4,295 results match your criteria Encephalitis Herpes Simplex


Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging changes in Japanese encephalitis.

Brain Dev 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Asahi General Hospital, Chiba, Japan.

Background: Japanese encephalitis is a flavivirus that can cause pandemic encephalitis, and is prevalent in Southeast Asia and Australia. Brain images of patients with Japanese encephalitis are characterized by thalamic lesions, distinct from those seen in viral encephalopathies caused by the herpes simplex virus and West Nile virus.

Aim: Herein, we describe for the first time a time-dependent magnetic resonance imaging pattern in Japanese encephalitis in a 10-month-old Japanese boy. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03877604183056
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2019.04.005DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Discovery of small molecule inhibitors targeting the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of the HSV-1 ICP0 protein using an high throughput screening assay.

J Virol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics, Immunology, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, Building Hixon, room 3009, Kansas City, KS, 66160

Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) has infected more than 80% of the population. Reactivation of the virus causes diseases ranging in severity from benign cold sores to fatal encephalitis. Current treatments involve viral DNA replication inhibitors but emergence of drug resistant mutants is observed frequently, highlighting the need for novel anti-viral therapies. Read More

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http://jvi.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JVI.00619-19
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00619-19DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Efficacy of acyclovir for herpes simplex encephalitis: A protocol for a systematic review of randomized controlled trial.

Authors:
Wei Wang Meng Ji

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Apr;98(15):e15254

Background: Clinical researches indicate that acyclovir can be used to herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). However, no systematic review has explored its efficacy for the treatment of HSE. Therefore, this study systematically will investigate the efficacy and safety of acyclovir for patients with HSE. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000015254DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Antagonizing the glucocorticoid receptor impairs explant-induced reactivation in mice latently infected with herpes simplex virus 1.

J Virol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Oklahoma State University, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Stillwater, OK 74078

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) establishes life-long latent infections in neurons. Reactivation from latency can lead to serious recurrent disease, including stromal keratitis, corneal scarring, blindness, and encephalitis. Although numerous studies link stress to an increase in the incidence of reactivation from latency and recurrent disease, the mechanism of action is not well understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00418-19DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

[Customised infectiology - Immunogenetics].

Rev Med Suisse 2019 Apr;15(646):766-770

Service des maladies infectieuses, CHUV, 1011 Lausanne.

Recent discoveries in innate immunity together with improvements in the analysis of the human genome have led to the identification of factors that make certain individuals more susceptible to infections than other. We know understand why herpes simplex virus I, a virus with a minor burden in most individuals, is responsible for devastating encephalitis in children unable to detect primo-infection of neural cells. A growing number of patients are treated with immunosuppressive drugs in the field of oncology, organ transplantation and immunology. Read More

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April 2019
1 Read

Hyperammonemia in a case of herpes simplex and anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis.

Brain Dev 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a widely accepted risk factor for anti N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. Association of inherited metabolic disease has never been reported in a patient with HSE and anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Herein, we report a case of pediatric HSE complicated by development of anti-NMDAR encephalitis; this patient showed subsequent recurrent, unexplained episodes of encephalopathy associated with hyperammonemia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2019.03.013DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

UNC93B1 promotes tumoral growth by controlling the secretion level of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor in human oral cancer.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2019 May 30;513(1):81-87. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan; Department of Dentistry and Oral-Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba, Japan. Electronic address:

Unc-93 homolog B1 (UNC93B1), a transmembrane protein, is correlated with immune diseases, such as influenza, herpes simplex encephalitis, and the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus; however, the role of UNC93B1 in cancers including human oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) remains unknown. In the current study, we investigated the UNC93B1expression level in OSCCs using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. Our data showed that UNC93B1 mRNA and protein expressions increased markedly (p < 0. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0006291X193057
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.03.172DOI Listing
May 2019
5 Reads

Herpes simplex virus encephalitis update.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Infectious Diseases Department, Santé Publique France, Saint Maurice Cedex, France.

Purpose Of Review: HSV is the most frequently identified cause of infectious encephalitis, in Western countries. This article is an update on the topic based on a review of recent studies from 2017 to 2018.

Recent Findings: Acyclovir is still the first line treatment, and no new drugs are currently available for clinical use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000554DOI Listing

Anti-NMDAR encephalitis preceded by non-herpetic central nervous system infection: Systematic literature review and first case of tick-borne encephalitis triggering anti-NMDAR encephalitis.

J Neuroimmunol 2019 Mar 19;332:1-7. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Paediatric Neurology and Neurophysiology Unit, Department of Women's and Children's Health, University Hospital of Padua, Italy; Neuroimmunology group, Pediatric Research Institute "Città della Speranza", Padova, Italy.

After the recent description of biphasic disease with herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis followed by anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis (anti-NMDARE), anti-NMDARE preceded by non-HSV central nervous system (CNS) infection has been more rarely reported. We report the first case of TBE followed by anti-NMDARE and carry out a systematic literature review on anti-NMDARE preceded by non-HSV CNS infection. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01655728193006
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2019.03.011DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Hyponatremia Is Predictive of HSV-1 Encephalitis among Patients with Viral Encephalitis.

Tohoku J Exp Med 2019 03;247(3):189-195

Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University.

Encephalitis is an inflammatory process involving the brain parenchyma associated with neurologic dysfunction. The main causes of infectious encephalitis are viruses, including Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). As the mortality rate of HSV-1 encephalitis could be reduced with early acyclovir treatment, it is imperative to distinguish HSV-1 encephalitis from other type of viral encephalitis as early as possible. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1620/tjem.247.189DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Nitric Oxide Influences HSV-1-Induced Neuroinflammation.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2019 11;2019:2302835. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

PORT Polish Center for Technology Development, Stablowicka 147, 54-066 Wroclaw, Poland.

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has the ability to replicate in neurons and glial cells and to produce encephalitis leading to neurodegeneration. Accumulated evidence suggests that nitric oxide (NO) is a key molecule in the pathogenesis of neurotropic virus infections. NO can exert both cytoprotective as well as cytotoxic effects in the central nervous system (CNS) depending on its concentration, time course exposure, and site of action. Read More

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https://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2019/2302835/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/2302835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388346PMC
February 2019
9 Reads

Continuous Electroencephalogram as a Biomarker of Disease Progression and Severity in Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Encephalitis.

Clin EEG Neurosci 2019 Mar 15:1550059419835705. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

2 Department of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Objective: Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) is the most common cause of sporadic fatal encephalitis worldwide and remains a devastating disease despite antiviral therapy. EEG can be an important tool in the diagnosis of HSE, and we propose that it can be used to monitor the progression of the disease in patients with treatment refractory HSE.

Methods: This is a case report of a patient with HSE who was monitored on continuous EEG (CEEG) throughout course of her disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1550059419835705DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection of the Central Nervous System: Insights Into Proposed Interrelationships With Neurodegenerative Disorders.

Front Cell Neurosci 2019 26;13:46. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy, Departamento de Genética Molecular y Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is highly prevalent in humans and can reach the brain without evident clinical symptoms. Once in the central nervous system (CNS), the virus can either reside in a quiescent latent state in this tissue, or eventually actively lead to severe acute necrotizing encephalitis, which is characterized by exacerbated neuroinflammation and prolonged neuroimmune activation producing a life-threatening disease. Although HSV-1 encephalitis can be treated with antivirals that limit virus replication, neurological sequelae are common and the virus will nevertheless remain for life in the neural tissue. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fncel.2019.00046
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2019.00046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6399123PMC
February 2019
6 Reads

Molecular analyses and phylogeny of the herpes simplex virus 2 US9 and glycoproteins gE/gI obtained from infected subjects during the Herpevac Trial for Women.

PLoS One 2019 8;14(3):e0212877. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America.

Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a large double-stranded DNA virus that causes genital sores when spread by sexual contact and is a principal cause of viral encephalitis in newborns and infants. Viral glycoproteins enable virion entry into and spread between cells, making glycoproteins a prime target for vaccine development. A truncated glycoprotein D2 (gD2) vaccine candidate, recently tested in the phase 3 Herpevac Trial for Women, did not prevent HSV-2 infection in initially seronegative women. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212877PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6407778PMC
March 2019
4 Reads

[Selected viral neuroinfections in children].

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2019 Feb;46(272):88-93

Medical University of Białystok, Poland: Department of Infectious Diseases and Neuroinfections.

Viral meningitis may be present not only in adults but also in children. It constitutes a significant public health problem in child population. The clinical manifestation of the disease in children varies depending on the age of the child, the causative agent or the way of acquiring the infection. Read More

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February 2019
2 Reads

Clinico-epidemiological Study of Viral Acute Encephalitis Syndrome Cases and Comparison to Nonviral Cases in Children from Eastern India.

J Glob Infect Dis 2019 Jan-Mar;11(1):7-12

Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.

Objectives: The objective is to study the clinico-epidemiological features of viral acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) cases and compare them with nonviral AES cases in children from Eastern India.

Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in the department of pediatrics of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Eastern India over 18-month period. Children (6 months to 15 years) with acute onset of fever (≥37. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jgid.jgid_26_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6380098PMC
March 2019
12 Reads

Genotypic and Phenotypic Diversity of Herpes Simplex Virus 2 within the Infected Neonatal Population.

mSphere 2019 02 27;4(1). Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, The Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pennsylvania, USA

More than 14,000 neonates are infected with herpes simplex virus (HSV) annually. Approximately half display manifestations limited to the skin, eyes, or mouth (SEM disease). The rest develop invasive infections that spread to the central nervous system (CNS disease or encephalitis) or throughout the infected neonate (disseminated disease). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00590-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6393728PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

Targeting STT3A-oligosaccharyltransferase with NGI-1 causes herpes simplex virus 1 dysfunction.

FASEB J 2019 Feb 27:fj201802044RR. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a contagious neurotropic herpesvirus responsible for oral lesions and herpesviral encephalitis. The HSV-1 envelope contains N-glycosylated proteins involved in infection and that are candidate drug targets. NGI-1 is a small-molecule inhibitor of oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) complexes STT3A-OST and STT3B-OST, which catalyze cotranslational and post-translational N-glycosylation, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201802044RRDOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Diagnosis and Management of Autoimmune Dementia.

Curr Treat Options Neurol 2019 Feb 27;21(3):11. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To describe the clinical, laboratory, and MRI features that characterize cognitive decline in the setting of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity, and provide an overview of current treatment modalities.

Recent Findings: The field of autoimmune neurology is rapidly expanding due to the increasing number of newly discovered autoantibodies directed against specific CNS targets. The clinical syndromes associated with these autoantibodies are heterogeneous but frequently share common, recognizable clinical, and MRI characteristics. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11940-019-0550-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11940-019-0550-9DOI Listing
February 2019
7 Reads

Approach to recurrent Herpes Simplex Encephalitis in children.

Int J Pediatr Adolesc Med 2018 Jun 12;5(2):35-38. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Infectious Disease, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE) is one of the commonest viral encephalitis and its recurrence is being increasingly reported were HSE relapse rate came up to 5%. Both herpes simplex virus (HSV) types can lead to encephalitis and it was established that HSV-1 is capable of nervous system invasion, latency, and recurrence. The recurrence of HSE used to be attributed to immunological compromise, but reports show many cases have no obvious immune system impairment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpam.2018.05.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6363264PMC
June 2018
2 Reads

Cerebral Venous Thrombosis as Rare Presentation of Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis.

Case Rep Infect Dis 2019 17;2019:7835420. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Coimbra University Hospital Centre, Coimbra, Portugal.

Herpes simplex virus 1 is a prevalent neurotropic pathogen that infects and establishes latency in peripheral sensory neurons. It can migrate into the central nervous system and cause encephalitis. The association between herpes simplex virus encephalitis and cerebral venous thrombosis is rare, with a very limited number of case reports described in the literature, despite the recognized thrombogenic effects of the virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/7835420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360035PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

The psychopathology of NMDAR-antibody encephalitis in adults: a systematic review and phenotypic analysis of individual patient data.

Lancet Psychiatry 2019 03 11;6(3):235-246. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Oxford Autoimmune Neurology Group, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; Department of Neurology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Early immunotherapy administration improves outcomes in patients with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-antibody encephalitis. As most patients with NMDAR-antibody encephalitis present to psychiatrists, the psychopathology of NMDAR-antibody encephalitis needs to be clearly defined to encourage accurate clinical identification and prompt treatment.

Methods: For this systematic review, we searched PubMed for all studies published in English between Jan 1, 2005, and Oct 7, 2017, to identify individually reported adult patients (≥18 years) who satisfied consensus criteria for definite NMDAR-antibody encephalitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(19)30001-XDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6384244PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

The US11 Gene of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Promotes Neuroinvasion and Periocular Replication following Corneal Infection.

J Virol 2019 May 17;93(9). Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, New Hampshire, USA

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) cycles between phases of latency in sensory neurons and replication in mucosal sites. HSV-1 encodes two key proteins that antagonize the shutdown of host translation, US11 through preventing PKR activation and ICP34.5 through mediating dephosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02246-18DOI Listing
May 2019
2 Reads

The recruitment of peripheral blood leukocytes to the brain is delayed in susceptible BALB/c compared to resistant C57BL/6 mice during herpes simplex virus encephalitis.

J Neurovirol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Research Center in Infectious Diseases, CHU of Quebec and Laval University, 2705 Boul. Laurier, Quebec City, QC, G1V 4G2, Canada.

The cerebral immune response induced by herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis (HSE) was evaluated in susceptible BALB/c and resistant C57BL/6 mice. BALB/c and C57BL/6 (named C57BL/6-high) mice were respectively infected intranasally with 1 × 10 and 5 × 10 plaque-forming units (PFUs) of HSV-1. C57BL/6 mice (named C57BL/6-low) infected with a low inoculum (1 × 10 PFUs) of HSV-1 were tested in parallel. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00730-5DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

[Etiologic surveillance and analysis of acute meningitis and encephalitis syndrome in Jinan city in 2013-2016].

Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2019 Feb;53(2):174-178

Division of Expanded Immunization Program, Shandong Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Academy of Preventive Medicine, Shandong University; Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Control and Prevention, Jinan 250014, China.

To characterize the etiology and epidemiological characteristics of the acute meningitis and encephalitis syndrome (AMES) in Jinan city in 2013-2016. The epidemiological data, clinical diagnosis, serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were collected from 3 577 AMES cases in 6 sentinel hospitals in Jinan city in 2013-2016. Samples of all cases were made sero-diagnosis for Immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibody to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and negative cases of JEV for enterovirus (EV), mumps virus (MuV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2019.02.010DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Emergency Evaluation and Management of Encephalitis and Myelitis in Adults.

Semin Neurol 2019 Feb 11;39(1):82-101. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Division of Neuroimmunology and Neuroinfectious Diseases, Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Infection of the central nervous system is often a life-threatening emergency. In many cases, the clinician faces an unknown pathogen and must rely upon clinical acumen and a thorough, systematic diagnostic investigation to establish a diagnosis and initiate appropriate treatment. Because patients typically present with a syndrome, such as temporal lobe encephalitis, rather than a known pathogen (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1676845DOI Listing
February 2019
8 Reads

Synthesis and anti-HSV activity of tricyclic penciclovir and hydroxybutylguanine derivatives.

Bioorg Med Chem 2019 Mar 2;27(6):1023-1033. Epub 2019 Feb 2.

School of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, King Edward VII Avenue, Cardiff CF10 3NB, UK. Electronic address:

A series of tricyclic penciclovir (PCV) and hydroxybutylguanine (HBG) derivatives have been prepared with enhanced lipophilicity following an efficient synthetic route. All the novel tricyclic derivatives were evaluated for inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1, HSV-2) and thymidine kinase deficient (ACV resistant) HSV-1. The tricyclic HBG derivatives were devoid of inhibitory activity however several of the tricyclic PCV derivatives showed promising antiviral activity, in particular 9g (R = 4-MeO-CH) displayed good inhibitory activity (HSV-1 EC 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2019.02.005DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Glioblastoma Mimicking Viral Encephalitis Responds to Acyclovir: A Case Series and Literature Review.

Front Oncol 2019 22;9. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Ben and Catherine Ivy Center for Advanced Brain Tumor Treatment, Swedish Neuroscience Institute, Seattle, WA, United States.

Viral encephalitis and glioblastoma are both relatively rare conditions with poor prognoses. While the clinical and radiographic presentations of these diseases are often distinctly different, viral encephalitis can sometimes masquerade as glioblastoma. Rarely, glioblastoma can also be misdiagnosed as viral encephalitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6350341PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Kynurenine is a cerebrospinal fluid biomarker for bacterial and viral CNS infections.

J Infect Dis 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Centre for Individualized Infection Medicine, Hannover, Germany.

Background: The tryptophan-kynurenine-NAD+ pathway is closely associated with regulation of immune cells toward less inflammatory phenotypes and may exert neuroprotective effects. Investigating its regulation in CNS infections would improve our understanding of pathophysiology and end-organ damage, and, furthermore, open doors to its evaluation as a source of diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarkers.

Methods: We measured concentrations of kynurenine (Kyn) and tryptophan (Trp) in 220 cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with bacterial and viral (herpes simplex, varicella zoster, enteroviruses) meningitis/encephalitis, neuroborreliosis, autoimmune neuroinflammation (anti-NMDA-R encephalitis, multiple sclerosis), and noninflamed controls (Bell's palsy, normal pressure hydrocephalus, Tourette syndrome). Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/inf
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz048DOI Listing
February 2019
10 Reads

Mouse model of anti-NMDA receptor post-herpes simplex encephalitis.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2019 Mar 26;6(2):e529. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Center for Systems Biology (CSB), Department of Neurology (J.L., R.N.), Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH); CSB, Department of Radiology (B.P., S.S., M.Z.), MGH, Boston; Neuroimmunology Program (T.A.), Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clínic, Universitat de Barcelona; Pediatric Neuroimmunology Unit (T.A.), Neurology Department, Sant Joan de Déu Children's Hospital, University of Barcelona; Neuroimmunology Program (J.P., J.D.), IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurology (J.D.), University of Pennsylvania, PA; Catalan Institute for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA) (J.D.), Barcelona, Spain; and Institute for Innovation in Imaging (J.C.), Department of Radiology, MGH, Boston.

Objective: To develop an endogenous rodent model of postinfectious anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis.

Methods: Six mice were inoculated intranasally with herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and subsequently treated with acyclovir for 2 weeks. Serum was collected at 3, 6, and 8 weeks postinoculation and tested for NMDAR antibodies through a cell-based assay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/NXI.0000000000000529DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6340334PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Cerebrovascular manifestations of herpes simplex virus infection of the central nervous system: a systematic review.

J Neuroinflammation 2019 Jan 29;16(1):19. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler Medical Center, Paracelsus Medical University, Ignaz-Harrer-Str. 79, 5020, Salzburg, Austria.

Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke are increasingly recognized complications of central nervous system (CNS) infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV).

Aim Of The Study: To analyze clinical, imaging, and laboratory findings and outcomes of cerebrovascular manifestations of HSV infection.

Methods: Systematic literature review from January 2000 to July 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-019-1409-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6352343PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis in Association with Herpes Simplex Virus and Viral and Bacterial Zoonoses.

Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2019 Jan-Mar;22(1):102-103

Department of Neurology, Kuala Lumpur Hospital, Jalan Pahang, 50586 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Multiple co-infections can predispose a patient to autoimmune encephalitis. Out of thirty cases of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis seen at a single tertiary referral center, only two cases of co-infection with NMDAR encephalitis were identified. One of these cases was highly interesting due to the presence of more than one co-infections along with the presence of cortical dysfunction, seizures, and orofacial dyskinesias at the onset in a male in the absence of tumors, which was refractory to initial treatment. Read More

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http://www.annalsofian.org/text.asp?2019/22/1/102/248504
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/aian.AIAN_232_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6327714PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

-Dependent Immune and Central Nervous System Mechanisms Control Viral Replication and Inflammation during Mouse Herpes Simplex Encephalitis.

J Immunol 2019 Mar 25;202(5):1479-1493. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Human Genetics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0C7, Canada;

Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), caused by HSV type 1 (HSV-1) infection, is an acute neuroinflammatory condition of the CNS and remains the most common type of sporadic viral encephalitis worldwide. Studies in humans have shown that susceptibility to HSE depends in part on the genetic make-up of the host, with deleterious mutations in the TLR3/type I IFN axis underlying some cases of childhood HSE. Using an in vivo chemical mutagenesis screen for HSV-1 susceptibility in mice, we identified a susceptible pedigree carrying a causal truncating mutation in the gene ( ), encoding for the NF-κB transcription factor subunit c-Rel. Read More

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http://www.jimmunol.org/lookup/doi/10.4049/jimmunol.1800063
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1800063DOI Listing
March 2019
10 Reads

Autoimmune encephalitis: A costly condition.

Neurology 2019 Feb 23;92(9):e964-e972. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

From the Johns Hopkins Encephalitis Center (J.C., S.G., E.G.-L., R.G.G., J.C.P., A.V.), Department of Neurology, and Departments of Neurosurgery and Anaesthesia/Critical Care (R.G.G.), Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; Neurology Department (J.S.), IIB Sant Pau, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurology and Pediatrics (A.K.Y.), Icahn School of Medicine at Mt. Sinai, New York, NY; Department of Neurology and Developmental Medicine (E.G.-L.), Kennedy Krieger Institute; and Johns Hopkins Carey Business School (K.D.F.), Baltimore MD.

Objective: To assess the inpatient hospitalization burden and costs of patients with autoimmune encephalitis (AE) at a tertiary care institution.

Methods: Adult inpatients with AE were identified retrospectively from July 1, 2005, to June 30, 2015. Demographic and clinical data were collected and analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000006990DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

A case of fulminant Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis in an immune-competent adult.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Neurology, Haaglanden Medical Center, The Hague, The Netherlands.

A 21-year-old female presented with headache, nausea and vomiting, dysarthria, difficulty finding words, vertigo, episodical diplopia and an abnormal gait since 2 days. Additionally, we found marked ataxia and disturbed liver chemistry whilst her infection parameters were low. Her head CT scan was unremarkable, but her MRI scan showed leptomeningeal enhancement along the cerebellar folia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0718-1DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

IRF and STAT Transcription Factors - From Basic Biology to Roles in Infection, Protective Immunity, and Primary Immunodeficiencies.

Authors:
Trine H Mogensen

Front Immunol 2018 8;9:3047. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of Infectious diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

The induction and action of type I interferon (IFN) is of fundamental importance in human immune defenses toward microbial pathogens, particularly viruses. Basic discoveries within the molecular and cellular signaling pathways regulating type I IFN induction and downstream actions have shown the essential role of the IFN regulatory factor (IRF) and the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) families, respectively. However, the exact biological and immunological functions of these factors have been most clearly revealed through the study of inborn errors of immunity and the resultant infectious phenotypes in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.03047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6331453PMC
January 2019
5 Reads

Recurrent Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis After Epilepsy Surgery.

Can J Neurol Sci 2019 Mar 22;46(2):261-263. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Clinical Neurosciences,University of Calgary,Calgary,Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/cjn.2018.385DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads
1.599 Impact Factor

Acyclovir Unresponsive Herpes Simplex Encephalitis in a child successfully treated with the addition of Foscarnet: Case report.

Arch Argent Pediatr 2019 02;117(1):e47-e51

Departamento de Radiología Pediátrica, Hospital de Formación e Investigación Materno Infantil Dr. Sami Ulus, Angora, Turquía.

Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most common cause of sporadic focal encephalitis worldwide. Acyclovir is the treatment of choice of HSE since the 1980s. After the widespread use of acyclovir, HSE related mortality rate had reduced but resistant strains emerged. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5546/aap.2019.eng.e47DOI Listing
February 2019
10 Reads

The STING agonist 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA) stimulates an antiviral state and protects mice against herpes simplex virus-induced neurological disease.

Virology 2019 Mar 6;529:23-28. Epub 2019 Jan 6.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA. Electronic address:

Herpes simplex virus (HSV)- 1 is the most common cause of sporadic viral encephalitis and accounts for 5-10% of cases worldwide. A key factor in host control of viral infection is the initiation of the interferon (IFN) response, mediated in part by the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway. In these studies, we examined the ability of 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA), a STING agonist, to protect against HSV-1 infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2019.01.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6382592PMC
March 2019
3 Reads

Dengue virus is an under-recognised causative agent of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES): Results from a four year AES surveillance study of Japanese encephalitis in selected states of India.

Int J Infect Dis 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

CDC India, New Delhi, India.

Background: Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) surveillance in India has indicated that Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) accounts for 5-35% of AES cases annually; the etiology remains unknown in the remaining cases. We implemented comprehensive AES surveillance to identify other etiological agents of AES, with emphasis on dengue virus.

Methods: Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were collected from patients enrolled prospectively in AES surveillance from 2014-2017 at selected sites of three high burden states of India. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2019.01.008DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads
2.330 Impact Factor

An Adult Case of Herpes Simplex Virus-Associated Granulomatous Encephalitis.

Intern Med 2019 Jan 10. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Japan.

Brain granuloma occurs under certain conditions. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) causes granulomatous encephalitis in children; however, it has been rarely reported in adults. A 74-year-old man with a history of herpes simplex encephalitis suffered recurrent seizures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.2046-18DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Japanese Encephalitis Virus-Induced Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

Neuropediatrics 2019 Apr 8;50(2):111-115. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Zunyi Medical University, First Affiliated Hospital, Zunyi, Guizhou Province, China.

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis (anti-NMDARe) was originally described as a paraneoplastic disease with more than 50% cases involving a tumor. However, tumor incidence in anti-NMDARe in children is much lower. Herpes simplex virus-induced anti-NMDARe has been well-described; however, findings on Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)-induced anti-NMDARe are scarce. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1675607DOI Listing
April 2019
13 Reads

Suspected Herpes Simplex Encephalitis with Low Copy Number DNA.

Indian J Pediatr 2019 Apr 4;86(4):388. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Medical University, 6-7-1 Nishishinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-0023, Japan.

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12098-018-2837-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-018-2837-3DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Lund Human Mesencephalic (LUHMES) Neuronal Cell Line Supports Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Latency .

J Virol 2019 Mar 5;93(6). Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida, USA

Lund human mesencephalic (LUHMES) cells are human embryonic neuronal precursor cells that can be maintained as proliferating cells due to the expression of a tetracycline-regulatable (Tet-off) v- transgene. They can be differentiated to postmitotic neurons by the addition of tetracycline, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and dibutyryl cAMP. We demonstrate that these cells can be infected with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 3 with the majority of cells surviving. Read More

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http://jvi.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JVI.02210-18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02210-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6401467PMC
March 2019
37 Reads
4.439 Impact Factor

Validation of Multiplex Serology detecting human herpesviruses 1-5.

PLoS One 2018 27;13(12):e0209379. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Infections and Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany.

Human herpesviruses (HHV) cause a variety of clinically relevant conditions upon primary infection of typically young and immunocompetent hosts. Both primary infection and reactivation after latency can lead to more severe disease, such as encephalitis, congenital defects and cancer. Infections with HHV are also associated with cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disease. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0209379PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6307738PMC
December 2018
9 Reads

Presentation, etiology, and outcome of brain infections in an Indonesian hospital: A cohort study.

Neurol Clin Pract 2018 Oct;8(5):379-388

Departments of Neurology (DI, RE, KM, Sucipto, DO, DNL), Microbiology (DCL, A. Karuniawati), Radiology (REY, RM), Internal Medicine (EY, THK), Clinical Pathology (IST, DW), and Parasitology (RW, RA, A. Kurniawan), Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital-Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia; Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology (UAJ, DS, KSAM); Eijkman-Oxford Clinical Research Unit (UAJ), Jakarta, Indonesia; Department of Internal Medicine and Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases (AvL, RvC), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; TB/HIV Research Center (BA, SD, LC, ARG), Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia; and Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health (RvC), Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, UK.

Background: Little detailed knowledge is available regarding the etiology and outcome of CNS infection, particularly in HIV-infected individuals, in low-resource settings.

Methods: From January 2015 to April 2016, we prospectively included all adults with suspected CNS infection in a referral hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia. Systematic screening included HIV testing, CSF examination, and neuroimaging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/CPJ.0000000000000517DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6276332PMC
October 2018
12 Reads

Antiviral and Antioxidant Properties of Echinochrome A.

Mar Drugs 2018 Dec 15;16(12). Epub 2018 Dec 15.

G.P. Somov Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, FEB RAS, Vladivostok 690087, Russia.

The aim of this study was to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antiviral activities of echinochrome A and echinochrome-based antioxidant composition against tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The antioxidant composition, which is a mixture of echinochrome A, ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol (5:5:1), showed higher antioxidant and antiviral effects than echinochrome A. We suppose that echinochrome A and its composition can both directly affect virus particles and indirectly enhance antioxidant defense mechanisms in the hosting cell. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/1660-3397/16/12/509
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md16120509DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6315383PMC
December 2018
16 Reads

Building a network for multicenter, prospective research of central nervous system infections in South America: Process and lessons learned.

eNeurologicalSci 2018 Dec 4;13:63-69. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Hospital Emergencias Pediatricas, Lima, Peru.

Multicenter collaborative networks are essential for advancing research and improving clinical care for a variety of conditions. Research networks are particularly important for central nervous system infections, which remain difficult to study due to their sporadic occurrence and requirement for collection and testing of cerebrospinal fluid. Establishment of long-term research networks in resource-limited areas also facilitates diagnostic capacity building, surveillance for emerging pathogens, and provision of appropriate treatment where needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ensci.2018.07.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6284170PMC
December 2018

Loss of Transfected Human Brain Micro-Vascular Endothelial Cell Integrity during Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

Intervirology 2018 12;61(4):193-203. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, MAHSA University, Saujana Putra Campus, Jenjarum, Malaysia,

Objective: Herpes simplex virus infection through the neuronal route is the most well-studied mode of viral encephalitis that can persists in a human host for a lifetime. However, the involvement of other possible infection mechanisms by the virus remains underexplored. Therefore, this study aims to determine the temporal effects and mechanisms by which the virus breaches the human brain micro-vascular endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000495180DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Epidemiology of Meningitis and Encephalitis in Infants and Children in the United States, 2011-2014.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2019 Jan;38(1):37-41

bioMérieux, Durham, NC.

Background: Large epidemiologic studies evaluating the etiologies, management decisions and outcomes of infants and children with meningitis and encephalitis in the United States are lacking.

Methods: Children 0-17 years of age with meningitis or encephalitis as assessed by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes available in the Premier Healthcare Database during 2011-2014 were analyzed.

Results: Six thousand six hundred sixty-five patients with meningitis or encephalitis were identified; 3030 (45. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002081DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads