1,223,947 results match your criteria Encephalopathy Hepatic


A robust pipeline with high replication rate for detection of somatic variants in the adaptive immune system as a source of common genetic variation in autoimmune disease.

Hum Mol Genet 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

KU Leuven - Department of Neurosciences, Laboratory for Neuroimmunology, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.

The role of somatic variants in diseases beyond cancer is increasingly being recognized, with potential roles in autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, as mutation rates and allele fractions are lower, studies in these diseases are substantially less tolerant of false positives and bio-informatics algorithms require high replication rates. We developed a pipeline combining two variant callers, MuTect2 and VarScan2, with technical filtering and prioritization. Read More

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December 2018

The Na+/H+ Exchanger Nhe1 Modulates Network Excitability via GABA Release.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute of Human Genetics, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany.

Brain functions are extremely sensitive to pH changes because of the pH-dependence of proteins involved in neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission. Here, we show that the Na+/H+ exchanger Nhe1, which uses the Na+ gradient to extrude H+, is expressed at both inhibitory and excitatory presynapses. We disrupted Nhe1 specifically in mice either in Emx1-positive glutamatergic neurons or in parvalbumin-positive cells, mainly GABAergic interneurons. Read More

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December 2018
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Gastric Focal Neutrophil Infiltration and Wide Duodenal Gastric Foveolar Metaplasia Are Histologic Discriminative Markers for Crohn's Disease and Behçet's Disease.

Digestion 2018 Dec 12:1-10. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hematology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori, Japan.

Background/aims: Behçet's disease (BD) with intestinal lesions and Crohn's disease (CD) share clinical features. However, no report has compared the 2 diseases with regard to lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract (UGT). We aimed to evaluate endoscopic and histologic findings of UGT in CD and BD. Read More

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December 2018

V2-Directed Vaccine-like Antibodies from HIV-1 Infection Identify an Additional K169-Binding Light Chain Motif with Broad ADCC Activity.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3123-3135.e6

National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg 2131, South Africa; Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa; Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban 4041, South Africa. Electronic address:

Antibodies that bind residue K169 in the V2 region of the HIV-1 envelope correlated with reduced risk of infection in the RV144 vaccine trial but were restricted to two ED-motif-encoding light chain genes. Here, we identify an HIV-infected donor with high-titer V2 peptide-binding antibodies and isolate two antibody lineages (CAP228-16H/19F and CAP228-3D) that mediate potent antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Both lineages use the IGHV5-51 heavy chain germline gene, similar to the RV144 antibody CH58, but one lineage (CAP228-16H/19F) uses a light chain without the ED motif. Read More

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December 2018

Adipose tissue is less responsive to food restriction anti-inflammatory effects than liver, muscle, and brain in mice.

Braz J Med Biol Res 2018 Dec 10;52(1):e8150. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Departamento de Farmacologia e Terapêutica, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, PR, Brasil.

High caloric intake promotes chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes, which may be prevented by food restriction (FR). The effect of FR on expression of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory genes in adipose tissue, liver, muscle, and brain was compared. Male Swiss mice were submitted to FR (FR group) or had free access to food (control group) during 56 days. Read More

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December 2018

A New Technique for Transvenous Embolization of Brain Arteriovenous Malformations in Hybrid Operation.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2018 Dec;131(24):2993-2996

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University; China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases; Center of Stroke, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders; Beijing Key Laboratory of Translational Medicine for Cerebrovascular Disease, Beijing 100070, China.

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December 2018

Essential oils and functional herbs for healthy aging.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):441-445

School of Pharmacy and Applied Science, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Sciences, La Trobe University, Bendigo, Australia.

