32,175 results match your criteria Encephalitis Viral


Chandipura Virus changes cellular miRNome in human microglial cells.

J Med Virol 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Molecular Biology Unit, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.

Chandipura virus (CHPV) is a neurotropic virus, known to cause encephalitis in humans. The microRNAs play an important role in the pathogenesis of viral infection. The present study is focused on the role of miRNAs during CHPV (Strain 1653514) infection in human microglial cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25491DOI Listing

Stable and Highly Immunogenic MicroRNA-Targeted Single-Dose Live Attenuated Vaccine Candidate against Tick-Borne Encephalitis Constructed Using Genetic Backbone of Langat Virus.

MBio 2019 Apr 23;10(2). Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a member of the genus , is one of the most medically important tick-borne pathogens of the Old World. Despite decades of active research, attempts to develop of a live attenuated virus (LAV) vaccine against TBEV with acceptable safety and immunogenicity characteristics have not been successful. To overcome this impasse, we generated a chimeric TBEV that was highly immunogenic in nonhuman primates (NHPs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02904-18DOI Listing

[Clinical and imaging features of cerebral infarction in children].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2019 Apr;21(4):354-358

Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, China.

Objective: To summarize and analyze the etiology, clinical manifestations and imaging features of children with cerebral infarction.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 54 children with cerebral infarction, including etiology, clinical manifestations, distribution of infarcts, type of infarcts and clinical outcome.

Results: Of the 54 children, 93% had a clear cause, among whom 46% had the coexistence of multiple factors, and the top three causes were infection (54%), vascular disease (40%) and trauma (26%). Read More

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Nipah virus: epidemiology, pathology, immunobiology and advances in diagnosis, vaccine designing and control strategies - a comprehensive review.

Vet Q 2019 Dec;39(1):26-55

k National Institute of Virology , Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt of India , Pune , India.

Nipah (Nee-pa) viral disease is a zoonotic infection caused by Nipah virus (NiV), a paramyxovirus belonging to the genus Henipavirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. It is a biosafety level-4 pathogen, which is transmitted by specific types of fruit bats, mainly Pteropus spp. which are natural reservoir host. Read More

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December 2019

Anterior cingulate cortex involvement in non-paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis.

Brain Dev 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Asahi General Hospital, Chiba, Japan.

Background: Non-paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is characterized by attention deficit, loss of emotion control, and impaired memory. Viral infection can cause acute encephalitis in children, occasionally exhibiting clinical features of limbic dysfunction. However, how viral infection affects the limbic system remains to be elucidated. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03877604183052
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2019.04.006DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging changes in Japanese encephalitis.

Brain Dev 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Asahi General Hospital, Chiba, Japan.

Background: Japanese encephalitis is a flavivirus that can cause pandemic encephalitis, and is prevalent in Southeast Asia and Australia. Brain images of patients with Japanese encephalitis are characterized by thalamic lesions, distinct from those seen in viral encephalopathies caused by the herpes simplex virus and West Nile virus.

Aim: Herein, we describe for the first time a time-dependent magnetic resonance imaging pattern in Japanese encephalitis in a 10-month-old Japanese boy. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03877604183056
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2019.04.005DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Late Neurological Consequences of Zika Virus Infection: Risk Factors and Pharmaceutical Approaches.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2019 Apr 17;12(2). Epub 2019 Apr 17.

School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21944-590, Brazil.

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was historically considered a disease with mild symptoms and no major consequences to human health. However, several long-term, late onset, and chronic neurological complications, both in congenitally-exposed babies and in adult patients, have been reported after ZIKV infection, especially after the 2015 epidemics in the American continent. The development or severity of these conditions cannot be fully predicted, but it is possible that genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors may contribute to determine ZIKV infection outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph12020060DOI Listing

Discovery of small molecule inhibitors targeting the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of the HSV-1 ICP0 protein using an high throughput screening assay.

J Virol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics, Immunology, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, Building Hixon, room 3009, Kansas City, KS, 66160

Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) has infected more than 80% of the population. Reactivation of the virus causes diseases ranging in severity from benign cold sores to fatal encephalitis. Current treatments involve viral DNA replication inhibitors but emergence of drug resistant mutants is observed frequently, highlighting the need for novel anti-viral therapies. Read More

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http://jvi.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JVI.00619-19
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00619-19DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Laboratory validation of a clinical metagenomic sequencing assay for pathogen detection in cerebrospinal fluid.

