4,463 results match your criteria Encephalitis Herpes Simplex


Impact of a Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay on the Clinical Management of Adults Undergoing a Lumbar Puncture for Suspected Community-Onset Central Nervous System Infections.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2020 May 26;9(6). Epub 2020 May 26.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Allegheny General Hospital, Allegheny Health Network, 320 East North Avenue 4th Floor East Wing, Suite 406, Pittsburgh, PA 15212, USA.

Patients admitted from the community with a suspected central nervous system (CNS) infection require prompt diagnostic evaluation and correct antimicrobial treatment. A retrospective, multicenter, pre/post intervention study was performed to evaluate the impact that the BioFire FilmArray meningitis/encephalitis (ME) panel run in-house had on the clinical management of adult patients admitted from the community with a lumbar puncture (LP) performed for a suspected CNS infection. The primary outcome was the effect that this intervention had on herpes simplex virus (HSV) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) turnaround time (TAT). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9060282DOI Listing

Herpes Simplex Virus: The Hostile Guest That Takes Over Your Home.

Front Microbiol 2020 7;11:733. Epub 2020 May 7.

Division of Virology, Indian Council of Medical Research-National AIDS Research Institute, Pune, India.

Alpha (α)-herpesviruses (HSV-1 and HSV-2), like other viruses, are obligate intracellular parasites. They hijack the cellular machinery to survive and replicate through evading the defensive responses by the host. The viral genome of herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) contains viral genes, the products of which are destined to exploit the host apparatus for their own existence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7221137PMC

The Innate Immune Response to Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection Is Dampened in the Newborn Brain and Can Be Modulated by Exogenous Interferon Beta To Improve Survival.

mBio 2020 May 26;11(3). Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA

Newborns are particularly susceptible to severe forms of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection, including encephalitis and multisystemic disseminated disease. The underlying age-dependent differences in the immune response that explain this increased susceptibility relative to the adult population remain largely understudied. Using a murine model of HSV-1 infection, we found that newborn mice are largely susceptible to intracranial and intraperitoneal challenge while adult mice are highly resistant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00921-20DOI Listing

A prospective cohort study to identify clinical, biological and imaging features that predict etiology of acute encephalitis.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Maladies infectieuses, CHUGA, Grenoble, France.

Background: New diagnostic tools have been developed to improve the diagnosis of infectious encephalitis. Using a prospective cohort of encephalitis patients, our objective was to identify possible clusters of patients with similar patterns among encephalitis of unknown cause, and to describe to what extent the patient's initial presentation may be predictive of encephalitis etiology, particularly Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Varicella-zona virus (VZV).

Methods: The national cohort of infectious encephalitis in France (ENCEIF) is an ongoing prospective cohort study implemented in France in 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa598DOI Listing

Economic Evaluation: Onsite HSV PCR Capabilities for Pediatric Care.

Pediatr Qual Saf 2020 Mar-Apr;5(2):e266. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, Tex.

Objective: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis has an overall mortality rate of 11%-29% with treatment. Although rare, HSV encephalitis is frequently tested for and empirically treated, especially in the neonatal population. HSV infection can be diagnosed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, although this frequently requires sending samples to reference laboratories. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/pq9.0000000000000266DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7190250PMC

Diagnosing herpes simplex-1 encephalitis at the time of COVID-19 pandemic.

Neurol Sci 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Neurology Unit, Luigi Sacco University Hospital, Via Giovanni Battista Grassi 74, 20157, Milan, Italy.

Case Report: We describe the case of a 73-year-old woman who was diagnosed with herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis during the COVID-19 pandemic. The diagnosis was somehow delayed because relatives were initially cautious in bringing the patient to the hospital and, here, the work-up focus was on coronavirusrelated aspects as the patient was initially reputed to be infected with COVID-19.

Conclusions: During the current viral outbreak, physicians should not neglect the possibility of other diseases that represent neurological emergencies and require immediate recognition and treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-020-04461-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7220643PMC

Herpes Simplex Virus-1 in the Brain: The Dark Side of a Sneaky Infection.

