4,903 results match your criteria Encephalocele


Use of Radiofrequency Technology in Endonasal Skull Base and Transcranial Procedures.

J Neurol Surg B Skull Base 2022 Jun 9;83(3):312-316. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Minimally-Invasive Cranial Base and Pituitary Surgery Program, Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor & Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, United States.

 Radiofrequency ablation is widely utilized in otorhinolaryngology. It is used for ablation, coagulation and resection, and hemostasis. It causes tissue destruction through a chemical interaction of ions. Read More

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Large Isolated Nasoorbital Type of Frontoethmoidal Encephalomeningocele: A Case Report With Long-Term Follow-up.

Ann Plast Surg 2022 Jul;89(1):49-53

From the Chiangmai Craniofacial Center, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Abstract: Frontoethmoidal encephalomeningocele (FEEM) is a rare congenital craniofacial malformation with increased incidence in Southeast Asia, especially in Thailand. Because of its rarity, main treatment obstacles include the lack of surgical treatment techniques and long-term postoperative follow-up data. The authors present the case of a 9-month-old boy who was born with a large isolated nasoorbital type of FEEM, which had a pressure effect on his right eye, nose, and facial complex. Read More

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Neurosurgery in canine epilepsy.

Vet J 2022 Jun 16:105852. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Laboratory of Veterinary Neurology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, 1866 Kameino, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 252-0880, Japan.

Epilepsy surgery is functional neurosurgery applied to drug-resistant epilepsy. Although epilepsy surgery has been established and achieves fair to good outcomes in human medicine, it is still an underdeveloped area in veterinary medicine. With the spread of advanced imaging and neurosurgical modalities, intracranial surgery has become commonplace in the veterinary field, and, therefore, it is natural that expectations for epilepsy surgery increase. Read More

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Case Report: Novel Biallelic Variants in the Gene in a Chinese Family With Knobloch Syndrome.

Front Neurol 2022 26;13:853918. Epub 2022 May 26.

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Knobloch syndrome is a rare collagenopathy characterized by severe early onset myopia, retinal detachment, and occipital encephalocele with various additional manifestations due to biallelic changes in the gene. Here we reported a Chinese family with two affected siblings presented with antenatal occipital encephalocele, infantile onset retinal detachment, and pronounced high myopia at early childhood. Quartet whole exome sequencing was performed in this family and identified that both siblings carried novel compound heterozygous variants in the gene (NM_001379500. Read More

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[Knobloch syndrome: a case report].

Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2022 Jun;58(6):457-459

Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, Eye Institute and School of Optometry, Tianjin Branch of National Clinical Research Center for Ocular Disease, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Retinal Functions and Diseases, Tianjin 300384, China.

A 5-year-old girl came to the Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital in May 2021 because of her poor eyesight after birth. The physical examination showed that she had high myopia, esotropia, horizontal tremor, and high myopia retinopathy of both eyes. After inquiring about her medical history, we found that the baby's occipital cystic mass swelled after birth, and CT examination showed that the occipital skull plate defect with meningocele, but without treatment, at present, the occipital mass had subsided by itself. Read More

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Oropharyngeal neuroglial choristoma with extension into the parapharyngeal space.

Radiologia (Engl Ed) 2022 May-Jun;64(3):270-273

Radiólogo, Hospital Pequeno Príncipe, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.

Oropharyngeal neuroglial choristomas are exceptionally rare head and neck tumours that contain mature neuroglial tissue. We report a case of neuroglial choristoma centred in the oropharynx and extending into the parapharyngeal space that, to the best of our knowledge, is the only case whose appearance simulated brain cortical gyri with an apparent differentiation between white and grey matter. We illustrate and detail the magnetic imaging findings of oropharyngeal choristoma that might help to establish a correct preoperative diagnosis. Read More

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Imaging in medically refractory epilepsy at 3 Tesla: a 13-year tertiary adult epilepsy center experience.

Insights Imaging 2022 Jun 4;13(1):99. Epub 2022 Jun 4.

