4,792 results match your criteria Encephalitis Herpes Simplex

Neurosyphilis Mimicking Herpes Simplex Encephalitis on Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Case Report.

Am J Case Rep 2022 Jun 28;23:e936127. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Pauls Stradins Clinical University Hospital, Riga, Latvia.

BACKGROUND Neurosyphilis is a central nervous system infection caused by Treponema pallidum, that can develop at any time after the initial infection. The clinical signs of neurosyphilis are very variable, as well as its radiological features, and it is a diagnostic challenge. Knowledge of clinical symptoms and correct laboratory diagnostics, combined with routine radiological examination and additional diagnostic tools, such as high-resolution, three-dimensional FLAIR sequence, T2-weighted, and T1-weighted contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are key to making an accurate diagnosis of neurosyphilis. Read More

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Sophoridine Suppresses Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection by Blocking the Activation of Cellular PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK Pathways.

Front Microbiol 2022 10;13:872505. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

State Key Laboratory of South Western Chinese Medicine Resources, School of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous and important human pathogen capable of causing significant clinical diseases ranging from skin damage to encephalitis, particularly in immunocompromised and neonatal hosts. Currently, widely used nucleoside analogs, including acyclovir and penciclovir, have some limitations in their use due to side effects and drug resistance. Herein, we report sophoridine's (SRI) dramatic inhibition of HSV-1 replication . Read More

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[Herpes simplex encephalitis presenting as a stroke-like episode following a migraine attack: a case report].

Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Neurology, Nagaoka Red Cross Hospital.

A 23-year-old woman, who had been suffering from migraine since primary school age, presented with left arm paralysis three days after one such migraine attack. On admission, brain MRI diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) demonstrated high-signal-intensity lesions in the white matter of the right fronto-parietal lobe, and no abnormal lesions were evident in the limbic system. Although the patient had a fever of 38. Read More

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Oleanolic Acid Derivative AXX-18 Exerts Antiviral Activity by Inhibiting the Expression of HSV-1 Viral Genes UL8 and UL52.

Viruses 2022 Jun 13;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Department of Cell Biology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China.

Two-thirds of the world's population is infected with HSV-1, which is closely associated with many diseases, such as Gingival stomatitis and viral encephalitis. However, the drugs that are currently clinically effective in treating HSV-1 are Acyclovir (ACV), Ganciclovir, and Valacyclovir. Due to the widespread use of ACV, the number of drug-resistant strains of ACV is increasing, so searching for new anti-HSV-1 drugs is urgent. Read More

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Catch Me If You Can-How Herpes Simplex Virus Tries to Evade Diagnosis in Viral Encephalitis.

Crit Care Med 2022 Jul 13;50(7):1170-1173. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Both authors: Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Division of Neurocritical Care, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL.

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[Protective effect of Forsythiae Fructus extract on mice with herpes simplex encephalitis].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2022 Jun;47(11):3023-3028

Sichuan Academy of Chinese Medicine Sciences Chengdu 610041, China.

This study aims to explore the protective effect of Forsythiae Fructus extract(FFE) against herpes simplex virus encephalitis(HSE) in mice. To be specific, life extension rate of mice, viral load in mouse brain, levels of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), and interferon-α(IFN-α), and nitric oxide(NO) content in mouse brain were determined. Mice were classified into normal group, model group, acyclovir(ACV) group, and high-dose, medium-dose, and low-dose(100, 50, 25 mg·kg~(-1), respectively) FFE groups. Read More

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Diagnostic accuracy of rapid one-step PCR assays for detection of herpes Simplex virus -1 and -2 in cerebrospinal fluid: A systematic Review and meta-analysis.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2022 Jun 16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Division of Microbiology, Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Rapid and accurate diagnosis of HSV-1 and -2 (HSV1/2) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is important for patient management.

Objectives: Summarize the diagnostic accuracy of commercial rapid sample-to-answer PCR assays (results in <90 minutes, without a separate nucleic acid extraction step) for HSV1/2 detection in CSF.

Data Sources: Four databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus and CENTRAL) and five conference abstract datasets from January 2012 to March 2022. Read More

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Childhood encephalitis in the Greater Mekong region (the SouthEast Asia Encephalitis Project): a multicentre prospective study.

