1,038 results match your criteria Encephalitis Western Equine


Broad-spectrum monoclonal antibodies against chikungunya virus structural proteins: Promising candidates for antibody-based rapid diagnostic test development.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208851. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

In response to the aggressive global spread of the mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an accurate and accessible diagnostic tool is of high importance. CHIKV, an arthritogenic alphavirus, comprises three genotypes: East/Central/South African (ECSA), West African (WA), and Asian. A previous rapid immunochromatographic (IC) test detecting CHIKV E1 protein showed promising performance for detection of the ECSA genotype. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0208851PLOS
December 2018

Continued Evidence of Decline in the Enzootic Activity of Western Equine Encephalitis Virus in Colorado.

J Med Entomol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

Western equine encephalitis (WEE) was once prevalent and routinely isolated from mosquitoes in Colorado; however, isolations of Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) have not been reported from mosquito pools since the early 1990s. The objective of the present study was to test pools of Culex tarsalis (Coquillett) mosquitoes sampled from Weld County, CO, in 2016 for evidence of WEEV infection. Over 7,000 mosquitoes were tested, but none were positive for WEEV RNA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjy214DOI Listing
December 2018

Zoonotic Viral Diseases of Equines and Their Impact on Human and Animal Health.

Open Virol J 2018 31;12:80-98. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

ICAR-National Research Centre on Equines, Hisar-125001, India.

Introduction: Zoonotic diseases are the infectious diseases that can be transmitted to human beings and vice versa from animals either directly or indirectly. These diseases can be caused by a range of organisms including bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi. Viral diseases are highly infectious and capable of causing pandemics as evidenced by outbreaks of diseases like Ebola, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, West Nile, SARS-Corona, Nipah, Hendra, Avian influenza and Swine influenza. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874357901812010080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6142672PMC
August 2018
10 Reads

Genetic control of alphavirus pathogenesis.

Mamm Genome 2018 08 27;29(7-8):408-424. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA.

Alphaviruses, members of the positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus family Togaviridae, represent a re-emerging public health concern worldwide as mosquito vectors expand into new geographic ranges. Members of the alphavirus genus tend to induce clinical disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and arthritis (chikungunya virus, Ross River virus, and Semliki Forest virus) or encephalomyelitis (eastern equine encephalitis virus, western equine encephalitis virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus), though some patients who recover from the initial acute illness may develop long-term sequelae, regardless of the specific infecting virus. Studies examining the natural disease course in humans and experimental infection in cell culture and animal models reveal that host genetics play a major role in influencing susceptibility to infection and severity of clinical disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00335-018-9776-1DOI Listing
August 2018
17 Reads

Protective efficacy of monovalent and trivalent recombinant MVA-based vaccines against three encephalitic alphaviruses.

Vaccine 2018 08 20;36(34):5194-5203. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

Defence Research and Development Canada, Suffield Research Centre, Box 4000, Station Main, Medicine Hat, AB T1A 8K6, Canada.

The three encephalitic alphaviruses, western, eastern, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses (WEEV, EEEV, and VEEV) are potential biothreat agents due to high infectivity through aerosol exposure, ease of production in large amounts, and relative stability in the environment. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine for human use to these three encephalitic alphaviruses, and efforts to move vaccine candidates forward into clinical trials have not been successful. In this study, the modified vaccinia Ankara-Bavarian Nordic (MVA-BN®) vaccine platform was used to construct and produce three monovalent recombinant MVA-BN-based encephalitic alphavirus vaccines, MVA-BN-W, MVA-BN-E, and MVA-BN-V. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.06.064DOI Listing
August 2018
3 Reads

Repurposed FDA-Approved drug sorafenib reduces replication of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and other alphaviruses.

Antiviral Res 2018 Sep 5;157:57-67. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, Manassas, VA, USA. Electronic address:

The New World alphaviruses -Venezuelan, eastern, and western equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV, EEEV, and WEEV respectively) - cause a febrile disease that is often lethal in equines and children and leads to long-term neurological sequelae in survivors. Endemic to the Americas, epizootic outbreaks of the three viruses occur sporadically in the continental United States. All three viruses aerosolize readily, replicate to high titers in cell culture, and have low infectious doses. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01663542183006
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2018.07.005DOI Listing
September 2018
6 Reads

A Multiagent Alphavirus DNA Vaccine Delivered by Intramuscular Electroporation Elicits Robust and Durable Virus-Specific Immune Responses in Mice and Rabbits and Completely Protects Mice against Lethal Venezuelan, Western, and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Aerosol Challenges.