Division of Neuroradiology, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Objectives: MRI negative epilepsy has evolved through increased usage of 3 T and insights from surgically correlated studies. The goal of this study is to describe dedicated 3 T epilepsy MRI findings in medically refractory epilepsy (MRE) patients at a tertiary epilepsy center to familiarize radiologists with an updated spectrum and frequency of potential imaging findings in the adult MRE population.

Methods: Included were all patients with MRE admitted to the epilepsy monitoring unit who were discussed at weekly interdisciplinary imaging conferences at Toronto Western Hospital with MRI studies (3 T with dedicated epilepsy protocol) performed between January 2008 and January 2021. Read More

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Birth prevalence of neural tube defects in eastern Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Neurol 2022 Jun 1;22(1):202. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Penn State Hershey College of Medicine and Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA.

Background: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are associated with high rates of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. The promotion of folic acid fortification and supplementation in pregnant women by the Food and Drug Administration significantly decreased the incidence of NTDs in the United States. This practice is not widely adopted in Eastern Africa countries. Read More

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Pre-pregnancy exposure to arsenic in diet and non-cardiac birth defects.

Public Health Nutr 2022 May 27:1-13. Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, The University of Iowa, 145 N Riverside Dr, S416 CPHB, Iowa City, IA52242, USA.

Objectives: To explore associations between maternal pre-pregnancy exposure to arsenic in diet and non-cardiac birth defects.

Design: This is a population-based, case-control study using maternal responses to a dietary assessment and published arsenic concentration estimates in food items to calculate average daily total and inorganic arsenic exposure during the year before pregnancy. Assigning tertiles of total and inorganic arsenic exposure, logistic regression analysis was used to estimate OR for middle and high tertiles, compared to the low tertile. Read More

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Occipital encephalocele associated with Dandy-Walker malformation: a case-based review.

Childs Nerv Syst 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

School of Medicine, Metropolitan University of Colombia, Barranquilla, Colombia.

Introduction: Occipital encephalocele is a brain malformation that has been remotely associated with Dandy-Walker; only case reports and very small series have been published so far; therefore, their behavior and management are still under investigation. The goal of the present case-based review is to provide a summary of the state of the art in this association.

Methods And Results: The pertinent literature has been reviewed, and an exemplary case has been reported (an 11-month-old female with Dandy-Walker malformation and occipital encephalocele). Read More

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In-utero Diagnosis of Double Encephalocele - Imaging Features and Review of Literature.

J Radiol Case Rep 2021 Dec 1;15(12):1-9. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Department of Radiology, Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA.

Encephalocele is protrusion of brain parenchyma through a defect in the cranium. It is classified into various types based on the defect location: sincipital (fronto-ethmoidal), basal (trans-sphenoidal, spheno-ethmoidal, trans-ethmoidal, and spheno-orbital), occipital and parietal. Double encephaloceles are very rare with only a handful of cases reported in the literature and most of these cases involved either occipital or sub-occipital region. Read More

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December 2021

Wound Dehiscence After Occipital Encephalocele Surgical Repair in a Neonate: Management Alternative.

Cureus 2022 Mar 31;14(3):e23685. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Neurosurgery, Hospital Juarez de Mexico, Mexico City, MEX.

Encephaloceles are congenital malformations of the neural tube, mostly located in the occipital region in the Western world. Its presence is related to many complications, among which cognitive impairment and death are the most important. The diagnosis is usually made in the prenatal period, but sometimes due to poor control, this is not feasible. Read More

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Polymicrogyria, aventriculy, polydactyly, encephalocele, callosal agenesis (PAPEC): a new syndrome?

Childs Nerv Syst 2022 Apr 27. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Institut de Biologie Paris Seine (IBPS) - Developmental Biology Laboratory, UMR 7622 CNRS, INSERM ERL 1156, Sorbonne Université 9 quai Saint-Bernard, 75005, Paris, France.

Introduction: Aventriculy is a very rare observation and is generally associated with holoprosencephaly. We report here a case of polymalformation affecting the brain, hands, and feet observed in a highly consanguineous family in Niger.

