4,272 results match your criteria Encephalitis Herpes Simplex


The psychopathology of NMDAR-antibody encephalitis in adults: a systematic review and phenotypic analysis of individual patient data.

Lancet Psychiatry 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Oxford Autoimmune Neurology Group, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; Department of Neurology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Early immunotherapy administration improves outcomes in patients with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-antibody encephalitis. As most patients with NMDAR-antibody encephalitis present to psychiatrists, the psychopathology of NMDAR-antibody encephalitis needs to be clearly defined to encourage accurate clinical identification and prompt treatment.

Methods: For this systematic review, we searched PubMed for all studies published in English between Jan 1, 2005, and Oct 7, 2017, to identify individually reported adult patients (≥18 years) who satisfied consensus criteria for definite NMDAR-antibody encephalitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(19)30001-XDOI Listing
February 2019

The US11 gene of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 promotes neuroinvasion and periocular replication following corneal infection.

J Virol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH.

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) cycles between phases of latency in sensory neurons and replication in mucosal sites. HSV-1 encodes two key proteins that antagonize the shutdown of host translation; US11 through preventing PKR activation, and ICP34.5 through mediating eIF2α dephosphorylation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02246-18DOI Listing
February 2019

The recruitment of peripheral blood leukocytes to the brain is delayed in susceptible BALB/c compared to resistant C57BL/6 mice during herpes simplex virus encephalitis.

J Neurovirol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Research Center in Infectious Diseases, CHU of Quebec and Laval University, 2705 Boul. Laurier, Quebec City, QC, G1V 4G2, Canada.

The cerebral immune response induced by herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis (HSE) was evaluated in susceptible BALB/c and resistant C57BL/6 mice. BALB/c and C57BL/6 (named C57BL/6-high) mice were respectively infected intranasally with 1 × 10 and 5 × 10 plaque-forming units (PFUs) of HSV-1. C57BL/6 mice (named C57BL/6-low) infected with a low inoculum (1 × 10 PFUs) of HSV-1 were tested in parallel. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00730-5DOI Listing
February 2019

[Etiologic surveillance and analysis of acute meningitis and encephalitis syndrome in Jinan city in 2013-2016].

Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2019 Feb;53(2):174-178

Division of Expanded Immunization Program, Shandong Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Academy of Preventive Medicine, Shandong University; Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Control and Prevention, Jinan 250014, China.

To characterize the etiology and epidemiological characteristics of the acute meningitis and encephalitis syndrome (AMES) in Jinan city in 2013-2016. The epidemiological data, clinical diagnosis, serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were collected from 3 577 AMES cases in 6 sentinel hospitals in Jinan city in 2013-2016. Samples of all cases were made sero-diagnosis for Immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibody to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and negative cases of JEV for enterovirus (EV), mumps virus (MuV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2019.02.010DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Emergency Evaluation and Management of Encephalitis and Myelitis in Adults.

Semin Neurol 2019 Feb 11;39(1):82-101. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Division of Neuroimmunology and Neuroinfectious Diseases, Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Infection of the central nervous system is often a life-threatening emergency. In many cases, the clinician faces an unknown pathogen and must rely upon clinical acumen and a thorough, systematic diagnostic investigation to establish a diagnosis and initiate appropriate treatment. Because patients typically present with a syndrome, such as temporal lobe encephalitis, rather than a known pathogen (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1676845DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Synthesis and anti-HSV activity of tricyclic penciclovir and hydroxybutylguanine derivatives.

Bioorg Med Chem 2019 Feb 2. Epub 2019 Feb 2.