J Immunol Res 2018 3;2018:8521060. Epub 2018 Jun 3.

United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702-5011, USA.

There remains a need for vaccines that can safely and effectively protect against the biological threat agents Venezuelan (VEEV), western (WEEV), and eastern (EEEV) equine encephalitis virus. Previously, we demonstrated that a VEEV DNA vaccine that was optimized for increased antigen expression and delivered by intramuscular (IM) electroporation (EP) elicited robust and durable virus-specific antibody responses in multiple animal species and provided complete protection against VEEV aerosol challenge in mice and nonhuman primates. Here, we performed a comparative evaluation of the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of individual optimized VEEV, WEEV, and EEEV DNA vaccines with that of a 1 : 1 : 1 mixture of these vaccines, which we have termed the 3-EEV DNA vaccine, when delivered by IM EP. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/8521060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6008678PMC
October 2018
10 Reads

Structural Characterization and Formulation Development of a Trivalent Equine Encephalitis Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Candidate.

J Pharm Sci 2018 Oct 5;107(10):2544-2558. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Macromolecule and Vaccine Stabilization Center, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Kansas, 2030 Becker Drive, Lawrence, Kansas 66047. Electronic address:

The zoonotic equine encephalitis viruses (EEVs) can cause debilitating and life-threatening disease, leading to ongoing vaccine development efforts for an effective virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine based on 3 strains of EEV (Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan or EEE, WEE and VEE VLPs, respectively). In this work, transmission electron microscopy and light scattering studies showed enveloped, spherical, and ∼70 nm sized VLPs. Biophysical studies demonstrated optimal VLP physical stability in the pH range of 7. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xphs.2018.05.022DOI Listing
October 2018
5 Reads

Wing morphometrics of Aedes (Ochlerotatus) albifasciatus (Macquart, 1838) (Diptera: Culicidae) from different climatic regions of Argentina.

Parasit Vectors 2018 05 16;11(1):303. Epub 2018 May 16.

Departamento de Ecología, Genética y Evolución, Grupo de Estudio de Mosquitos, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Background: Gene flow restrictions between populations of Aedes albifasciatus, the vector of Western equine encephalitis and Dirophilaria immitis, have been described in the central region of Argentina. Genetic and eco-physiological variations usually result in local forms reflecting the climatic regions. Mosquito wings and their different parts have ecological functions in flight and communication. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-2888-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5956753PMC
May 2018
1 Read

Genomic Characterization and Seroprevalence Studies on Alphaviruses in Uruguay.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Jun 5;98(6):1811-1818. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Sección Virología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay.

Alphaviruses () are arboviruses frequently associated with emerging infectious diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence of alphaviruses in Uruguay by detecting the viral genome in mosquitoes and neutralizing antibodies in equines. A total of 3,575 mosquitoes were analyzed for alphavirus genome detection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0980DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6086168PMC
June 2018
8 Reads

Human-Like Neutralizing Antibodies Protect Mice from Aerosol Exposure with Western Equine Encephalitis Virus.

Viruses 2018 03 24;10(4). Epub 2018 Mar 24.

United States Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD 21702, USA.

Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) causes symptoms in humans ranging from mild febrile illness to life-threatening encephalitis, and no human medical countermeasures are licensed. A previous study demonstrated that immune serum from vaccinated mice protected against lethal WEEV infection, suggesting the utility of antibodies for pre- and post-exposure treatment. Here, three neutralizing and one binding human-like monoclonal antibodies were evaluated against WEEV aerosol challenge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v10040147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5923441PMC
March 2018
2 Reads

Serological evidence of widespread exposure of Grenada fruit bats to chikungunya virus.

Zoonoses Public Health 2018 08 25;65(5):505-511. Epub 2018 Mar 25.

Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, St. George's University, St. George, Grenada.

