, which is affected by preimplantation, antibiotic use, dietary changes, and intestinal inflammation. At present, human trials and animal studies have proven that a decrease in intestinal bacterial diversity is associated with the occurrence of GI GVHD. Read More

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Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome After Epilepsy Surgery Alerted by Low-Processed Electroencephalography Levels: A Case Report.

A A Pract 2022 May 1;16(5):e01590. Epub 2022 May 1.

From the Department of Neuroanaesthesiology and Neurocritical Care, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bengaluru, India.

The development of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in a patient undergoing epilepsy surgery without perioperative hypertension is uncommon. A young man having epilepsy surgery with normal blood pressures had an unexplained drop in his processed electroencephalogram (pEEG) levels intraoperatively. This alerted and prompted us to search for the cause. Read More

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Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome after first rituximab transfusion for treatment of granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 May 12;15(5). Epub 2022 May 12.

Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Carle Foundation Hospital, Urbana, Illinois, USA

A woman in her 60s developed acute onset headache, blurry vision and encephalopathy a few hours after rituximab infusion, given to treat granulomatosis with polyangiitis. CT scan showed oedema in the posterior circulation area suggesting the diagnosis of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, and an MRI confirmed it. After being treated with aggressive blood pressure control and other supportive measures, her symptoms improved over 3-4 days. Read More

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Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome as a debut of postinfectious glomerulonephritis.

An Pediatr (Engl Ed) 2022 05 7;96(5):452-454. Epub 2022 May 7.

Sección de Cardiología Pediátrica, Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar, Cádiz, Spain.

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Unconventional Shunts in Extrahepatic Portal Venous Obstruction-A Retrospective Review.

J Clin Exp Hepatol 2022 Mar-Apr;12(2):503-509. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, SGPGIMS, Lucknow, India.

Background: Proximal splenorenal shunt (PSRS) is one of the most commonly performed portosystemic shunt (PSS) in extrahepatic portal venous obstruction (EHPVO) for portal decompression. Sometimes various anatomical and surgical factors related to the splenic vein and/or left renal vein may make the construction of a PSRS difficult or impossible. Unconventional shunts are required to tide over such conditions. Read More

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Long-term follow-up of biliary atresia using liver transient elastography.

Pediatr Surg Int 2022 Jul 6;38(7):1013-1018. Epub 2022 May 6.

Division of Paediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, 102 Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, China.

Objective: Liver transient elastography (TE) using FibroScan® has gained popularity as a non-invasive technique to assess hepatic fibrosis by measuring liver stiffness. This study focused on biliary atresia patients post Kasai operation for more than 10 years to prospectively correlate the hepatic fibrosis score to the biochemical changes of liver fibrosis and clinical development of portal hypertensive complications.

Methods: TE was performed in 37 patients who had biliary atresia post Kasai operation done at median age of 60 days. Read More

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Does minimal central nervous system involvement in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia increase the risk for central nervous system toxicity?

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2022 07 30;69(7):e29745. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) implicates enhanced intrathecal chemotherapy, which is related to CNS toxicity. Whether CNS involvement alone contributes to CNS toxicity remains unclear. We studied the occurrence of all CNS toxicities, seizures, and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in children with ALL without enhanced intrathecal chemotherapy with CNS involvement (n = 64) or without CNS involvement (n = 256) by flow cytometry. Read More

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A Case of Synthetic Cannabinoid (K2)-Induced Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES).

Am J Case Rep 2022 Apr 26;23:e936209. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Internal Medicine, BronxCare Health System, Bronx, NY, USA.

BACKGROUND K2 is an artificially synthesized cannabinoid (SCB), manufactured as a non-consumption herbal incense but increasingly misused as a recreational drug. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a rare clinical and radiological entity characterized by brain edema, often in the setting of acute hypertension. Cases of PRES caused by recreational drug use have been reported in the literature. Read More

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To Study Clinicoradiological Profile and Outcome of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (Pres).

J Assoc Physicians India 2022 Apr;70(4):11-12

Gmch, Nagpur, Maharashtra.

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is potentially reversible clinicoradiological syndrome. In this study we explored potential, clinical and radiological presentation, risk factor and outcome of patient.

Material: We performed prospective observational study in 97 diagnosed cases of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome during period of 1st Aug 2019 to 4th Nov 2021 admitted in tertiary care unit of central India. Read More

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PRES-like leukoencephalopathy presenting with status epilepticus associated with Brentuximab Vedotin treatment.

Acta Biomed 2022 03 21;92(S4):e2021416. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Pediatric Neurology, Pediatric University Department, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Pisana, University of Pisa, Italy.

Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) is characterized by acute neurological symptoms with typical imaging features, primarily in the territories of the brain supplied by the posterior circulation, probably due to vasogenic edema. Both clinical and imaging features are generally reversible. We report a 13-year-old girl affected by Nodular Sclerosis Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma stage IIIB into complete remission, with a recurrence and autologous bone-marrow transplantation, who has been treated with an anti-CD30 monoclonal antibody, brentuximab-vedotin. Read More

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Hemorrhagic PRES: A Rare Neurological Manifestation of COVID -19 Infection.

J Assoc Physicians India 2022 Mar;70(3):11-12

Consultant, Seven Hills Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra.