Genome Res 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA.

Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) for pan-pathogen detection has been successfully tested in proof-of-concept case studies in patients with acute illness of unknown etiology but to date has been largely confined to research settings. Here, we developed and validated a clinical mNGS assay for diagnosis of infectious causes of meningitis and encephalitis from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a licensed microbiology laboratory. A customized bioinformatics pipeline, SURPI+, was developed to rapidly analyze mNGS data, generate an automated summary of detected pathogens, and provide a graphical user interface for evaluating and interpreting results. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.238170.118DOI Listing

Efficacy of acyclovir for herpes simplex encephalitis: A protocol for a systematic review of randomized controlled trial.

Authors:
Wei Wang Meng Ji

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Apr;98(15):e15254

Background: Clinical researches indicate that acyclovir can be used to herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). However, no systematic review has explored its efficacy for the treatment of HSE. Therefore, this study systematically will investigate the efficacy and safety of acyclovir for patients with HSE. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000015254DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Evaluation of the adjunctive effect of Xing Nao Jing Injection for viral encephalitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Apr;98(15):e15181

Department of Pharmacy, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.

Background: To systematically evaluate the effect and safety of Xing Nao Jing (XNJ) injection as an add-on treatment on the treatment for viral encephalitis (VE).

Methods: Trials assessing the adjunctive effectiveness of XNJ injection for VE were searched from 4 electronic databases from inception to October 31, 2018. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000015181DOI Listing

Specific detection and differentiation of tick-borne encephalitis and West Nile virus induced IgG antibodies in humans and horses.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology, Department of Immunology, Perlickstrasse 1, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are important arthropod-borne zoonotic flaviviruses. Due to the emergence of WNV in TBEV-endemic regions co-circulation of both viruses is increasing. Flaviviruses are structurally highly similar, which leads to cross-reacting antibodies upon infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13205DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read
2.944 Impact Factor

Pathways Exploited by Flaviviruses to Counteract the Blood-Brain Barrier and Invade the Central Nervous System.

Front Microbiol 2019 28;10:525. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Departamento de Virologia, Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Human infection by different flaviviruses may cause severe neurologic syndromes, through pathogenic mechanisms that are still largely unknown. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), Zika virus (ZIKV), yellow fever virus (YFV), dengue virus (DENV), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) are believed to reach the central nervous system by a hematogenous route, upon crossing the blood-brain barrier. Although the disruption of BBB during flavivirus infection has been largely evidenced in experimental models, the relevance of BBB breakdown for virus entering the brain was not completely elucidated. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00525
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447710PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Long-term seizure outcome in patients with status epilepticus due to acute encephalitis.

Seizure 2019 Apr 8;69:70-75. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Neurology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To investigate the long-term seizure outcome in patients with convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) due to acute encephalitis and identify early predictors for terminal seizure remission.

Methods: Based on a prospective registry of CSE, consecutive patients with CSE due to acute encephalitis were enrolled from July 2009 to November 2017, with follow-up ending in November 2018. Variables during hospital stay, seizure outcomes within 1 month after status epilepticus (SE), and seizure outcomes within 3 months after acute phase of encephalitis were assessed for predicting terminal seizure freedom. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S10591311193010
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2019.04.005DOI Listing
April 2019
10 Reads

Using healthcare-seeking behaviour to estimate the number of Nipah outbreaks missed by hospital-based surveillance in Bangladesh.

Int J Epidemiol 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background: Understanding the true burden of emergent diseases is critical for assessing public-health impact. However, surveillance often relies on hospital systems that only capture a minority of cases. We use the example of Nipah-virus infection in Bangladesh, which has a high case-fatality ratio and frequent person-to-person transmission, to demonstrate how healthcare-seeking data can estimate true burden. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ije/advance-article/doi/10.1093/ije
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyz057DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Antagonizing the glucocorticoid receptor impairs explant-induced reactivation in mice latently infected with herpes simplex virus 1.

