33,367 results match your criteria Encephalitis Viral


Japanese Encephalitis Virus: Exploring the dark proteome and disorder-function paradigm.

FEBS J 2020 May 30. Epub 2020 May 30.

School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, 175005, India.

Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) is one of the major causes of viral encephalitis all around the globe. Approximately 3 billion people in endemic areas are at risk for Japanese Encephalitis. To develop a wholistic understanding of the viral proteome it is important to investigate both its ordered and disordered proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.15427DOI Listing

Japanese encephalitis virus: a review on emerging diagnostic techniques.

Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) 2020 Jun 1;25:1875-1893. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

DBT-National Institute of Animal Biotechnology (DBT-NIAB), Hyderabad-500032, Telangana, India,

Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) is the most common Flavivirus based mosquito borne viral encephalitis in the world, especially in countries of South-East Asia. The conventional methods such as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA), Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test and virus isolation are still in use today but new advances are being made to develop more efficient, inexpensive, quicker, sensitive and time-saving techniques to detect JEV. Some of these include the use of immunosensors, both lateral flow based assays and electrochemical, as well as the incorporation of nanotechnology into biosensors to develop highly sensitive detection tools. Read More

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The neurology of COVID-19 revisited: A proposal from the Environmental Neurology Specialty Group of the World Federation of Neurology to implement international neurological registries.

J Neurol Sci 2020 May 7;414:116884. Epub 2020 May 7.

Pakistan International Neuroscience Society, Neurology, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.

A comprehensive review of the neurological disorders reported during the current COVID-19 pandemic demonstrates that infection with SARS-CoV-2 affects the central nervous system (CNS), the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the muscle. CNS manifestations include: headache and decreased responsiveness considered initial indicators of potential neurological involvement; anosmia, hyposmia, hypogeusia, and dysgeusia are frequent early symptoms of coronavirus infection. Respiratory failure, the lethal manifestation of COVID-19, responsible for 264,679 deaths worldwide, is probably neurogenic in origin and may result from the viral invasion of cranial nerve I, progressing into rhinencephalon and brainstem respiratory centers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.116884DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204734PMC

Alphavirus Replication: The Role of Cardiac Glycosides and Ion Concentration in Host Cells.

Biomed Res Int 2020 9;2020:2813253. Epub 2020 May 9.

Departamento de Biologia Celular e Molecular, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ CEP 24020-141, Brazil.

Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne viruses that can cause fever, rash, arthralgias, and encephalitis. The mosquito species and are the most frequent transmitters of alphaviruses. There are no effective vaccines or specific antivirals available for the treatment of alphavirus-related infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/2813253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7232666PMC

Bilateral Optic Neuritis: A Rare Complication of Mumps.

Cureus 2020 Apr 21;12(4):e7768. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Pediatrics, United Medical and Dental College, Creek General Hospital, Karachi, PAK.

Mumps is a contagious viral illness that classically presents with fever, parotid gland swelling, headache, and vomiting in unimmunized children. The complications of mumps most commonly include orchitis, pancreatitis, encephalitis, and meningitis. Optic neuritis, which refers to the inflammation of the optic nerve, in rare cases, can present after mumps meningoencephalitis and causes pain in the eye, and a decrease in visual acuity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7768DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243626PMC

Degradation of miR-466d-3p by Japanese encephalitis virus NS3 facilitates viral replication and IL-1β expression.

J Virol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

The State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Regulation and Breeding of Grassland Livestock, School of Life Sciences, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, 010070, China

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection alters microRNA (miRNA) expression in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the mechanism contributing to miRNA regulation in the CNS is not known. We discovered global degradation of mature miRNA in mouse brains and neuroblastoma cells (NA) after JEV infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00294-20DOI Listing
May 2020
4.439 Impact Factor

Purification of cell-derived japanese encephalitis virus by dual-mode chromatography.

Biotechnol Appl Biochem 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, China.

Purification of the enveloped virus poses a challenge as one must retain viral infectivity to preserve immunogenicity. The traditional process of virus purification is time-consuming, laborious and hard to scaleup. Here, a rapid, simple and extensible laboratory program for the purification of Japanese encephalitis virus was developed by using differential centrifugation, ultrafiltration, Sepharose 4 fast flow gel chromatography and Capto Core 700 chromatography. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bab.1960DOI Listing

Herpes Simplex Virus: The Hostile Guest That Takes Over Your Home.

Front Microbiol 2020 7;11:733. Epub 2020 May 7.

Division of Virology, Indian Council of Medical Research-National AIDS Research Institute, Pune, India.

Alpha (α)-herpesviruses (HSV-1 and HSV-2), like other viruses, are obligate intracellular parasites. They hijack the cellular machinery to survive and replicate through evading the defensive responses by the host. The viral genome of herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) contains viral genes, the products of which are destined to exploit the host apparatus for their own existence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7221137PMC

Genetic dissection of Rift Valley fever pathogenesis: Rvfs2 locus on mouse chromosome 11 enables survival to early-onset hepatitis.

Sci Rep 2020 May 26;10(1):8734. Epub 2020 May 26.

Mouse Functional Genetics, Institut Pasteur, UMR3738, CNRS, Paris, 75015, France.

Infection of mice with Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) reproduces major pathological features of severe human disease, notably the early-onset hepatitis and delayed-onset encephalitis. We previously reported that the Rvfs2 locus from the susceptible MBT/Pas strain reduces survival time after RVFV infection. Here, we used BALB/cByJ (BALB) mice congenic for Rvfs2 (C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65683-wDOI Listing

The Innate Immune Response to Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection Is Dampened in the Newborn Brain and Can Be Modulated by Exogenous Interferon Beta To Improve Survival.

mBio 2020 May 26;11(3). Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA

Newborns are particularly susceptible to severe forms of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection, including encephalitis and multisystemic disseminated disease. The underlying age-dependent differences in the immune response that explain this increased susceptibility relative to the adult population remain largely understudied. Using a murine model of HSV-1 infection, we found that newborn mice are largely susceptible to intracranial and intraperitoneal challenge while adult mice are highly resistant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00921-20DOI Listing

Peptide inhibitors of tembusu virus infection derived from the envelope protein.

Vet Microbiol 2020 Jun 7;245:108708. Epub 2020 May 7.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, Shandong province, PR China; Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Tai'an, Shandong, PR China; Shandong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Animal Disease Control and Prevention, Tai'an, Shandong, PR China. Electronic address:

The outbreak and spread of Tembusu virus (TMUV) has caused very large losses in the waterfowl-breeding industry since 2010. The viral envelope (E) protein, the principal surface protein of viral particles, plays a vital role in viral entry and fusion. In this study, two peptides derived from domain II (DII) and the stem of the TMUV envelope protein, TP1 and TP2, respectively, were tested for their antiviral activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2020.108708DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204726PMC

An outbreak of Japanese encephalitis caused by genotype Ib Japanese encephalitis virus in China, 2018: A laboratory and field investigation.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 May 26;14(5):e0008312. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Arbovirus, NHC Key Laboratory of Biosafety, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Although Japanese encephalitis virus genotype Ib (JEV GIb) has replaced JEV GIII as the dominant genotype in endemic areas of Asia, no JEV GIb has been isolated from JE cases and natural mosquitoes at the same time in an outbreak of JE. In this study, we conducted virological and molecular biological laboratory tests on JE case samples (serum/cerebrospinal fluid) and locally collected mosquito samples from the 2018 JE outbreak in Ningxia, China. The result of JEV IgM antibody detection showed that 96% (67/70) of the suspected cases were laboratory-confirmed JE cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008312DOI Listing

An RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor for tick-borne encephalitis virus.

Virology 2020 Jul 25;546:13-19. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, United States. Electronic address:

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a medically important representative of the Flaviviridae family. The TBEV genome encodes a single polyprotein, which is co/post-translationally cleaved into three structural and seven non-structural proteins. Of the non-structural proteins, NS5, contains an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain that is highly conserved and is responsible for the genome replication. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2020.03.006DOI Listing

COVID-19 and the nervous system.