Lancet Glob Health 2022 Jul;10(7):e989-e1002

National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: Encephalitis is a worldwide public health issue, with a substantially high burden among children in southeast Asia. We aimed to determine the causes of encephalitis in children admitted to hospitals across the Greater Mekong region by implementing a comprehensive state-of-the-art diagnostic procedure harmonised across all centres, and identifying clinical characteristics related to patients' conditions.

Methods: In this multicentre, observational, prospective study of childhood encephalitis, four referral hospitals in Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar recruited children (aged 28 days to 16 years) who presented with altered mental status lasting more than 24 h and two of the following minor criteria: fever (within the 72 h before or after presentation), one or more generalised or partial seizures (excluding febrile seizures), a new-onset focal neurological deficit, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white blood cell count of 5 per mL or higher, or brain imaging (CT or MRI) suggestive of lesions of encephalitis. Read More

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Encephalitis with herpes simplex virus.

Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2022 Jun 8;142(9). Epub 2022 Jun 8.

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Infectious causes of acute encephalitis syndrome hospitalizations in Central India, 2018-20.

J Clin Virol 2022 May 28;153:105194. Epub 2022 May 28.

Kakatiya Medical College, Warangal, Telangana, India.

Background: We enhanced surveillance of hospitalizations of all ages for acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) along with infectious aetiologies, including the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV).

Methods: From October 2018 to September 2020, we screened neurological patients for AES in all age groups in Maharashtra and Telangana States. AES cases were enrolled at study hospitals along with other referrals and sampled with cerebrospinal fluid, acute and convalescent sera. Read More

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Life After Tetra Hit: Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis After HSV Encephalitis in a NMOSD Coexistent with Sjögren's Syndrome.

Noro Psikiyatr Ars 2022 12;59(2):161-163. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Department of Neurology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis are associated entities. On the contrary, although both are autoimmune diseases, the association of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and anti-NMDAR encephalitis is not well explained. Herein, we present consecutively developed post-herpetic anti-NMDAR encephalitis in a patient with the coexistence of NMOSD and Sjogren syndrome. Read More

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Contribution of diffusion-weighted imaging to distinguish herpetic encephalitis from auto-immune encephalitis at an early stage.

J Neuroradiol 2022 May 31. Epub 2022 May 31.

Service de Radiologie, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Chemin du Grand-Revoyet, Pierre-Bénite 69495, France; INSA-Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UJM-Saint Etienne, CNRS, Inserm, CREATIS UMR 5220, U1206, Université de Lyon, Pierre-Bénite F-69495, France. Electronic address:

Objectives: To determine whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can help to distinguish early stage autoimmune (AI) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitides.

Methods: This case-control study included patients from a multi-center cohort of AI encephalitides whose initial MRI including DWI was performed within ten days after symptoms onset. They were compared with patients with HSV encephalitis enrolled prospectively in a single-center from June, 2020 to December, 2020. Read More

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Kyrieleis Arteriolitis Associated with Acute Retinal Necrosis due to Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Secondary to Herpetic Encephalitis.

Vision (Basel) 2022 May 18;6(2). Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Ophthalmology, Medical School, University of Patras, 265 04 Patras, Greece.

We report the case of a 52-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department with acute retinal necrosis in her left eye secondary to herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis for which she had been hospitalized four months before. Treatment with intravitreal foscarnet and intravenous acyclovir was promptly commenced followed by the addition of oral prednisolone. PCR analysis of aqueous humor detected HSV type 1 DNA. Read More

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The Clinical Spectrum of Autoimmune-Mediated Neurological Diseases in Paediatric Population.

Brain Sci 2022 Apr 29;12(5). Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Child Neurology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 27/33 Szpitalna St., 60-572 Poznan, Poland.

Neurological autoimmune diseases have various origins and pathogeneses. Specific antibodies are associated with paraneoplastic syndromes, other infectious agents, or inherited disorders. We aim to evaluate the relation between the autoantibodies, the chosen symptoms, demographic characteristics, and infection history. Read More

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[Structural epilepsy or herpes simplex encephalitis relapse: diagnostic problems].

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2022 ;122(5):123-127

Pavlov First Saint Petersburg State Medical University, St. Petersburg, Russia.

The article gives the clinical case of herpes simplex encephalitis relapse with the resistant seizures in a child. What we describe is a clinical approach towards the differential diagnostic of the seizures in structural epilepsy, which are resistant to anticonvulsants, or late herpes simplex encephalitis relapse. Good clinical perspective may be the indication of the intratecal synthesis of the IgG-specific antibodies to the herpes simplex type 1 and 2. Read More

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Atypical anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis associated with varicella zoster virus infection.

J Neurovirol 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Neurology Department, Mongi Ben Hamida Institute of Neurology, University of Tunis El Manar, Omar Chedly Street 1029, Bab Saâdoun, Tunis, Tunisia.

The triggering effect of herpes simplex virus infection on the development of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is now well established. However, there are very few reports that has linked a varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. In this report, we describe a case of a 57-year-old man presented with atypical clinical presentation of anti-NMDAR encephalitis with gait ataxia, complete ophtalmoplegia, and abolished reflexes followed by drowsiness and confusion. Read More

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A Case Report of Herpes Simplex-1 Viral Encephalitis Complicated by Hemorrhagic Conversion.

Cureus 2022 Apr 18;14(4):e24255. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Critical Care Medicine, Nuvance Health at Vassar Brothers Medical Center, Poughkeepsie, USA.

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is the most common cause of nonendemic sporadic encephalitis in the United States. Treatment with acyclovir has been proven to reduce mortality by 50%. Antiviral therapy should be initiated immediately in patients with clinical suspicion of viral encephalitis and should not be delayed by serological confirmation of the diagnosis. Read More

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Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome mimicking herpes simplex encephalitis: A case report.

Radiol Case Rep 2022 Jul 8;17(7):2428-2431. Epub 2022 May 8.

Department of Neurology, Changsha Central Hospital, Yuhua District, Changsha, China.

Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome presents with the features of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), which is rare and has been described in only a few case reports. Our case describes a 17-year-old female with no significant previous medical history presenting with an acute onset of fever, headache, and epilepsy, similar to HSE. Computed tomography of the brain showed bilateral basal ganglia calcification. Read More

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How do we reduce acyclovir overuse? Impact of FilmArray meningitis/encephalitis panel tests for pediatric patients.

J Infect Chemother 2022 May 14. Epub 2022 May 14.

Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Pediatrics, Kobe Children's Hospital, Hyogo, Japan.

Background: Few Japanese hospitals can perform in-house cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to screen for herpes simplex virus, leading to patients being administered acyclovir (ACV) for several days. The FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel (ME Panel) is a multiplex PCR test that can identify 14 major pathogens within 1 h. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of the ME Panel in children admitted with central nervous system infections in Japan. Read More

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A Review of the Treatment of Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Encephalitis in Six Immunocompetent Patients.

Cureus 2022 Apr 13;14(4):e24129. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Infectious Disease, Cape Fear Valley Medical Center, Fayetteville, USA.

Introduction The optimal treatment regimen for herpes simplex-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis is ill-defined. Current guidelines recommend the initiation of acyclovir in all suspected cases of encephalitis; however, there is limited research regarding the details of acyclovir treatment or the adjuvant use of corticosteroids. Specifically, there is a paucity of evidence-based guidelines detailing the optimal management of HSV-1 encephalitis in immunocompetent patients. Read More

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Z-DNA binding protein 1 mediates necroptotic and apoptotic cell death pathways in murine astrocytes following herpes simplex virus-1 infection.

J Neuroinflammation 2022 May 13;19(1):109. Epub 2022 May 13.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC, 28223, USA.

Background: The mechanisms by which glia respond to viral central nervous system (CNS) pathogens are now becoming apparent with the demonstration that microglia and astrocytes express an array of pattern recognition receptors that include intracellular RNA and DNA sensors. We have previously demonstrated that glia express Z-DNA binding protein 1 (ZBP1) and showed that this cytosolic nucleic acid sensor contributes to the inflammatory/neurotoxic responses of these cells to herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). However, the relative contribution made by ZBP1- to HSV-1-mediated cell death in glia has not been determined. Read More

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Epidemiology and long-term neurological sequelae of childhood herpes simplex CNS infection.

J Paediatr Child Health 2022 May 5. Epub 2022 May 5.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Aim: Herpes simplex CNS infection is a rare but important cause of neurological disability. Long term outcomes after HSV CNS infection in Australia have not yet been fully described. We sought to provide a comprehensive review of HSV CNS infection in children using a retrospective 13-year evaluation of statewide laboratory and clinical records and a parent survey conducted at least one year after the initial infection. Read More

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[Genetics and immunology behind herpes simplex encephalitis].

