5,619 results match your criteria Encephalitis West Nile


West Nile virus epizootic in Germany, 2018.

Antiviral Res 2018 Dec 11;162:39-43. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Institute of Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany; German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site Hamburg-Luebeck-Borstel, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany. Electronic address:

The summer of 2018 in Germany was the second hottest and driest on record. These generally extremely favorable climatic conditions most likely triggered the further expansion and the efficient propagation of the zoonotic arthropod-borne West Nile virus in many Southern/Southeastern and even Central European countries. WNV infections were detected for the first time in resident wild and aviary birds, such as common blackbirds, northern goshawks and great grey owls in Eastern and Southeastern Germany. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2018.12.005DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

The Multifaceted Roles of Autophagy in Flavivirus-Host Interactions.

Authors:
Po-Yuan Ke

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 7;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology and Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan.

Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular process in which intracellular components are eliminated via lysosomal degradation to supply nutrients for organelle biogenesis and metabolic homeostasis. Flavivirus infections underlie multiple human diseases and thus exert an immense burden on public health worldwide. Mounting evidence indicates that host autophagy is subverted to modulate the life cycles of flaviviruses, such as hepatitis C virus, dengue virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus and Zika virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123940DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Arboviruses isolated from the Barkedji mosquito-based surveillance system, 2012-2013.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Dec 12;18(1):642. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Unité d'Entomologie Médicale, Institut Pasteur de Dakar, 36 Avenue Pasteur, BP 220, Dakar, Senegal.

Background: A mosquito-based arbovirus surveillance system was set up at Barkedji, Senegal after the first outbreak of Rift valley fever in West Africa in 1988. This system was recently updated using more sampling methods and collecting in greater number of ponds and villages sites.

Methods: For the current study, mosquitoes were sampled biweekly between July and December 2012 and 2013 using CDC+CO light traps set at ground and canopy level, mosquito nets baited with goat, sheep, human or chicken, light traps baited with goat, sheep and chicken; bird-baited traps using pigeons or chickens placed either at the ground or canopy level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3538-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6292156PMC
December 2018
1 Read

West Nile virus in Algeria: a comprehensive overview.

New Microbes New Infect 2019 Jan 21;27:9-13. Epub 2018 Oct 21.

UMR VITROME, Aix-Marseille Université, IRD, Service de Santé des Armées, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille, IHU Méditerranée-Infection, Marseille, France.

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus belonging to the genus related to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of family. It is transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. The virus is maintained in a mosquito-bird-mosquito transmission cycle. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S20522975183009
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nmni.2018.10.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6260397PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Antigenic relationship among zoonotic flaviviruses from Italy.

Infect Genet Evol 2018 Dec 2;68:91-97. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.

Here we report studies of the antigenic relationship of West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV), two zoonotic flaviviruses from Italy, together with a Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) strain and compared them with their genetic relationship using the immunodominant viral E protein. Thirty-nine isolates and reference strains were inactivated and used to immunize rabbits to produce hyper immune sera. Serum samples were tested by neutralization against all isolates and results visualized by generating antigenic map. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2018.11.023DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Experimental transmission of Zika virus by Aedes japonicus japonicus from southwestern Germany.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2018 Nov 28;7(1):192. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, 20359, Hamburg, Germany.

The invasive mosquito species Aedes japonicus japonicus (Ae. japonicus) is widely distributed in Central Europe and is a known vector of various arboviruses in the laboratory, including flaviviruses such as Japanese Encephalitis virus or West Nile virus. However, the vector competence of Ae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41426-018-0195-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6258727PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Diagnosis of viral central nervous system infections using antipeptide antibody against viral antigen by ELISA.

Acta Virol 2018 ;62(4):386-393

Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) occur sporadically and have been extensively studied because of the potential for permanent neurological damage or death. The neurotropic viruses have been reported to lead to various CNS infections. The objective of the present study is to develop an antigen detection ELISA protocol for detection and quantification of viral antigen in CNS infections by assessing the usefulness of antipeptide antibodies against potential peptides of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), dengue (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV) and Chandipura virus (CHPV). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4149/av_2018_406DOI Listing
January 2018
1 Read

Discovery of Novel Druggable Sites on Zika Virus NS3 Helicase Using X-ray Crystallography-Based Fragment Screening.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Nov 20;19(11). Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Biocrystallography, Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

The flavivirus family contains several important human pathogens, such as Zika virus (ZIKV), dengue, West Nile, and Yellow Fever viruses, that collectively lead to a large, global disease burden. Currently, there are no approved medicines that can target these viruses. The sudden outbreak of ZIKV infections in 2015⁻2016 posed a serious threat to global public health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113664DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6274715PMC
November 2018
6 Reads

Short Communication: West Nile fever imported from Austria to Germany.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Institute of Virology, Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.

This is the first report of West Nile virus (WNV) infection imported by a traveller returning from a neighbouring country to Germany (Austria). Physicians should be aware of the expansion of WNV endemic areas in Europe. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13079DOI Listing
November 2018

West-Nile virus encephalitis in an immunocompetent pediatric patient: successful recovery.

Ital J Pediatr 2018 Nov 20;44(1):140. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Molecular Virology Unit, Microbiology and Virology Department, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, 27100, Pavia, Italy.

Background: West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. Symptomatic infection happens in only about 20% of the cases, while WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND) is rare and accounts for less than 1%. There is insufficient information about natural history and clinical course in children, because underdiagnosis is common, and reports are scarce. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13052-018-0574-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6245891PMC
November 2018
3 Reads

Reemergence of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus in the Americas.

Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Dec;24(12)

We summarize and analyze historical and current data regarding the reemergence of St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV; genus Flavivirus) in the Americas. Historically, SLEV caused encephalitis outbreaks in the United States; however, it was not considered a public health concern in the rest of the Americas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2412.180372DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6256408PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Use of Next-Generation Sequencing for Diagnosis of West Nile Virus Infection in Patient Returning to Belgium from Hungary.

Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Dec;24(12):2380-2382

An elderly patient in Belgium who became critically ill after returning from Hungary was tested for pathogens using routine diagnostic tests. All results were negative. However, using next-generation sequencing on a cultured respiratory sample, laboratorians detected a complete West Nile virus genome, similar to strains isolated in southeastern Europe. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2412.180494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6256386PMC
December 2018
1 Read

A protective human monoclonal antibody targeting the West Nile virus E protein preferentially recognizes mature virions.

Nat Microbiol 2019 Jan 19;4(1):71-77. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Viral Pathogenesis Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

West Nile virus (WNV), a member of the Flavivirus genus, is a leading cause of viral encephalitis in the United States. The development of neutralizing antibodies against the flavivirus envelope (E) protein is critical for immunity and vaccine protection. Previously identified candidate therapeutic mouse and human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) target epitopes within the E domain III lateral ridge and the domain I-II hinge region, respectively. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-018-0283-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-018-0283-7DOI Listing
January 2019
13 Reads

The Role of Host Cholesterol During Flavivirus Infection.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 2;8:388. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Center for Research and Advanced Studies (CINVESTAV-IPN), Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico.

In recent years the emergence and resurgence of arboviruses have generated a global health alert. Among arboviruses, Dengue (DENV), Zika (ZIKV), Yellow Fever (YFV), and West Nile (WNV) virus, belong to the genus , cause high viremia and occasionally fatal clinical disease in humans. Given the genetic austerity of the virus, they depend on cellular factors and organelles to complete its replication. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fcimb.2018.00388
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2018.00388DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6224431PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

[Mosquitoes and Ticks: The Influence of Global Warming in the Transmission of Infectious Diseases in Germany].

Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2018 Nov 15;143(23):1714-1722. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

During the last 135 years, the average temperature in Germany has increased by 1.4 °C. By 2050, a further rise by 1. Read More

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http://www.thieme-connect.de/DOI/DOI?10.1055/a-0653-6333
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0653-6333DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

A Sensitive Nano Luciferase Immune Complex Assay System for Highly Sensitive and Specific Detection of Antibodies Against Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2018 Nov 15. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

1 State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology , Beijing, China .

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) can cause fever, headache, neurological disorders, and/or peripheral flaccid paralysis; therefore, it is a major threat to public health. A rapid, sensitive, and simple method for detecting anti-TBEV antibodies is needed urgently to determine infection and for vaccine evaluation. Here, a luciferase-based immunocomplex assay system (Luc-IC) was developed to detect TBEV antibodies. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/vbz.2018.2330
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2330DOI Listing
November 2018
5 Reads
2.300 Impact Factor

Combination of non-structural protein 1-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays can detect and distinguish various dengue virus and Zika virus infections.

J Clin Microbiol 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Tropical Medicine, Medical Microbiology and Pharmacology, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA

The recent outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV) and associated birth defects in dengue virus (DENV)-endemic regions emphasize the need for sensitive and specific serodiagnostic tests. We reported previously that enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of DENV serotype 1 (DENV1) and ZIKV can distinguish primary DENV1, secondary DENV and ZIKV infections. Whether ELISA based on NS1 proteins of other DENV serotypes can discriminate various DENV and ZIKV infections remains unknown. Read More

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http://jcm.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JCM.01464-18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01464-18DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

DNA barcodes corroborating identification of mosquito species and multiplex real-time PCR differentiating Culex pipiens complex and Culex torrentium in Iran.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(11):e0207308. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, Tehran, Iran.

Identifying mosquito species is a fundamental step in risk assessment and implementation of preventative strategies. Moreover, Culex pipiens is the most widespread mosquito vector in several regions of Iran and is the main vector for transmission of West Nile virus (WNV). Mosquitoes were collected at 14 sites in northern regions of Iran in 2015 and 2016. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0207308PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6235353PMC
November 2018
7 Reads

Evaluation of a new West Nile virus nucleic acid test for screening of blood donations.

Transfusion 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Medical and Scientific Affairs, Roche Molecular Systems, Inc., Pleasanton, California.

Background: West Nile virus (WNV) is transmitted to humans through mosquito bites and can be further transmitted to humans through transfusion or transplantation. Because most infected individuals are asymptomatic, blood donor screening is important in areas where WNV is endemic. These studies evaluated the performance of a new test for detection of WNV RNA in blood donations. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/trf.15022
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15022DOI Listing
November 2018
7 Reads
3.230 Impact Factor

High-throughput neutralization assay for multiple flaviviruses based on single-round infectious particles using dengue virus type 1 reporter replicon.

Sci Rep 2018 Nov 9;8(1):16624. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1-23-1, Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 162-8640, Japan.

Diseases caused by the genus Flavivirus, including dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), have a serious impact on public health worldwide. Due to serological cross-reactivity among flaviviruses, current enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for IgM/G cannot reliably distinguish between infection by different flaviviruses. In this study, we developed a reporter-based neutralization assay using single-round infectious particles (SRIPs) derived from representative flaviviruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-34865-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6226426PMC
November 2018
1 Read

West Nile Encephalitis, an Unusual Infection in a Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patient.

Case Rep Hematol 2018 14;2018:3270348. Epub 2018 Oct 14.

Department of Hematology-Oncology, South Texas VA, 7400 Merton Minter, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA.

CNS involvement by CLL is a rare occurrence, usually happening in the context of a transformation to a more aggressive lymphoma in what is known as Richter's transformation. We report a patient with active CLL who developed confusion and was found to have West Nile encephalitis that initially mimicked CNS involvement by CLL. The patient recovered with supportive treatment and later restarted ibrutinib therapy. Read More

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https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2018/3270348/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/3270348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6204171PMC
October 2018
5 Reads

Effects of the Environmental Temperature on and Mosquitoes: A Review.

Insects 2018 Nov 6;9(4). Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Department of Biochemistry, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA.

The temperature of the environment is one of the most important abiotic factors affecting the life of insects. As poikilotherms, their body temperature is not constant, and they rely on various strategies to minimize the risk of thermal stress. They have been thus able to colonize a large spectrum of habitats. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2075-4450/9/4/158
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects9040158DOI Listing
November 2018
12 Reads

The Neglect and Fast Spread of Some Arboviruses: A Note for Healthcare Providers in Nigeria.

Diseases 2018 Nov 5;6(4). Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Infectious Diseases and Environmental Health Research Group, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin 240003, Nigeria.

Arboviruses are distributed worldwide and constitute significant health burden globally. Outbreaks of arboviruses have been reported in Africa and beyond. In Nigeria, like in many other countries, arbovirus infections are more often than not neglected. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2079-9721/6/4/99
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diseases6040099DOI Listing
November 2018
5 Reads

Insect Repellents: An Updated Review for the Clinician.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2018 Nov 2. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Department of Dermatology, UTHealth McGovern Medical School at Houston. Electronic address:

Malaria, Zika virus, West Nile virus, Dengue fever, and Lyme disease are common causes of morbidity and mortality around the world. While arthropod bites may cause local inflammation and discomfort, a greater concern is the potential to develop deadly systemic infection. The use of insect repellents (IR) to prevent systemic infections constitutes a fundamental public health effort. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01909622183282
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2018.10.053DOI Listing
November 2018
9 Reads

Effect of Serratia AS1 (Enterobacteriaceae: Enterobacteriales) on the Fitness of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) for Paratransgenic and RNAi Approaches.

J Med Entomol 2018 Nov 2. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The mosquito Culex pipiens is the primary vector of Rift Valley fever, West Nile, encephalitis, and Zika viruses, and periodic lymphatic filariasis. Developing insecticide resistance in mosquitoes demands the development of new approaches to fight these diseases. Paratransgenesis and RNAi approaches by using engineered bacteria have been shown to reduce mosquito vector competence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjy183DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome Associated With West-Nile Virus Infection: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Front Neurol 2018 16;9:864. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Department of Neurology, University Emergency Hospital Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania.

Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a very rare condition with different autoimmune, infectious and paraneoplastic aetiologies or in most cases idiopathic. We report the case of a 75-year-old woman who was admitted in our department in early fall for altered mental status, opsoclonus, multifocal myoclonus, truncal titubation and generalized tremor, preceded by a 5 day prodrome consisting of malaise, nausea, fever and vomiting. Brain computed tomography and MRI scans showed no significant abnormalities and cerebrospinal fluid changes consisted of mildly increased protein content and number of white cells. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fneur.2018.00864
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2018.00864DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6198716PMC
October 2018
9 Reads

Survey of mosquito-borne flaviviruses in the Cuitzmala River Basin, Mexico: do they circulate in rodents and bats?

Trop Med Health 2018 24;46:35. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

2Laboratorio de Ecología de Enfermedades y Una Salud, Departamento de Etología, Fauna Silvestre y Animales de Laboratorio, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Interior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, Mexico City Mexico.

Background: RNA viruses commonly infect bats and rodents, including mosquito-borne flaviviruses (MBFV) that affect human and animal health. Serological evidence suggests past interactions between these two mammalian orders with dengue viruses (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), and yellow fever virus (YFV). Although in Mexico there are reports of these viruses in both host groups, we know little about their endemic cycles or persistence in time and space. Read More

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https://tropmedhealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s41
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41182-018-0117-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6201526PMC
October 2018
3 Reads

Clinical & epidemiological significance of Kyasanur forest disease.

Indian J Med Res 2018 Aug;148(2):145-150

ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, India.

Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) is a known viral haemorrhagic fever in India, for the last 60 years. However, in recent years, the change in epidemiological profile of the disease has suggested that it is now time to consider KFD as an emerging tropical disease in India. The preference should be to educate not only the villagers where it is being reported or detected but also to public health experts, veterinarians, forest officials and medical professionals to pay attention while seeing a patient overlapping with endemic diseases such as Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, dengue, chikungunya, malaria and tuberculosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_688_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6206778PMC
August 2018
4 Reads
1.661 Impact Factor

Increase in human West Nile and Usutu virus infections, Austria, 2018.

Euro Surveill 2018 Oct;23(43)

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Mohammed Bin Rashid University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

Between 28 June and 17 September 2018, 27 cases of human West Nile virus infections were recorded in Austria; four cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease, 11 cases of West Nile fever, six infections detected by blood donation screening and six imported cases. In addition, 18 cases of human Usutu virus infections (all blood donors) were recorded. This is the highest number of annual infections recorded in Austria since the introduction of both viruses. Read More

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https://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/1560-7917.E
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2018.23.43.1800545DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6208007PMC
October 2018
12 Reads

Surveillance and Diagnosis of West Nile Virus in the Face of Flavivirus Cross-Reactivity.

Front Microbiol 2018 11;9:2421. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Central Virology Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel.

West Nile Virus (WNV) is an arthropod-borne flavivirus whose zoonotic cycle includes both mosquitoes and birds as amplifiers and humans and horses as dead-end hosts. In recent years WNV has been spreading globally and is currently endemic in Africa, The Middle East, India, Australia, central and southern Europe, and the Americas. Integrated surveillance schemes and environmental data aim to detect viral circulation and reduce the risk of infection for the human population emphasizing the critical role for One Health principles in public health. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmicb.2018.02421
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.02421DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6194321PMC
October 2018
8 Reads

West Nile virus lineage 2 in Romania, 2015-2016: co-circulation and strain replacement.

Parasit Vectors 2018 Oct 26;11(1):562. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Cantacuzino National Medico-Military Institute for Research and Development, 103 Splaiul Independenței, 050096, Bucharest, Romania.

Background: West Nile virus (WNV) is endemic in southeastern Romania and, after the unprecedented urban epidemic in Bucharest in 1996 caused by lineage 1 WNV, cases of West Nile fever have been recorded every year. Furthermore, a new outbreak occurred in 2010, this time produced by a lineage 2 WNV belonging to the Eastern European clade (Volgograd 2007-like strain), which was detected in humans and mosquitoes in the following years.

Results: We report here, for the first time, the emergence, in 2015, of lineage 2 WNV belonging to the monophyletic Central/Southern European group of strains which replaced in 2016, the previously endemized lineage 2 WNV Volgograd 2007-like strain in mosquito populations. Read More

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https://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.11
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-3145-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6203995PMC
October 2018
7 Reads

The recently identified flavivirus Bamaga virus is transmitted horizontally by Culex mosquitoes and interferes with West Nile virus replication in vitro and transmission in vivo.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Oct 24;12(10):e0006886. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Public Health Virology, Forensic and Scientific Services, Department of Health, Queensland Government, Coopers Plains, QLD, Australia.

Arthropod-borne flaviviruses such as yellow fever (YFV), Zika and dengue viruses continue to cause significant human disease globally. These viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes when a female imbibes an infected blood-meal from a viremic vertebrate host and expectorates the virus into a subsequent host. Bamaga virus (BgV) is a flavivirus recently discovered in Culex sitiens subgroup mosquitoes collected from Cape York Peninsula, Australia. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006886
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006886DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6200184PMC
October 2018
8 Reads

Memory T Cells in Flavivirus Vaccination.

Vaccines (Basel) 2018 Oct 18;6(4). Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA.

Flaviviruses include many medically important viruses, such as Dengue virus (DENV), Japanese encephalitis (JEV), tick-borne encephalitis (TBEV), West Nile (WNV), yellow fever (YFV), and Zika viruses (ZIKV). Currently, there are licensed human vaccines for DENV, JEV, TBEV and YFV, but not for WNV or ZIKV. Memory T cells play a central role in adaptive immunity and are important for host protection during flavivirus infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines6040073DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

West Nile Virus and Other Nationally Notifiable Arboviral Diseases - United States, 2017.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Oct 19;67(41):1137-1142. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Arthropodborne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes or ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the continental United States (1). Other arboviruses, including Jamestown Canyon, La Crosse, Powassan, St. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6741a1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6193690PMC
October 2018
2 Reads

West Nile virus associated with equid encephalitis in Brazil, 2018.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Oct 14. Epub 2018 Oct 14.

Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Mosquito-borne arboviruses are a major public health concern worldwide and are responsible for emerging and re-emerging diseases. Taken together, the arboviruses have a strong impact on public health and are the most common causes of equine encephalitis. In-depth diagnostic investigation of equine viral encephalitis is of utmost importance for the epidemiological surveillance and control of this disease. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/tbed.13043
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13043DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Diagnostic significance of immunoglobulin G avidity in symptomatic and asymptomatic West Nile virus infection.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2018 Sep-Oct;51(5):591-595

OIE Reference Centre for West Nile Disease, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale "G. Caporale", Teramo, Italy.

Introduction: West Nile virus (WNV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies have been shown to persist for up to 500 days in certain patients. To evaluate the usefulness of immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity assessment in the diagnosis of WNV infection, we analyzed 54 WNV IgM- and/or IgG-positive serum samples from 39 patients with neuroinvasive disease and 15 asymptomatic cases tested during a seroprevalence investigation.

Methods: Serological tests (WNV IgM/IgG antibody detection, IgG avidity) were performed using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Read More

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http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0037-8682-0482-2017DOI Listing
October 2018
3 Reads

A combination of TLR-4 agonist and saponin adjuvants increases antibody diversity and protective efficacy of a recombinant West Nile Virus antigen.

NPJ Vaccines 2018 26;3:39. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

1Infectious Disease Research Institute, 1616 Eastlake Ave E., Suite 400, Seattle, WA 98102 USA.

Members of the family are the leading causes of mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. While dengue virus is the most prevalent, the recent Zika virus outbreak in the Americas triggered a WHO public health emergency, and yellow fever and West Nile viruses (WNV) continue to cause regional epidemics. Given the sporadic nature of flaviviral epidemics both temporally and geographically, there is an urgent need for vaccines that can rapidly provide effective immunity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41541-018-0077-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6158298PMC
September 2018
2 Reads

Concurrent Guillain-Barré syndrome, transverse myelitis and encephalitis post-Zika: A case report and review of the pathogenic role of multiple arboviral immunity.

J Neurol Sci 2018 Dec 26;395:47-53. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Center for Autoimmune Diseases Research (CREA), School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá, Colombia. Electronic address:

We review post-infectious and post-vaccination neurological syndromes involving peripheral and central nervous system (CNS) and report an illustrative case of simultaneous occurrence of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), confirmed by nerve conduction velocities, plus MRI-demonstrated transverse myelitis (TM) and acute encephalitis [acute disseminated encephalomyelitis] (ADEM+GBS) affecting a 24-year-old woman from Cúcuta, Colombia, who developed acute Zika virus (ZIKV) infection confirmed by serum reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and convalescent ZIKV IgG antibodies. With intensive care treatment, respiratory support, steroids, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), patient survived with residual flaccid paraparesis. She had preexisting immunity against Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) acquired before the arrival of ZIKV in Colombia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2018.09.028DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read
2.474 Impact Factor

Zoonotic Viral Diseases of Equines and Their Impact on Human and Animal Health.

Open Virol J 2018 31;12:80-98. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

ICAR-National Research Centre on Equines, Hisar-125001, India.

Introduction: Zoonotic diseases are the infectious diseases that can be transmitted to human beings and vice versa from animals either directly or indirectly. These diseases can be caused by a range of organisms including bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi. Viral diseases are highly infectious and capable of causing pandemics as evidenced by outbreaks of diseases like Ebola, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, West Nile, SARS-Corona, Nipah, Hendra, Avian influenza and Swine influenza. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874357901812010080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6142672PMC
August 2018
10 Reads

RECENT CHANGES IN INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN EUROPEAN WILDLIFE.

J Wildl Dis 2018 Oct 4. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

3   National Veterinary Institute (SVA), SE75189 Uppsala, Sweden.

Many infectious diseases originating from, or carried by, wildlife affect wildlife conservation and biodiversity, livestock health, or human health. We provide an update on changes in the epidemiology of 25 selected infectious, wildlife-related diseases in Europe (from 2010-16) that had an impact, or may have a future impact, on the health of wildlife, livestock, and humans. These pathogens were selected based on their: 1) identification in recent Europe-wide projects as important surveillance targets, 2) inclusion in European Union legislation as pathogens requiring obligatory surveillance, 3) presence in recent literature on wildlife-related diseases in Europe since 2010, 4) inclusion in key pathogen lists released by the Office International des Epizooties, 5) identification in conference presentations and informal discussions on a group email list by a European network of wildlife disease scientists from the European Wildlife Disease Association, or 6) identification as pathogens with changes in their epidemiology during 2010-16. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/2017-07-172DOI Listing
October 2018
8 Reads

Ocular Manifestations of Emerging Flaviviruses and the Blood-Retinal Barrier.

Viruses 2018 09 28;10(10). Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Department of Ophthalmology, Visual and Anatomical Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.

Despite flaviviruses remaining the leading cause of systemic human infections worldwide, ocular manifestations of these mosquito-transmitted viruses are considered relatively uncommon in part due to under-reporting. However, recent outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV) implicated in causing multiple ocular abnormalities, such as conjunctivitis, retinal hemorrhages, chorioretinal atrophy, posterior uveitis, optic neuritis, and maculopathies, has rejuvenated a significant interest in understanding the pathogenesis of flaviviruses, including ZIKV, in the eye. In this review, first, we summarize the current knowledge of the major flaviviruses (Dengue, West Nile, Yellow Fever, and Japanese Encephalitis) reported to cause ocular manifestations in humans with emphasis on recent ZIKV outbreaks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v10100530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213219PMC
September 2018
6 Reads
3.280 Impact Factor

Zika Virus and Other Emerging Arboviral Central Nervous System Infections.

Authors:
James J Sejvar

Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2018 Oct;24(5, Neuroinfectious Disease):1512-1534

Purpose Of Review: In recent years, we have observed the emergence and reemergence of a number of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). Zika virus is the most recent addition to this group, first causing sporadic cases of uncomplicated febrile illness followed by sizeable outbreaks in the Pacific. However, the epidemiology and clinical features of Zika virus infection have changed rapidly and dramatically; it is now recognized as causing Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in children and adults and congenital abnormalities in infected fetuses. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00132979-201810000-0001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/CON.0000000000000652DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Flaviviruses and the Central Nervous System: Revisiting Neuropathological Concepts.

Annu Rev Virol 2018 Sep;5(1):255-272

Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA; email: ,

Flaviviruses are major emerging human pathogens on a global scale. Some flaviviruses can infect the central nervous system of the host and therefore are regarded as neurotropic. The most clinically relevant classical neurotropic flaviviruses include Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043439DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

Increase of West Nile virus cases in Europe for 2018.

Authors:
Talha Burki

Lancet 2018 09 20;392(10152):1000. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32286-4DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

Emergence of human West Nile Virus infection among pediatric population in Madhya Pradesh, India.

J Med Virol 2018 Sep 26. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Defence Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior, India.

Human infections caused by West Nile virus (WNV) mostly remain subclinical and self-limited. However, nearly 20% infected people suffer from febrile illness and very few of them (<1%) may get neuroinvasive illness. Mortality has been reported among children. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jmv.25325
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25325DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads
2.350 Impact Factor

Peli1 facilitates virus replication and promotes neuroinflammation during West Nile virus infection.

J Clin Invest 2018 Nov 24;128(11):4980-4991. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology.

The E3 ubiquitin ligase Pellino 1 (Peli1) is a microglia-specific mediator of autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Its role in neurotropic flavivirus infection is largely unknown. Here, we report that mice deficient in Peli1 (Peli1-/-) were more resistant to lethal West Nile virus (WNV) infection and exhibited reduced viral loads in tissues and attenuated brain inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI99902DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6205407PMC
November 2018
9 Reads

Clinical Problem-Solving: Fever and Rapidly Progressive Weakness in an Immunocompromised Patient.

Neurohospitalist 2018 Oct 12;8(4):194-198. Epub 2018 Feb 12.

Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA.

Here we report the challenging case of a 41-year-old man with HIV complicated by AIDS and a history of prior neurologic injury from progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy who presented with headache, fevers, lower extremity weakness, hyperreflexic upper extremities, and diminished lower extremity reflexes. We review the clinical decision-making and differential diagnosis for this presentation as the physical examination evolved and diagnostic testing changed over time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1941874418754966DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6146346PMC
October 2018
9 Reads

A CRISPR screen identifies IFI6 as an ER-resident interferon effector that blocks flavivirus replication.

Nat Microbiol 2018 Nov 17;3(11):1214-1223. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an architecturally diverse organelle that serves as a membrane source for the replication of multiple viruses. Flaviviruses, including yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus and Zika virus, induce unique single-membrane ER invaginations that house the viral replication machinery. Whether this virus-induced ER remodelling is vulnerable to antiviral pathways is unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-018-0244-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6202210PMC
November 2018
8 Reads

Immunology of West Nile Virus Infection and the Role of Alpha-Synuclein as a Viral Restriction Factor.

Viral Immunol 2018 Sep 15. Epub 2018 Sep 15.

1 Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine , Aurora, Colorado.

West Nile virus (WNV) is a single-stranded RNA flavivirus and is a major cause of viral encephalitis worldwide. Experimental models of WNV infection in mice are commonly used to define acute neuroinflammatory responses in the brain. Alpha-synuclein (Asyn) is a protein of primarily neuronal origin and is a major cause of Parkinson's disease (PD), a disorder characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vim.2018.0075DOI Listing
September 2018
6 Reads

Ongoing and emerging arbovirus threats in Europe.

Authors:
Luisa Barzon

J Clin Virol 2018 Oct 23;107:38-47. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padova, via A. Gabelli 63, 35121, Padova, Italy. Electronic address:

During the last decades, arboviruses that are endemic in Europe have expanded their geographic range and caused an increasing number of human outbreaks. These viruses include West Nile virus, which is expanding its area of circulation in central and southern Europe; Usutu virus, with increasing evidence of a role in human disease; tick-borne encephalitis virus, which is being detected in northern areas and at higher altitudes as a consequence of climate warming; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, which is endemic in Eastern Europe and the Middle East, but has been recently detected in Spain; other viruses, such as California encephalitis virus antigenic group, which circulate in northern and central Europe but whose relevance for human disease in largely unknown. In addition, the rise in global travel and trade has posed Europe to an increased risk of introduction and expansion of exotic arthropod vectors and autochthonous transmission of arboviruses, like dengue and chikungunya viruses, following new introductions from endemic areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2018.08.007DOI Listing
October 2018
13 Reads
3.020 Impact Factor