J Virol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Oklahoma State University, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Stillwater, OK 74078

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) establishes life-long latent infections in neurons. Reactivation from latency can lead to serious recurrent disease, including stromal keratitis, corneal scarring, blindness, and encephalitis. Although numerous studies link stress to an increase in the incidence of reactivation from latency and recurrent disease, the mechanism of action is not well understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00418-19DOI Listing
April 2019
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Efficacy of a ML336 derivative against Venezuelan and eastern equine encephalitis viruses.

Antiviral Res 2019 Apr 7;167:25-34. Epub 2019 Apr 7.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Division, School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 53705-2222, USA. Electronic address:

Currently, there are no licensed human vaccines or antivirals for treatment of or prevention from infection with encephalitic alphaviruses. Because epidemics are sporadic and unpredictable, and endemic disease is common but rarely diagnosed, it is difficult to identify all populations requiring vaccination; thus, an effective post-exposure treatment method is needed to interrupt ongoing outbreaks. To address this public health need, we have continued development of ML336 to deliver a molecule with prophylactic and therapeutic potential that could be relevant for use in natural epidemics or deliberate release scenario for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01663542193001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2019.04.004DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

The role of microglia in viral encephalitis: a review.

J Neuroinflammation 2019 Apr 9;16(1):76. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, 23 You Zheng Street, Harbin, 150001, Heilong Jiang Province, People's Republic of China.

Viral encephalitis is still very prominent around the world, and traditional antiviral therapies still have shortcomings. Some patients cannot get effective relief or suffer from serious sequelae. At present, people are studying the role of the innate immune system in viral encephalitis. Read More

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https://jneuroinflammation.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.118
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-019-1443-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454758PMC
April 2019
4 Reads

Lack of Evidence of Sylvatic Transmission of Dengue Viruses in the Amazon Rainforest Near Iquitos, Peru.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

3 Department of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, Maryland.

Dengue viruses (DENV) are currently responsible for more human morbidity and mortality than any other known arbovirus, and all four DENV are known to exist in sylvatic cycles that might allow these viruses to persist if the urban (Aedes aegypti) cycle could be controlled. To determine whether DENV were being maintained in a sylvatic cycle in a forested area about 14 km southwest of Iquitos, Peru, a city in which all 4 serotypes of DENV circulate, we placed 20 DENV seronegative Aotus monkeys in cages either in the canopy or near ground level for a total of 125.6 months. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/vbz.2018.2408
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2408DOI Listing
April 2019
7 Reads

Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Encephalitis as Paraneoplastic Manifestation of Germ-Cells Tumours: A Cases Report and Literature Review.

Case Reports Immunol 2019 10;2019:4762937. Epub 2019 Mar 10.

Department of Immunology. Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Ctra. Colmenar Km 9,1, 28034 Madrid, Spain.

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is the most common form of autoimmune encephalitis, caused by the interaction between an antibody and its target, located on glutamate receptor type N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) of neuronal surface. There is a wide spectrum of clinical features starting by a viral-like prodrome, followed by symptoms such as psychosis, aggressive behaviour, memory loss, seizures, movement disorders, and autonomic instability. Up to 50% of the affected young female patients have germ-cells tumours as ovarian teratoma, making it essential to establish an early diagnosis through detection of specific antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/4762937DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6431454PMC

Infection with HHV-6 and its role in epilepsy.

Epilepsy Res 2019 Mar 29;153:34-39. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Center for Neuroscience, Children's National Medical Center, George Washington University, 111 Michigan Ave NW, Washington, DC 20010, USA.

Infection with Human Herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) has been associated with different epilepsy syndromes, including febrile seizures and status epilepticus, acute symptomatic seizures secondary to encephalitis and temporal lobe epilepsy. This neurotropic DNA virus is ubiquitous and primary infection occurs in up to 80% of children by age two years. While two viral variants have been identified, HHV-6B is the one that has been primarily linked to disease in humans, including epilepsy. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09201211183062
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2019.03.016DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Comparative pathological findings in mute swans (Cygnus olor) naturally infected with highly pathogenic Avian influenza viruses H5N1 and H5N8 in Serbia.

Vet Ital 2019 Mar 31;55(1):95-101. Epub 2019 Mar 31.

