42 results match your criteria Encephalopathic EEG Patterns

Anesthesia-Associated Periodic Discharges.

J Clin Neurophysiol 2022 May 7;39(4):289-294. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.

Purpose: Anesthetic agents have been widely used in the treatment of refractory status epilepticus and the medical management of increased intracranial pressure whenever the goal is therapeutic burst suppression. Periodic patterns typically consisting of generalized periodic discharges (GPDs) following emergence from anesthesia have been described in several case reports. However, their clinical significance and in particular whether these patterns are epileptiform remains unclear. Read More

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Status epilepticus and other EEG findings in patients with COVID-19: A case series.

Seizure 2020 Oct 21;81:198-200. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

Purpose: Neurological manifestations of COVID-19 infection include impaired consciousness, strokes, and seizures. Limited reports describing EEG abnormalities in patients with COVID-19 have been published. These articles reported nonspecific encephalopathic patterns, epileptiform discharges, and rarely seizures. Read More

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October 2020

Electroencephalogram (EEG) in COVID-19: A systematic retrospective study.

Neurophysiol Clin 2020 Jul 25;50(3):155-165. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Université Paris Saclay-APHP, Unité de Neurophysiologie Clinique et d'Epileptologie (UNCE), Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France; UMR BIOMAPS- CNRS, Université Paris Saclay, Inserm, CEA, 91401 Orsay, France.

Objectives: Although rare, neurological manifestations in SARS-CoV-2 infection are increasingly being reported. We conducted a retrospective systematic study to describe the electroencephalography (EEG) characteristics in this disease, looking for specific patterns.

Methods: EEGs performed in patients with positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2 between 25/03/2020 and 06/05/2020 in the University Hospital of Bicêtre were independently reviewed by two experienced neurologists. Read More

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Electroencephalographic seizures in critically ill children: Management and adverse events.

Epilepsia 2019 10 20;60(10):2095-2104. Epub 2019 Sep 20.

Department of Pediatrics (Division of Neurology), Children's Hospital of Philadelphia,, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Objective: Guidelines recommend that encephalopathic critically ill children undergo continuous electroencephalographic (CEEG) monitoring for electrographic seizure (ES) identification and management. However, limited data exist on antiseizure medication (ASM) safety for ES treatment in critically ill children.

Methods: We performed a single-center prospective observational study of encephalopathic critically ill children undergoing CEEG. Read More

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October 2019

Nonketotic Hyperglycinemia: Two Case Reports and Review.

Neurodiagn J 2019 21;59(3):142-151. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

Department of Clinical GeneticsSultan Qaboos University Hospital , Muscat , Sultanate of Oman.

Nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH) or glycine encephalopathy is an autosomal recessive disorder of glycine metabolism resulting in an excessive accumulation of glycine in all body tissues, including the central nervous system. It is caused by a biochemical defect in the glycine cleavage system and considered as a rare disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1:60,000. The neonatal form presents in the first few days of life with progressive encephalopathy, hypotonia, myoclonic jerks, hiccups, seizures, rapid progression to coma and often death due to central apnea. Read More

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February 2020

EEG in WNV Neuroinvasive Disease.

J Clin Neurophysiol 2019 Mar;36(2):135-140

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona, U.S.A.

Purpose: Neuroinvasive West Nile virus (WNV) is rare, occurring in less than 1% of those infected, and may manifest as meningitis, encephalitis, and/or acute flaccid paralysis. Patients may present initially with nonspecific symptoms including fevers. Although rare, neuroinvasive WNV is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Read More

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Nonketotic hyperglycinemia: Clinical range and outcome of a rare neurometabolic disease in a single-center.

Brain Dev 2018 Nov 19;40(10):865-875. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

Hacettepe University of Faculty of Medicine, Radiology Department, Neuroradiology Division, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH) is an autosomal recessive severe life-threatening catostrophic metabolic disorder.

Materials And Methods: The present study was conducted in a tertiary reference center in Turkey for six years period. The accurate diagnosis of six NKH patients was based on clinical history of the patients, neurological examinations, seizure semiology, serial electroencephalography (EEG) recordings, neuroimaging findings, metabolic tests and genetic analysis. Read More

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November 2018

EEG Patterns in Patients With Calcified Neurocysticercosis With or Without Hippocampal Atrophy.

J Clin Neurophysiol 2018 Jul;35(4):332-338

School of Medicine, Universidad Espíritu Santo-Ecuador, Guayaquil, Ecuador.