As total life expectancy increases, the prevalence of age-related diseases such as diabetes and Alzheimer's disease is also increasing. Many hypotheses about Alzheimer's disease have been developed, including cholinergic neuron damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Acetylcholine is a major neurotransmitter in the brain and cholinergic deficits leads to cognitive dysfunction and decline. Read More

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March 2019
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Multitarget therapeutic strategies for Alzheimer's disease.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):437-440

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt; Department of Chemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases have multifaceted nature because of the different factors contributing to their progression. The complex nature of neurodegenerative diseases has developed a pressing need to design multitarget-directed ligands to address the complementary pathways involved in these diseases. The major enzyme targets for development of therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease are cholinesterase and β-secretase enzymes. Read More

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Basics on the use of acid-sensing ion channels' inhibitors as therapeutics.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):395-398

North Texas Eye Research Institute, Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth, Fort Worth, TX, USA.

Since the discovery of acid-sensing ion channels in 1997, their importance in the health of neurons and other non-neuronal cells has gained significant importance. Acid-sensing ion channels play important roles in mediating pain sensation during diseases such as stroke, inflammation, arthritis, cancer, and recently migraine. More interestingly, acid-sensing ion channels may explain the sex differences in pain between males and females. Read More

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March 2019
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The Plasminogen Activation System Promotes Neurorepair in the Ischemic Brain.

Authors:
Manuel Yepes

Curr Drug Targets 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Neuropharmacology and Neurologic Diseases, Yerkes National Primate Research Center; Atlanta, GA. United States.

The plasminogen activation (PA) system was originally thought to exclusively promote the degradation of fibrin by catalyzing the conversion of plasminogen into plasmin via two serine proteinases: tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). However, experimental evidence accumulated over the last 30 years indicates that tPA and uPA are also found in the central nervous system (CNS), where they have a plethora of functions that not always require plasmin generation or fibrin degradation. For example, plasminogen-dependent and -independent effects of tPA and uPA play a central role in the pathophysiological events that underlie one of the leading causes of mortality and disability in the world: cerebral ischemia. Read More

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December 2018
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Procurement, Storage, and Use of Blood in Biobanks.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1897:89-97

Division of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Blood is a widely used biospecimen in the field of biobanking, secondary to the ease with which it is collected along with the wide variety of analytes obtained from it for analysis. It carries the potential to further the search for biomarkers in countless diseases; therefore, the standardization and optimization of blood collection procedures is of importance in assuring reproducibility of results. Here, we briefly review procedures for the procurement, storage, and use of blood and its fractions for biobanking purposes. Read More

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January 2019

Evaluation of the adherence of distress screening with the distress thermometer in cancer patients 4 years after implementation.

Support Care Cancer 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

PhD Program, Department of Nursing Science, University Witten/Herdecke, Witten, Germany.

Purpose: Identifying and assessing psychosocial distress with an appropriate screening instrument is essential when caring for cancer patients. Since 2012, the distress thermometer (DT) has been used by nurses for all cancer inpatients at the Comprehensive Cancer Center Zurich. We wanted to identify nurses' adherence to the screening protocol, differences between screened and not screened patients and the relationship between screening rate and productivity. Read More

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December 2018

Stuttering as the first sign of CAR-T-cell-related encephalopathy syndrome (CRES).

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Stephen E. and Catherine Pappas Center for Neuro-Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, 55 Fruit Street Yawkey Center Suite 9E, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

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December 2018

Role of viruses, prions and miRNA in neurodegenerative disorders and dementia.

Virusdisease 2018 Dec 29;29(4):419-433. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Drug Design & Development Section, Translational Gerontology Branch, Intramural Research Program, National, Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Biomedical Research Center, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21224 USA.

Dementia is known as loss of cellular communications in the brain at a region caused by multi-factorial diseases and pathogenic infections. Approximately eighty percent reported cases of Alzheimer's disease are followed by vascular dementia. The common symptoms of dementia include memory loss, concentration problems, thinking, and language solving situations. Read More

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December 2018

Brain Theranostics and Radiotheranostics: Exosomes and Graphenes In Vivo as Novel Brain Theranostics.

Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2018 Dec 9;52(6):407-419. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

1Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, 03080 Republic of Korea.

Brain disease is one of the greatest threats to public health. Brain theranostics is recently taking shape, indicating the treatments of stroke, inflammatory brain disorders, psychiatric diseases, neurodevelopmental disease, and neurodegenerative disease. However, several factors, such as lack of endophenotype classification, blood-brain barrier (BBB), target determination, ignorance of biodistribution after administration, and complex intercellular communication between brain cells, make brain theranostics application difficult, especially when it comes to clinical application. Read More

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December 2018

Occurrence and Dynamism of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Distinct Ecological Niches: A Multifaceted Functional Health Perspective.

Front Microbiol 2018 27;9:2899. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Université de Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, U995 - LIRIC - Lille Inflammation Research International Center, Lille, France.

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are representative members of multiple ecosystems on earth, displaying dynamic interactions within animal and plant kingdoms in respect with other microbes. This highly heterogeneous phylogenetic group has coevolved with plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates, establishing either mutualism, symbiosis, commensalism, or even parasitism-like behavior with their hosts. Depending on their location and environment conditions, LAB can be dominant or sometimes in minority within ecosystems. Read More

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November 2018

Magnetic Resonance Elastography of Rodent Brain.

Front Neurol 2018 27;9:1010. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Univ. Lyon, INSA-Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UJM-Saint Etienne, CNRS, Inserm, CREATIS UMR 5220, U1206, Lyon, France.

Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a non-invasive imaging technique, using the propagation of mechanical waves as a probe to palpate biological tissues. It consists in three main steps: production of shear waves within the tissue; encoding subsequent tissue displacement in magnetic resonance images; and extraction of mechanical parameters based on dedicated reconstruction methods. These three steps require an acoustic-frequency mechanical actuator, magnetic resonance imaging acquisition, and a post-processing tool for which no turnkey technology is available. Read More

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November 2018

X-Nuclear MRS Imaging Methods for Quantitative Assessment of Neuroenergetic Biomarkers in Studying Brain Function and Aging.

Front Aging Neurosci 2018 27;10:394. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Center for Magnetic Resonance Research (CMRR), Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States.

Brain relies on glucose and oxygen metabolisms to generate biochemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for supporting electrophysiological activities and neural signaling under resting or working state. Aging is associated with declined mitochondrial functionality and decreased cerebral energy metabolism, and thus, is a major risk factor in developing neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is an unmet need in the development of novel neuroimaging tools and sensitive biomarkers for detecting abnormal energy metabolism and impaired mitochondrial function, especially in an early stage of the neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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November 2018

Author Correction: Transcription start site profiling of 15 anatomical regions of the Macaca mulatta central nervous system.

Sci Data 2018 Dec 11;5(1). Epub 2018 Dec 11.

German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Otfried-Müller Straße 23, Tübingen, 72076, Germany.

The authors regret that Luba M. Pardo was omitted in error from the author list of the original version of this Data Descriptor. This omission has now been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions. Read More

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December 2018

ALDH1A3 induces mesenchymal differentiation and serves as a predictor for survival in glioblastoma.

Cell Death Dis 2018 Dec 11;9(12):1190. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas Network(CGGA) and Asian Glioma Genome Atlas Network (AGGA), Beijing, China.

As aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is a novel stem cell marker, increasing studies have confirmed that high ALDH activity promotes tumorigenesis and progression in cancers. Some preliminary studies have found that ALDH1A3 may play an important role in glioma malignant progression, but so far there was no conclusive conclusion. The purpose of our study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which ALDH1A3 regulated in glioma and to provide practical tools for clinical application. Read More

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December 2018

Apurinic endonuclease-1 preserves neural genome integrity to maintain homeostasis and thermoregulation and prevent brain tumors.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Genetics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105;

Frequent oxidative modification of the neural genome is a by-product of the high oxygen consumption of the nervous system. Rapid correction of oxidative DNA lesions is essential, as genome stability is a paramount determinant of neural homeostasis. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1; also known as "APEX1" or "REF1") is a key enzyme for the repair of oxidative DNA damage, although the specific role(s) for this enzyme in the development and maintenance of the nervous system is largely unknown. Read More

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December 2018

Cofactors are essential constituents of stable and seeding-active tau fibrils.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106;

Amyloid fibrils are cross-β-rich aggregates that are exceptionally stable forms of protein assembly. Accumulation of tau amyloid fibrils is involved in many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Heparin-induced aggregates have been widely used and assumed to be a good tau amyloid fibril model for most biophysical studies. Read More

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December 2018

The Meningococcal Cysteine Transport System Plays a Crucial Role in Survival in Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells.

MBio 2018 Dec 11;9(6). Epub 2018 Dec 11.

RIKEN Structural Biology Laboratory, Yokohama, Japan.

While typically exists in an asymptomatic nasopharyngeal carriage state, it may cause potentially lethal diseases in humans, such as septicemia or meningitis, by invading deeper sites in the body. Since the nutrient compositions of human cells are not always conducive to meningococci, needs to exploit nutrients from host environments. In the present study, the utilization of cysteine by the meningococcal cysteine transport system (CTS) was analyzed for the pathogenesis of meningococcal infections. Read More

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December 2018
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Disease-associated tau impairs mitophagy by inhibiting Parkin translocation to mitochondria.

EMBO J 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Clem Jones Centre for Ageing Dementia Research, Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia

Accumulation of the protein tau characterises Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies, including familial forms of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) that carry pathogenic tau mutations. Another hallmark feature of these diseases is the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria. Although disease-associated tau is known to impair several aspects of mitochondrial function, it is still unclear whether it also directly impinges on mitochondrial quality control, specifically Parkin-dependent mitophagy. Read More

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December 2018

MR approaches in neurodegenerative disorders.

Authors:
Andrew M Blamire

Prog Nucl Magn Reson Spectrosc 2018 Oct 3;108:1-16. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Institute of Cellular Medicine and Centre for In Vivo Imaging, Newcastle University, UK. Electronic address:

Neurodegenerative disease is the umbrella term which refers to a range of clinical conditions causing degeneration of neurons within the central nervous system leading to loss of brain function and eventual death. The most prevalent of these is Alzheimer's disease (AD), which affects approximately 50 million people worldwide and is predicted to reach 75 million by 2030. Neurodegenerative diseases can only be fully diagnosed at post mortem by neuropathological assessment of the type and distribution of protein deposits which characterise each different condition, but there is a clear role for imaging technologies in aiding patient diagnoses in life. Read More

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October 2018

An overview of co-morbidities and the development of pressure ulcers among older adults.

BMC Geriatr 2018 Dec 11;18(1):305. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Chairman of Geriatric Division Herzog Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.

Background: The prevalence of pressure ulcers particularly in the frail older adult population continues to be high and very costly especially in those suffering from chronic diseases and has brought a higher awareness to comprehensive, preventive and therapeutic measures for treatment of pressure ulcers. Internal risk factors highlighted by comorbidities play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of pressure ulcers.

Main Body: Focusing on the impact of common chronic diseases (comorbidities) in aging on pressure ulcers (e. Read More

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December 2018

Vinblastine-induced posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.

J Oncol Pharm Pract 2018 Dec 11:1078155218816776. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

4 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdullah University Hospital, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome has recently been recognized as an entity characterized by central neurological and radiological manifestations. There are increasing reports of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome associated with the use of chemotherapeutic agents. We herein present a case of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome occurring in a patient with Hodgkin's lymphoma after taking two courses of adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine chemotherapy. Read More

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December 2018

Nicotine Modulates the Release of Inflammatory Cytokines and Expression of TLR2, TLR4 of Cord Blood Mononuclear Cells.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2018 Aug 12;17(4):372-378. Epub 2018 Aug 12.

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran AND Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of  Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The underlying mechanisms of how nicotine affects cord umbilical cells remain largely elusive. Nicotine rapidly crosses the blood-brain barrier (10 to 20 s) and binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Nicotine considered as a major compound found in cigarette smoke and the mechanism of nicotine action in immune response is not well understood. Read More

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A case of human immunodeficiency virus-related heart failure resembling dilated cardiomyopathy but accompanied by high cardiac output.

J Cardiol Cases 2014 Nov 26;10(5):167-170. Epub 2014 Aug 26.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto City, Japan.

A 34-year-old man presented with heart failure (HF). He suffered opportunistic infections and was shown to be human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive (viral load: 156,013 copies/mL) and have low CD4 lymphocytes (3/mm), so he was initially treated for the opportunistic infections. Initial investigations showed high elevation of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP: 969 pg/mL). Read More

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November 2014

Hypertension-induced posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome as the presentation of progressive bilateral renal artery stenosis.

J Cardiol Cases 2011 Dec 4;4(3):e168-e171. Epub 2011 Oct 4.

Second Division of Internal Medicine and Hypertension Unit, Arcispedale S. Maria Nuova, Reggio Emilia, Italy.

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is characterized clinically by headache, altered mental status, visual loss, and seizures. PRES is associated with neuroradiological findings characterized by white matter abnormalities, predominantly in the parieto-occipital regions of the brain. PRES is most often described in cases of hypertensive encephalopathy, eclampsia, renal failure, and immunosuppressive or anticancer therapy. Read More

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December 2011

Regression in Children with Epilepsy.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University and the IWK Health Centre, Canada.

Regression in children with epilepsy may involve loss of cognitive abilities, failure to progress or a slowing of developmental trajectory. A few seizures do not lead to regression. Large numbers of seizures may be associated with regression but the cause is an important cofounder. Read More

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December 2018

Grey matter alterations in obesity: A meta-analysis of whole-brain studies.

Obes Rev 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Center of Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics, and Psychotherapy, University Hospital of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Obesity is a major problem in the modern world causing a higher risk for various cerebrovascular diseases causing a profound individual and societal burden. The neurobiological foundation bears potential to understand the complex interaction of individual differences in brain structure and function and ingestive behaviour. This systematic review was performed on the current evidence of structural abnormalities in grey matter volume (GMV) in patients with obesity based on studies published until December 2017, which were selected through search in PubMed, CENTER (Cochrane Library), PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Ovid MEDLINE. Read More

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December 2018
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An 83 year-old man with fever and speech difficulties.

Brain Pathol 2018 Nov;28(6):1025-1026

Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado Denver, USA.

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November 2018

The array of clinical phenotypes of males with mutations in Methyl-CpG binding protein 2.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

Mutations in the X-linked gene MECP2 are associated with a severe neurodevelopmental disorder, Rett syndrome (RTT), primarily in girls. It had been suspected that mutations in Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) led to embryonic lethality in males, however such males have been reported. To enhance understanding of the phenotypic spectrum present in these individuals, we identified 30 males with MECP2 mutations in the RTT Natural History Study databases. Read More

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December 2018
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Perturbed expression pattern of the immediate early gene Arc in the dentate gyrus of GluA1 C-terminal palmitoylation-deficient mice.

Neuropsychopharmacol Rep 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Section of Cellular Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Cellular Biology, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Kodaira, Japan.

Background: AMPA receptors predominantly mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the mammalian brain. Post-translational protein S-palmitoylation of AMPA receptor GluA subunits at their C-termini reversibly controls the receptors trafficking to and from excitatory glutamatergic synapses. Excitatory inputs to neurons induce the expression of immediate early genes (IEGs), including Arc, with particular spatial patterns. Read More

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December 2018
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Dopamine, oxidative stress and protein-quinone modifications in Parkinson's and other neurodegenerative diseases.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Chimica, Via Taramelli 12, 27100, Pavia, ITALY.

Dopamine (DA) is the most important catecholamine in the brain, as it is the most abundant and the precursor of other neurotransmitters. Degeneration of nigrostriatal neurons of substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease represents the best-studied link between DA neurotransmission and neuropathology. Catecholamines are reactive molecules that are handled through complex control and transport systems. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluation of salivary acetylcholinesterase and pseudocholinesterase in patients with Alzheimer's disease: A case-control study.

Spec Care Dentist 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Assistant Professor of Linguistics, Department of Persian Literature and English Language, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and pseudocholinesterase (PChE) in whole saliva in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in healthy subjects. Saliva has a high potential for keeping track of general health and diseases. AD is a type of dementia with reduction in brain cholinergic markers that causes memory, thinking, and behavior problems. Read More

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December 2018

Neurologic recovery after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in rats: A description of a long-term survival model without blood priming.

Artif Organs 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Cardiopulmonary Bypass, State key laboratory of Cardiovascular Medicine, Fuwai Hospital, National center for Cardiovascular disease, Chinese Academy of Medical science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Brain injury associated with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) has been recognized in patients with congenital heart diseases and those undergoing aortic arch surgeries. However, the preclinical investigation of long-term cerebral injury and recovery mechanisms related to DHCA has been restricted to a satisfactory recovery animal model with a determined recovery time. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a long-term surviving DHCA model without blood priming in rats, in order to investigate the pathophysiology of long-term complications in further studies. Read More

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December 2018

[Pathophysiology of the glutamate and the glycine transporters: new therapeutic targets].

Rev Neurol 2018 Dec;67(12):491-504

Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa. Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Espana.

Introduction: The amino acids glutamate and glycine, apart from their role in protein synthesis, are two fundamental neurotransmitters in the central nervous system of mammals. The first one is ubiquitous and is involved in excitatory pathways of the neocortex, the retina and the cerebellum, and the second is involved in inhibitory pathways of brain caudal areas. However, both share their way of acting by integrating into the functioning of glutamate receptors of the NMDA type fundamentals in the regulation of motor, sensory and cognitive systems. Read More

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December 2018
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Mitochondrial Neuroglobin Is Necessary for Protection Induced by Conditioned Medium from Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Astrocytic Cells Subjected to Scratch and Metabolic Injury.

Mol Neurobiol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Departamento de Nutrición y Bioquímica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia.

Astrocytes are specialized cells capable of regulating inflammatory responses in neurodegenerative diseases or traumatic brain injury. In addition to playing an important role in neuroinflammation, these cells regulate essential functions for the preservation of brain tissue. Therefore, the search for therapeutic alternatives to preserve these cells and maintain their functions contributes in some way to counteract the progress of the injury and maintain neuronal survival in various brain pathologies. Read More

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December 2018

Inflammasomes in CNS Diseases.

Exp Suppl 2018 ;108:41-60

School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Neuroinflammation is a common pathological feature in almost all neurological diseases and is a response triggered as a consequence of the chronic activation of the innate immune response in the CNS against a variety of stimuli, including infection, traumatic brain injury, toxic metabolites, aggregated proteins, or autoimmunity. Crucial mediators of this neurinflammatory process are the intracellular protein complexes known as inflammasomes which can be triggered by pathogens as well as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). However, chronic inflammasome activation can eventually result in cellular death and tissue damage, leading to the release of DAMPs that can reactivate the inflammasome, thereby propagating a vicious cycle of inflammation. Read More

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January 2018

Clinical feasibility of 1-min ultrafast brain MRI compared with routine brain MRI using synthetic MRI: a single center pilot study.

J Neurol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

MR Applications and Workflow, GE Healthcare Korea, 343 Hakdong-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, 06060, Republic of Korea.

Background: Ultrafast brain MRI is required for uncooperative patients and time-critical diseases such as stroke because it reduces scan times and motion artifacts. This study investigated the clinical feasibility of a 1-min ultrafast brain MRI protocol for detecting intracranial abnormalities in restless and uncooperative patients.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 25 patients who underwent a 1-min ultrafast MRI protocol using T1-weighted image, T2-weighted image, echo-planar fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, diffusion-weighted image, and T2*-weighted image between March 2017 and May 2017. Read More

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December 2018
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3.377 Impact Factor

Metronidazole-induced encephalopathy: a systematic review.

