63,170 results match your criteria Encephalitis Herpes Simplex


Long-term seizure outcome in frontal lobe epilepsy surgery.

Epilepsy Behav 2018 Dec 3;90:93-98. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

IRCCS "NEUROMED", Pozzilli, IS, Italy; Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Italy.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to report long-term seizure outcome in patients who underwent frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) surgery.

Method: This retrospective study included 44 consecutive subjects who underwent resective surgery for intractable FLE at IRCCS NEUROMED (period 2001-2014), followed up for at least 2 years (mean: 8.7 years). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Prediction of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in the diagnosis and progression of autoimmune encephalitis.

Neurosci Lett 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Neurology, Shandong Provincial Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Jing Wu Road, Huaiyin District, Jinan, 250021, Shandong, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Autoimmune encephalitis (AIE) is a group of inflammatory disorders of the brain. The severity of AIE vary among individuals and it is always a challenge to predict. In this study, we measured the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a novel potential biomarker of inflammatory status in other inflammatory diseases, in AIE patients and evaluated NLR as a biomarker for monitoring AIE progression. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial of a tailored intervention to improve the initial management of suspected encephalitis.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0202257. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Clinical Infection, Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Objective: To determine whether a tailored multifaceted implementation strategy improves the initial management of patients with suspected encephalitis.

Design: Pragmatic two arm cluster randomised controlled trial.

Setting: Hospitals within the United Kingdom. Read More

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December 2018
6 Reads

Bilateral trigeminal root entry zone enhancement in MOG-IgG-associated brainstem encephalitis.

Neurol Sci 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Neurology, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450052, Henan Province, People's Republic of China.

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December 2018

West Nile virus in Algeria: a comprehensive overview.

New Microbes New Infect 2019 Jan 21;27:9-13. Epub 2018 Oct 21.

UMR VITROME, Aix-Marseille Université, IRD, Service de Santé des Armées, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille, IHU Méditerranée-Infection, Marseille, France.

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus belonging to the genus related to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of family. It is transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. The virus is maintained in a mosquito-bird-mosquito transmission cycle. Read More

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January 2019
2 Reads

Beyond thrombocytopaenia, haemorrhage and shock: the expanded dengue syndrome.

Pathog Glob Health 2018 Dec 3:1-11. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

c Department of Parasitology, Faculty of medicine , University of Colombo , Colombo , Sri Lanka.

Dengue infection classically presents with fever, thrombocytopaenia, and varying degrees of plasma leakage, giving rise to shock. However, a myriad of other manifestations, involving the cardiovascular system, the nervous system, the liver, the kidneys, the gut and the haematological system have been reported in dengue. This review summarizes these varied presentations. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Challenges in HSV encephalitis: normocellular CSF, unremarkable CCT, and atypical MRI findings.

Infection 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Neurology, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU) Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis continues to be the most common form of sporadic lethal encephalitis worldwide. The wide spectrum of clinical presentations and laboratory findings often poses a diagnostic challenge for physicians which might delay administration of life-saving therapy with acyclovir. Atypical presentations of HSV encephalitis have become increasingly prevalent with better diagnostic techniques and have not been well studied. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

A cross-sectional study to assess the awareness and practices related to adult immunization among nursing students in a metropolitan city.

J Educ Health Promot 2018 29;7:129. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Community Medicine, Seth G. S. Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Introduction: Immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases in adults is the need of the hour. The student nurses by virtue of training are the frontline health workers dealing with patient care. They are exposed to maximum risk of contracting the diseases. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Herpes simplex encephalitis and pseudotumour cerebri due to ısotretinoin.

J Pak Med Assoc 2018 Dec;68(12):1833-11835

Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, Firat University, Elazig Turkey.

Isotretinoin can have significant adverse reactions on multiple systems. We report a unique case of pseudotumour cerebri and herpes encephalitis resulting due to isotretinoin. A 19-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic, presenting with headache, nausea, vomiting and fever since three days. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Autopsy in dengue encephalitis: An analysis of three cases.