Authors:
Joseph R Berger

J Neurovirol 2020 Apr 23;26(2):143-148. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

A pandemic due to novel coronavirus arose in mid-December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and in 3 months' time swept the world. The disease has been referred to as COVID-19, and the causative agent has been labelled SARS-CoV-2 due to its genetic similarities to the virus (SARS-CoV-1) responsible for the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic nearly 20 years earlier. The spike proteins of both viruses dictate tissue tropism using the angiotensin-converting enzyme type 2 (ACE-2) receptor to bind to cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-020-00840-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245181PMC

Role of pattern recognition receptors and interferon-beta in protecting bat cell lines from encephalomyocarditis virus and Japanese encephalitis virus infection.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020 Jun 23;527(1):1-7. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Laboratory of Animal Morphology, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan. Electronic address:

Bats are potential natural hosts of Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Bats appear to have some unique features in their innate immune system that inhibit viral replication causing limited clinical symptoms, and thus, contributing to the virus spill over to humans. Here, kidney epithelial cell lines derived from four bat species (Pteropus dasymallus, Rousettus leschenaultii, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, and Miniopterus fuliginosus) and two non-bat species (Homo sapiens and Mesocricetus auratus) were infected with EMCV and JEV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.04.060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7177169PMC

Evaluation of Viral RNA Recovery Methods in Vectors by Metagenomic Sequencing.

Viruses 2020 May 19;12(5). Epub 2020 May 19.

Biology Division, Spiez Laboratory, Swiss Federal Office for Civil Protection, Austrasse, CH-3700 Spiez, Switzerland.

Identification and characterization of viral genomes in vectors including ticks and mosquitoes positive for pathogens of great public health concern using metagenomic next generation sequencing (mNGS) has challenges. One such challenge is the ability to efficiently recover viral RNA which is typically dependent on sample processing. We evaluated the quantitative effect of six different extraction methods in recovering viral RNA in vectors using negative tick homogenates spiked with serial dilutions of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and surrogate Langat virus (LGTV). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12050562DOI Listing

Lipid-Specific Labeling of Enveloped Viruses with Quantum Dots for Single-Virus Tracking.

mBio 2020 May 19;11(3). Epub 2020 May 19.

College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Virology, The Institute for Advanced Studies, Wuhan Institute of Biotechnology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, People's Republic of China

Quantum dots (QDs) possess optical properties of superbright fluorescence, excellent photostability, narrow emission spectra, and optional colors. Labeled with QDs, single molecules/viruses can be rapidly and continuously imaged for a long time, providing more detailed information than when labeled with other fluorophores. While they are widely used to label proteins in single-molecule-tracking studies, QDs have rarely been used to study virus infection, mainly due to a lack of accepted labeling strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00135-20DOI Listing

Neurologic Manifestations of Severe Respiratory Viral Contagions.

Crit Care Explor 2020 Apr 29;2(4):e0107. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Both authors: Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Endemic and pandemic viral respiratory infections have recently emerged as a critical topic of investigation given the recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 outbreak. Data from such outbreaks indicate that severe systemic comorbidities including acute neurologic illness are associated with illness and lead to significant outcome differences. Herein, we will discuss the neurologic manifestations of severe viral respiratory infections including coronavirus, influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, metapneumovirus, and enterovirus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCE.0000000000000107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7188429PMC

Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Signaling May Contribute to Chronic West Nile Virus Post-infectious Proinflammatory State.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 30;7:164. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS, United States.

West Nile virus (WNV) causes a spectrum of human disease ranging from a febrile illness (WNV fever) to severe neuroinvasive disease (meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis). Since WNV gained entry into North America in 1999, clinicians caring for WNV survivors have observed persistent neurological symptoms occurring long-after the production of neutralizing antibodies and clearance of the virus. Accordingly, alternative pathogeneses other than direct viral invasion have been hypothesized to explain these post-infectious symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.00164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7203783PMC

Improved detection of dengue and Zika viruses using multiplex RT-qPCR assays.

J Virol Methods 2020 May 14:113862. Epub 2020 May 14.

Virology Unit, Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, Institut Pasteur International Network, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Electronic address:

Dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are important viral pathogens, known to cause human infections with similar symptoms, are transmitted by common vectors and co-circulate in intertropical regions. Moreover, dengue fever results from infection with one of four different serotypes of dengue virus. Considering the recent ZIKV emergence, multiplex and up-to-date assays are more preferable for detection of both viruses in a single reaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2020.113862DOI Listing

BK virus encephalitis and end-stage renal disease in a child with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Pediatr Transplant 2020 May 15:e13739. Epub 2020 May 15.

Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

BK virus encephalitis after HSCT is uncommon. Several reports of native kidney BKVN in patients with HSCT, hematologic malignancies, human immunodeficiency virus infection, and non-renal solid organ transplantation have been described. However, an uncommon combination of BK encephalitis and ESRD of native kidneys secondary to BK virus in a child with HSCT has not been described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/petr.13739DOI Listing

Experimental Infection of Newly Hatched Domestic Ducklings via Japanese Encephalitis Virus-Infected Mosquitoes.

Pathogens 2020 May 12;9(5). Epub 2020 May 12.

Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Shanghai 200241, China.

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a zoonotic pathogen that is maintained by mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts including birds in a natural transmission cycle. Domestic ducklings are sensitive to JEV infection, but the clinical responses of domestic ducklings to natural JEV infection are unknown. In this study, we simulated the natural JEV infection of domestic ducklings via JEV-infected mosquito bites to evaluate the pathogenicity of JEV in domestic ducklings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050371DOI Listing

Diagnosing herpes simplex-1 encephalitis at the time of COVID-19 pandemic.

Neurol Sci 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Neurology Unit, Luigi Sacco University Hospital, Via Giovanni Battista Grassi 74, 20157, Milan, Italy.

Case Report: We describe the case of a 73-year-old woman who was diagnosed with herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis during the COVID-19 pandemic. The diagnosis was somehow delayed because relatives were initially cautious in bringing the patient to the hospital and, here, the work-up focus was on coronavirusrelated aspects as the patient was initially reputed to be infected with COVID-19.

Conclusions: During the current viral outbreak, physicians should not neglect the possibility of other diseases that represent neurological emergencies and require immediate recognition and treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-020-04461-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7220643PMC

Detection of Astrovirus in a Cow with Neurological Signs by Nanopore Technology, Italy.

Viruses 2020 May 11;12(5). Epub 2020 May 11.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e Molise, 64100 Teramo, Italy.

In this study, starting from nucleic acids purified from the brain tissue, Nanopore technology was used to identify the etiological agent of severe neurological signs observed in a cow which was immediately slaughtered. Histological examination revealed acute non-suppurative encephalomyelitis affecting the brainstem, cerebrum, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata, while by using PCR-based assays, the nucleic acids of major agents for neurological signs were not detected. By using Nanopore technology, 151 sequence reads were assigned to Bovine Astrovirus (BoAstV). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12050530DOI Listing

Inhibition of encephalomyocarditis virus replication by shRNA targeting 1C and 2A genes in vitro and in vivo.

Vet Microbiol 2020 May 2;244:108664. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Key Laboratory of Animal Diseases Diagnostic and Immunology, Ministry of Agriculture, MOE International Joint Collaborative Research Laboratory for Animal Health & Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China; Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for the Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Disease and Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009,PR China.

Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infects many mammalian species, causing myocarditis, encephalitis and reproductive disorders. The small interference RNA (siRNA) targeting to the virus has not been understood completely. Here, two out of six interference sequences were screened to inhibit significantly EMCV replication by using recombinant plasmids expressing small hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting to the viral 1C or 2A genes in BHK-21 cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2020.108664DOI Listing

Involvement of the Nervous System in SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Neurotox Res 2020 Jun 13;38(1):1-7. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, 215004, Jiangsu, China.

As a severe and highly contagious infectious disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic. Several case reports have demonstrated that the respiratory system is the main target in patients with COVID-19, but the disease is not limited to the respiratory system. Case analysis indicated that the nervous system can be invaded by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and that 36. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12640-020-00219-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7220627PMC

Survival of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus in Goat Cheese and Milk.

Food Environ Virol 2020 May 9. Epub 2020 May 9.

Institute for Veterinary Medical Research, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 18, Budapest, 1581, Hungary.

Survival of tick-borne encephalitis virus was studied from pasteurized and unpasteurized goat milk and from salted/unsalted and spiced/unspiced cheese made from goat milk inoculated with low and high litres of infective virus. Both soft (63 °C, 30 min) and fast (72 °C, 15 s) pasteurization conditions destroyed viable virus particles. A small amount of infective virus could be detected only for 5‒10 days from milk, and from unsalted cheese. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12560-020-09427-zDOI Listing

Measles virus persistence and its consequences.

Authors:
Diane E Griffin

Curr Opin Virol 2020 May 5;41:46-51. Epub 2020 May 5.

W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. Electronic address:

Clearance of measles virus is complex. Infectious virus is cleared by the adaptive immune response manifested by the characteristic maculopapular rash. CD8 T cells are major effectors of infectious virus clearance, a process that may fail in individuals with compromised cellular immune responses leading to progressive giant cell pneumonia and/or measles inclusion body encephalitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coviro.2020.03.003DOI Listing

Neurological Impact of Coronavirus Disease of 2019: Practical Considerations for the Neuroscience Community.

World Neurosurg 2020 May 6;139:344-354. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tulane Medical Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, Ochsner Clinic Foundation, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has recently been designated a pandemic by the World Health Organization, affecting 2.7 million individuals globally as of April 25, 2020, with more than 187,000 deaths. An increasing body of evidence has supported central nervous system involvement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.04.222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7202815PMC
May 2020
2.417 Impact Factor

Herpes Simplex Virus-1 in the Brain: The Dark Side of a Sneaky Infection.

Trends Microbiol 2020 May 5. Epub 2020 May 5.

Institute of Translational Pharmacology, National Research Council, Rome, Italy.

Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) establishes latency preferentially in sensory neurons of peripheral ganglia. A variety of stresses can induce recurrent reactivations of the virus, which spreads and then actively replicates to the site of primary infection (usually the lips or eyes). Viral particles produced following reactivation can also reach the brain, causing a rare but severe form of diffuse acute infection, namely herpes simplex encephalitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2020.03.003DOI Listing

Epidemiology, management, and graft outcomes after West Nile virus encephalitis in kidney transplant recipients.

Transpl Infect Dis 2020 May 9:e13317. Epub 2020 May 9.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Madison, WI, USA.

Background: Minimal data exist describing the epidemiology, management, and long-term graft outcomes after West Nile viral disease in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs).

Methods: Single-center observational cohort study of patients who received a kidney transplant between 1/1/1994 and 12/31/2018 and developed WNV at any time point after transplantation.

Results: During the 24-year study period, 11 patients had documented WNV infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.13317DOI Listing

HSV1 VP1-2 deubiquitinates STING to block type I interferon expression and promote brain infection.

J Exp Med 2020 Jul;217(7)

Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the main cause of viral encephalitis in the Western world, and the type I interferon (IFN) system is important for antiviral control in the brain. Here, we have compared Ifnb induction in mixed murine brain cell cultures by a panel of HSV1 mutants, each devoid of one mechanism to counteract the IFN-stimulating cGAS-STING pathway. We found that a mutant lacking the deubiquitinase (DUB) activity of the VP1-2 protein induced particularly strong expression of Ifnb and IFN-stimulated genes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20191422DOI Listing

Prognostic factors among children with acute encephalitis/encephalopathy associated with viral and other pathogens.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 May 7. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Health Economics, School of Public Health, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Acute encephalitis/encephalopathy (AE) associated with viral and other pathogens leads to neurological sequelae and mortality. Knowing the prognostic factors is therefore important for immediate interventions. We examined early-phase unfavorable prognostic factors among children with AE using a nationwide database. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa536DOI Listing

Anti-flavivirus activity of polyoxometalate.

Antiviral Res 2020 May 4;179:104813. Epub 2020 May 4.

CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Unit of Viral Hepatitis, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200031, China. Electronic address:

Viruses in the Flaviviridae family such as Zika virus (ZIKV), dengue virus (DENV), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are major public health concerns. The development of antiviral agents against these viruses is urgently needed. We have previously discovered that the Keggin structured polyoxometalate POM-12 has potent inhibitory activity against hepatitis C virus, another member of the Flaviviridae family. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104813DOI Listing

Modern biologics for rabies prophylaxis and the elimination of human cases mediated by dogs.

Expert Opin Biol Ther 2020 May 15:1-13. Epub 2020 May 15.

LYSSA LLC, Cumming, GA, USA.

: Rabies is a major viral zoonosis and neglected tropical disease, with a global distribution. Humans, domestic animals, and wild mammals are susceptible to infection. Etiological agents reside in the Order Mononegavirales, Family Rhabdoviridae, Genus Lyssavirus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14712598.2020.1766021DOI Listing

The continued threat of emerging flaviviruses.

Nat Microbiol 2020 Jun 4;5(6):796-812. Epub 2020 May 4.