Trends Microbiol 2020 May 5. Epub 2020 May 5.

Institute of Translational Pharmacology, National Research Council, Rome, Italy.

Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) establishes latency preferentially in sensory neurons of peripheral ganglia. A variety of stresses can induce recurrent reactivations of the virus, which spreads and then actively replicates to the site of primary infection (usually the lips or eyes). Viral particles produced following reactivation can also reach the brain, causing a rare but severe form of diffuse acute infection, namely herpes simplex encephalitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2020.03.003DOI Listing

HSV1 VP1-2 deubiquitinates STING to block type I interferon expression and promote brain infection.

J Exp Med 2020 Jul;217(7)

Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the main cause of viral encephalitis in the Western world, and the type I interferon (IFN) system is important for antiviral control in the brain. Here, we have compared Ifnb induction in mixed murine brain cell cultures by a panel of HSV1 mutants, each devoid of one mechanism to counteract the IFN-stimulating cGAS-STING pathway. We found that a mutant lacking the deubiquitinase (DUB) activity of the VP1-2 protein induced particularly strong expression of Ifnb and IFN-stimulated genes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20191422DOI Listing

BX795 Demonstrates Potent Antiviral Benefits against Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Infection of Human Cell Lines.

Antiviral Res 2020 May 4:104814. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Illinois Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA; Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60607, USA. Electronic address:

Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection is known to cause skin blisters, keratitis as well as deadly cases of encephalitis in some situations. Only a few therapeutic modalities are available for this globally prevalent infection. Very recently, a small molecule BX795 was identified as an inhibitor of HSV-1 protein synthesis in an ocular model of infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104814DOI Listing
May 2020
3.938 Impact Factor

Prognostic factors among children with acute encephalitis/encephalopathy associated with viral and other pathogens.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 May 7. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Health Economics, School of Public Health, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Acute encephalitis/encephalopathy (AE) associated with viral and other pathogens leads to neurological sequelae and mortality. Knowing the prognostic factors is therefore important for immediate interventions. We examined early-phase unfavorable prognostic factors among children with AE using a nationwide database. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa536DOI Listing

Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis Following Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis: 2 Cases From Portugal.

Neurohospitalist 2020 Apr 26;10(2):133-138. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Medicine, University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal.

Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) usually presents as a monophasic disease. Symptomatic HSVE relapsing with seizures, encephalopathy, or involuntary movements associated with anti--methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis have been recently reported. We report 2 cases of adult post-HSVE anti-NMDAR encephalitis from Portugal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1941874419870987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7191661PMC

Infectious and Autoimmune Causes of Encephalitis in Children.

Pediatrics 2020 May 1. Epub 2020 May 1.

Section of Pediatric Tropical Medicine, National School of Tropical Medicine,

Background And Objectives: Encephalitis can result in neurologic morbidity and mortality in children. Newly recognized infectious and noninfectious causes of encephalitis have become increasingly important over the past decade.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records from pediatric patients in Houston diagnosed with encephalitis in both an urban and rural catchment area between 2010 and 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-2543DOI Listing

[Parainfectious CNS small vessel vasculitis and autoimmune encephalitis after herpes simplex type 1 encephalitis].

Nervenarzt 2020 Apr 28. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Abteilung für Neurologie und neurologische Frührehabilitation, Asklepios Klinik Nord, Tangstedter Landstraße 400, 22417, Hamburg, Deutschland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00115-020-00913-0DOI Listing

[Etiology and molecular-epidemiological characteristics of viral meningo-encephalitis in Zhejiang province, 2002-2018].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2020 Apr;41(4):562-566

Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310051, China.

To understand the pathogens and molecular-epidemiologic characteristics of viral meningo-encephalitis in Zhejiang province during 2002 to 2018. All the samples were collected from suspected patients admitted to the hospitals under the monitoring program. Of the total samples, 2 173 were cerebrospinal fluids while the other 455 were stool specimens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20190625-00463DOI Listing

Differential diagnosis of temporal lobe lesions with hyperintense signal on T2-weighted and FLAIR sequences: pictorial essay.

Radiol Bras 2020 Mar-Apr;53(2):129-136

Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio de Moraes da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (HUCAM/UFES), Vitória, ES, Brazil.

Various neuropathologies produce hyperintense signals on T2-weighted or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences of the temporal lobes. Recognition of the distribution pattern and associated findings may narrow the spectrum of differential diagnoses or suggest a specific disease. This pictorial essay aims to illustrate the relatively common diseases that affect the temporal lobe, such as herpes simplex encephalitis, neurosyphilis, limbic encephalitis, postictal edema, neoplasia, and multiple sclerosis, as well as those that are less common, such as myotonic dystrophy type 1, CADASIL, and CARASIL, together with the particularities of each entity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0100-3984.2018.0117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7170575PMC

Protective and causative killer Ig-like receptor (KIR) and metalloproteinase genetic patterns associated with Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis occurrence.

J Neuroimmunol 2020 Jul 14;344:577241. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Department of Promoting Health, Maternal-Infant. Excellence and Internal and Specialized Medicine (ProMISE) G. D'Alessandro, University of Palermo, Italy.

Background: The cerebral innate immune system has a critical role in control processes of viral replication in the brain after primary infactivo and immunologic disregulation and inflammation has been reported as a primary determinant of pathogenesis and prognosis of subsequent HSV-1 related encephalitis (HSE). Interaction linking LTR3-activated DCs is also represented by the killer Ig-like receptor (KIR) + pathways on NK cells. Only a few studies analyzed the role of of MMP-9 activity regulating genetic polymorphism on clinical outcome of viral infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2020.577241DOI Listing

Predictors of infectious meningitis or encephalitis: the yield of cerebrospinal fluid in a cross-sectional study.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Apr 23;20(1):304. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Clinic for Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analyses are recommended in patients with meningitis and/or encephalitis, but evidence regarding its diagnostic yield is low. We aimed to determine predictors of infectious pathogens in the CSF of adult patients presenting with meningitis, and/or encephalitis.

Methods: Consecutive patients with meningitis and/or encephalitis form 2011-17 at a Swiss academic medical care center were included in this cross-sectional study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05022-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7181581PMC
April 2020
2.613 Impact Factor

MG132 exerts anti-viral activity against HSV-1 by overcoming virus-mediated suppression of the ERK signaling pathway.

Sci Rep 2020 Apr 21;10(1):6671. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Cell Biology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Misasagi-Shichonocho 1, Yamashinaku, Kyoto, 607-8412, Japan.

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) causes a number of clinical manifestations including cold sores, keratitis, meningitis and encephalitis. Although current drugs are available to treat HSV-1 infection, they can cause side effects such as nephrotoxicity. Moreover, owing to the emergence of drug-resistant HSV-1 strains, new anti-HSV-1 compounds are needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63438-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174428PMC

Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus: The Long Road to Improved Outcomes.

Neonatal Netw 2020 Mar;39(2):92-98

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) acquired during delivery places the neonate at risk for mortality or long-term neurodevelopmental disability. Exposure generally occurs from recurrent genital herpes infection, although primary infections result in the highest risk of neonatal disease. Neonates generally present in the second or third week of life with lesions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/0730-0832.39.2.92DOI Listing

Compliance with international guidelines in adults with encephalitis.

J Clin Virol 2020 Jun 14;127:104369. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, UT Health McGovern Medical School, Houston, TX, United States.

Background: Encephalitis is associated with significant neurological disability and mortality. Many guidelines are published for encephalitis management but compliance with them is unknown.

Objectives: To evaluate the appropriate management and compliance to the current guidelines in adults with encephalitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7194944PMC

[Improved instrumental activities of daily living in acquired savant syndrome patient after developing interest in drawing].

Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2020 May 18;60(5):321-327. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Department of Neurology, Hyogo Prefectural Rehabilitation Central Hospital.

We performed examinations of a 73-year-old, right-handed man who developed herpes simplex encephalitis, with cognitive dysfunction including severe Wernicke's aphasia. Although he had never previously been interested in arts, use of a coloring book, recommended by his wife, led him to start drawing. A few years after the onset of brain disease, the patient began to copy pictures of landscapes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5692/clinicalneurol.cn-001336DOI Listing

Foreign accent syndrome following herpes simplex encephalitis: a case report.

Neurol Sci 2020 Apr 16. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Taiping Street, Jiangyang District, Luzhou, Sichuan, 646000, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-020-04403-8DOI Listing

How virus size and attachment parameters affect the temperature sensitivity of virus binding to host cells: Predictions of a thermodynamic model for arboviruses and HIV.

Authors:
Paul Gale

Microb Risk Anal 2020 Mar 12:100104. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Independent Scientist, 15 Weare Close, Portland, Dorset, DT5 1JP, United Kingdom.

Virus binding to host cells involves specific interactions between viral (glyco)proteins (GP) and host cell surface receptors (Cr) (protein or sialic acid (SA)). The magnitude of the enthalpy of association changes with temperature according to the change in heat capacity (ΔC) on GP/Cr binding, being little affected for avian influenza virus (AIV) haemagglutinin (HA) binding to SA (ΔC = 0 kJ/mol/K) but greatly affected for HIV gp120 binding to CD4 receptor (ΔC = -5.0 kJ/mol/K). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mran.2020.100104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7110232PMC

[The Turning Point of Diagnostic Process for Infectious Disease of Nervous System].

Authors:
Kazuo Yoshizawa

Brain Nerve 2020 Apr;72(4):387-397

Department of Neurology, National Hospital Organization Mito Medical Center.

Infectious diseases of the nervous system are a group of diseases; timely diagnosis and treatment for these diseases determines the effect of prognosis on life and functions. Diagnosis itself is not very difficult in cases presenting with typical symptoms. However, if mild and atypical symptoms have been present for long, the underlying disease may not be easily recognized as a neurological disease or infectious disorder, and the diagnosis may be delayed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201537DOI Listing

Herpes simplex encephalitis: A new type of "ICU-acquired infection"?

Heliyon 2020 Mar 29;6(3):e03667. Epub 2020 Mar 29.

Neuro-Intensive Care Unit, Fondation Rothschild, 29 rue Manin, 75019 Paris, France.

Purpose: Although it is a well-known disease, the occurrence of encephalitis (HSE) during a hospital stay may render the diagnosis particularly challenging. The objective of this report is to alert clinicians about the diagnostic pitfalls arising from hospital-developed HSE.

Materials And Methods: Clinical observation of one patient. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03667DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7113434PMC

The PET Sandwich: Using Serial FDG-PET Scans with Interval Burst Suppression to Assess Ictal Components of Disease.

Neurocrit Care 2020 Apr 6. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Background: Determining the cause of refractory seizures and/or interictal continuum (IIC) findings in the critically ill patient remains a challenge. These electrographic abnormalities may represent primary ictal pathology or may instead be driven by an underlying infectious, inflammatory, or neoplastic pathology that requires targeted therapy. In these cases, it is unclear whether escalating antiepileptic therapy will be helpful or harmful. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12028-020-00956-wDOI Listing

An improved animal model for herpesvirus encephalitis in humans.

PLoS Pathog 2020 Mar 30;16(3):e1008445. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Institute of Molecular Virology and Cell Biology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

Herpesviral encephalitis caused by Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) is one of the most devastating diseases in humans. Patients present with fever, mental status changes or seizures and when untreated, sequelae can be fatal. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE) is characterized by mainly unilateral necrotizing inflammation effacing the frontal and mesiotemporal lobes with rare involvement of the brainstem. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008445DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7145201PMC

Herpes simplex virus 1 regulates β-catenin expression in TG neurons during the latency-reactivation cycle.

PLoS One 2020 30;15(3):e0230870. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, United States of America.

When herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection is initiated in the ocular, nasal, or oral cavity, sensory neurons within trigeminal ganglia (TG) become infected. Following a burst of viral transcription in TG neurons, lytic cycle viral genes are suppressed and latency is established. The latency-associated transcript (LAT) is the only viral gene abundantly expressed during latency, and LAT expression is important for the latency-reactivation cycle. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0230870PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7105109PMC

Neuropsychological and psychiatric outcomes in encephalitis: A multi-centre case-control study.

PLoS One 2020 25;15(3):e0230436. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London (KCL), Camberwell, London, United Kingdom.

Objectives: Our aim was to compare neuropsychological and psychiatric outcomes across three encephalitis aetiological groups: Herpes simplex virus (HSV), other infections or autoimmune causes (Other), and encephalitis of unknown cause (Unknown).

Methods: Patients recruited from NHS hospitals underwent neuropsychological and psychiatric assessment in the short-term (4 months post-discharge), medium-term (9-12 months after the first assessment), and long-term (>1-year). Healthy control subjects were recruited from the general population and completed the same assessments. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0230436PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7094865PMC

Parechovirus-A3 encephalitis presenting with focal seizure mimicking herpes simplex virus infection.

J Infect Chemother 2020 Mar 19. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan, 1-757 Asahimachi-dori, Chuo-ku, Niigata, 951-8510, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Febrile neonates and young infants presenting with seizure require immediate evaluation and treatment. Herein we experienced two young infants with parechovirus-A3 (PeV-A3) encephalitis, initially presented with focal seizure suspecting herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis.

Cases: We have experienced 2 infantile cases, initially presented with focal seizure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2020.02.003DOI Listing

Acute cerebral haematoma in the course of herpes simplex 1 encephalitis. A rare complication.

Neurologia 2020 Mar 17. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Servicio de Neurocirugía, Hospital Universitari i Politècnic La Fe, Valencia, España.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nrl.2019.12.002DOI Listing

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Encephalitis Presenting as Multifocal Hemorrhagic Stroke.

Can J Neurol Sci 2020 Mar 19:1-3. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Medicine (Neurology), McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/cjn.2020.56DOI Listing

Distinct immunoreactivity pattern to Bacillus mannanilyticus in a subgroup of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis.

J Neuroimmunol 2020 Mar 12;342:577215. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Department of Neurology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.

Over half of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis (NMDARE) is unrelated to etiologies such as teratomas or herpes simplex encephalitis. Bacillus mannanilyticus nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) shares a protein sequence with GluN1. After confirming the anti-NRPS antibody immunoreactivity in an index patient by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we identified 24/57 (42%) patients with similar immunoreactivity patterns by western blotting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2020.577215DOI Listing

Performance of Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing for the Diagnosis of Viral Meningoencephalitis in a Resource-Limited Setting.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 Mar 8;7(3):ofaa046. Epub 2020 Feb 8.

Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Background: Meningoencephalitis is a devastating disease worldwide. Current diagnosis fails to establish the cause in ≥50% of patients. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) has emerged as pan-pathogen assays for infectious diseases diagnosis, but few studies have been conducted in resource-limited settings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7051036PMC

Cerebral HSV-1 Vasculitis as a Fatal Complication of Immunosuppression in Non-Hodgkin´s Lymphoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Pathogens 2020 Mar 5;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler Medical Center, Paracelsus University Salzburg, 5020 Salzburg, Austria.

Patients with lymphoma are predisposed to infection because of the immunocompromised state related to the disease itself and as a consequence of chemo-/radiotherapy. Here, we report a case of Herpes-simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) in an immunosuppressed patient with splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL), a rare indolent variant of non-Hodgkin´s lymphoma (NHL). The course was complicated febrile neutropenia and HSV-1-related cerebral vasculitis causing progressive ischemic stroke. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9030193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7157652PMC

Strain-Dependent Activity of Zika Virus and Exposure History in Serological Diagnostics.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2020 Mar 3;5(1). Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Department of Comparative Diagnostic and Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA.

Zika virus (ZIKV) circulates as two separate lineages, with significant genetic variability between strains. Strain-dependent activity has been reported for dengue virus, herpes simplex virus and influenza. Strain-dependent activity of subject specimens to a virus could be an impediment to serological diagnosis and vaccine development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5010038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7157670PMC

Two Cases of Late-Onset Anti-NMDAr Auto-Immune Encephalitis After Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Encephalitis.

Front Neurol 2020 18;11:38. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Département de Neurologie, Hôpital Pierre Paul Riquet, CHU de Toulouse, Toulouse, France.

Encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) was described as a potential trigger for the development of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) auto-immune encephalitis (AIE) within a few days to a few weeks after the infection. We assessed clinical, radiological, and biological diagnoses process, treatment response, and evolution. We report here cases of a 71-year-old man and a 57-year-old woman presenting anti-NMDAr AIE, respectively, 12 and 7 months after HSV-1 encephalitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7040193PMC
February 2020

Current Antivirals and Novel Botanical Molecules Interfering With Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

Front Microbiol 2020 11;11:139. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy, Departamento de Genética Molecular y Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) are highly prevalent within the human population and are characterized by lifelong infections and sporadic recurrences due to latent neuron infection. Upon reactivations, HSVs may manifest either, symptomatically or asymptomatically and be shed onto others through mucosae body fluids. Although, HSVs can produce severe disease in humans, such as life-threatening encephalitis and blindness, the most common symptoms are skin and mucosal lesions in the oro-facial and the genital areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7026011PMC
February 2020

Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome associated with herpes simplex virus infection: a case report.

Int J Neurosci 2020 Mar 9:1-5. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, China.

Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare neurological disease that can be associated with autoimmunity, paraneoplastic tumour, infection or unknown aetiology. We describe a 54-year-old woman who developed severe OMS, with the clinical onset occurring 2 months and 15 days after she experienced dizziness, vomiting and fever related to a herpes simplex virus infection. The patient was treated with hormones and clonazepam, and the symptoms of myoclonus and ataxia disappeared. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207454.2020.1737531DOI Listing

Herpes simplex virus type 1 inflammasome activation in proinflammatory human macrophages is dependent on NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1.

PLoS One 2020 26;15(2):e0229570. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States of America.

The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 are products of activation of the inflammasome, an innate sensing system, and important in the pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The release of IL-18 and IL-1β from monocytes/macrophages is critical for protection from HSV-1 based on animal models of encephalitis and genital infection, yet if and how HSV-1 activates inflammasomes in human macrophages is unknown. To investigate this, we utilized both primary human monocyte derived macrophages and human monocytic cell lines (THP-1 cells) with various inflammasome components knocked-out. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0229570PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7043765PMC
February 2020

Whole genome sequencing of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 directly from human cerebrospinal fluid reveals selective constraints in neurotropic viruses.

Virus Evol 2020 Jan 20;6(1):veaa012. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) chronically infects over 70 per cent of the global population. Clinical manifestations are largely restricted to recurrent epidermal vesicles. However, HSV-1 also leads to encephalitis, the infection of the brain parenchyma, with high associated rates of mortality and morbidity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ve/veaa012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7031915PMC
January 2020

Epidemiology and Etiology of Severe Childhood Encephalitis in The Netherlands.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2020 Apr;39(4):267-272

From the Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Centre (AMC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Limited data are available on childhood encephalitis. Our study aimed to increase insight on clinical presentation, etiology, and clinical outcome of children with severe encephalitis in the Netherlands.

Methods: We identified patients through the Dutch Pediatric Intensive Care Evaluation database and included children diagnosed with encephalitis <18 years of age admitted to 1 of the 8 pediatric intensive care units (PICU) in the Netherlands between January 2003 and December 2013. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7182237PMC

Travel-associated neurological disease terminated in a postmortem diagnosed atypical HSV-1 encephalitis after high-dose steroid therapy - a case report.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Feb 18;20(1):150. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Max von Pettenkofer Institute, Virology, Faculty of Medicine, LMU Munich, Pettenkoferstraße 9a, D-80336, Munich, Germany.

Background: Human encephalitis can originate from a variety of different aetiologies, of which infection is the most common one. The diagnostic work-up is specifically challenging in patients with travel history since a broader spectrum of unfamiliar additional infectious agents, e. g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-4859-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7029604PMC
February 2020

Immunomodulatory Strategies in Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis.

Clin Microbiol Rev 2020 Mar 12;33(2). Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Research Center in Infectious Diseases, CHU de Quebec-Laval University, Quebec City, Canada

SUMMARYHerpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) can be responsible for life-threatening HSV encephalitis (HSE). The mortality rate of patients with HSE who do not receive antiviral treatment is 70%, with most survivors suffering from permanent neurological sequelae. The use of intravenous acyclovir together with improved diagnostic technologies such as PCR and magnetic resonance imaging has resulted in a reduction in the mortality rate to close to 20%. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00105-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7018500PMC

Understanding and managing acute encephalitis.

Authors:
Rashmi Kumar

F1000Res 2020 29;9. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Pediatrics, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India.

Encephalitis is an important cause of morbidity, mortality, and permanent neurologic sequelae  globally. Causes are diverse and include viral and non-viral infections of the brain as well as autoimmune processes. In the West, the autoimmune encephalitides are now more common than any single infectious cause, but, in Asia, infectious causes are still more common. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.20634.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6993835PMC
January 2020

Herpes simplex virus encephalitis of childhood: inborn errors of central nervous system cell-intrinsic immunity.

Authors:
Shen-Ying Zhang

Hum Genet 2020 Feb 10. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

St. Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA.

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) is the most common sporadic viral encephalitis in Western countries. Over the last 15 years, human genetic and immunological studies have provided proof-of-principle that childhood HSE can result from inborn errors of central nervous system (CNS)-specific, cell-intrinsic immunity to HSV-1. HSE-causing mutations of eight genes disrupt known (TLR3-dependent IFN-α/β immunity) and novel (dependent on DBR1 or snoRNA31) antiviral mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-020-02127-5DOI Listing
February 2020

The longitudinal health economic impact of viral encephalitis in the United States.

J Med Microbiol 2020 Feb 10;69(2):270-279. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Previous studies of viral encephalitis have focused on acute costs, estimating incidence at 7.3 per 100 000 and total US annual charges at $2 billion in 2010. We aim to quantify the most updated longitudinal health economic impact of viral encephalitis in the USA from 2008 to 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.001153DOI Listing
February 2020
2.248 Impact Factor

Herpes Simplex Virus 1-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Damage Involves Apoptosis Associated With GM130-Mediated Golgi Stress.

Front Mol Neurosci 2020 24;13. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Department of Neurology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) caused by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection can lead to a high mortality rate and severe neurological sequelae. The destruction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an important pathological mechanism for the development of HSE. However, the specific mechanism underlying the BBB destruction remains unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2020.00002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6992570PMC
January 2020

[Update on important CNS infections].

Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2020 Feb 4;145(3):155-160. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Neurologische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München.

Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in daily clinical practice. In most cases, an early and efficient empiric therapy is crucial for the prognosis. Here, an update on current developments concerning the following CNS infections is presented:- Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis,- bacterial meningitis,- tick borne encephalitis,- neuroborreliosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0968-1063DOI Listing
February 2020

Multicenter Evaluation of the Implementation Status of Laboratory Tests in Korea and the Potential Usefulness of a Multiplex PCR Assay in Patients with Suspected Central Nervous System Infections.

Clin Lab 2020 Jan;66(1)

Background: The rapid diagnosis and treatment of central nervous system (CNS) infections are critical to minimizing morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the implementation status of laboratory tests in patients with suspected CNS infection, and the potential usefulness of a multiplex PCR assay for rapid and simultaneous detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 14 targets capable of causing CNS infections.

Methods: The study was conducted at 5 hospitals located in Daegu and Gyeongju over a period of 6 months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7754/Clin.Lab.2019.190420DOI Listing
January 2020