Neurol India 2018 Nov-Dec;66(6):1721-1725

Department of Pathology and Neurology, Command Hospital Air Force, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Dengue viral infection with unusual presentations has been described in literature, but autopsy is rarely done and is only limited to some cases, based on the literature review. Here, we present the autopsy findings in three cases of dengue encephalitis. All the three patients clinically presented with signs of meningoencephalitis and were positive for dengue non-structural (NS) 1 antigen (Ag) in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Read More

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December 2018

Immune-mediated neurological manifestations of dengue virus- a study of clinico-investigational variability, predictors of neuraxial involvement, and outcome with the role of immunomodulation.

Neurol India 2018 Nov-Dec;66(6):1634-1643

Department of Neurology, Government Medical College Kota, Rajasthan, India.

Introduction: Our aim was to study dengue-related immune-mediated neurological complications (IMNC) during the recent epidemic.

Materials And Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study of 79 IMNC cases from 1627 laboratory confirmed dengue cases from January 2015 to January 2016 and their follow-up for 3 months. According to the World Health Organization, cases were categorized into those having dengue fever (DF), and those having a severe syndrome that includes dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Status epilepticus related to pregnancy: Devising a protocol for use in the intensive care unit.

Neurol India 2018 Nov-Dec;66(6):1629-1633

Department of Neurology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

Background: Status epilepticus (SE) related to pregnancy is rare and carries a significant risk to both the mother and the fetus.

Objectives: We conducted this study to devise a protocol for the management of SE related to pregnancy in a cohort of female patients admitted with SE during pregnancy.

Materials And Methods: All women who developed SE related to pregnancy (gestation, labor, and puerperium) between January 2000 and December 2016 were included. Read More

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December 2018

Immunotherapy in autoimmune encephalitis - A need for "presumptive" diagnosis and treatment.

Neurol India 2018 Nov-Dec;66(6):1584-1589

Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

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December 2018

Microbial balance in the intestinal normal microbiome and its association with diabetes, obesity and allergic disease.

Microb Pathog 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Recent studies have been considered to symbiotic interactions of the human gastrointestinal microbiota and human lifestyle-related disorders. The human gastrointestinal microbiota continuously stimulates the immune system against opportunistic and pathogen bacteria from infancy. Changes in gastrointestinal microbiota have been associated with numbers of human diseases such as allergic diseases, autoimmune encephalitis, atherosclerosis, colorectal cancer, obesity, diabetes etc. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

A Fatal Case of Louping-ill in a Dog: Immunolocalization and Full Genome Sequencing of the Virus.

J Comp Pathol 2018 Nov 19;165:23-32. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Scotland, UK.

Louping-ill (LI), caused by louping-ill virus (LIV), results in a frequently fatal encephalitis primarily affecting sheep and red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scotica), but it does occur in other species. An adult male Border collie dog was definitively diagnosed with fatal LI and the lesion profile, LIV antigen distribution and full genome sequence of the LIV responsible were investigated to determine if this differed significantly from sheep-derived LIV. No gross lesions were present. Read More

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November 2018

Bickerstaff Brainstem Encephalitis and overlapping Guillain-Barré syndrome in children: Report of two cases and review of the literature.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Pediatric Clinic, Foundation IRCCS Policlinico "San Matteo", University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Bickerstaff Brainstem Encephalitis (BBE) is a rare autoimmune encephalitis, characterized by acute ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and altered state of consciousness. Together with Guillan-Barrè Syndrome (GBS) and Miller-Fisher Syndrome, it forms a spectrum of post-infectious demyelinating diseases. Overlapping forms between BBE and GBS (BBE/GBS) are described in patients with lower limbs weakness and typical signs of BBE, suggesting a combined involvement of Central and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS), but only few reported cases are focused on pediatric population. Read More

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November 2018

Low-Dose Rituximab in Children With Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis.

Pediatr Neurol 2018 Oct 21;87:82. Epub 2018 Jul 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India. Electronic address:

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October 2018
1.504 Impact Factor

The Role of Community Pharmacists in Travel Health and Vaccination in Switzerland.

Pharmacy (Basel) 2018 Nov 29;6(4). Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Community Pharmacy Centre, Department of Ambulatory Care and Community Medicine, University of Lausanne, CH-1011 Lausanne, Switzerland.

