36,170 results match your criteria Encephalitis Viral


Novel pathological findings and immunohistochemical detection of FMDV antigens in the brain of calves naturally infected with foot-and-mouth disease.

Microb Pathog 2022 Jun 25:105650. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

ICAR-DFMD-International Centre for Foot and Mouth Disease, Arugul, Jatni, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an extremely contagious and economically devastating viral disease of cloven-hoofed domestic and wildlife animals. The disease is endemic in India and other developing countries of the world. The disease is mainly characterized by the presence of vesicular lesions and "tigroid heart" in calves. Read More

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The Association of Human Astrovirus with Extracellular Vesicles Facilitates Cell Infection and Protects the Virus from Neutralizing Antibodies.

J Virol 2022 Jun 28:e0084822. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Departamento de Genética del Desarrollo y Fisiología Molecular, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.

Viral gastroenteritis has a global distribution and represents a high risk for vulnerable population and children under 5 years due to acute diarrhea, fever and dehydration. Human astroviruses (HAstV) have been identified as the third most important cause of viral gastroenteritis in pediatric and immunocompromised patients. Furthermore, HAstV has been reported in biopsies taken from patients with encephalitis, meningitis and acute respiratory infection, yet it is not clear how the virus reaches these organs. Read More

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Case report of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis in a 24-year-old female: an uncommon presentation.

Egypt J Neurol Psychiatr Neurosurg 2022 23;58(1):79. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Emergency Department, St. Nikolaus Hospital Eupen, Eupen, Belgium.

Background: Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a form of autoimmune encephalitis. Due to the variability of the initial symptoms, anti-NMDAR encephalitis is not only underdiagnosed but also can be misdiagnosed as viral encephalitis or other pathologies. The origin of this disease is often paraneoplastic. Read More

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An Immunoinformatics Prediction of Novel Multi-Epitope Vaccines Candidate Against Surface Antigens of Nipah Virus.

Int J Pept Res Ther 2022 23;28(4):123. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Infectious Diseases Division (IDD), icddr,b, 68, Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmed Sarani, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212 Bangladesh.

Nipah virus (NiV) is an emerging zoonotic virus causing outbreaks of encephalitis and respiratory illnesses in humans, with high mortality. NiV is considered endemic in Bangladesh and Southeast Asia. There are no licensed vaccines against NiV. Read More

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Recombinant vesicular stomatitis vaccine against nipah virus has a favorable safety profile: Model for assessment of live vaccines with neurotropic potential.

PLoS Pathog 2022 Jun 27;18(6):e1010658. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Public Health Vaccines LLC, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Nipah virus (NiV) disease is a bat-borne zoonosis responsible for outbreaks with high lethality and is a priority for vaccine development. With funding from the Coalition of Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), we are developing a chimeric vaccine (PHV02) composed of recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing the envelope glycoproteins of both Ebola virus (EBOV) and NiV. The EBOV glycoprotein (GP) mediates fusion and viral entry and the NiV attachment glycoprotein (G) is a ligand for cell receptors, and stimulates neutralizing antibody, the putative mediator of protection against NiV. Read More

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Influences of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Superresolution Algorithm-Based Transition Care on Prognosis of Children with Severe Viral Encephalitis.

Comput Math Methods Med 2022 17;2022:5909922. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Infusion Room of Emergency, Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210000 Jiangsu Province, China.

Objective: Its goal was to see how convolutional neural network- (CNN-) based superresolution (SR) technology magnetic resonance imaging- (MRI-) assisted transition care (TC) affected the prognosis of children with severe viral encephalitis (SVE) and how effective it was.

Methods: 90 SVE children were selected as the research objects and divided into control group (39 cases receiving conventional nursing intervention) and observation group (51 cases performed with conventional nursing intervention and TC intervention) according to their nursing purpose. Based on SR-CNN-optimized MRI images, diagnosis was implemented. Read More

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Sophoridine Suppresses Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection by Blocking the Activation of Cellular PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK Pathways.

Front Microbiol 2022 10;13:872505. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

State Key Laboratory of South Western Chinese Medicine Resources, School of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous and important human pathogen capable of causing significant clinical diseases ranging from skin damage to encephalitis, particularly in immunocompromised and neonatal hosts. Currently, widely used nucleoside analogs, including acyclovir and penciclovir, have some limitations in their use due to side effects and drug resistance. Herein, we report sophoridine's (SRI) dramatic inhibition of HSV-1 replication . Read More

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Titration and neutralizing antibody quantification by focus forming assay for Powassan virus.