Scientific Veterinary Institute "Novi Sad", Rumenački put 20, Novi Sad, Serbia.

The aim of this study was to compare pathological lesions and viral antigen expression in the organs of mute swans (Cygnus olor) naturally infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtypes H5N1 and H5N8. The examination was conducted on the carcasses of 22 mute swans which died during the avian influenza outbreaks in Serbia in 2006 and 2016-2017. Avian influenza virus subtype H5N8 isolated from mute swans in 2016-2017 was clustered within the 2. Read More

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http://www.izs.it/vet_italiana/2019/55_1/VetIt_1463_7919_2.p
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12834/VetIt.1463.7919.2DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Brain Infection by Hepatitis E Virus Probably via Damage of the Blood-Brain Barrier Due to Alterations of Tight Junction Proteins.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2019 19;9:52. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Laboratory of Animal Pathology and Public Health, Key Laboratory of Zoonosis of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Extrahepatic injury, particularly neurologic dysfunctions such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, neurologic amyotrophy, and encephalitis/meningoencephalitis/myositis were associated with HEV infection, which was supported by both clinical and laboratory studies. Thus, it is crucial to figure out how the virus invades into the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, CNS lesions were determined in rabbits and Mongolian gerbils inoculated with genotype 4 HEV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6436201PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase mutants display an altered mutation spectrum resulting in attenuation in both mosquito and vertebrate hosts.

PLoS Pathog 2019 04 4;15(4):e1007610. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, United States of America.

The presence of bottlenecks in the transmission cycle of many RNA viruses leads to a severe reduction of number of virus particles and this occurs multiple times throughout the viral transmission cycle. Viral replication is then necessary for regeneration of a diverse mutant swarm. It is now understood that any perturbation of the mutation frequency either by increasing or decreasing the accumulation of mutations in an RNA virus results in attenuation of the virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007610DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

West Nile virus infections are here! Are we prepared to face another flavivirus epidemic?

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2019 Mar 28;52:e20190089. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil.

Emerging arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), such as chikungunya and Zika viruses, are a major threat to public health in countries like Brazil where biodiversity is high and medical care is sometimes precarious. West Nile fever is a disease caused by the West Nile Virus (WNV), an RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. It is transmitted by infected mosquitoes to numerous animals like birds, reptiles and mammals, including human and non-human primates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0037-8682-0089-2018DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Severe Epididymo-Orchitis and Encephalitis Complicating Anti-PD-1 Therapy.

Oncologist 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors such as pembrolizumab and nivolumab have emerged as active treatment options for patients with many cancers, including metastatic melanoma, but can also cause symptomatic or life-threatening immune-related adverse events, including encephalitis. Epididymitis and orchitis are rare complications of these therapies.

Case Presentation: We describe herein a patient with metastatic melanoma who developed epididymo-orchitis followed by encephalitis while receiving pembrolizumab. Read More

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http://theoncologist.alphamedpress.org/lookup/doi/10.1634/th
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2018-0722DOI Listing
April 2019
8 Reads

Toll-like receptors in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammation.

Authors:
V Kumar

J Neuroimmunol 2019 Mar 20;332:16-30. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Children Health Clinical Unit, School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mater Research, University of Queensland, ST Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4078, Australia; School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, ST Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4078, Australia. Electronic address:

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are discovered as crucial pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) involved in the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Later studies showed their involvement in the recognition of various damage/danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) generated by host itself. Thus, TLRs are capable of recognizing wide-array of patterns/molecules derived from pathogens and host as well and initiating a proinflammatory immune response through the activation of NF-κB and other transcription factors causing synthesis of proinflammatory molecules. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2019.03.012DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

The impact of climate variability on infectious disease transmission in China: Current knowledge and further directions.

Environ Res 2019 Mar 20;173:255-261. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Division of Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Management, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, 261053, Shandong Province, PR China; "Health Shandong" Major Social Risk Prediction and Governance Collaborative Innovation Center, Weifang, 261053, Shandong Province, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Climate change may lead to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases and pose public health challenges to human health and the already overloaded healthcare system. It is therefore important to review current knowledge and identify further directions in China, the largest developing country in the world.

Methods: A comprehensive literature review was conducted to examine the relationship between climate variability and infectious disease transmission in China in the new millennium. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.03.043DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Emerging arboviruses of medical importance in the Mediterranean region.

Authors:
Anna Papa

J Clin Virol 2019 Mar 16;115:5-10. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Microbiology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 54124, Greece. Electronic address:

The epidemiology of viral infections transmitted by arthropods is changing due to a variety of parameters related to the virus, the host and the environment. The Mediterranean region is highly affected by changes in the intensity and extension of global-scale climate patterns, and, due to its location, it provides a vulnerable environment for emergence of arboviral diseases. The main arboviruses that pose currently a public health threat in the Mediterranean region are West Nile virus and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and, in less extend, tick-borne encephalitis virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2019.03.007DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Seropersistence and booster response following vaccination with FSME-IMMUN in children, adolescents, and young adults.

Vaccine 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Pfizer Inc., Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Background: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a viral disease that can have a severe clinical course and considerable long-term morbidity. As no curative treatment exists, vaccination is the primary means of prevention. Long-term antibody seropersistence 2-5 years after the 3-dose primary immunization and 3-10 years after first booster was evaluated, as well as booster responses in children, adolescents and young adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.03.032DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Fatal Enteroviral Encephalitis in a Patient with Common Variable Immunodeficiency Harbouring a Novel Mutation in NFKB2.

J Clin Immunol 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC, 3052, Australia.

Common variable immunodeficiency is the most prevalent of the primary immunodeficiency diseases, yet its pathogenesis is largely poorly understood. Of the cases that are monogenic, many arise due to pathogenic variants in NFKB1 and NFKB2. Here, we report enteroviral encephalomyelitis as the cause of a fatal neurodegenerative condition in a patient with a novel heterozygous mutation in NFKB2 (c. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-019-00602-xDOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Emergence and Associated Risk Factors of Vector Borne West Nile Virus Infection in Ilorin, Nigeria.

J Arthropod Borne Dis 2018 Dec 25;12(4):341-350. Epub 2018 Dec 25.

Infectious Diseases and Environmental Health Research Group, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Background: West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne viral pathogen that is the causative agent of West Nile fever and encephalitis. Diagnostic tools for WNV infection in Nigeria are not well established hence the current prevalence rate of WNV infection in Nigeria is unknown. We aimed to establish the serological prevalence of WNV infection in febrile patients in Ilorin, Nigeria in 2016, and to assess the risk factors associated with the acquisition of the virus. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423457PMC
December 2018
4 Reads

Src Family Kinase Inhibitors Block Translation of Alphavirus Subgenomic mRNAs.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2019 Apr 27;63(4). Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, Oregon, USA

Alphaviruses are arthropod-transmitted RNA viruses that can cause arthralgia, myalgia, and encephalitis in humans. Since the role of cellular kinases in alphavirus replication is unknown, we profiled kinetic changes in host kinase abundance and phosphorylation following chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection of fibroblasts. Based upon the results of this study, we treated CHIKV-infected cells with kinase inhibitors targeting the Src family kinase (SFK)-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT-mTORC signaling pathways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02325-18DOI Listing
April 2019
4.476 Impact Factor

Effect of overwintering on survival and vector competence of the West Nile virus vector Culex pipiens.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Mar 27;12(1):147. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University & Research, PO Box 16, 6700 AA, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Background: West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus that is mainly transmitted among birds by Culex pipiens mosquitoes. The species Cx. pipiens consists of two biotypes named pipiens and molestus, which together can form hybrids. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3400-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6437999PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Lymphoplasmacytic Meningoencephalitis and Neuronal Necrosis Associated With Parvoviral Infection in Cats.

Vet Pathol 2019 Mar 27:300985819837723. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

1 Department of Pathology and Athens Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine, Athens, GA, USA.

Neurologic manifestations other than cerebellar hypoplasia are rarely associated with feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) infection in cats. Here the authors describe lymphoplasmacytic meningoencephalitis and neuronal necrosis in 2 cats autopsied after exhibiting ataxia and nystagmus. Gross changes consisted of cerebellar herniation through the foramen magnum, with flattening of cerebrocortical gyri and narrowing of sulci. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300985819837723DOI Listing

Double Doughnut sign in Dengue Encephalitis.

QJM 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Internal Medicine PGIMER Chandigarh.

Dengue fever is a common endemic illness in tropical countries; features may range from simple viral prodrome to severe neurological manifestations like encephalopathy, encephalitis, acute transverse myelitis and Gullian barre syndrome. Here we present a case of young male with dengue encephalitis with typical MRI findings, who was successfully managed conservatively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcz072DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Rapid and Specific Detection of All Known Strains' Sequences With Reverse Transcription-Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification.

Front Microbiol 2019 11;10:418. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Computational Virology Group, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.

(NiV) is a zoonotic virus and can be transmitted through contaminated food or directly between people. NiV is classified as a Biosafety Level 4 agent, not only because of its relatively high case fatality rate, but also because there is no vaccine or other medical countermeasures and it appears to be transmitted by fomites/particulates. The development of rapid detection assay for NiV is of great importance because no effective field test is currently available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6421284PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Pathogenicity of Nipah henipavirus Bangladesh in a swine host.

Sci Rep 2019 Mar 26;9(1):5230. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

In 1998 an outbreak of fatal encephalitis among pig farm workers in Malaysia and Singapore led to the discovery of Nipah henipavirus (NiV), a novel paramyxovirus closely related to Hendra henipavirus with case fatality rates of nearly 40%. Following its initial emergence nearly annual outbreaks of NiV have occurred in Bangladesh with a different, NiV Bangladesh, genotype, where the role of pigs in its transmission remains unknown. The present study provides the first report on susceptibility of domestic pigs to NiV Bangladesh following experimental infection, characterizing acute and long-term phases of disease and pathogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-40476-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6435791PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Toll-Like Receptor 7 Enhances Rabies Virus-Induced Humoral Immunity by Facilitating the Formation of Germinal Centers.

Front Immunol 2019 8;10:429. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

Rabies virus (RABV) causes fatal encephalitis in mammals and poses a public health threat in many parts of the world. Vaccination remains the most effective means for prevention and control of rabies. Studies focusing on the mechanism of RABV immunogenicity are necessary for improvement of rabies vaccines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00429DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6418000PMC
March 2019
3 Reads

Cognitive behavioural impairment with irreversible sensorineural deafness as a complication of West Nile encephalitis.

J Neurovirol 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Despite common clinical features to suggest encephalitis, different viral encephalitides are known to have some specific clinical features, which if present, may suggest infection by a particular virus. West Nile viral (WNV) encephalitis has not been described with any specific diagnostic feature so far. In this context, we describe three patients of West Nile encephalitis (WNE) who had behavioural and cognitive impairment with acute irreversible bilaterally symmetrical sensorineural deafness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00733-2DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Antiviral Activity of Uridine Derivatives of 2-Deoxy Sugars against Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus.

Molecules 2019 Mar 21;24(6). Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Recombinant Vaccines, Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Gdansk and Medical University of Gdansk, Abrahama 58, 80-307 Gdansk, Poland.

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a causative agent of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), one of the most important human infections involving the central nervous system. Although effective vaccines are available on the market, they are recommended only in endemic areas. Despite many attempts, there are still no specific antiviral therapies for TBEV treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24061129DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Development and application of a monoclonal-antibody-based blocking ELISA for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus NS1 antibodies in swine.

Arch Virol 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, Hubei, People's Republic of China.

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a zoonotic pathogen transmitted by Culex mosquitoes and is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in humans. JEV infection of swine, which are the main amplifying hosts for JEV, can cause reproductive failure in sows; in boars it can cause testitis and infertility. The prevalence of JEV in swine is a continuous threat to human health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-019-04218-9DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Hyponatremia Is Predictive of HSV-1 Encephalitis among Patients with Viral Encephalitis.

Tohoku J Exp Med 2019 03;247(3):189-195

Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University.

Encephalitis is an inflammatory process involving the brain parenchyma associated with neurologic dysfunction. The main causes of infectious encephalitis are viruses, including Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). As the mortality rate of HSV-1 encephalitis could be reduced with early acyclovir treatment, it is imperative to distinguish HSV-1 encephalitis from other type of viral encephalitis as early as possible. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1620/tjem.247.189DOI Listing
March 2019
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CXCR1-CXCL1-dependent cell-to-cell Japanese encephalitis virus transmission by human microglial cells.