This review presents the Swiss strategy initiated over the last several years to implement vaccination by community pharmacists. National health authorities aimed to integrate community pharmacists in the National Vaccination Strategy (NVS) in order to increase the vaccination rate in the Swiss population. To support this aim, universities and the Swiss Association of Pharmacists developed pre- and post-graduate education programmes on vaccination for pharmacists. Read More

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November 2018

Varicella-zoster virus clades circulating in Spain over two decades.

J Clin Virol 2018 Nov 28;110:17-21. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Centro Nacional de Microbiología (CNM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Despite childhood universal VZV immunization was introduced in 2015, there are no data on VZV clade distribution in Spain.

Objectives: To characterize the varicella-zoster virus strains circulating in Spain between 1997 and 2016.

Study Design: In this retrospective study, we determined the VZV clades in 294 patients with different pathologies (mainly encephalitis, zoster and varicella) by sequencing three fragments within ORF 22, ORF 21 and ORF 50 and, subsequently analyzing 7 relevant SNPs. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Antigenic relationship among zoonotic flaviviruses from Italy.

Infect Genet Evol 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano, Italy.

Here we report studies of the antigenic relationships of West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV), two zoonotic flaviviruses from Italy, together with a Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) strain and compared them with their genetic relationships using the immunodominant viral E protein. Thirty-nine isolates and reference strains were inactivated and used to immunize rabbits to produce hyper immune sera. Serum samples were tested by neutralization against all isolates and results visualized by generating antigenic map. Read More

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December 2018

Prevalence of Sarcocystis calchasi in free-ranging host species: Accipiter hawks and Common Woodpigeon in Germany.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 4;8(1):17610. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Clinic for Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians and Fish, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Frankfurter Str. 91-93, D-35392, Giessen, Germany.

The apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis calchasi (S. calchasi) triggers pigeon protozoal encephalitis, a neurologic disease in columbids. Accipiter hawks have been identified as the final host, and Columbidae and Psittaciformes as intermediate hosts. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Infection with a Nonencapsulated Strain in Rabbits-The Role of Bacterial Adhesion and the Potential for a Safe Live Attenuated Vaccine.

Toxins (Basel) 2018 Dec 1;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Israel Institute for Biological Research, P.O. Box 19, Ness Ziona 74100, Israel.

Nonencapsulated (∆pXO2) strains are commonly used as vaccines and for anthrax research, mainly in the mouse model. Previously, we demonstrated that the infection of rabbits, intranasally or subcutaneously, with the spores of a fully virulent strain results in the systemic dissemination of the bacteria, meningitis, and death, whereas ∆pXO2 strains are fully attenuated in this animal model. We used the intravenous inoculation of rabbits to study the pathogenicity of the ∆pXO2 strain infection. Read More

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December 2018

Standardized focus assay protocol for biosafety level four viruses.

J Virol Methods 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Spiez Laboratory, Federal Office for Civil Protection, Austrasse, 3700, Spiez, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Working in accordance with biosafety level four practices is highly complex and time-consuming. Therefore, the respective laboratory protocols should be as uniform as possible, simple to perform and straightforward in readout. Here we describe the successful application of a standardized 24-well plate focus assay protocol for the titration of Zaire ebolavirus (two isolates), Marburg virus (three isolates), Lassa virus (two isolates), Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (one isolate), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (two isolates). Read More

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December 2018

Autoimmune encephalitis with psychosis: Warning signs, step-by-step diagnostics and treatment.

World J Biol Psychiatry 2018 Dec 4:1-25. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

e Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy , Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich , Munich , Germany.

Objectives: Despite intensive research, schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders continue to be theoretical constructs that describe clinical syndromes and no pathophysiologically defined diseases. Moreover, there are no clear biomarkers at hand. Therefore, these diagnoses are still set up based on clinical ICD-10 / DSM-5 criteria and the exclusion of alcohol- / drug-associated, systemic or other brain organic causes. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Granulomatous amebic encephalitis caused by Acanthamoeba in an immuncompetent child.

Turk J Pediatr 2018 ;60(3):340-343

Division of Infectious Diseases, İstanbul University İstanbul Faculty of Medicine, İstanbul, Turkey.

Sütçü M, Aktürk H, Gülümser-Şişko S, Acar M, Erol OB, Somer A, Bilgiç B, Salman N. Granulomatous amebic encephalitis caused by Acanthamoeba in an immuncompetent child. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 340-343. Read More

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January 2018

Optic neuritis as the initial clinical presentation of limbic encephalitis: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2018 Dec 3;12(1):357. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Ophthalmology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, 301B Cyberport 4, 100 Cyberport Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR.