Antibody detection against selected potentially zoonotic vector-borne alphaviruses and flaviviruses was conducted on sera from bats from all six parishes in Grenada, West Indies. Sera were tested for (i) antibodies to flaviviruses West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Ilhéus virus, Bussuquara virus (BSQV), Rio Bravo virus and all four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT); (ii) antibodies to alphaviruses western equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and eastern equine encephalitis virus by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and (iii) antibodies to the alphavirus chikungunya (CHIKV) by PRNT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/zph.12460DOI Listing
August 2018
4 Reads

The challenges posed by equine arboviruses.

Equine Vet J 2018 Jul 14;50(4):436-445. Epub 2018 Apr 14.

School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire, UK.

Equine populations worldwide are at increasing risk of infection by viruses transmitted by biting arthropods, including mosquitoes, biting midges (Culicoides), sandflies and ticks. These include the flaviviruses (Japanese encephalitis, West Nile and Murray Valley encephalitis), alphaviruses (eastern, western and Venezuelan encephalitis) and the orbiviruses (African horse sickness and equine encephalosis). This review provides an overview of the challenges faced in the surveillance, prevention and control of the major equine arboviruses, particularly in the context of these viruses emerging in new regions of the world. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evj.12829DOI Listing
July 2018
2 Reads

A Serosurvey of Flavivirus Infection in Horses and Birds in Slovakia.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2018 04 13;18(4):206-213. Epub 2018 Feb 13.

5 Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Veterinary Medicine , Budapest, Hungary .

In central Europe, at least three flaviviruses circulate among vectors and vertebrate hosts. West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are mosquito-borne viruses maintained in the nature by enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and birds. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a flavivirus causing annual human cases in Slovakia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2017.2216DOI Listing
April 2018
10 Reads

Molecular Detection and Serological Evidence of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus in Serbia.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2017 12 24;17(12):813-820. Epub 2017 Oct 24.

5 Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad , Novi Sad, Serbia .

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a zoonotic flaviviral infection that is a growing public health concern in European countries. The aims of this research were to detect and characterize tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in Ixodes ricinus ticks at presumed natural foci in Serbia, and to determine seroprevalence of TBEV IgG antibodies in humans and animals. A total of 500 I. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2017.2167DOI Listing
December 2017
14 Reads

Epidemiology and spatio-temporal analysis of West Nile virus in horses in Spain between 2010 and 2016.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Apr 16;65(2):567-577. Epub 2017 Oct 16.

Center for Animal Disease Modeling and Surveillance (CADMS), Department of Medicine & Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.

During the last decade, West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks have increased sharply in both horses and human in Europe. The aims of this study were to evaluate characteristics and spatio-temporal distribution of WNV outbreaks in horses in Spain between 2010 and 2016 in order to identify the environmental variables most associated with WNV occurrence and to generate high-resolution WNV suitability maps to inform risk-based surveillance strategies in this country. Between August 2010 and November 2016, a total of 403 WNV suspected cases were investigated, of which, 177 (43. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.12742DOI Listing
April 2018
4 Reads

Host-Feeding Patterns of Culex stigmatosoma (Diptera: Culicidae) in Southern California.

J Med Entomol 2017 Nov;54(6):1750-1757

Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521.

Knowledge of the blood-feeding patterns exhibited by arthropod vectors is essential for understanding the complex dynamics of vector-borne disease transmission. Some species of mosquitoes belonging to the genus Culex have been implicated as having major roles in the transmission of arboviruses such as West Nile virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, and Western equine encephalitis virus. Although the host-feeding patterns for many of these Culex species are well studied, the host-feeding patterns of Culex stigmatosoma Dyar are relatively poorly studied, even though this species is suspected to be an important maintenance vector for West Nile virus and other arboviruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjx154DOI Listing
November 2017
9 Reads

Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Capsid-The Clever Caper.

Viruses 2017 09 29;9(10). Epub 2017 Sep 29.

National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, Manassas, VA 20110, USA.

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a New World alphavirus that is vectored by mosquitos and cycled in rodents. It can cause disease in equines and humans characterized by a febrile illness that may progress into encephalitis. Like the capsid protein of other viruses, VEEV capsid is an abundant structural protein that binds to the viral RNA and interacts with the membrane-bound glycoproteins. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/9/10/279
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v9100279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5691631PMC
September 2017
18 Reads

Zika, Chikungunya, and Other Emerging Vector-Borne Viral Diseases.