J Neurol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Neurology, Sjællands Universitetshospital, Sygehusvej 10, 4000, Roskilde, Denmark.

Background And Aims: Metronidazole, a commonly used antibiotic drug, can cause adverse effects in the central nervous system termed metronidazole-induced encephalopathy, leading to diagnostic challenges. The condition is rare and a detailed description of its phenotype is lacking. In this systematic review we investigated the clinical features of metronidazole-induced encephalopathy to promote recognition and elaborate the description. Read More

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December 2018

The complexity of neuroinflammation consequent to traumatic brain injury: from research evidence to potential treatments.

Acta Neuropathol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Wicking Dementia Research and Education Centre, College of Health and Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia.

This review recounts the definitions and research evidence supporting the multifaceted roles of neuroinflammation in the injured brain following trauma. We summarise the literature fluctuating from the protective and detrimental properties that cytokines, leukocytes and glial cells play in the acute and chronic stages of TBI, including the intrinsic factors that influence cytokine responses and microglial functions relative to genetics, sex, and age. We elaborate on the pros and cons that cytokines, chemokines, and microglia play in brain repair, specifically neurogenesis, and how such conflicting roles may be harnessed therapeutically to sustain the survival of new neurons. Read More

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December 2018

Therapeutic abortion and ectopic pregnancy: alternative sources for fetal stem cell research and therapy in Iran as an Islamic country.

Cell Tissue Bank 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Regenerative medicine as a background of stem cell research and therapy has a long history. A wide variety of diseases including Parkinson's disease, heart diseases, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, diabetes mellitus and etc. are candidate to be treated using different types of stem cells. Read More

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December 2018
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Ginsenoside Rg1 protects against H2O2‑induced neuronal damage due to inhibition of the NLRP1 inflammasome signalling pathway in hippocampal neurons in vitro.

Int J Mol Med 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Pharmacology, Key Laboratory of Anti‑inflammatory and Immunopharmacology, Ministry of Education, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032, P.R. China.

Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are important in the pathogenesis of ageing and age‑related neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) is a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the brain. The nucleotide‑binding oligomerisation domain (NOD)‑like receptor protein 1 (NLRP1) inflammasome is responsible for the formation of pro‑inflammatory molecules in neurons. Read More

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November 2018

Gambogic acid prevents angiotensin II‑induced abdominal aortic aneurysm through inflammatory and oxidative stress dependent targeting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and NF‑κB signaling pathways.

Mol Med Rep 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Vascular Surgery, The First Hospital of Qiqihar City, Qiqihar, Heilongjiang 161021, P.R. China.

Gamboge is the dry resin secreted by Garcinia hanbaryi Hook.f, with the function of promoting blood circulation and anti‑cancer effects, detoxification, hemostasis and killing insects. It is also used for the treatment of cancer, brain edema and other diseases. Read More

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December 2018

Sleep loss disrupts morning-to-evening differences in human white adipose tissue transcriptome.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.

Context: Chronodisruption as caused by e.g. perturbations of 24h-rhythms of physiology and behavior clearly may promote the development of metabolic diseases. Read More

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December 2018

Cardiomyopathy associated with mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome.

QJM 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University-Biomedical Research Institute of Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Republic of Korea.

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December 2018

Small extracellular vesicles in rat serum contain astrocyte-derived protein biomarkers of repetitive stress.

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica, Universidad de los Andes, Chile.

Background: Stress precipitates mood disorders, characterized by a range of symptoms present in different combinations, suggesting the existence of disease subtypes. Using an animal model, we previously described that repetitive stress via restraint or immobilization induced depressive-like behaviors in rats that were differentially reverted by a serotonin- or noradrenaline-based antidepressant drug, indicating that different neurobiological mechanisms may be involved. The forebrain astrocyte protein aldolase C, contained in small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), was identified as a potential biomarker in the cerebrospinal fluid, however its specific origin remains unknown. Read More

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December 2018
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