Background: Limbic encephalitis is characterized by rapid onset of working memory deficit, mood changes, and often seizures. The condition has a strong paraneoplastic association, but not all cases are invariably due to tumors.

Case Presentation: We present a case of limbic encephalitis in a Chinese patient who initially presented to our hospital with optic neuritis and no other neurological symptoms. Read More

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December 2018

The role of cognitive rehabilitation in limbic encephalitis: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Nov;97(48):e13223

IRCCS Centro Neurolesi "Bonino-Pulejo," Messina.

Rationale: Limbic encephalitis is a parenchymal inflammation caused by viral, bacterial, or other microbial and postinfectious agents, which is usually expressed by multifocal neurological signs and cognitive impairment.

Patient Concerns: A 50-year-old female was admitted in postacute phase, at our rehabilitative Center, to undertake neuro-motor treatment for a period of 4 months.

Diagnoses: The patient was affected by limbic encephalitis. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

[Experience with mexidol in neurological practice].

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2018 ;118(10):97-107

Federal State Autonomous Institution 'National Medical Research Center for Neurosurgery named after Academician N.N. Burdenko' of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.

Antihypoxic, antioxidant and nootropic effects of mexidol contribute to the improvement of patients with cerebrovascular pathology. The results of clinical studies show that the sequential scheme of using mexidol (first i.v. Read More

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January 2018
4 Reads

Vaccine-preventable disease control in the People's Republic of China: 1949-2016.

Vaccine 2018 Dec 26;36(52):8131-8137. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

National Immunization Program, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Background: China's immunization program is one of the oldest and largest in the world. Rates of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) are comparable to those in high-income countries. The program's evolution has been characterized by ambitious target setting and innovative strategies that have not been widely described. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Serum Bilirubin and Albumin in Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis.

Neuroimmunomodulation 2018 Nov 29:1-9. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Neurology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou,

Background And Objective: Low serum levels of bilirubin and albumin are associated with multiple autoimmune diseases, but their role in anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is unknown.

Methods: Serum bilirubin and albumin levels were evaluated in 60 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, 50 cryptococcal encephalitis, and 145 healthy controls (CTLs). Of the 60 anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients, 30 had a follow-up evaluation at 3 months after admission. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Ictal piloerection is associated with high-grade glioma and autoimmune encephalitis-Results from a systematic review.

Seizure 2018 Nov 22;64:1-5. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Neurology, University of Pécs, H-7623, Rét u. 2., Pécs, Hungary; PTE-MTA Clinical Neuroscience MR Research Group, H-7623, Rét u. 2, Hungary. Electronic address:

Purpose: To comprehensively analyze ictal piloerection (IP) in a large number of subjects.

Methods: We performed a systematic review on case report studies of patients diagnosed with IP (1929-2017) with additional cases included from the Department of Neurology of University of Pécs, the National Institute of Clinical Neurosciences, and Odense University Hospital. Each included case was characterized regarding patient history, IP seizure characteristics, diagnostic work-up, and therapy. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Membrane trafficking RNA interference screen identifies a crucial role of the clathrin endocytic pathway and ARP2/3 complex for Japanese encephalitis virus infection in HeLa cells.

J Gen Virol 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

3​Regional Centre for Biotechnology, NCR Biotech Science Cluster, Faridabad, Haryana, India.

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is one of the leading global causes of virus-induced encephalitis. The infectious life-cycle of viruses is heavily dependent on the host membrane trafficking network. Here, we have performed a RNA-interference-based screen using a siRNA panel targeting 136 membrane trafficking proteins to identify the key regulators of JEV infection in HeLa cells. Read More

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November 2018

Immunocompetent and Immunodeficient Mouse Models for Enterovirus 71 Pathogenesis and Therapy.

Viruses 2018 Nov 28;10(12). Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan.

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a global health threat. Children infected with EV71 could develop hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), encephalitis, paralysis, pulmonary edema, and death. At present, no effective treatment for EV71 is available. Read More

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November 2018

[A 64-year-old male with recurrence of herpes simplex encephalitis after suffering from severe pneumonia and sepsis].

Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Neurology, NTT Medical Center Tokyo.

The case is a 64-year-old male who had a past history of herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) two years prior to his admission. He was admitted to our hospital due to severe pneumonia and sepsis. Several days later, he developed HSE again. Read More

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November 2018

[Cerebral cortical encephalitis with anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody].

Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Neurology, Hyogo Prefectural Amagasaki General Medical Center.

A 27-year-old man developed acute encephalitis with headache, fever, seizures, and aphasia. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid showed elevated levels of cell counts and protein. A brain MRI demonstrated increased FLAIR signals in the left cerebral cortex with cortical swelling. Read More

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November 2018

Missing Cases of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) Infection of the Central Nervous System Applying Reller Criteria for HSV PCR testing: A Multicenter Study.

J Clin Microbiol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Microbiology Service, Hospital Clínico Universitario, Instituto de Investigación INCLIVA, Valencia, Spain

Previous studies suggested that Herpes simplex virus (HSV) PCR testing can be safely deferred in patients with normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white blood cell (WBC) counts and protein levels as long as they are older than two years of age and are not immunocompromised, the so-called Reller criteria. In this multicenter study, we retrospectively assessed the validity of this screening criteria in our setting. A total of 4,404 CSF specimens submitted to the respective microbiology laboratories at the participating hospitals between 2012 and 2018 for HSV PCR testing were included. Read More

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November 2018

Analysis of a subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) Genotype B3 virus from the 2009/10 South African measles epidemic shows hyperfusogenic F proteins contribute to measles virus infection in the brain.

J Virol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Division of Medical Virology, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Cape Town and National Health Laboratory Service, Cape Town, South Africa.

During a measles virus (MeV) epidemic in 2009 in South Africa, measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE) was identified in several HIV-infected patients. Years later, children are presenting with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). To investigate the features of established MeV neuronal infections, viral sequences were analysed from brain tissue samples of a single SSPE case and compared with MIBE sequences previously obtained from patients infected during the same epidemic. Read More

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November 2018

Disseminated toxoplasmosis with atypical symptoms which developed with exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus.

Lupus 2018 Nov 28:961203318815583. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

1 Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba, Japan.

Toxoplasma is a common parasite worldwide that mainly affects the brain, lungs and eyes. Although toxoplasmic encephalitis is a lethal disease without treatment, past case reports show most patients with systemic lupus erythematosus who developed toxoplasmic encephalitis were misdiagnosed and treated as neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus, which led to unfavorable outcomes. We herein describe a case of disseminated toxoplasmosis affecting all the above organs with atypical symptoms, which developed with exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Update on opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome in adults.

J Neurol 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Neurology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany.

Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome in adults is a rare and heterogeneous disorder with the clinical features of opsoclonus, myoclonus, ataxia, and behavioral and sleep disturbances. The pathophysiology is thought to be immunological on the basis of paraneoplastic or infectious etiologies. Immunomodulatory therapies should be performed although the response may be incomplete. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome in a Patient with Variegate Porphyria: A Case Report.

Cureus 2018 Sep 24;10(9):e3351. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Orthopaedics, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, PAK.

Variegate porphyria (VP) is one of the groups of rare inherited disorders of hemoglobin synthesis called Porphyria. It has two distinct manifestations, that is, those of cutaneous and nervous system. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a rare complication of porphyria. Read More

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September 2018

An Experimental Model of Primary Amoebic Meningoence phalitis Due to in Iran.

Iran J Parasitol 2018 Jul-Sep;13(3):369-372

Dept. of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The main aim of the present research was to develop the experimental meningo encephalitis due to isolated from geothermal water sources in mice model, November 2017 in Iran.

Methods: was isolated from geothermal water sources in northern Iran. The number of amoebae was adjusted to be 1×10/ml amoebae. Read More

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November 2018

Human Chronic Necrotizing Granulomatous Meningoencephalitis: A Novel Case Report.

Case Rep Neurol 2018 Sep-Dec;10(3):302-308. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, Pennsylvania, USA.