Annu Rev Med 2018 Jan 28;69:395-408. Epub 2017 Aug 28.

Institut Pasteur, Biology of Infection Unit, INSERM Unité 1117, 75006 Paris, France; email: ,

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have a long history of emerging to infect humans, but during recent decades, they have been spreading more widely and affecting larger populations. This is due to several factors, including increased air travel and uncontrolled mosquito vector populations. Emergence can involve simple spillover from enzootic (wildlife) cycles, as in the case of West Nile virus accompanying geographic expansion into the Americas; secondary amplification in domesticated animals, as seen with Japanese encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and Rift Valley fever viruses; and urbanization, in which humans become the amplification hosts and peridomestic mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti, mediate human-to-human transmission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-med-050715-105122DOI Listing
January 2018
36 Reads

Development of high-throughput and high sensitivity capillary gel electrophoresis platform method for Western, Eastern, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (WEVEE) virus like particles (VLPs) purity determination and characterization.

Electrophoresis 2017 10 20;38(20):2610-2621. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

Vaccine Production Program, VRC, NIAID, NIH, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.

In this paper, we describe development of a high-throughput, highly sensitive method based on Lab Chip CGE-SDS platform for purity determination and characterization of virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines. A capillary gel electrophoresis approach requiring about 41 s per sample for analysis and demonstrating sensitivity to protein initial concentrations as low as 20 μg/mL, this method has been used previously to evaluate monoclonal antibodies, but this application for lot release assay of VLPs using this platform is unique. The method was qualified and shown to be accurate for the quantitation of VLP purity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.201700217DOI Listing
October 2017
28 Reads

Susceptibility and Lethality of Western Equine Encephalitis Virus in Balb/c Mice When Infected by the Aerosol Route.

Viruses 2017 06 27;9(7). Epub 2017 Jun 27.

CBR Division, Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl), Room 201, Building 7a, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JQ, UK.

Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) naturally cycles between mosquitos and birds or rodents, with a case fatality rate of up to 15% in humans during epizootic outbreaks. There are no medical countermeasures to treat WEEV infection, and accidental aerosol exposure increases the case fatality rate up to 40%. Understanding the pathogenesis of infection is required to develop and assess medical countermeasures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v9070163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5537655PMC
June 2017
22 Reads

The role of birds in arboviral disease surveillance in Harris County and the City of Houston, Texas.

US Army Med Dep J 2017 Jan-Jun(1-17):1-12

Mosquito and Vector Control Division, Harris County Public Health, Houston, Texas.

Avian arboviral surveillance is an integral part of any disease-based integrated mosquito control program. The Harris County Public Health Mosquito and Vector Control Division has performed arboviral surveillance in the wild birds of Harris County and the City of Houston since 1965. Blood samples from live trapped birds were tested for arboviral antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV), St. Read More

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February 2018
18 Reads

Development of a Japanese encephalitis virus-like particle vaccine in silkworms using codon-optimised prM and envelope genes.

Heliyon 2017 Apr 11;3(4):e00286. Epub 2017 Apr 11.

The Institute of Biological Resources, 893-2, Nakayama, Nago-shi, Okinawa 905-0004, Japan.

We have successfully prepared a Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) - Nakayama virus like particle (NVLP) vaccine using synthetic codon-optimized prM and E genes. The expression of the recombinant JEV Nakayama-BmNPV (JEV-NNPV) virus was determined in infected silkworm Bm-N cells by fluorescence and Western blot analysis. The recombinant was inoculated into silkworm pupae and the yield of Nakayama VLP (NVLP) reached a peak in the homogenates after 3 days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2017.e00286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5390689PMC
April 2017
12 Reads

Potential Sympatric Vectors and Mammalian Hosts of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus in Southern Mexico.

J Wildl Dis 2017 07 6;53(3):657-661. Epub 2017 Apr 6.

1 Departamento de Etología, Fauna Silvestre y Animales de Laboratorio, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad 3000, Delegación Coyoacán, México DF, CP 04510.