As of August 2021, the COVID -19 pandemic has affected approximately 200 million cases worldwide. Most of the reported medical literature about the COVID-19 infection discusses its respiratory and haematological manifestations, with limited information about its neurological complications. Encephalitis, meningitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, stroke and encephalopathy have been reported in patients with COVID-19 infection. Read More

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Neurovascular manifestations in patients with COVID-19: a case series.

Einstein (Sao Paulo) 2022 8;20:eAO6562. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Hospital Santa Marta, Taguatinga, DF, Brazil.

Objective: To describe cerebrovascular manifestations in patients hospitalized for treatment of severe COVID-19, highlighting the comorbidities observed, and those that may play a relevant role as risk factors for severe outcomes.

Methods: This case series retrospective analyzed, from June to November, 2020, ten patients admitted to the emergency department, with positive nasopharyngeal swab polymerase chain reaction assay for SARS-CoV-2, presenting with neurological symptoms and positive findings at brain imaging studies.

Results: In this sample, the clinical severity of the symptoms varied from mild to critical. Read More

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PRES and RCVS: Two Distinct Entities or a Spectrum of the Same Disease?

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2022 Jun 5;31(6):106472. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

Objectives: To report a case of a patient with overlapping posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS), and review the existing literature emphasizing the pathophysiological overlap of these two entities.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a literature search in electronic database PubMed identifying studies reporting the overlap of PRES and RCVS.

Results: PRES and RCVS are two increasingly recognized entities that share similar clinical and imaging features. Read More

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Pregnancy and neurologic complications of COVID-19: A scoping review.

Acta Neurol Scand 2022 Jul 7;146(1):6-23. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

Division of Neuropsychiatry, Centro de Ciências Médicas-Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil.

While neurologic complications are frequently reported among patients with COVID-19 in the general population, they are unknown in pregnant women. This paper summarizes the case reports of pregnant women with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection plus a specified neurologic diagnosis. Until November 2021, 18 case reports were found. Read More

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Clinical features and prognostic analysis of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in children.

Int J Dev Neurosci 2022 Jun 20;82(4):349-360. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Department of Neurology Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Pediatrics, Chongqing, China.

Background: We aimed to investigate the clinical features and prognosis of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in children.

Methods: Clinical data of children with PRES diagnosed at the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from June 2015 to May 2019 were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: The study enrolled 47 patients with a mean age at diagnosis of 8. Read More

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Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: an atypical neurological manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Neurol Sci 2022 Jul 1;43(7):4103-4105. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine-DIMED, University Hospital of Padua, Via Giustiniani 2, 35128, Padova, Italy.

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Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome - A pathology that should not be overlooked in the era of COVID-19.

Am J Emerg Med 2022 Jun 13;56:393.e5-393.e8. Epub 2022 Mar 13.

Neurology Department, University Emergency Hospital Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei, number 169, district 5, Bucharest ZIP code: 050098, Romania.

Background And Objectives: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) that causes Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) may determine a series of neurological complications directly, by invasion of the nervous system or indirectly, secondary to systemic organ failure. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) represents a clinical and radiological neurological entity involving predominantly the occipital lobes. PRES was observed in patients receiving cytotoxic drugs, patients suffering from infectious diseases and sepsis, hypertensive emergencies and eclampsia, renal or autoimmune diseases. Read More

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Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in juvenile lupus- a case series and literature review.

Lupus 2022 Apr 25;31(5):606-612. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, 28605Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences (NIMS), Hyderabad, India.

Introduction: PRES, as a complication of juvenile lupus, is rarely reported in the literature. In this study, six juvenile lupus patients admitted with diagnosis of PRES were assessed on the basis of clinical characteristics, imaging findings, disease activity status, treatment response and prognosis.

Methodology: Six juvenile (≤ 16 years) lupus patients with a diagnosis of PRES were included. Read More

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Severe bradycardia in a teenager as the initial manifestation for Guillain Barré syndrome: a case report.

BMC Pediatr 2022 03 22;22(1):152. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Fundación Cardioinfantil IC University Hospital. Pediatric Intensive Care Fellowship Program, La Sabana University, Bogotá, Colombia.

Background: Guillain-Barré syndrome is the most common cause of flaccid paralysis, with multiple known clinical variants. Autonomic dysfunction, although frequently reported in the clinical course, is often overlooked in the pediatric population and is usually not the initial presenting symptom in this age group CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a previously healthy 17-year-old who arrived at the Emergency Department complaining of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with lipothymia. An initial electrocardiogram (ECG) showed sustained sinus bradycardia subsequently associated with arterial hypertension. Read More

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Optic nerve sheath diameter in severe preeclampsia with neurologic features versus controls.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2022 Mar 19;22(1):224. Epub 2022 Mar 19.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.

Background: Optic nerve sheath diameters (ONSD) have been validated as an accurate screening tool to detect elevated intracranial pressure in hypertensive encephalopathy. The neurologic manifestations of preeclampsia and/or eclampsia mimic those of hypertensive encephalopathy. This study was performed to assess the incidence of elevated optic nerve sheath diameters of patients with severe preeclampsia and neurologic criteria compared to non-preeclamptic patients. Read More

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