Departments of Medicine, Molecular Microbiology, Pathology & Immunology, Andrew M. and Jane M. Bursky Center for Human Immunology and Immunotherapy Programs, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Flaviviruses are vector-borne RNA viruses that can emerge unexpectedly in human populations and cause a spectrum of potentially severe diseases including hepatitis, vascular shock syndrome, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis, congenital abnormalities and fetal death. This epidemiological pattern has occurred numerous times during the last 70 years, including epidemics of dengue virus and West Nile virus, and the most recent explosive epidemic of Zika virus in the Americas. Flaviviruses are now globally distributed and infect up to 400 million people annually. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-020-0714-0DOI Listing

Epidemiological changes of acute encephalopathy in Japan based on national surveillance for 2014-2017.

Brain Dev 2020 Apr 22. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Developmental Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: We previously reported the nationwide, epidemiological data of acute encephalopathy in Japan during 2007-2010. Here we conducted the second national survey of acute encephalopathy during 2014-2017, and compared the results between the two studies to elucidate the trends in the seven years' interval as well as the influence of changes in pediatric viral infections and guidelines for acute encephalopathy in Japan.

Methods: The Research Committee on Acute Encephalopathy supported by the Japanese Government sent a questionnaire to 507 hospitals throughout Japan, and collected the responses by mail. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2020.04.006DOI Listing

Infectious and Autoimmune Causes of Encephalitis in Children.

Pediatrics 2020 May 1. Epub 2020 May 1.

Section of Pediatric Tropical Medicine, National School of Tropical Medicine,

Background And Objectives: Encephalitis can result in neurologic morbidity and mortality in children. Newly recognized infectious and noninfectious causes of encephalitis have become increasingly important over the past decade.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records from pediatric patients in Houston diagnosed with encephalitis in both an urban and rural catchment area between 2010 and 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-2543DOI Listing

The Vif protein of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus inhibits interferon production.

Arch Virol 2020 Apr 30. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

School of Life Sciences, Tianjin University, No. 92, Weijin road, Nankai District, Tianjin, 300072, China.

Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) is a chronic progressive infectious disease caused by caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) that seriously threatens the goat industry. Chronic infection and life-long multi-tissue inflammation are the typical features of the disease. Innate antiviral immunity is essential for the host defense system that rapidly recognizes and eliminates invading viruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-020-04637-zDOI Listing

Infections of the central nervous system as a risk factor for mental disorders and cognitive impairment: A nationwide register-based study.

Brain Behav Immun 2020 Apr 27. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark; National Centre for Register-based Research, Aarhus University, Denmark; Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: CNS infections have been suggested as risk factors for cognitive decline and mental disorders; however, large-scale studies have been lacking regarding types and agents of CNS infections.

Methods: We utilized the unique personal registration number to create a cohort of 1,709,867 individuals born 1977-2010. CNS infection was exposure and data were analysed with 1) cox regression analyses estimating hazard ratios (HR) for developing mental disorders and 2) binomial regression estimating relative risk (RR) for completion of 9th grade including average grade score in a sub-cohort born 1988-1998. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.04.072DOI Listing

Development of dipstick enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for on-site sero-diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis in swine.

J Virol Methods 2020 Jun 27;280:113876. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

ICAR - Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, India.

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an important viral zoonotic disease in Asia, especially in rural and suburban areas where rice cultivation and pig farming coexist. Pigs serve as a suitable sentinel model, the surveillance of which could predict a potential JE outbreak in human population in the immediate vicinity. However, existing diagnostics like ELISA and VNT require sophisticated laboratory facilities which are more often not available in field conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2020.113876DOI Listing

Hashimoto's Encephalopathy Mimicking Viral Encephalitis: A Case Report.

Front Neurosci 2020 15;14:331. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Neurology and Neuroscience Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) is a rare neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by elevated levels of anti-thyroid antibodies. Diverse manifestations make timely diagnosis of HE difficult. Herein, we report a case of HE, in which the clinical symptoms and laboratory test results mimicked viral encephalitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7175777PMC

CSF Brain-Reactive Autoantibodies are Elevated in Patients with Viral Encephalitis.

Neurosci Bull 2020 Apr 30. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Neurology and Clinical Center for Neuroscience, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, 400042, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12264-020-00503-9DOI Listing

Mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with reversible splenial lesion (MERS) in twin sisters with two CD36 frameshift mutations.