Arboviruses are important zoonotic agents with complex transmission cycles and are not well understood because they may involve many vectors and hosts. We studied sympatric wild mammals and hematophagous mosquitoes having the potential to act as hosts and vectors in two areas of southern Mexico. Mosquitoes, bats, and rodents were captured in Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas), between November 2010 and August 2011. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/2016-11-249DOI Listing
July 2017
14 Reads

Discovery of a novel alphavirus related to Eilat virus.

J Gen Virol 2017 Jan;98(1):43-49

1​Institute of Virology, University of Bonn Medical Centre, Bonn, Germany 2​German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site Bonn-Cologne, Bonn, Germany.

Most alphaviruses are transmitted by arthropods and infect vertebrate hosts. An exception is Eilat virus (EILV), the only described alphavirus with a host range restricted to insects. We established a new generic reverse transcription PCR assay for alphaviruses and tested 8860 tropical mosquitoes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.000694DOI Listing
January 2017
50 Reads

Exploring genetic variation in haplotypes of the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) through DNA barcoding.

Acta Trop 2017 May 23;169:43-50. Epub 2017 Jan 23.

Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:

Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector of many pathogens and parasites of humans, as well as domestic and wild animals. In urban and semi-urban Asian countries, Cx. quinquefasciatus is a main vector of nematodes causing lymphatic filariasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.01.020DOI Listing
May 2017
11 Reads

A recombinant fusion protein consisting of West Nile virus envelope domain III fused in-frame with equine CD40 ligand induces antiviral immune responses in horses.

Vet Microbiol 2017 Jan 8;198:51-58. Epub 2016 Dec 8.

Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA. Electronic address:

West Nile Virus (WNV) is endemic in the US and causes severe neurologic disease in horses since its introduction in 1999. There is no effective pharmaceutical treatment for WNV infection rendering vaccination as the only approach to prevention and control of disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a recombinant vaccine containing domain III (DIII) of the WNV envelope glycoprotein with and without a natural adjuvant equine (CD40L) in producing virus neutralizing antibodies in horses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.008DOI Listing
January 2017
8 Reads

A Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for the Detection of Utilizing a Universal Alphavirus Control RNA.

Biomed Res Int 2016 29;2016:8543204. Epub 2016 Nov 29.

Institute for Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald, Insel Riems, Germany.

(VEEV) is an from the family that causes epizootic outbreaks in equids and humans in Central and South America. So far, most studies use conventional reverse transcriptase PCR assays for the detection of the different VEEV subtypes. Here we describe the development of a TaqMan quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay for the specific detection and quantitation of all VEEV subtypes which uses in parallel a universal equine encephalitis virus control RNA carrying target sequences of the three equine encephalitis viruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8543204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5153510PMC
January 2017
8 Reads

Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) Compounds Alter New World Alphavirus Capsid Localization and Reduce Viral Replication in Mammalian Cells.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 11 30;10(11):e0005122. Epub 2016 Nov 30.

National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, Manassas, Virginia, United States of America.

The capsid structural protein of the New World alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), interacts with the host nuclear transport proteins importin α/β1 and CRM1. Novel selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) compounds, KPT-185, KPT-335 (verdinexor), and KPT-350, target the host's primary nuclear export protein, CRM1, in a manner similar to the archetypical inhibitor Leptomycin B. One major limitation of Leptomycin B is its irreversible binding to CRM1; which SINE compounds alleviate because they are slowly reversible. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5130180PMC
November 2016
19 Reads

Notice to Readers: Final 2015 Reports of Nationally Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Conditions.

Authors:

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016 Nov 25;65(46):1306-1321. Epub 2016 Nov 25.

The table listed in this report on pages 1307-1321 presents finalized data, as of June 30, 2016, from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) for 2015. These data will be published in more detail in the Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Conditions - United States, 2015 (1). Because no cases were reported in the United States during 2015, the following diseases do not appear in this early release table: anthrax; dengue hemorrhagic fever; diphtheria; eastern equine encephalitis virus disease, nonneuroinvasive; poliomyelitis, paralytic; poliovirus infection, nonparalytic; severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus disease (SARS-CoV); smallpox; western equine encephalitis virus disease, neuroinvasive and nonneuroinvasive; yellow fever; and viral hemorrhagic fevers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6546a9DOI Listing
November 2016
7 Reads

Ablation of Programmed -1 Ribosomal Frameshifting in Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Results in Attenuated Neuropathogenicity.