School of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, King Edward VII Avenue, Cardiff CF10 3NB, UK. Electronic address:

A series of tricyclic penciclovir (PCV) and hydroxybutylguanine (HBG) derivatives have been prepared with enhanced lipophilicity following an efficient synthetic route. All the novel tricyclic derivatives were evaluated for inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1, HSV-2) and thymidine kinase deficient (ACV resistant) HSV-1. The tricyclic HBG derivatives were devoid of inhibitory activity however several of the tricyclic PCV derivatives showed promising antiviral activity, in particular 9g (R = 4-MeO-CH) displayed good inhibitory activity (HSV-1 EC 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2019.02.005DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Glioblastoma Mimicking Viral Encephalitis Responds to Acyclovir: A Case Series and Literature Review.

Front Oncol 2019 22;9. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Ben and Catherine Ivy Center for Advanced Brain Tumor Treatment, Swedish Neuroscience Institute, Seattle, WA, United States.

Viral encephalitis and glioblastoma are both relatively rare conditions with poor prognoses. While the clinical and radiographic presentations of these diseases are often distinctly different, viral encephalitis can sometimes masquerade as glioblastoma. Rarely, glioblastoma can also be misdiagnosed as viral encephalitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6350341PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Kynurenine is a cerebrospinal fluid biomarker for bacterial and viral CNS infections.

J Infect Dis 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Centre for Individualized Infection Medicine, Hannover, Germany.

Background: The tryptophan-kynurenine-NAD+ pathway is closely associated with regulation of immune cells toward less inflammatory phenotypes and may exert neuroprotective effects. Investigating its regulation in CNS infections would improve our understanding of pathophysiology and end-organ damage, and, furthermore, open doors to its evaluation as a source of diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarkers.

Methods: We measured concentrations of kynurenine (Kyn) and tryptophan (Trp) in 220 cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with bacterial and viral (herpes simplex, varicella zoster, enteroviruses) meningitis/encephalitis, neuroborreliosis, autoimmune neuroinflammation (anti-NMDA-R encephalitis, multiple sclerosis), and noninflamed controls (Bell's palsy, normal pressure hydrocephalus, Tourette syndrome). Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/inf
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz048DOI Listing
February 2019
7 Reads

Mouse model of anti-NMDA receptor post-herpes simplex encephalitis.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2019 Mar 26;6(2):e529. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Center for Systems Biology (CSB), Department of Neurology (J.L., R.N.), Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH); CSB, Department of Radiology (B.P., S.S., M.Z.), MGH, Boston; Neuroimmunology Program (T.A.), Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clínic, Universitat de Barcelona; Pediatric Neuroimmunology Unit (T.A.), Neurology Department, Sant Joan de Déu Children's Hospital, University of Barcelona; Neuroimmunology Program (J.P., J.D.), IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurology (J.D.), University of Pennsylvania, PA; Catalan Institute for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA) (J.D.), Barcelona, Spain; and Institute for Innovation in Imaging (J.C.), Department of Radiology, MGH, Boston.

Objective: To develop an endogenous rodent model of postinfectious anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis.

Methods: Six mice were inoculated intranasally with herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and subsequently treated with acyclovir for 2 weeks. Serum was collected at 3, 6, and 8 weeks postinoculation and tested for NMDAR antibodies through a cell-based assay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/NXI.0000000000000529DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6340334PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Cerebrovascular manifestations of herpes simplex virus infection of the central nervous system: a systematic review.

J Neuroinflammation 2019 Jan 29;16(1):19. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler Medical Center, Paracelsus Medical University, Ignaz-Harrer-Str. 79, 5020, Salzburg, Austria.

Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke are increasingly recognized complications of central nervous system (CNS) infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV).

Aim Of The Study: To analyze clinical, imaging, and laboratory findings and outcomes of cerebrovascular manifestations of HSV infection.

Methods: Systematic literature review from January 2000 to July 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-019-1409-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6352343PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis in Association with Herpes Simplex Virus and Viral and Bacterial Zoonoses.

Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2019 Jan-Mar;22(1):102-103

Department of Neurology, Kuala Lumpur Hospital, Jalan Pahang, 50586 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Multiple co-infections can predispose a patient to autoimmune encephalitis. Out of thirty cases of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis seen at a single tertiary referral center, only two cases of co-infection with NMDAR encephalitis were identified. One of these cases was highly interesting due to the presence of more than one co-infections along with the presence of cortical dysfunction, seizures, and orofacial dyskinesias at the onset in a male in the absence of tumors, which was refractory to initial treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/aian.AIAN_232_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6327714PMC
January 2019

-Dependent Immune and Central Nervous System Mechanisms Control Viral Replication and Inflammation during Mouse Herpes Simplex Encephalitis.

J Immunol 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Human Genetics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0C7, Canada;

Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), caused by HSV type 1 (HSV-1) infection, is an acute neuroinflammatory condition of the CNS and remains the most common type of sporadic viral encephalitis worldwide. Studies in humans have shown that susceptibility to HSE depends in part on the genetic make-up of the host, with deleterious mutations in the TLR3/type I IFN axis underlying some cases of childhood HSE. Using an in vivo chemical mutagenesis screen for HSV-1 susceptibility in mice, we identified a susceptible pedigree carrying a causal truncating mutation in the gene ( ), encoding for the NF-κB transcription factor subunit c-Rel. Read More

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http://www.jimmunol.org/lookup/doi/10.4049/jimmunol.1800063
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1800063DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Autoimmune encephalitis: A costly condition.

Neurology 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

From the Johns Hopkins Encephalitis Center (J.C., S.G., E.G.-L., R.G.G., J.C.P., A.V.), Department of Neurology, and Departments of Neurosurgery and Anaesthesia/Critical Care (R.G.G.), Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; Neurology Department (J.S.), IIB Sant Pau, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurology and Pediatrics (A.K.Y.), Icahn School of Medicine at Mt. Sinai, New York, NY; Department of Neurology and Developmental Medicine (E.G.-L.), Kennedy Krieger Institute; and Johns Hopkins Carey Business School (K.D.F.), Baltimore MD.

Objective: To assess the inpatient hospitalization burden and costs of patients with autoimmune encephalitis (AE) at a tertiary care institution.

Methods: Adult inpatients with AE were identified retrospectively from July 1, 2005, to June 30, 2015. Demographic and clinical data were collected and analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000006990DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

A case of fulminant Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis in an immune-competent adult.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Neurology, Haaglanden Medical Center, The Hague, The Netherlands.

A 21-year-old female presented with headache, nausea and vomiting, dysarthria, difficulty finding words, vertigo, episodical diplopia and an abnormal gait since 2 days. Additionally, we found marked ataxia and disturbed liver chemistry whilst her infection parameters were low. Her head CT scan was unremarkable, but her MRI scan showed leptomeningeal enhancement along the cerebellar folia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0718-1DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

IRF and STAT Transcription Factors - From Basic Biology to Roles in Infection, Protective Immunity, and Primary Immunodeficiencies.

Authors:
Trine H Mogensen

Front Immunol 2018 8;9:3047. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of Infectious diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

The induction and action of type I interferon (IFN) is of fundamental importance in human immune defenses toward microbial pathogens, particularly viruses. Basic discoveries within the molecular and cellular signaling pathways regulating type I IFN induction and downstream actions have shown the essential role of the IFN regulatory factor (IRF) and the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) families, respectively. However, the exact biological and immunological functions of these factors have been most clearly revealed through the study of inborn errors of immunity and the resultant infectious phenotypes in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.03047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6331453PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Recurrent Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis After Epilepsy Surgery.

Can J Neurol Sci 2019 Jan 22:1-3. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Clinical Neurosciences,University of Calgary,Calgary,Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/cjn.2018.385DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Acyclovir Unresponsive Herpes Simplex Encephalitis in a child successfully treated with the addition of Foscarnet: Case report.

Arch Argent Pediatr 2019 02;117(1):e47-e51

Departamento de Radiología Pediátrica, Hospital de Formación e Investigación Materno Infantil Dr. Sami Ulus, Angora, Turquía.

Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most common cause of sporadic focal encephalitis worldwide. Acyclovir is the treatment of choice of HSE since the 1980s. After the widespread use of acyclovir, HSE related mortality rate had reduced but resistant strains emerged. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5546/aap.2019.eng.e47DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

The STING agonist 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA) stimulates an antiviral state and protects mice against herpes simplex virus-induced neurological disease.

Virology 2019 Jan 6;529:23-28. Epub 2019 Jan 6.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA. Electronic address:

Herpes simplex virus (HSV)- 1 is the most common cause of sporadic viral encephalitis and accounts for 5-10% of cases worldwide. A key factor in host control of viral infection is the initiation of the interferon (IFN) response, mediated in part by the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway. In these studies, we examined the ability of 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA), a STING agonist, to protect against HSV-1 infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2019.01.006DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Dengue virus is an under-recognised causative agent of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES): Results from a four year AES surveillance study of Japanese encephalitis in selected states of India.

Int J Infect Dis 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

CDC India, New Delhi, India.

Background: Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) surveillance in India has indicated that Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) accounts for 5-35% of AES cases annually; the etiology remains unknown in the remaining cases. We implemented comprehensive AES surveillance to identify other etiological agents of AES, with emphasis on dengue virus.

Methods: Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were collected from patients enrolled prospectively in AES surveillance from 2014-2017 at selected sites of three high burden states of India. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2019.01.008DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads
2.330 Impact Factor

An Adult Case of Herpes Simplex Virus-Associated Granulomatous Encephalitis.

Intern Med 2019 Jan 10. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Japan.

Brain granuloma occurs under certain conditions. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) causes granulomatous encephalitis in children; however, it has been rarely reported in adults. A 74-year-old man with a history of herpes simplex encephalitis suffered recurrent seizures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.2046-18DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Japanese Encephalitis Virus-Induced Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

Neuropediatrics 2019 Jan 8. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Zunyi Medical University, First Affiliated Hospital, Zunyi, Guizhou Province, China.

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis (anti-NMDARe) was originally described as a paraneoplastic disease with more than 50% cases involving a tumor. However, tumor incidence in anti-NMDARe in children is much lower. Herpes simplex virus-induced anti-NMDARe has been well-described; however, findings on Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)-induced anti-NMDARe are scarce. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1675607DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Suspected Herpes Simplex Encephalitis with Low Copy Number DNA.

Indian J Pediatr 2019 Jan 4. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Medical University, 6-7-1 Nishishinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-0023, Japan.

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12098-018-2837-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-018-2837-3DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Lund Human Mesencephalic (LUHMES) Neuronal Cell Line Supports HSV-1 Latency .

J Virol 2019 Jan 2. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA

Lund human mesencephalic (LUHMES) cells are human embryonic neuronal precursor cells that can be maintained as proliferating cells due to the expression of a tetracycline-regulatable (Tet-Off) v-myc transgene. They can be differentiated to post-mitotic neurons by the addition of tetracycline, GDNF and dibutyryl cAMP. We demonstrate that these cells can be infected with HSV-1 at a MOI of 3 with the majority of cells surviving. Read More

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http://jvi.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JVI.02210-18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02210-18DOI Listing
January 2019
16 Reads
4.439 Impact Factor

Validation of Multiplex Serology detecting human herpesviruses 1-5.

PLoS One 2018 27;13(12):e0209379. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Infections and Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany.

Human herpesviruses (HHV) cause a variety of clinically relevant conditions upon primary infection of typically young and immunocompetent hosts. Both primary infection and reactivation after latency can lead to more severe disease, such as encephalitis, congenital defects and cancer. Infections with HHV are also associated with cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disease. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0209379PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6307738PMC
December 2018
3 Reads

Presentation, etiology, and outcome of brain infections in an Indonesian hospital: A cohort study.

Neurol Clin Pract 2018 Oct;8(5):379-388

Departments of Neurology (DI, RE, KM, Sucipto, DO, DNL), Microbiology (DCL, A. Karuniawati), Radiology (REY, RM), Internal Medicine (EY, THK), Clinical Pathology (IST, DW), and Parasitology (RW, RA, A. Kurniawan), Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital-Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia; Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology (UAJ, DS, KSAM); Eijkman-Oxford Clinical Research Unit (UAJ), Jakarta, Indonesia; Department of Internal Medicine and Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases (AvL, RvC), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; TB/HIV Research Center (BA, SD, LC, ARG), Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia; and Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health (RvC), Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, UK.

Background: Little detailed knowledge is available regarding the etiology and outcome of CNS infection, particularly in HIV-infected individuals, in low-resource settings.

Methods: From January 2015 to April 2016, we prospectively included all adults with suspected CNS infection in a referral hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia. Systematic screening included HIV testing, CSF examination, and neuroimaging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/CPJ.0000000000000517DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6276332PMC
October 2018
4 Reads

Antiviral and Antioxidant Properties of Echinochrome A.

Mar Drugs 2018 Dec 15;16(12). Epub 2018 Dec 15.

G.P. Somov Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, FEB RAS, Vladivostok 690087, Russia.

The aim of this study was to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antiviral activities of echinochrome A and echinochrome-based antioxidant composition against tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The antioxidant composition, which is a mixture of echinochrome A, ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol (5:5:1), showed higher antioxidant and antiviral effects than echinochrome A. We suppose that echinochrome A and its composition can both directly affect virus particles and indirectly enhance antioxidant defense mechanisms in the hosting cell. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/1660-3397/16/12/509
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md16120509DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6315383PMC
December 2018
8 Reads

Building a network for multicenter, prospective research of central nervous system infections in South America: Process and lessons learned.

eNeurologicalSci 2018 Dec 4;13:63-69. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Hospital Emergencias Pediatricas, Lima, Peru.

Multicenter collaborative networks are essential for advancing research and improving clinical care for a variety of conditions. Research networks are particularly important for central nervous system infections, which remain difficult to study due to their sporadic occurrence and requirement for collection and testing of cerebrospinal fluid. Establishment of long-term research networks in resource-limited areas also facilitates diagnostic capacity building, surveillance for emerging pathogens, and provision of appropriate treatment where needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ensci.2018.07.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6284170PMC
December 2018

Loss of Transfected Human Brain Micro-Vascular Endothelial Cell Integrity during Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

Intervirology 2018 Dec 12:1-11. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, MAHSA University, Saujana Putra Campus, Jenjarum,

Objective: Herpes simplex virus infection through the neuronal route is the most well-studied mode of viral encephalitis that can persists in a human host for a lifetime. However, the involvement of other possible infection mechanisms by the virus remains underexplored. Therefore, this study aims to determine the temporal effects and mechanisms by which the virus breaches the human brain micro-vascular endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000495180DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Epidemiology of Meningitis and Encephalitis in Infants and Children in the United States, 2011-2014.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2019 Jan;38(1):37-41

bioMérieux, Durham, NC.

Background: Large epidemiologic studies evaluating the etiologies, management decisions and outcomes of infants and children with meningitis and encephalitis in the United States are lacking.

Methods: Children 0-17 years of age with meningitis or encephalitis as assessed by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes available in the Premier Healthcare Database during 2011-2014 were analyzed.

Results: Six thousand six hundred sixty-five patients with meningitis or encephalitis were identified; 3030 (45. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002081DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads

[Dramatic improvement after decompressive craniectomy in a fulminant stroke-like case of herpes simplex encephalitis].

Presse Med 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Hôpital d'instruction des armées Sainte-Anne, service de neurochirurgie, BP600, 83800 Toulon Cedex 09, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lpm.2018.11.005DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Challenges in HSV encephalitis: normocellular CSF, unremarkable CCT, and atypical MRI findings.

Infection 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Neurology, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU) Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis continues to be the most common form of sporadic lethal encephalitis worldwide. The wide spectrum of clinical presentations and laboratory findings often poses a diagnostic challenge for physicians which might delay administration of life-saving therapy with acyclovir. Atypical presentations of HSV encephalitis have become increasingly prevalent with better diagnostic techniques and have not been well studied. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s15010-018-1257-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s15010-018-1257-7DOI Listing
December 2018
9 Reads

Herpes simplex encephalitis and pseudotumour cerebri due to ısotretinoin.

J Pak Med Assoc 2018 Dec;68(12):1833-11835

Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, Firat University, Elazig Turkey.

Isotretinoin can have significant adverse reactions on multiple systems. We report a unique case of pseudotumour cerebri and herpes encephalitis resulting due to isotretinoin. A 19-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic, presenting with headache, nausea, vomiting and fever since three days. Read More

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December 2018
12 Reads

[A 64-year-old male with recurrence of herpes simplex encephalitis after suffering from severe pneumonia and sepsis].

Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2018 Dec 29;58(12):771-774. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Neurology, NTT Medical Center Tokyo.

The case is a 64-year-old male who had a past history of herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) two years prior to his admission. He was admitted to our hospital due to severe pneumonia and sepsis. Several days later, he developed HSE again. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5692/clinicalneurol.cn-001226DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Missing Cases of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Infection of the Central Nervous System When the Reller Criteria Are Applied for HSV PCR Testing: a Multicenter Study.

J Clin Microbiol 2019 Feb 30;57(2). Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Microbiology Service, Hospital Clínico Universitario, Instituto de Investigación INCLIVA, Valencia, Spain

Previous studies suggested that herpes simplex virus (HSV) PCR testing can be safely deferred in patients with normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white blood cell (WBC) counts and protein levels as long as they are older than 2 years of age and are not immunocompromised, the so-called Reller criteria. In this multicenter study, we retrospectively assessed the validity of these screening criteria in our setting. A total of 4,404 CSF specimens submitted for HSV PCR testing to the respective microbiology laboratories at the participating hospitals between 2012 and 2018 were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01719-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6355537PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

Limbic encephalitis: Experience of a moroccan center.

Brain Behav 2019 Jan 25;9(1):e01177. Epub 2018 Nov 25.

Department of Neurology, Hassan II University Teaching Hospital, Fez, Morocco.

Objectives: Histologically defined as an inflammation-degeneration of limbic structures, limbic encephalitis (LE) is a rare disease and often difficult to diagnose particularly in institutions with limited access to laboratory tests such as antineuronal antibodies or HSV-PCR, and functional imaging. We aimed to describe the demographic, clinical, paraclinical, and etiological features of LE, as well as its medium-term prognosis in Moroccan patients.

Materials And Methods: We collected retrospectively all patients diagnosed with LE in the Department of Neurology of the University Hospital Hassan II of Fez (Morocco) between September 2008 and December 2016. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/brb3.1177
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1177DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6346419PMC
January 2019
8 Reads

Evaluation of cholinergic functions in patients with Japanese encephalitis and Herpes simplex encephalitis.

Brain Res 2019 Mar 20;1707:227-232. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India.

Cognitive and memory impairment are related to cholinergic dysfunction and are important complications of viral encephalitis, In view of paucity of studies on cholinergic dysfunction in encephalitis, this study has been undertaken. We report acetyl choline esterase (AChE) and muscurinic 2 (M2) receptor levels in herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) and Japanese encephalitis (JE) patients, and correlate these with cognitive functions and MRI findings. Patients with JE and HSE were evaluated for consciousness, neurological and MRI findings, plasma AChE and M2 receptor levels on admission and after one year. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2018.11.028DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Mechanisms of Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption in Herpes Simplex Encephalitis.

J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Neurology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410011, People's Republic of China.

Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is often caused by infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), a neurotropic double-stranded DNA virus. HSE infection always impacts the temporal and frontal lobes or limbic system, leading to edema, hemorrhage, and necrotic changes in the brain parenchyma. Additionally, patients often exhibit severe complications following antiviral treatment, including dementia and epilepsy. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11481-018-9821-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11481-018-9821-6DOI Listing
November 2018
13 Reads

Ukrainian priorities for herpesvirus infections that affect the central nervous system.

Wiad Lek 2018 ;71(7):1289-1294

Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine.

Objective: Introduction: Herpesviruses (HVs) are ubiquitous pathogens that infect humans usually during childhood, followed by a life-long persistence in a latent state in many sites of a body including the nerve cells. After reactivation HVs can affect the Central Nervous System (CNS) becoming a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide as well as long-term neurological sequelae. Despite being an important public health problem very few population-based studies were conducted so far in the world and none in Ukraine. Read More

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January 2018
14 Reads

Detection of central nervous system viral infections in adults in Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

PLoS One 2018 16;13(11):e0207440. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Central nervous system (CNS) viral infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide but the systematic survey of patients admitted to hospitals with CNS infections in many countries, including Indonesia, is limited. To obtain more information regarding the causes of CNS infections in Indonesia, this study was performed to detect and identify viral agents associated with CNS infections amongst in-patients at a referral hospital in Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Adult patients admitted to R. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0207440PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6239303PMC
November 2018
10 Reads

Clinical management of herpes simplex virus infections: past, present, and future.

F1000Res 2018 31;7. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, 70803, USA.

Infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 is ubiquitous in the human population. Most commonly, virus replication is limited to the epithelia and establishes latency in enervating sensory neurons, reactivating periodically to produce localized recurrent lesions. However, these viruses can also cause severe disease such as recurrent keratitis leading potentially to blindness, as well as encephalitis, and systemic disease in neonates and immunocompromised patients. Read More

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https://f1000research.com/articles/7-1726/v1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.16157.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213787PMC
October 2018
8 Reads

R430: A potent inhibitor of DNA and RNA viruses.

Sci Rep 2018 Nov 9;8(1):16662. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Psychiatry, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3811 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA.

Acyclovir (ACV) is an effective antiviral agent for treating lytic Herpes Simplex virus, type 1 (HSV-1) infections, and it has dramatically reduced the mortality rate of herpes simplex encephalitis. However, HSV-1 resistance to ACV and its derivatives is being increasingly documented, particularly among immunocompromised individuals. The burgeoning drug resistance compels the search for a new generation of more efficacious anti-herpetic drugs. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-33904-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-33904-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6226428PMC
November 2018
12 Reads
5.078 Impact Factor

Corroboration of a Major Role for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Alzheimer's Disease.

Authors:
Ruth F Itzhaki

Front Aging Neurosci 2018 19;10:324. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Strong evidence has emerged recently for the concept that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) is a major risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). This concept proposes that latent HSV1 in brain of carriers of the type 4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE-ε4) is reactivated intermittently by events such as immunosuppression, peripheral infection, and inflammation, the consequent damage accumulating, and culminating eventually in the development of AD. Population data to investigate this epidemiologically, e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2018.00324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6202583PMC
October 2018
6 Reads

Clinical Correlations of Positive Herpes Simplex PCR in Cerebrospinal Fluid.

Neurologist 2018 Nov;23(6):204-208

Infectology, Raúl Carrea Institute for Neurological Research (FLENI).

Objectives: Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) can produce encephalitis (HSE), which requires early detection, typically using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, other neurological conditions not directly caused by HSV may also present with a positive HSV PCR in the CSF (NCNHPCR+). We aimed to analyze the clinical features of both groups of patients (HSE vs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NRL.0000000000000215DOI Listing
November 2018
5 Reads

Manifestations of Herpes Virus Infections in the Nervous System.

Neurol Clin 2018 Nov;36(4):725-738

Department of Neurology, Felsenstein Medical Research Institut, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Hospital, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100, Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel.

The 3 neurotropic human herpes viruses, herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and 2, and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) are capable of establishment of latent viral infection in trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia. HSV-1, and more rarely HSV-2, carries the potential to cause meningoencephalitis, with devastating clinical consequences. Immediate diagnosis, based on clinical presentation, MRI imaging, and molecular diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction, and initiation of therapy are mandatory to reduce mortality and neurologic permanent sequelae. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S07338619183123
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.06.005DOI Listing
November 2018
18 Reads

Viral Encephalitis.

Neurol Clin 2018 Nov 20;36(4):705-724. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Division of Neuroimmunology and Neuroinfectious Diseases, Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins Encephalitis Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

Viruses are a frequent cause of encephalitis. Common or important viruses causing encephalitis include herpesviruses, arboviruses, enteroviruses, parechoviruses, mumps, measles, rabies, Ebola, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, and henipaviruses. Other viruses may cause an encephalopathy. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S07338619183124
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.07.001DOI Listing
November 2018
15 Reads

Decompressive craniectomy for herpes simplex encephalitis complicated by frank intracerebral hemorrhage: a case report and review of the literature.

BMC Neurol 2018 Oct 23;18(1):176. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080, Republic of Korea.

Background: Herpes simplex encephalitis is the most common type of sporadic encephalitis worldwide. Frank intracerebral hemorrhage complicating the disease course in herpes simplex encephalitis patients is rare, especially cases where surgical decompression is necessary. Here, we report a previously healthy female with herpes simplex encephalitis who underwent surgical decompression due to temporal lobe hemorrhage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-018-1181-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6198426PMC
October 2018
2 Reads

Postseizure aphasia in Wernicke's encephalopathy: a case report and review of literature.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2018 8;14:2593-2598. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Department of Psychiatry, Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL 60153, USA,

This case discusses the course of a woman with a history of epilepsy, alcohol use disorder, herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis, and Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) who presented with altered mental status following approximately 48 hours of vomiting. After experiencing a tonic-clonic seizure in the emergency department, she developed a fluent aphasia. Aphasias are ordinarily attributed to structural changes in the brain parenchyma, often from stroke, neoplasm, or infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S174481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6183589PMC
October 2018
17 Reads

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: A rare autoimmune complication of herpes simplex encephalitis in the adult.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2018 Dec 9;175:47-49. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Departmenf of Neurology, Hospital de Galdakao-Usansolo, 48960 Galdacano, Vizcaya, Spain. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2018.10.007DOI Listing
December 2018
6 Reads

Pathological processes activated by herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection in the cornea.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2019 Feb 16;76(3):405-419. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1855 W. Taylor St, Chicago, IL, 60612, USA.

Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous pathogen that infects a large majority of the human population worldwide. It is also a leading cause of infection-related blindness in the developed world. HSV-1 infection of the cornea begins with viral entry into resident cells via a multistep process that involves interaction of viral glycoproteins and host cell surface receptors. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00018-018-2938-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00018-018-2938-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6349487PMC
February 2019
25 Reads
5.810 Impact Factor

Community-acquired acute meningitis and encephalitis: a narrative review.

Authors:
Miles H Beaman

Med J Aust 2018 Nov 15;209(10):449-454. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Western Diagnostic Pathology, Perth, WA

Meningitis and encephalitis are medical emergencies. Patients need prompt evaluation and immediate empiric therapy to reduce the likelihood of fatal outcomes and chronic neurological sequelae. Conjugate bacterial vaccines have significantly reduced the incidence of bacterial meningitis, especially in children. Read More

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November 2018
20 Reads