Purpose: To assess whether hippocampal atrophy develops in conjunction with clinical or subclinical epileptiform or encephalopathic activity in subjects with neurocysticercosis (NCC).

Methods: Using a population-based and nested case-control study design, scalp EEGs and brain MRIs were performed in Atahualpa residents aged ≥40 years, who have imaging-confirmed NCC (case patients), as well as in age- and sex-matched NCC-free control subjects.

Results: Sixty-two case patients and 62 control subjects were included. Read More

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Outcomes of patients with altered level of consciousness and abnormal electroencephalogram: A retrospective cohort study.

PLoS One 2017 8;12(9):e0184050. Epub 2017 Sep 8.

Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil.

Introduction: Nonconvulsive seizures (NCS) are frequent in hospitalized patients and may further aggravate injury in the already damaged brain, potentially worsening outcomes in encephalopathic patients. Therefore, both early seizure recognition and treatment have been advocated to prevent further neurological damage.

Objective: Evaluate the main EEG patterns seen in patients with impaired consciousness and address the effect of treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), continuous intravenous anesthetic drugs (IVADs), or the combination of both, on outcomes. Read More

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November 2017

Electrographic patterns in patients with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and seizures.

J Neurol Sci 2017 Apr 8;375:294-298. Epub 2017 Feb 8.

Department of Neuro-Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer (CK-M, ST), 1400 Holcombe Blvd, Room FC7.3000, Unit 431, Houston, TX 77030, United States.

Introduction: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurotoxic encephalopathic state associated with reversible cerebral vasogenic edema. Seizures are a common clinical presentation in PRES, however its electroencephalographic and radiologic pattern correlation is limited in this subset of patients. The aim of this study is to analyze the origin of electrographic dysfunction according to the radiologic pattern in patients with PRES and seizures. Read More

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Bedside functional brain imaging in critically-ill children using high-density EEG source modeling and multi-modal sensory stimulation.

Neuroimage Clin 2016 4;12:198-211. Epub 2016 Jul 4.

Department of Critical Care, Neuroscience and Mental Health Program, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Acute brain injury is a common cause of death and critical illness in children and young adults. Fundamental management focuses on early characterization of the extent of injury and optimizing recovery by preventing secondary damage during the days following the primary injury. Currently, bedside technology for measuring neurological function is mainly limited to using electroencephalography (EEG) for detection of seizures and encephalopathic features, and evoked potentials. Read More

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November 2017

Utility of Neurodiagnostic Studies in the Diagnosis of Autoimmune Encephalitis in Children.

Pediatr Neurol 2016 Feb 26;55:37-45. Epub 2015 Nov 26.

Section of Child Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio; College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Electronic address:

Background: Autoimmune encephalitis is currently a clinical diagnosis without widely accepted diagnostic criteria, often leading to a delay in diagnosis. The utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) in this disease is unknown. The objective of this study was to identify disease-specific patterns of neurodiagnostic studies (MRI and EEG) for autoimmune encephalitis in children. Read More

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February 2016

Electroencephalographic sleep elements and outcome in acute encephalopathic patients: a 4-year cohort study.

Eur J Neurol 2014 Oct 2;21(10):1268-75. Epub 2014 Apr 2.

Division of Neurosciences Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA; Clinic of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Division of Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Neurology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Background And Purpose: Acute encephalopathy in hospitalized patients is common and associated with high mortality. Preservation of physiological sleep has been associated with favorable outcomes in acute brain injury. It is hypothesized that electroencephalographic presence of sleep elements is associated with good outcome in encephalopathic adults. Read More

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October 2014

Neuropsychological approaches to epileptic encephalopathies.

Epilepsia 2013 Nov;54 Suppl 8:38-44

IRCCS, The Institute of Neurological Sciences of Bologna, Child Neurology Unit, Bologna, Italy.

The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Commission report on classification and terminology indicates that "diagnosing an individual as having an encephalopathic course requires demonstration of a failure to develop as expected relative to the same-aged peers or to regress in abilities." In this chapter, basing our discussion on the theoretical framework of neuroconstructivism, on the latest results deriving from functional neuroimaging and on the concept of system epilepsy, we use continuous spike-waves during slow-wave sleep (CSWS) as an example of how non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep spikes interfere with the organization and consolidation of neuropsychological networks in the sensitive phase of development, affecting also interconnected systems. Indeed, recent discoveries show that the normal overnight downscaling of slow wave activity (SWA) from the first to the last hours of sleep is absent in electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES) patients, thus impairing the neural process and possibly the local plastic changes associated with learning and other cognitive functions. Read More

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November 2013

Efficacy of a reduced electroencephalography electrode array for detection of seizures.