Sci Rep 2019 Mar 18;9(1):4833. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Unit of Anatomy, Department of Medicine, University of Fribourg, Route Albert-Gockel 1, Fribourg, Switzerland.

The neurotropic Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is responsible for Japanese encephalitis, an uncontrolled inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Microglia cells are the unique innate immune cell type populating the brain that cross-communicate with neurons via the CXCR1-CXCL1 axis. However, microglia may serve as a viral reservoir for JEV. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-41302-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-41302-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423114PMC
March 2019
3 Reads

Differences in Neuropathogenesis of Encephalitic California Serogroup Viruses.

Emerg Infect Dis 2019 Apr;25(4):728-738

The California serogroup of orthobunyaviruses comprises a group of mosquitoborne viruses, including La Crosse (LACV), snowshoe hare (SSHV), Tahyna (TAHV), Jamestown Canyon (JCV), and Inkoo (INKV) viruses, that cause neurologic disease in humans of differing ages with varying incidences. To determine how the pathogenesis of these viruses differs, we compared their ability to induce disease in mice and replicate and induce cell death in vitro. In mice, LACV, TAHV, and SSHV induced neurologic disease after intraperitoneal and intranasal inoculation, and JCV induced disease only after intranasal inoculation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433036PMC
April 2019
1 Read
6.751 Impact Factor

Viral RNA Degradation Makes Urine a Challenging Specimen for Detection of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Patients With Suspected CNS Infection.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2019 Mar 6;6(3):ofz048. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Lao-Oxford-Mahosot Hospital-Wellcome Trust Research Unit (LOMWRU), Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao P.D.R.

Background: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a leading cause of central nervous system (CNS) infections in Asia and results in significant morbidity and mortality. JEV RNA is rarely detected in serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and diagnosis of JEV infection is usually based on serological tests that are frequently difficult to interpret. Unlike serum or CSF, urine is relatively easy to obtain, but, to date, there has been minimal work on the feasibility of testing urine for JEV RNA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofz048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6411208PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Intranasal Borna Disease Virus (BoDV-1) Infection: Insights into Initial Steps and Potential Contagiosity.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 15;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Institute of Veterinary Pathology, Justus Liebig University, 35392 Giessen, Germany.

Mammalian Bornavirus (BoDV-1) typically causes a fatal neurologic disorder in horses and sheep, and was recently shown to cause fatal encephalitis in humans with and without transplant reception. It has been suggested that BoDV-1 enters the central nervous system (CNS) via the olfactory pathway. However, (I) susceptible cell types that replicate the virus for successful spread, and (II) the role of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), remained unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061318DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Continuous Electroencephalogram as a Biomarker of Disease Progression and Severity in Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Encephalitis.

Clin EEG Neurosci 2019 Mar 15:1550059419835705. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

2 Department of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Objective: Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) is the most common cause of sporadic fatal encephalitis worldwide and remains a devastating disease despite antiviral therapy. EEG can be an important tool in the diagnosis of HSE, and we propose that it can be used to monitor the progression of the disease in patients with treatment refractory HSE.

Methods: This is a case report of a patient with HSE who was monitored on continuous EEG (CEEG) throughout course of her disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1550059419835705DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Repeated isolation of tick-borne encephalitis virus from adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in an endemic area in Germany.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Mar 12;12(1):90. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Institute of Animal Hygiene and Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, An den Tierkliniken 1, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.

Background: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus is transmitted to humans and animals through tick bites and is thought to circulate in very strictly defined natural environments called natural foci. The most common tick serving as a vector for the TBE virus in central Europe is Ixodes ricinus; it is rarely found in other tick species and in Dermacentor reticulatus it has, so far, only been reported in Poland.

Methods: Between autumn 2016 and spring 2018 ticks were collected by the flagging method in a new TBE focus in the district of northern Saxony, Germany, outside the known risk areas as defined by the national Robert Koch Institute. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3346-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6416925PMC
March 2019
3 Reads