J Virol 2017 Feb 18;91(3). Epub 2017 Jan 18.

Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA

The alphaviruses Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), and western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) are arthropod-borne positive-strand RNA viruses that are capable of causing acute and fatal encephalitis in many mammals, including humans. VEEV was weaponized during the Cold War and is recognized as a select agent. Currently, there are no FDA-approved vaccines or therapeutics for these viruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01766-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5244343PMC
February 2017
33 Reads

Venezuelan and western equine encephalitis virus E1 liposome antigen nucleic acid complexes protect mice from lethal challenge with multiple alphaviruses.

Virology 2016 12 12;499:30-39. Epub 2016 Sep 12.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

Eastern, Venezuelan and western equine encephalitis viruses (EEEV, VEEV, and WEEV) are mosquito-borne viruses that cause substantial disease in humans and other vertebrates. Vaccines are limited and current treatment options have not proven successful. In this report, we vaccinated outbred mice with lipid-antigen-nucleic acid-complexes (LANACs) containing VEEV E1+WEEV E1 antigen and characterized protective efficacy against lethal EEEV, VEEV, and WEEV challenge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2016.08.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5884135PMC
December 2016
39 Reads

La Crosse Encephalitis: A Persistent Arboviral Threat in North Carolina.

Authors:
Brian D Byrd

N C Med J 2016 Sep-Oct;77(5):330-3

associate professor, Environmental Health Sciences Program, College of Health and Human Sciences, Western Carolina University; supervisor, Mosquito and Vector-borne Infectious Disease Laboratory, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, North Carolina

Mosquito-borne diseases remain a significant cause of economic, social, and health burdens in North Carolina. Although recently overshadowed by emerging threats such as chikungunya virus and Zika virus, La Crosse virus and other endemic arboviruses remain persistent environmental health hazards. Indeed, La Crosse virus, West Nile virus, and Eastern equine encephalitis virus accounted for more than 98% of the reported human arboviral diseases acquired in North Carolina in the past decade. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18043/ncm.77.5.330DOI Listing
July 2018
11 Reads

Alphavirus protease inhibitors from natural sources: A homology modeling and molecular docking investigation.

Comput Biol Chem 2016 Oct 21;64:163-184. Epub 2016 Jun 21.

Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899, USA. Electronic address:

Alphaviruses such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), O'Nyong-Nyong virus (ONNV), Ross River virus (RRV), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), and Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), are mosquito-transmitted viruses that can cause fevers, rash, and rheumatic diseases (CHIKV, ONNV, RRV) or potentially fatal encephalitis (EEEV, VEEV, WEEV) in humans. These diseases are considered neglected tropical diseases for which there are no current antiviral therapies or vaccines available. The alphavirus non-structural protein 2 (nsP2) contains a papain-like protease, which is considered to be a promising target for antiviral drug discovery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2016.06.005DOI Listing
October 2016
15 Reads

Neurological Sequelae Resulting from Encephalitic Alphavirus Infection.

Front Microbiol 2016 20;7:959. Epub 2016 Jun 20.

Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TXUSA; Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Galveston National Laboratory, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TXUSA.

The recent surge in viral clinical cases and associated neurological deficits have reminded us that viral infections can lead to detrimental, long-term effects, termed sequelae, in survivors. Alphaviruses are enveloped, single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses in the Togaviridae family. Transmission of alphaviruses between and within species occurs mainly via the bite of an infected mosquito bite, giving alphaviruses a place among arboviruses, or arthropod-borne viruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00959DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4913092PMC
July 2016
6 Reads

Hospitalized Children With Encephalitis in the United States: A Pediatric Health Information System Database Study.

Pediatr Neurol 2016 08 6;61:58-62. Epub 2016 May 6.

Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Objectives: Given the paucity of data on resource utilization among children with encephalitis, the objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology and evaluate resource utilization and discharge data of children with encephalitis admitted to US hospitals from 2004 to 2013.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study utilizing the Pediatric Health Information System database of children aged 0 to 18 years with the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for encephalitis from 2004 to 2013. Only the initial admissions were included, and the age group analyzed was 0 to 18 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2016.04.014DOI Listing
August 2016
15 Reads

Avian Encephalomyelitis in Layer Pullets Associated with Vaccination.