Case Report: A boy was born from a highly consanguineous family presenting multiple malformations (aventriculy, extreme microcephaly, polydactyly, polymicrogyria, callosal agenesis, and parietal encephalocele). Read More

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Proboscis Lateralis With Basal Encephalocele: A Report of Clinical Management and Reconstructive Approach.

Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2022 Apr 27:10556656221096323. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, 37686Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Proboscis lateralis is a rare craniofacial anomaly in which a rudimentary nasal appendage arises at the medial canthal area. The severity depends on organ involvement, including eyes, nose, cleft lip/palate, and/or concomitant intracranial anomalies. Here, we present a child with proboscis lateralis and associated trans-ethmoidal encephalocele. Read More

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Trends and influencing factors of perinatal birth defects in Huai'an from 2008 to 2020.

Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar 25;50(7):1-9. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

2. School of Public Health, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310058, China.

: To analyze the incidence, trends and related factors of birth defects in Huai'an from 2008 to 2020. : The surveillance data from maternal and child health system of Huai'an from 2008 to 2020 and Huai'an Statistical Yearbook were used for analysis. Taking the annual change percentage and average annual change percentage (AAPC) as the main outcome indicators, the JoinPoint regression analysis was performed to estimate the changing trend of birth defects from 2008 to 2020. Read More

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Encephalocele: A Case Series From Abuja, North Central Nigeria.

Cureus 2022 Mar 17;14(3):e23249. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

Neurology, Wellington Neurosurgery Center, Abuja, NGA.

An encephalocele is a congenital tube defect in which there is an extension of intracranial structures outside the normal confines of the skull. Its presentation at birth provokes a lot of anxiety amongst parents, guardians and care providers with regards to compatibility with life, surgical treatments and effects on developmental milestones and higher mental functions. This report is on our initial experience in the first six months following surgical treatment of four consecutive cases presenting in infancy. Read More

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Diagnostic performance evaluation of adult Chiari malformation type I based on convolutional neural networks.

Eur J Radiol 2022 Jun 2;151:110287. Epub 2022 Apr 2.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of convolutional neural network (CNN) models in Chiari malformation type I (CMI) and to verify whether CNNs can identify the morphological features of the craniocervical junction region between patients with CMI and healthy controls (HCs). To date, numerous indicators based on manual measurements are used for the diagnosis of CMI. However, the corresponding postoperative efficacy and prognostic evaluations have remained inconsistent. Read More

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Covid-19 Nasopharyngeal Swab Related CSF Rhinorrhoea: A case report.

Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2022 Mar 26:1-3. Epub 2022 Mar 26.

Department of Otolaryngology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, S?hh?ye/Ankara, Turkey.

With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of nasopharyngeal swab samples has increased significantly. In this case report, the treatment of a patient who developed unilateral rhinorrhea after nasopharyngeal swab sample is presented. It is aimed to draw attention to the fact that this complication can be prevented with the appropriate technique during nasopharyngeal swab sampling. Read More

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Tea consumption during the periconceptional period does not significantly increase the prevalence of neural tube defects: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.

Nutr Res 2022 06 7;102:13-22. Epub 2022 Mar 7.

School of Public Health, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, Shandong 261053, China. Electronic address:

Tea consumption may potentially promote the prevalence of neural tube defects (NTDs) because catechins, the main components of tea polyphenols, can lead to the depletion of bioavailable folate. Many epidemiologic studies have explored the association between tea consumption and NTD risk; however, the findings are inconsistent. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the association between tea consumption and NTD. Read More

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Advances in the Understanding of the Complex Role of Venous Sinus Stenosis in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2022 Mar 31. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a disorder characterized by elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) that predominantly affects young obese women. IIH is a diagnosis of exclusion. That is, if increased ICP is suspected, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance venography of the brain are recommended to exclude secondary causes. Read More

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Intraventricular Pneumocephalus: Ruptured Occipital Encephalocele.

Indian J Pediatr 2022 Jul 30;89(7):722. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India.

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Evaluation of novel compound variants of CEP290 in prenatally suspected case of Meckel syndrome through whole exome sequencing.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2022 05 30;10(5):e1935. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

Center for Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital (Affiliated People's Hospital, Hangzhou Medical College), Hangzhou, China.

Background: Meckel syndrome (MKS) is a fatal disease characterized by multisystem fibrosis during the prenatal or perinatal period. It has an autosomal recessive genetic pattern and is characterized by meningo occipital encephalocele, polycystic kidney dysplasia, polydactyly, and hepatobiliary ductal plate malformation. Germline variations in CEP290 have been shown to cause MKS4. Read More

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Brain herniation (encephalocele) into arachnoid granulations: prevalence and association with pulsatile tinnitus and idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

Neuroradiology 2022 Mar 25. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Ave., San Francisco, CA, 94117, USA.

Purpose: Brain herniation into arachnoid granulations (BHAG) of the dural venous sinuses is a recently described finding of uncertain etiology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of BHAG in a cohort of patients with pulsatile tinnitus (PT) and to clarify the physiologic and clinical implications of these lesions.

Methods: The imaging and charts of consecutive PT patients were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

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Transmastoid Repair of Otogenic Encephaloceles in Patients With Canal Wall Down Mastoidectomy.

Otol Neurotol 2022 04;43(4):460-465

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Rush University Medical Center.

Objective: Description of a series of cases in which otogenic encephaloceles in patients requiring canal wall down (CWD) mastoidectomies were repaired via a transmastoid approach.

Study Design: Case series.

Setting: Tertiary-care hospital. Read More

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[On the tactics of management and treatment of patients with congenital cerebral hernias in their localization in the maxillofacial region].

Vestn Otorinolaringol 2022 ;87(1):87-90

³National Hospital under the Ministry of Health of the Kyrgyz Republic, Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic.

The analysis of the state of two patients with congenital cerebral hernias was carried out, which made it possible to establish differences in the effect of hernias on the state of the body. In the first case, the hernia is localized in the nasal cavity, and after its removal, the postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage was stopped by a flap of the mucous membrane from the opposite side of the nasal septum. In the second case clinical analysis and computed tomography made it possible to state that the hernia was in the retromaxillary space and did not affect the patient's condition. Read More

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Bone fusion in transcele reconstruction of frontoethmoidal meningoencephalocele.

Br J Neurosurg 2022 Mar 7:1-5. Epub 2022 Mar 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Objective: In surgical correction of frontoethmoidal encephalocele with transcranial approach, advanced facilities are required. While with extracranial approach, though deemed as a safe option in area with limited facilities, procedure was associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. In this case series, we evaluate the results of transcele reconstruction of frontoethmoidal encephalocele, our approach to reduce the incidence of CSF leaks by focusing on the closure of layers by its embryological derivatives, by its bone fusion. Read More

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Mutations in the COL18A1 gen associated with knobloch syndrome and structural brain anomalies: a novel case report and literature review of neuroimaging findings.

Neurocase 2022 02 6;28(1):11-18. Epub 2022 Mar 6.

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Hospital Universitario Quirónsalud, Madrid, Spain.

.  gene mutations have been associated with Knobloch syndrome, which is characterized by ocular and brain abnormalities. Here we report a 4. Read More

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February 2022

Nasal Dermoid Cyst: A Case Report.

Cureus 2022 Jan 30;14(1):e21725. Epub 2022 Jan 30.

Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, SAU.

A dermoid cyst (DC) is a rare, benign congenital skin lesion that can occur anywhere on the skin and take any shape. DC is clinically diagnosed through imaging and biopsy. The usual treatment of choice for DC is surgical excision to prevent any local complications, such as inflammation, infection, and bone resorption. Read More

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January 2022

Temporal Lobe Encephalocele in a Patient With Suspected IIH: A Case Report.

J Neuroophthalmol 2022 Feb 25. Epub 2022 Feb 25.

Department of Ophthalmology/Visual Sciences (EAP, CJS, JEAW, SV), University of Utah Health Sciences Center, John A Moran Center, Salt Lake City, Utah; and Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences (RHW), University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, Utah.

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February 2022