Neurohospitalist 2014 Jan;4(1):6-8

Department of Neurology, Division of Critical Care Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background: The expertise required for proper electroencephalography (EEG) setup can make the 10-20 array unwieldy in the hospital setting. There may be a role for an EEG array with reduced leads to improve the efficiency of inpatient practice.

Methods: Clips from 100 EEG records, 50 ictal and 50 non-ictal, in adult inpatients from January 1, 2007, to January 1, 2012, were retrospectively reviewed and selected for digital lead reduction and blind review. Read More

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January 2014

EEG patterns in acute pediatric encephalopathies.

J Clin Neurophysiol 2013 Oct;30(5):539-44

Divisions of *Critical Care and †Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.

EEG patterns in pediatric encephalopathy are largely nonspecific and may be seen in a wide variety of pathologies. However, EEG can play a valuable role in helping to assess the severity and ultimate prognosis in pediatric encephalopathies. This review article considers three of the most common forms of pediatric encephalopathy encountered in pediatric critically care units, including hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, central nervous system infections, and metabolic encephalopathies. Read More

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October 2013

Significance of triphasic waves in patients with acute encephalopathy: a nine-year cohort study.

Clin Neurophysiol 2013 Oct 15;124(10):1952-8. Epub 2013 May 15.

Division of Neurosciences Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Objective: Triphasic waves (TWs) are a frequent electroencephalography (EEG) finding in encephalopathy, yet their origin and prognostic significance are not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and EEG characteristics in encephalopathic patients with TWs. We hypothesized that specific EEG characteristics are predictive of outcome. Read More

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October 2013

Treatment of electrographic seizures and status epilepticus in critically ill children: a single center experience.

Seizure 2013 Jul 16;22(6):467-71. Epub 2013 Apr 16.

Division of Neurology, The Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, USA.

Purpose: Electrographic seizures (ES) and electrographic status epilepticus (ESE) are common in encephalopathic children in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and associated with worse short-term outcome. Survey data indicate most physicians treat ES and ESE with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), but few data are available regarding AED usage patterns. We aimed to describe AED usage for ES and ESE in critically ill children. Read More

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Clinical and imaging correlates of EEG patterns in hospitalized patients with encephalopathy.

J Neurol 2013 Apr 30;260(4):1087-98. Epub 2012 Nov 30.

Division of Neurosciences Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Bayview Medical Center, 301 Mason Lord drive, Suite 2100, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

To identify the relationship between pathologic electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns, clinical and neuroradiological abnormalities, and outcome in hospitalized patients with acute encephalopathy. This 5-year cohort study was performed at an academic tertiary care center. EEGs in 154 patients with altered mental status were classified according to five predefined patterns: Isolated continuous slowing of background activity (theta, theta/delta, and delta activity) and patterns with slowing background activity with episodic transients [i. Read More

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Suppression of thalamocortical oscillations following traumatic brain injury in rats.

J Neurosurg 2012 Aug 25;117(2):316-23. Epub 2012 May 25.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA.

Object: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often causes an encephalopathic state, corresponding amplitude suppression, and disorganization of electroencephalographic activity. Clinical recovery in patients who have suffered TBI varies, and identification of patients with a poor likelihood of functional recovery is not always straightforward. The authors sought to investigate temporal patterns of electrophysiological recovery of neuronal networks in an animal model of TBI. Read More

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Classification of EEG patterns in patients with impaired consciousness.

Epilepsia 2011 Oct;52 Suppl 8:21-4

Department of Neurology and Yale Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.

There is significant variability and controversy regarding the interpretation, nomenclature, and clinical implications of many EEG patterns seen in encephalopathic patients. The American Clinical Neurophysiology Society has attempted to create well-defined, objective rules for naming these patterns in order to allow scientific investigation into their significance. After many revisions, clarifications in definitions, and Web-based training modules, interrater reliability has improved. Read More

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October 2011

Use of amplitude integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) in patients with inborn errors of metabolism - a new tool for the metabolic geneticist.

Christiane Theda

Mol Genet Metab 2010 21;100 Suppl 1:S42-8. Epub 2010 Feb 21.

Newborn Emergency Transport Service of Victoria, Melbourne, Vic., Australia.