Ugeskr Laeger 2022 Apr;184(16)

Institut for Biomedicin, Health, Aarhus Universitet.

Herpes simplex encephalitis is a devastating neurological disorder with a poor prognosis. For years, it remained elusive why a fraction of otherwise healthy individuals presented with the condition; this lack of insight has hampered understanding of disease pathogenesis and the development of novel effective therapies. However, recent studies have shown that the lack of viral containment can be caused by functionally related monogenic inborn errors of immunity at least in a subset of patients. Read More

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[Treatment with Intravenous Acyclovir Desensitization for Severe Acyclovir Allergy: A Case of Herpes Encephalitis].

Mikrobiyol Bul 2022 Apr;56(2):371-376

University of Health Sciences Adana City Training and Research Hospital Clinic of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Adana, Turkey.

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a sporadic viral encephalitis agent that causes high mortality and morbidity, accompanied by neurological dysfunction findings. Acyclovir is the only antiviral treatment option that should be initiated in all patients with suspected encephalitis as soon as possible. Acyclovir is rarely possible to cause allergic reactions. Read More

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Rituximab as Second-Line Treatment in Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis after Herpes Simplex Encephalitis in Children.

Indian J Pediatr 2022 Apr 25. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit, Instituto de Investigación Hospital 12 de Octubre (Imas12), Hospital Universitario, 12 de Octubre, Avda Córdoba s/n. 28041, RITIP, Madrid, Spain.

The long-term response of two infants with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) post herpes simplex encephalitis treated with rituximab is reported here. Rituximab may improve the course of the disease and should be considered early as second-line treatment. Data on the long-term effect of rituximab in B cell depletion and immunoglobulins levels in infants are needed. Read More

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The Importance of CXCL1 in Physiology and Noncancerous Diseases of Bone, Bone Marrow, Muscle and the Nervous System.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Apr 11;23(8). Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Department of Biochemistry and Medical Chemistry, Pomeranian Medical University, Powstańców Wlkp. 72 Av., 70-111 Szczecin, Poland.

This review describes the role of CXCL1, a chemokine crucial in inflammation as a chemoattractant for neutrophils, in physiology and in selected major non-cancer diseases. Due to the vast amount of available information, we focus on the role CXCL1 plays in the physiology of bones, bone marrow, muscle and the nervous system. For this reason, we describe its effects on hematopoietic stem cells, myoblasts, oligodendrocyte progenitors and osteoclast precursors. Read More

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Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)-2 Variation Contributes to Neurovirulence During Neonatal Infection.

J Infect Dis 2022 Apr 22. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonatal brain causes severe encephalitis and permanent neurologic deficits. However, infants infected with HSV at the time of birth follow varied clinical courses, with approximately half of infants experiencing only external infection of the skin rather than invasive neurologic disease. Understanding the cause of these divergent outcomes is essential to developing neuroprotective strategies. Read More

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An algorithmic approach to identifying the aetiology of acute encephalitis syndrome in India: results of a 4-year enhanced surveillance study.

Lancet Glob Health 2022 05;10(5):e685-e693

CDC India, New Delhi, India.

Background: Annual outbreaks of acute encephalitis syndrome pose a major health burden in India. Although Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) accounts for around 15% of reported cases, the aetiology of most cases remains unknown. We aimed to establish an enhanced surveillance network and to use a standardised diagnostic algorithm to conduct a systematic evaluation of acute encephalitis syndrome in India. Read More

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Differential Performance of the FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis Assay To Detect Bacterial and Viral Pathogens in Both Pediatric and Adult Populations.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 04 11;10(2):e0277421. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Department of Virology, St Antoine - Tenon - Trousseau University Hospitals, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France.

Meningitis/encephalitis (ME) syndromic diagnostic assays can be applied for the rapid one-step detection of the most common pathogens in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, the comprehensive performance of multiplex assays is still under evaluation. In our multisite university hospital of eastern Paris, France, ME syndromic testing has been gradually implemented since 2017 for patients with neurological symptoms presenting to an adult or pediatric emergency unit. Read More

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Antibody response to herpes simplex virus-1 is increased in autoimmune encephalitis.

Eur J Immunol 2022 Apr 8. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Department of Neurology with Institute of Translational Neurology, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany.

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