STAR Protoc 2022 Sep 17;3(3):101473. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO 63104, USA.

The development of high-throughput assays measuring Powassan virus (POWV) lineage I and II represents an important step in virological and immunological studies. By adapting focus-forming assays previously optimized for West Nile virus and Zika virus, this protocol is able to determine viral load, evaluate antivirals, and measure neutralizing antibodies. Although limited by its requirement of a detection antibody, this protocol includes a rapid and high-throughput assay for measuring viral titer. Read More

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September 2022

One Health surveillance of West Nile and Usutu viruses: a repeated cross-sectional study exploring seroprevalence and endemicity in Southern France, 2016 to 2020.

Euro Surveill 2022 Jun;27(25)

Pathogenesis and Control of Chronic and Emerging Infections, Montpellier University, INSERM, EFS (etablissement français du sang), Montpellier, France.

BackgroundWest Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV), two closely related flaviviruses, mainly follow an enzootic cycle involving mosquitoes and birds, but also infect humans and other mammals. Since 2010, their epidemiological situation may have shifted from irregular epidemics to endemicity in several European regions; this requires confirmation, as it could have implications for risk assessment and surveillance strategies.AimTo explore the seroprevalence in animals and humans and potential endemicity of WNV and USUV in Southern France, given a long history of WNV outbreaks and the only severe human USUV case in France in this region. Read More

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Acute Ascending Necrotizing Myelitis After COVID-19 Infection: A Clinicopathologic Report.

Neurol Clin Pract 2022 Jun;12(3):e28-e32

Departments of Neurology (LG, FRC, NLB, AV), Department of Neurosurgery (ADL), and Department of Pathology (Neuropathology) (SHG), University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, FL.

Objectives: Neurologic manifestations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19) infection are common and varied. The objective of this report was to describe clinicopathologic findings of rare acute ascending necrotizing myelitis (ANM) and briefly summarize similar COVID-19-associated longitudinally extended transverse myelitis cases.

Methods: We described the clinical presentation, disease course, diagnostic workup, therapeutic measures, and pathologic findings of ANM associated with COVID-19 infection. Read More

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Nucleic Acid Preservation Card Surveillance Is Effective for Monitoring Arbovirus Transmission on Crocodile Farms and Provides a One Health Benefit to Northern Australia.

Viruses 2022 Jun 20;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Public Health Virology, Forensic and Scientific Services, Queensland Health, Coopers Plains, QLD 4108, Australia.

The Kunjin strain of West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that can infect farmed saltwater crocodiles in Australia and cause skin lesions that devalue the hides of harvested animals. We implemented a surveillance system using honey-baited nucleic acid preservation cards to monitor WNV and another endemic flavivirus pathogen, Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), on crocodile farms in northern Australia. The traps were set between February 2018 and July 2020 on three crocodile farms in Darwin (Northern Territory) and one in Cairns (North Queensland) at fortnightly intervals with reduced trapping during the winter months. Read More

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Pathogenesis of West Nile Virus Lineage 2 in Domestic Geese after Experimental Infection.

Viruses 2022 Jun 16;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Institute of Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging infectious pathogen circulating between mosquitoes and birds but also infecting mammals. WNV has become autochthonous in Germany, causing striking mortality rates in avifauna and occasional diseases in humans and horses. We therefore wanted to assess the possible role of free-ranging poultry in the WNV transmission cycle and infected 15 goslings with WNV lineage 2 (German isolate). Read More

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Oleanolic Acid Derivative AXX-18 Exerts Antiviral Activity by Inhibiting the Expression of HSV-1 Viral Genes UL8 and UL52.

Viruses 2022 Jun 13;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Department of Cell Biology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China.

Two-thirds of the world's population is infected with HSV-1, which is closely associated with many diseases, such as Gingival stomatitis and viral encephalitis. However, the drugs that are currently clinically effective in treating HSV-1 are Acyclovir (ACV), Ganciclovir, and Valacyclovir. Due to the widespread use of ACV, the number of drug-resistant strains of ACV is increasing, so searching for new anti-HSV-1 drugs is urgent. Read More

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Specific Recognition of the 5'-Untranslated Region of West Nile Virus Genome by Human Innate Immune System.

Viruses 2022 Jun 13;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Université de Lorraine and CNRS, LPCT UMR 7019, F-54000 Nancy, France.

In the last few years, the sudden outbreak of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 proved the crucial importance of understanding how emerging viruses work and proliferate, in order to avoid the repetition of such a dramatic sanitary situation with unprecedented social and economic costs. West Nile Virus is a mosquito-borne pathogen that can spread to humans and induce severe neurological problems. This RNA virus caused recent remarkable outbreaks, notably in Europe, highlighting the need to investigate the molecular mechanisms of its infection process in order to design and propose efficient antivirals. Read More

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Complete Genome Sequencing of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Directly from Clinical Samples: Comparison of Shotgun Metagenomic and Targeted Amplicon-Based Sequencing.

Viruses 2022 Jun 10;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

The clinical presentation of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection varies from asymptomatic to severe meningoencephalitis or meningoencephalomyelitis. The TBEV subtype has been suggested as one of the most important risk factors for disease severity, but TBEV genetic characterization is difficult. Infection is usually diagnosed in the post-viremic phase, and so relevant clinical samples of TBEV are extremely rare and, when present, are associated with low viral loads. Read More

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Comparison of qPCR with ddPCR for the Quantification of JC Polyomavirus in CSF from Patients with Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy.

Viruses 2022 Jun 8;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Viral Immunology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Background: Lytic infection of oligodendrocytes by the human JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) results in the demyelinating disease called progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). The detection of viral DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by PCR is an important diagnostic tool and, in conjunction with defined radiological and clinical features, can provide diagnosis of definite PML, avoiding the need for brain biopsy. The main aim of this study is to compare the droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay with the gold standard quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the quantification of JC viral loads in clinical samples. Read More

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Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses and Current Therapeutic Advances.

Viruses 2022 Jun 5;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 5.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Naval Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China.

Mosquito-borne flavivirus infections affect approximately 400 million people worldwide each year and are global threats to public health. The common diseases caused by such flaviviruses include West Nile, yellow fever, dengue, Zika infection and Japanese encephalitis, which may result in severe symptoms and disorders of multiple organs or even fatal outcomes. Till now, no specific antiviral agents are commercially available for the treatment of the diseases. Read More

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EGR1 Upregulation during Encephalitic Viral Infections Contributes to Inflammation and Cell Death.

Viruses 2022 Jun 2;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA.

Early growth response 1 (EGR1) is an immediate early gene and transcription factor previously found to be significantly upregulated in human astrocytoma cells infected with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). The loss of EGR1 resulted in decreased cell death but had no significant impact on viral replication. Here, we extend these studies to determine the impacts of EGR1 on gene expression following viral infection. Read More

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The Emergence of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Australia in 2022: Existing Knowledge of Mosquito Vectors.

Viruses 2022 Jun 2;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia.

In early 2022, the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was identified as the cause of stillborn and mummified piglets in pig farms in southeastern Australia. Human cases and additional pig farms with infected piglets were subsequently identified across a widespread area encompassing four states. To inform surveillance and control programs, we synthesized existing information on Australian vectors of JEV, much of which was generated in response to incursions of JEV into the northern state of Queensland between 1995 and 2005. Read More

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Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Equine West Nile Virus Infections in Eastern Germany, 2020.

Viruses 2022 May 30;14(6). Epub 2022 May 30.

Department for Horses, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Leipzig University, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

West Nile virus (WNV) infections were first detected in Germany in 2018, but information about WNV seroprevalence in horses is limited. The study's overall goal was to gather information that would help veterinarians, horse owners, and veterinary-, and public health- authorities understand the spread of WNV in Germany and direct protective measures. For this purpose, WNV seroprevalence was determined in counties with and without previously registered WNV infections in horses, and risk factors for seropositivity were estimated. Read More

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Molnupiravir and Its Active Form, EIDD-1931, Show Potent Antiviral Activity against Enterovirus Infections In Vitro and In Vivo.

Viruses 2022 May 25;14(6). Epub 2022 May 25.

National Engineering Research Center for the Emergency Drug, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing 100850, China.

Enterovirus infections can cause hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFDM), aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, and acute flaccid myelitis, leading to death of infants and young children. However, no specific antiviral drug is currently available for the treatment of this type of infection. The Unites States and United Kingdom health authorities recently approved a new antiviral drug, molnupiravir, for the treatment of COVID-19. Read More

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Complexities of JC Polyomavirus Receptor-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms of Infection.

Viruses 2022 May 24;14(6). Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology, and Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA.

JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) is a small non-enveloped virus that establishes lifelong, persistent infection in most of the adult population. Immune-competent patients are generally asymptomatic, but immune-compromised and immune-suppressed patients are at risk for the neurodegenerative disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Studies with purified JCPyV found it undergoes receptor-dependent infectious entry requiring both lactoseries tetrasaccharide C (LSTc) attachment and 5-hydroxytryptamine type 2 entry receptors. Read More

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Protective Immune Responses Induced by an mRNA-LNP Vaccine Encoding prM-E Proteins against Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection.

Viruses 2022 May 24;14(6). Epub 2022 May 24.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is an important zoonotic pathogen, which causes central nervous system symptoms in humans and reproductive disorders in swine. It has led to severe impacts on human health and the swine industry; however, there is no medicine available for treating yet. Therefore, vaccination is the best preventive measure for this disease. Read More

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Computational Identification of Potential Multitarget Inhibitors of Nipah Virus by Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics.

Microorganisms 2022 Jun 9;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Virology Discovery Unit and Bioinformatics Centre, CSIR-Institute of Microbial Technology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chandigarh 160036, India.

Nipah virus (NiV) is a recently emerged paramyxovirus that causes severe encephalitis and respiratory diseases in humans. Despite the severe pathogenicity of this virus and its pandemic potential, not even a single type of molecular therapeutics has been approved for human use. Considering the role of NiV attachment glycoprotein G (NiV-G), fusion glycoprotein (NiV-F), and nucleoprotein (NiV-N) in virus replication and spread, these are the most attractive targets for anti-NiV drug discovery. Read More

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The Immunobiology of Nipah Virus.

Microorganisms 2022 Jun 6;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.

Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly lethal zoonotic paramyxovirus that emerged in Malaysia in 1998. It is a human pathogen capable of causing severe respiratory infection and encephalitis. The natural reservoir of NiV, Pteropus fruit bats, remains a continuous virus source for future outbreaks, although infection in the bats is largely asymptomatic. Read More

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A Mouse-Based Method to Monitor Wheat Allergens in Novel Wheat Lines and Varieties Created by Crossbreeding: Proof-of-Concept Using Durum and Wheats.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 10;23(12). Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Food Allergy & Immunology Laboratory, Department of Food Science & Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.

Wheat allergies are potentially life-threatening because of the high risk of anaphylaxis. Wheats belong to four genotypes represented in thousands of lines and varieties. Monitoring changes to wheat allergens is critical to prevent inadvertent ntroduction of hyper-allergenic varieties via breeding. Read More

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The Emergence of Japanese Encephalitis in Australia and the Implications for a Vaccination Strategy.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2022 May 29;7(6). Epub 2022 May 29.

School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Herston 4006, Australia.

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. Until 2022, only six locally transmitted human JE cases had been reported in Australia; five in northern Queensland and one in the Northern Territory. Thus, JE was mainly considered to be a disease of travellers. Read More

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Human Encephalitis Caused by Pseudorabies Virus in China: A Case Report and Systematic Review.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

The Fifth People's Hospital of Anyang, Anyang, China.

Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a common pathogen found in pigs. The pathogenicity of PRV in humans is under researched and there are few confirmed cases of PRV infections in humans, which has led to a lack of clinical consensus. We presented a case of viral encephalitis caused by PRV in China. Read More

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Development and Application of a Duplex Droplet Digital Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Detection and Differentiation of EP402R-Deleted and Wild-Type African Swine Fever Virus.

Front Vet Sci 2022 6;9:905706. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

African swine fever (ASF) is a highly fatal porcine disease caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV), and resulting in huge economic losses across the globe. ASF has been raging in China for 3 years, and recently EP402R-deleted ASFV strains emerged, showing sub-acute or chronic symptoms in pigs and providing novel difficulties to monitor and control the disease as EP402R-deleted strains possess no hemadsorption (HAD) ability. In addition, the gene deletion virus with low viral load is prone to results retest or false negative due to the high cycle threshold (Ct) value under the current real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection method. Read More

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Deaths from Tick-Borne Encephalitis, Sweden.

Emerg Infect Dis 2022 07;28(7):1471-1474

We assessed standardized mortality ratio in tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in Sweden, 2004-2017. Standardized mortality ratio for TBE was 3.96 (95% CI 2. Read More

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