Patients with metabolic disorders often, especially as newborns, present with encephalopathy and seizures, frequently requiring intensive care during metabolic crises. Cerebral function monitoring using amplitude integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) can be utilized to supplement clinical assessment and other monitoring already in use in the intensive care setting. In this technique, a one or two-channel EEG tracing is obtained, processed, compressed and displayed. Read More

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Technical standards for recording and interpretation of neonatal electroencephalogram in clinical practice.

Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2009 Jan;12(1):58-70

Departments of Clinical Neurophysiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Neonatal electroencephalogram (EEG), though often perceived as being difficult to record and interpret, is relatively easy to study due to the immature nature of the brain, which expresses only a few well-defined set of patterns. The EEG interpreter needs to be aware of the maturational changes as well as the effect of pathological processes and medication on brain activity. It gives valuable information for the treatment and prognostication in encephalopathic neonates. Read More

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January 2009

Seizure-like activity in the hypoglycemic rat: lack of correlation with the electroencephalogram of free-moving animals.

Epilepsy Res 2009 Feb 10;83(2-3):243-8. Epub 2009 Jan 10.

Department of Neurology, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: The neuropathology of hypoglycemia and its mechanisms have been well studied. However, the physiopathogenesis of hypoglycemia-related seizures has escaped elucidation. Various animal models reportedly show "seizures" when rendered hypoglycemic, however, correlation with the electroencephalogram (EEG) is inconsistent. Read More

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February 2009

Patterns of brain injury and outcome in term neonates presenting with postnatal collapse.

Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2009 May 3;94(3):F168-77. Epub 2008 Nov 3.

Imaging Sciences Department, Imperial College, London, UK.

Objective: To document perinatal events, brain imaging, neurophysiology and clinical outcome in term infants with early postnatal collapse (PNC).

Design: Tertiary referral centre, retrospective case review (1993-2006).

Patients: Infants born at > or =36 weeks' gestation with early (<72 h) PNC. Read More

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Aetiology and prognosis of encephalopathic patterns on electroencephalogram in a general hospital.

J Clin Neurosci 2008 Jun 1;15(6):637-42. Epub 2008 Apr 1.

Department of Neurology, Cork University Hospital, Cork, Ireland.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency and clinical outcome of patients with encephalopathic electroencephalograms (EEGs) in a neurophysiology department based in a general hospital. We performed a retrospective review of all EEGs obtained during an 18-month period in a large tertiary referral hospital. The referral reasons for EEG, the diagnoses reached, and patient outcomes were reviewed according to EEG severity. Read More

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Focal motor seizures induced by alerting stimuli in critically ill patients.

Epilepsia 2008 Jun 2;49(6):968-73. Epub 2008 Jan 2.

Department of Neurology, Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, Neurological Institute, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA.

Purpose: We have previously demonstrated that it is common for alerting stimuli to induce electrographic seizures and other periodic or rhythmic patterns in the critically ill; however, only 1 of the first 33 patients we reported with this phenomenon had a detectable clinical correlate.

Methods: Review of charts and video EEG findings in critically ill patients in a neurological ICU at a tertiary care medical center in Manhattan.

Results: We identified nine patients who had focal motor seizures repeatedly induced by alerting stimuli. Read More

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Monitoring the neonatal brain: a survey of current practice among Australian and New Zealand neonatologists.

J Paediatr Child Health 2007 Jul-Aug;43(7-8):557-9

Victorian Infant Brain Study Group, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Aims: There is considerable variation in the use of brain imaging and electrophysiological monitoring of encephalopathic term infants. The aims of this study were (i) to document the current practice among Australian and New Zealand neonatologists; and (ii) to identify the factors that influence local practice.

Methods: A postal questionnaire was sent to all 152 neonatologists in Australia and New Zealand. Read More

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January 2008

Nonconvulsive seizures: developing a rational approach to the diagnosis and management in the critically ill population.

J Jirsch L J Hirsch

Clin Neurophysiol 2007 Aug 27;118(8):1660-70. Epub 2007 Jun 27.

Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Originally described in patients with chronic epilepsy, nonconvulsive seizures (NCSs) are being recognized with increasing frequency, both in ambulatory patients with cognitive change, and even more so in the critically ill. In fact, the majority of seizures that occur in the critically ill are nonconvulsive and can only be diagnosed with EEG monitoring. The semiology of NCSs and the associated EEG findings are quite variable. Read More

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