Avian Dis 2016 06;60(2):511-5

E California Animal Health & Food Safety Laboratory System, Tulare Branch, University of California-Davis, 18830 Road 112, Tulare, CA 93274.

Avian encephalomyelitis (AE) was diagnosed in three flocks of leghorn layer pullets following AE vaccination. Ages of the birds were 11, 12, and 14 wk. The submissions came from three different companies located in two geographic areas of the Central Valley of California. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/11306-102115-CaseDOI Listing
June 2016
8 Reads

A novel cell-based assay to measure activity of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus nsP2 protease.

Virology 2016 09 2;496:77-89. Epub 2016 Jun 2.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Drug Discovery Division, Southern Research, Birmingham, AL 35205, United States. Electronic address:

The encephalitic alphaviruses encode nsP2 protease (nsP2pro), which because of its vital role in virus replication, represents an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. To facilitate the discovery of nsP2 inhibitors we have developed a novel assay for quantitative measurement of nsP2pro activity in a cell-based format. The assay is based on a substrate fusion protein consisting of eGFP and Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) linked together by a small peptide containing a VEEV nsp2pro cleavage sequence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2016.05.012DOI Listing
September 2016
10 Reads

Combining reverse-transcription multiplex PCR and microfluidic electrophoresis to simultaneously detect seven mosquito-transmitted zoonotic encephalomyelitis viruses.

Vet J 2016 Jun 20;212:27-35. Epub 2015 Oct 20.

School of Life Sciences, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030, China. Electronic address:

Several mosquito-transmitted viruses are causative agents for zoonotic encephalomyelitis. Rapid identification of these viruses in mosquito populations is an effective method for surveying these diseases. To detect multiple mosquito-transmitted viral agents, including West Nile virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus, Western equine encephalomyelitis virus, Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus, Highlands J virus and Japanese encephalitis virus, an assay using multiplex reverse-transcription PCR combined with microfluidic electrophoresis was developed and evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2015.10.040DOI Listing
June 2016
8 Reads

Culex Tarsalis Mosquitoes as Vectors of Highlands J Virus.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2016 08 1;16(8):558-65. Epub 2016 Jun 1.

1 Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Fort Collins, Colorado.

Highlands J virus (HJV) is an alphavirus closely related to western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV). HJV is an avian pathogen with the potential for disruption of poultry operations, but is not known to cause human or equine disease. HJV has only been identified in the eastern United States and is thought to have a transmission cycle similar to that of EEEV involving Culiseta melanura mosquitoes and birds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2015.1907DOI Listing
August 2016
31 Reads

Virus-specific thermostability and heat inactivation profiles of alphaviruses.

J Virol Methods 2016 08 11;234:152-5. Epub 2016 Apr 11.

Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, United States; Biosecurity Research Institute, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, United States. Electronic address:

Serological diagnosis is a critical component for disease surveillance and is important to address the increase in incidence and disease burden of alphaviruses, such as the chikungunya (CHIKV) and Ross River (RRV) viruses. The gold standard for serological diagnosis is the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), which demonstrates the neutralizing capacity of serum samples after the removal of complement activity and adventitious viruses. This procedure is normally performed following inactivation of the virus at 56°C for 30min. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2016.04.004DOI Listing
August 2016
9 Reads

Alphavirus-Based Vaccines.

Methods Mol Biol 2016 ;1404:313-28

PanTherapeutics, Rue des Remparts 4, CH1095, Lutry, Switzerland.

Alphavirus vectors based on Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus have been widely applied for vaccine development. Naked RNA replicons, recombinant viral particles, and layered DNA vectors have been subjected to immunization in preclinical animal models with antigens for viral targets and tumor antigens. Moreover, a limited number of clinical trials have been conducted in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-3389-1_22DOI Listing
December 2016
5 Reads

Entry Sites of Venezuelan and Western Equine Encephalitis Viruses in the Mouse Central Nervous System following Peripheral Infection.

J Virol 2016 06 27;90(12):5785-96. Epub 2016 May 27.

Arthropod-Borne and Infectious Disease Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.

Unlabelled: Venezuelan and western equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV and WEEV; Alphavirus; Togaviridae) are mosquito-borne pathogens causing central nervous system (CNS) disease in humans and equids. Adult CD-1 mice also develop CNS disease after infection with VEEV and WEEV. Adult CD-1 mice infected by the intranasal (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.03219-15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4886771PMC
June 2016
18 Reads

Molecular determinants of alphavirus neuropathogenesis in mice.

J Gen Virol 2016 Jun 30;97(6):1283-96. Epub 2016 Mar 30.

2​ School of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.

Alphaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-stranded RNA genome, of the family Togaviridae. In mammals and birds they are mosquito-transmitted and are of veterinary and medical importance. They cause primarily two types of disease: encephalitis and polyarthritis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.000467DOI Listing
June 2016
5 Reads

Surveys for Antibodies Against Mosquitoborne Encephalitis Viruses in California Birds, 1996-2013.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2016 Apr 14;16(4):264-82. Epub 2016 Mar 14.

Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Vectorborne Diseases, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California , Davis, California.

From 1996 through 2013, 54,546 individual birds comprising 152 species and 7 orders were banded, bled, and released at four study areas within California, from which 28,388 additional serum samples were collected at one or more recapture encounters. Of these, 142, 99, and 1929 birds from 41 species were positive for neutralizing antibodies against western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), or West Nile virus (WNV) at initial capture or recapture, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2015.1888DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4800269PMC
April 2016
4 Reads

[EPIDEMIOLOGIC ANALYSIS OF OUTBREAKS OF DISEASES CAUSED BY AMERICAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS CAUSATIVE AGENTS IN ENDEMIC REGIONS].

Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 2015 Sep-Oct(5):103-10

Epidemiologic analysis of epidemic outbreaks caused by American equine encephalitis causative agents is carried out in the review. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE), Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and Venezuela equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) viruses are etiologic agents of dangerous transmissive diseases that are usually accompanied by fever and neurologic symptoms. Among the New World alphaviruses, VEE virus has the most potential danger for humans and domestic animals. Read More

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February 2016
10 Reads

Surveillance for Western Equine Encephalitis, St. Louis Encephalitis, and West Nile Viruses Using Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification.

PLoS One 2016 25;11(1):e0147962. Epub 2016 Jan 25.

Sandia National Laboratories, Biotechnology and Bioengineering Department, Livermore, California, United States of America.

Collection of mosquitoes and testing for vector-borne viruses is a key surveillance activity that directly influences the vector control efforts of public health agencies, including determining when and where to apply insecticides. Vector control districts in California routinely monitor for three human pathogenic viruses including West Nile virus (WNV), Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0147962PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4726549PMC
July 2016
16 Reads

Occurrence of antibodies anti -Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Leptospira interrogans in a captive deer herd in Southern Brazil.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2015 Oct-Dec;24(4):482-7. Epub 2015 Nov 10.

Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brasil.

A large number of Brazilian zoos keep many endangered species of deer, however, very few disease surveillance studies have been conducted among captive cervids. Blood samples from 32 Brazilian deer (Blastocerus dichotomus, Mazama nana and Mazama americana) kept in captivity at Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary (Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil) were investigated for 10 ruminant pathogens, with the aims of monitoring deer health status and evaluating any potential zoonotic risk. Deer serum samples were tested for Brucella abortus, Leptospira (23 serovars), Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, western equine encephalitis virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612015065DOI Listing
May 2018
11 Reads

Detection of emergent strains of West Nile virus with a blood screening assay.

Transfusion 2016 06 8;56(6 Pt 2):1503-7. Epub 2015 Dec 8.

Australian Infectious Disease Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia.

Background: West Nile virus (WNV) is a threat to transfusion safety. WNV Kunjin strain (WNVKUN ) is endemic across parts of Australia; however, human infection is believed to be infrequent and is often associated with relatively minor symptoms. A virulent strain, closely related to WNVKUN (termed WNVNSW2011 ) was recently identified as the etiologic agent of encephalitis in Australian horses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.13443DOI Listing
June 2016
7 Reads