Neurol Sci 2020 Apr 28. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Institute of Pediatrics, Fondazione Policlinico A. Gemelli IRCCS, Università Cattolica Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy.

Mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) is a clinical radiological syndrome with good prognosis that affects mainly children or young adults. We describe two cases of MERS, associated with echovirus 6 and influenza A infection, in two twin sisters, at the age of 4 years. Genetic analysis was performed; next exome sequencing was performed on twins to disclose the eventual causative gene. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-020-04417-2DOI Listing

Amino acid 159 of the envelope protein affects viral replication and T-cell infiltration by West Nile virus in intracranial infection.

Sci Rep 2020 Apr 28;10(1):7168. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Laboratory of Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, N18, W9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-0818, Japan.

West Nile virus (WNV) is an important cause of viral encephalitis in birds and animals, including humans. Amino acid 159 of the envelope (E) protein is reportedly implicated in the different levels of neurovirulence in mice infected with WNV NY99 or Eg101. We investigated the role of amino acid 159 of the E protein in the pathogenesis of WNV infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64199-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7189269PMC

[Emerging of Japanese encephalitis virus and Getah virus from specimen of mosquitoes in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2020 Apr;41(4):571-579

Department of Viral Encephalitis, State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.

To investigate the types and distribution of blood-sucking insects and arboviruses in Inner Mongolia autonomous region, and provide basic data for the prevention of arbovirus transmitted disease. Blood-sucking insects were collected by lamp trapping method in nature. Mosquito samples were classified according to morphologic characteristics and then stored at liquid nitrogen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20190425-00284DOI Listing

[Etiology and molecular-epidemiological characteristics of viral meningo-encephalitis in Zhejiang province, 2002-2018].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2020 Apr;41(4):562-566

Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310051, China.

To understand the pathogens and molecular-epidemiologic characteristics of viral meningo-encephalitis in Zhejiang province during 2002 to 2018. All the samples were collected from suspected patients admitted to the hospitals under the monitoring program. Of the total samples, 2 173 were cerebrospinal fluids while the other 455 were stool specimens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20190625-00463DOI Listing

Mild Encephalitis/Encephalopathy with reversible splenial lesion syndrome: An unusual presentation of anti-GFAP astrocytopathy.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2020 Mar 18. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris-Sud, Hôpital Bicêtre, Pediatric Neurology Department, National Referral Center for Rare Inflammatory Brain and Spinal Diseases, France; Université Paris-Sud, UMR 1184-CEA-IDMIT, Center for Immunology of Viral Infections and Autoimmune Diseases, 94275, Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France. Electronic address:

Autoimmune glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) astrocytopathy is a rare recently defined antibody-mediated encephalitis. Meningo-encephalomyelitis presentation is frequent with lymphocytic pleiocytosis in the cerebro-spinal fluid and brain MRI classically demonstrates in 50% of cases, a linear perivascular enhancement extending radially from the ventricles. Here, we describe 2 cases of pediatric autoimmune GFAP astrocytopathy with limbic encephalitis presentation and peculiar MRI characteristics: one with normal MRI and the second suggestive of Mild Encephalitis/Encephalopathy with reversible splenial lesion syndrome (MERS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpn.2020.03.002DOI Listing

Role of RNA-binding proteins during the late stages of Flavivirus replication cycle.

Virol J 2020 Apr 25;17(1):60. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Programme in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, Singapore.

The genus Flavivirus encompasses several worldwide-distributed arthropod-borne viruses including, dengue virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, yellow fever virus, Zika virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. Infection with these viruses manifest with symptoms ranging from febrile illness to life- threatening hypotensive shock and encephalitis. Therefore, flaviviruses pose a great risk to public health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-020-01329-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183730PMC

Fatal case of West Nile encephalitis associated with acute anteroseptal ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI): a case report.

New Microbiol 2020 Jan 13;43(1):51-53. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of Virology, Croatian Institute of Public Health, Zagreb Croatia.

Cardiac involvement has rarely been reported in West Nile (WNV) infection. We report a fatal case of WNV encephalitis associated with an acute anteroseptal ST elevation myocardial infarction. The patient was hospitalized with a fever, headache, nausea and vomiting. Read More

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January 2020