Necrotizing and granulomatous meningoencephalitis are common central nervous system diseases known to affect canines. To date, necrotizing granulomatous meningoencephalitis has yet to be described in humans. Current studies of presumed pathogenesis and possible treatment options have only been described in canines. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

The importance of study duration and spatial scale in pathogen detection-evidence from a tick-infested island.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2018 Nov 28;7(1):189. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Biodiversity Unit, University of Turku, FI-20014, Turku, Finland.

Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea) are among the most common vectors of zoonotic pathogens worldwide. While research on tick-borne pathogens is abundant, few studies have thoroughly investigated small-scale spatial differences in their occurrence. Here, we used long-term cloth-dragging data of Ixodes ricinus and its associated, known and putative pathogens (Borrelia burgdorferi s. Read More

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November 2018

Experimental transmission of Zika virus by Aedes japonicus japonicus from southwestern Germany.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2018 Nov 28;7(1):192. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, 20359, Hamburg, Germany.

The invasive mosquito species Aedes japonicus japonicus (Ae. japonicus) is widely distributed in Central Europe and is a known vector of various arboviruses in the laboratory, including flaviviruses such as Japanese Encephalitis virus or West Nile virus. However, the vector competence of Ae. Read More

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November 2018

Diagnosis and Management of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor-Associated Neurologic Toxicity: Illustrative Case and Review of the Literature.

Oncologist 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Division of Neuromuscular Medicine, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) initiate antitumor immunity by blocking the action of immune inhibitor-signaled cytotoxic proteins, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4, programmed cell death protein 1, and programmed cell death ligand 1. However, in rare cases (∼1%-12% of patients), ICI treatment causes neurologic immune-related adverse events (irAEs). These include, but are not limited to, headache, encephalitis, neuropathies, myasthenia gravis, and myositis. Read More

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November 2018

New onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE).

Seizure 2018 Sep 29. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Département de Neurologie, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Hôpital Erasme, Brussels, Belgium; Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, Neurology Department, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Purpose: To summarize the clinical features, suggested work-up, treatment and prognosis of new-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE), a condition recently defined as the occurrence of refractory status epilepticus (RSE) in a patient without active epilepsy, and without a clear acute or active structural, toxic or metabolic cause; and of the related syndrome of febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES), also recently defined as a subgroup of NORSE preceded by a febrile illness between 2 weeks and 24 h prior to the onset of RSE.

Method: Narrative review of the medical literature about NORSE and FIRES.

Results: NORSE and FIRES mainly affect school-age children and young adults. Read More

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September 2018
3 Reads

Abnormal level of consciousness predicts outcomes of patients with anti-NMDA encephalitis.

J Clin Neurosci 2018 Nov 24. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Department of Neurology, Prasat Neurological Institute, Bangkok, Thailand. Electronic address:

Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is an acute form of encephalitis with an autoimmune etiology. We aimed to study clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes and assess the predictive factors associated with patient outcome. In this retrospective study, patients who presented with cardinal symptoms of anti-NMDA encephalitis and positive anti-NMDA receptor antibody results in their cerebrospinal fluid were included in the study. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Paraneoplastic syndrome or metastatic sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma? Clinical conundrum.

Ear Nose Throat J 2018 Oct-Nov;97(10-11):E15-E18

Department of Neurosurgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

We report a case of a middle-aged woman with a diffuse, nonenhancing, progressively atrophic T2-hyperintense lesion involving the left frontotemporal lobes and insula found to be synchronous high-grade sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma (SNEC) after initial endonasal resection. In 2014, a 47-year old woman underwent resection of a left-sided high-grade ethmoidal neuroendocrine carcinoma after presentation with weight gain and increased levels of serum and urine cortisol. Concurrent with the initial presentation, she was noted to have a nonenhancing, hyperintense signal change on T2-weighted images on the left frontotemporal lobes and insula thought to be paraneoplastic. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Neuronal transcriptomic responses to Japanese encephalitis virus infection with a special focus on chemokine CXCL11 and pattern recognition receptors RIG-1 and MDA5.

Virology 2018 Nov 24;527:107-115. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) causes central nervous system neuronal injury and inflammation. A clear understanding of neuronal responses to JEV infection remains elusive. Using the Affymetrix array to investigate the transcriptome of infected SK-N-MC cells, 1316 and 2737 dysregulated genes (≥ 2/-2 fold change, P < 0. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads