995 results match your criteria Encephalitis Eastern Equine


Broad-spectrum monoclonal antibodies against chikungunya virus structural proteins: Promising candidates for antibody-based rapid diagnostic test development.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208851. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

In response to the aggressive global spread of the mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an accurate and accessible diagnostic tool is of high importance. CHIKV, an arthritogenic alphavirus, comprises three genotypes: East/Central/South African (ECSA), West African (WA), and Asian. A previous rapid immunochromatographic (IC) test detecting CHIKV E1 protein showed promising performance for detection of the ECSA genotype. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0208851PLOS
December 2018

Cryo-EM Structures of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Reveal Mechanisms of Virus Disassembly and Antibody Neutralization.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3136-3147.e5

Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. Electronic address:

Alphaviruses are enveloped pathogens that cause arthritis and encephalitis. Here, we report a 4.4-Å cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), an alphavirus that causes fatal encephalitis in humans. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22111247183184
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2018.11.067DOI Listing
December 2018
8 Reads

Protective antibodies against Eastern equine encephalitis virus bind to epitopes in domains A and B of the E2 glycoprotein.

Nat Microbiol 2019 Jan 19;4(1):187-197. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus with a high case mortality rate in humans. EEEV is a biodefence concern because of its potential for aerosol spread and the lack of existing countermeasures. Here, we identify a panel of 18 neutralizing murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the EEEV E2 glycoprotein, several of which have 'elite' activity with 50 and 99% effective inhibitory concentrations (EC and EC) of less than 10 and 100 ng ml, respectively. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-018-0286-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6294662PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Transmission of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus from an Organ Donor to Three Transplant Recipients.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Oct 29. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO.

Background: In fall 2017, three solid organ transplant recipients from a common donor developed encephalitis within one week of transplantation, prompting suspicion of transplant-transmitted infection. Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) infection was identified during testing of endomyocardial tissue from the heart recipient.

Methods: We reviewed medical records of the organ donor and transplant recipients and tested serum, whole blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and tissue from the donor and recipients for evidence of EEEV infection by multiple assays. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy923DOI Listing
October 2018
18 Reads

West Nile Virus and Other Nationally Notifiable Arboviral Diseases - United States, 2017.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Oct 19;67(41):1137-1142. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Arthropodborne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes or ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the continental United States (1). Other arboviruses, including Jamestown Canyon, La Crosse, Powassan, St. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6741a1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6193690PMC
October 2018
2 Reads

A Case of Eastern Equine Encephalitis.

Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2018 Oct 15:9922818806842. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

2 Our Lady of the Lake Children's Hospital, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0009922818806842DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Zoonotic Viral Diseases of Equines and Their Impact on Human and Animal Health.

Open Virol J 2018 31;12:80-98. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

ICAR-National Research Centre on Equines, Hisar-125001, India.

Introduction: Zoonotic diseases are the infectious diseases that can be transmitted to human beings and vice versa from animals either directly or indirectly. These diseases can be caused by a range of organisms including bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi. Viral diseases are highly infectious and capable of causing pandemics as evidenced by outbreaks of diseases like Ebola, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, West Nile, SARS-Corona, Nipah, Hendra, Avian influenza and Swine influenza. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874357901812010080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6142672PMC
August 2018
10 Reads

Using Bloodmeal Analysis to Assess Disease Risk to Wildlife at the New Northern Limit of a Mosquito Species.

Ecohealth 2018 09 21;15(3):543-554. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Center for Vector Biology, Department of Entomology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901, USA.

The historically southeastern mosquito species Culex erraticus has over the last 30 years undergone a marked expansion north. We evaluated this species' potential to participate in local disease cycles in the northeastern USA by identifying the vertebrate sources of blood in Cx. erraticus specimens from New Jersey. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10393-018-1371-0DOI Listing
September 2018

First record of Culex (Culex) bidens (Diptera: Culicidae) in Colombia: Taxonomic and epidemiological implications.

Acta Trop 2018 Dec 18;188:251-257. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Universidad del Sinú, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Grupo de Investigación en Enfermedades Tropicales y Resistencia Bacteriana, Montería, Colombia.

Arbovirus transmission cycles must be studied locally since both vectors and hosts vary in different regions. Colombia has a highly diverse mosquito fauna. Culex (Culex) bidens is reported here for the first time in Colombia. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.09.010DOI Listing
December 2018

Some aspects on tick species in Mongolia and their potential role in the transmission of equine piroplasms, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi L.

Parasitol Res 2018 Nov 3;117(11):3557-3566. Epub 2018 Sep 3.

Institute of Parasitology, Department of Pathobiology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinaerplatz 1, 1210, Wien, Austria.

Ticks are cosmopolitan vectors of numerous diseases, and detection of various pathogens in ticks can help to assess their distribution. In the current study, 528 adult ticks were collected from grazing animals or the ground in ten different Mongolian provinces. Dermacentor nuttalli constituted 76. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-018-6053-xDOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Risk Assessment Mapping for Zoonoses, Bioagent Pathogens, and Vectors at Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.

US Army Med Dep J 2018 Jan-Jun(1-18):40-48

College of Health Sciences, Liberty University, Lynchburg, Virginia.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
November 2018
7 Reads

Genetic control of alphavirus pathogenesis.

Mamm Genome 2018 08 27;29(7-8):408-424. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA.

Alphaviruses, members of the positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus family Togaviridae, represent a re-emerging public health concern worldwide as mosquito vectors expand into new geographic ranges. Members of the alphavirus genus tend to induce clinical disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and arthritis (chikungunya virus, Ross River virus, and Semliki Forest virus) or encephalomyelitis (eastern equine encephalitis virus, western equine encephalitis virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus), though some patients who recover from the initial acute illness may develop long-term sequelae, regardless of the specific infecting virus. Studies examining the natural disease course in humans and experimental infection in cell culture and animal models reveal that host genetics play a major role in influencing susceptibility to infection and severity of clinical disease. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00335-018-9776-1DOI Listing
August 2018
17 Reads

Population genomics of Culiseta melanura, the principal vector of Eastern equine encephalitis virus in the United States.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 08 17;12(8):e0006698. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Department of Environmental Sciences, Center for Vector Biology & Zoonotic Diseases, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.

Background: Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) (Togaviridae, Alphavirus) is a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne arbovirus that circulates in an enzootic cycle involving Culiseta melanura mosquitoes and wild Passeriformes birds in freshwater swamp habitats. Recently, the northeastern United States has experienced an intensification of virus activity with increased human involvement and northward expansion into new regions. In addition to its principal role in enzootic transmission of EEE virus among avian hosts, recent studies on the blood-feeding behavior of Cs. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006698DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6114928PMC
August 2018
1 Read

New SNP Markers to Identify Culex Complex Species (Diptera: Culicidae) by High-Resolution DNA Melting Analysis.

J Med Entomol 2018 Oct;55(6):1446-1452

Department of Biology, Baylor University, Waco, TX.

The members from Culex pipiens complex are the primary vector of various arboviruses including West Nile virus and Eastern equine encephalitis in the United States. Within Cx. pipiens complex, there are three biotypes that differ largely in habitat, bloodmeal preference, mating behavior, and overwintering strategy. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjy120DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Protective efficacy of monovalent and trivalent recombinant MVA-based vaccines against three encephalitic alphaviruses.

Vaccine 2018 08 20;36(34):5194-5203. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

Defence Research and Development Canada, Suffield Research Centre, Box 4000, Station Main, Medicine Hat, AB T1A 8K6, Canada.

The three encephalitic alphaviruses, western, eastern, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses (WEEV, EEEV, and VEEV) are potential biothreat agents due to high infectivity through aerosol exposure, ease of production in large amounts, and relative stability in the environment. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine for human use to these three encephalitic alphaviruses, and efforts to move vaccine candidates forward into clinical trials have not been successful. In this study, the modified vaccinia Ankara-Bavarian Nordic (MVA-BN®) vaccine platform was used to construct and produce three monovalent recombinant MVA-BN-based encephalitic alphavirus vaccines, MVA-BN-W, MVA-BN-E, and MVA-BN-V. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.06.064DOI Listing
August 2018
3 Reads

Repurposed FDA-Approved drug sorafenib reduces replication of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and other alphaviruses.

Antiviral Res 2018 Sep 5;157:57-67. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, Manassas, VA, USA. Electronic address:

The New World alphaviruses -Venezuelan, eastern, and western equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV, EEEV, and WEEV respectively) - cause a febrile disease that is often lethal in equines and children and leads to long-term neurological sequelae in survivors. Endemic to the Americas, epizootic outbreaks of the three viruses occur sporadically in the continental United States. All three viruses aerosolize readily, replicate to high titers in cell culture, and have low infectious doses. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01663542183006
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2018.07.005DOI Listing
September 2018
6 Reads

A Multiagent Alphavirus DNA Vaccine Delivered by Intramuscular Electroporation Elicits Robust and Durable Virus-Specific Immune Responses in Mice and Rabbits and Completely Protects Mice against Lethal Venezuelan, Western, and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Aerosol Challenges.

J Immunol Res 2018 3;2018:8521060. Epub 2018 Jun 3.

United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702-5011, USA.

There remains a need for vaccines that can safely and effectively protect against the biological threat agents Venezuelan (VEEV), western (WEEV), and eastern (EEEV) equine encephalitis virus. Previously, we demonstrated that a VEEV DNA vaccine that was optimized for increased antigen expression and delivered by intramuscular (IM) electroporation (EP) elicited robust and durable virus-specific antibody responses in multiple animal species and provided complete protection against VEEV aerosol challenge in mice and nonhuman primates. Here, we performed a comparative evaluation of the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of individual optimized VEEV, WEEV, and EEEV DNA vaccines with that of a 1 : 1 : 1 mixture of these vaccines, which we have termed the 3-EEV DNA vaccine, when delivered by IM EP. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/8521060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6008678PMC
October 2018
10 Reads

Twenty years of surveillance for Eastern equine encephalitis virus in mosquitoes in New York State from 1993 to 2012.

Parasit Vectors 2018 Jun 25;11(1):362. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Department of Health, Central New York Regional Office, State of New York, 217 South Salina Street, Syracuse, NY, 13202, USA.

Background: The year 1971 was the first time in New York State (NYS) that Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) was identified in mosquitoes, in Culiseta melanura and Culiseta morsitans. At that time, state and county health departments began surveillance for EEEV in mosquitoes.

Methods: From 1993 to 2012, county health departments continued voluntary participation with the state health department in mosquito and arbovirus surveillance. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-2950-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6019270PMC
June 2018
4 Reads

Structural Characterization and Formulation Development of a Trivalent Equine Encephalitis Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Candidate.

J Pharm Sci 2018 Oct 5;107(10):2544-2558. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Macromolecule and Vaccine Stabilization Center, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Kansas, 2030 Becker Drive, Lawrence, Kansas 66047. Electronic address:

The zoonotic equine encephalitis viruses (EEVs) can cause debilitating and life-threatening disease, leading to ongoing vaccine development efforts for an effective virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine based on 3 strains of EEV (Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan or EEE, WEE and VEE VLPs, respectively). In this work, transmission electron microscopy and light scattering studies showed enveloped, spherical, and ∼70 nm sized VLPs. Biophysical studies demonstrated optimal VLP physical stability in the pH range of 7. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xphs.2018.05.022DOI Listing
October 2018
5 Reads

ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Togaviridae.

J Gen Virol 2018 Jun 10;99(6):761-762. Epub 2018 May 10.

1​Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA.

The Togaviridae is a family of small, enveloped viruses with single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes of 10-12 kb. Within the family, the genus Alphavirus includes a large number of diverse species, while the genus Rubivirus includes the single species Rubella virus. Most alphaviruses are mosquito-borne and are pathogenic in their vertebrate hosts. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.001072DOI Listing
June 2018
9 Reads

Human and Equine Infection with Alphaviruses and Flaviviruses in Panamá during 2010: A Cross-Sectional Study of Household Contacts during an Encephalitis Outbreak.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Jun 3;98(6):1798-1804. Epub 2018 May 3.

Departments of Microbiology & Immunology and Pathology, Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Members of the genera (family ) and (family ) are important zoonotic human and equine etiologic agents of neurologic diseases in the New World. In 2010, an outbreak of Madariaga virus (MADV; formerly eastern equine encephalitis virus) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) infections was reported in eastern Panamá. We further characterized the epidemiology of the outbreak by studying household contacts of confirmed human cases and of equine cases with neurological disease signs. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0679DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6086197PMC
June 2018
7 Reads
2.700 Impact Factor

Validation of a Risk Index Model for Predicting Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Transmission to Horses in Florida.

J Med Entomol 2018 Aug;55(5):1143-1149

Department of Global Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus (EEEV) is the most pathogenic arbovirus endemic to the United States. EEEV primarily infects birds but can be fatal to humans, horses, and some other mammals. Although EEEV transmission occurs in the Northeastern, Southeastern, and Midwestern United States, the largest number of horse and human cases have been reported in Florida, the only state where transmission occurs year round. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjy067DOI Listing

Eastern equine encephalitis in puppies in Michigan and New York states.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2018 Jul 2;30(4):633-636. Epub 2018 May 2.

Cancer and Inflammation Program, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD (Andrews).

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is classified as a select agent and is capable of causing mortality in humans and a number of veterinary species. Herein, we describe 3 cases of EEE in puppies in Michigan and New York. Two puppies were euthanized following an acute history of seizures and obtundation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1040638718774616DOI Listing

Genomic Characterization and Seroprevalence Studies on Alphaviruses in Uruguay.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Jun 5;98(6):1811-1818. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Sección Virología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay.

Alphaviruses () are arboviruses frequently associated with emerging infectious diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence of alphaviruses in Uruguay by detecting the viral genome in mosquitoes and neutralizing antibodies in equines. A total of 3,575 mosquitoes were analyzed for alphavirus genome detection. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0980DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6086168PMC
June 2018
8 Reads

Protozoal coinfection in horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in the eastern United States.

J Vet Intern Med 2018 May 10;32(3):1210-1214. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Department of Clinical Studies, New Bolton Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania.

Background: Infection by 2 or more protozoa is linked with increased severity of disease in marine mammals with protozoan encephalitis.

Hypothesis/objectives: To assess whether horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) caused by Sarcocystis neurona also have evidence of infection with Neospora hughesi or Toxoplasma gondii. We hypothesized that horses with EPM would be more likely than horses with cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy (CVSM) to be positive for antibodies to multiple protozoan parasites. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5980325PMC
May 2018
1 Read

Large scale complete genome sequencing and phylodynamic analysis of eastern equine encephalitis virus reveal source-sink transmission dynamics in the United States.

J Virol 2018 Apr 4. Epub 2018 Apr 4.

Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) has a high case-fatality rate in horses and humans, and Florida has been hypothesized to be the source of EEEV epidemics for the northeastern U.S. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced complete genomes of 433 EEEV strains collected within the U. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00074-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5974483PMC
April 2018
11 Reads

Serological evidence of widespread exposure of Grenada fruit bats to chikungunya virus.

Zoonoses Public Health 2018 08 25;65(5):505-511. Epub 2018 Mar 25.

Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, St. George's University, St. George, Grenada.

Antibody detection against selected potentially zoonotic vector-borne alphaviruses and flaviviruses was conducted on sera from bats from all six parishes in Grenada, West Indies. Sera were tested for (i) antibodies to flaviviruses West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Ilhéus virus, Bussuquara virus (BSQV), Rio Bravo virus and all four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT); (ii) antibodies to alphaviruses western equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and eastern equine encephalitis virus by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and (iii) antibodies to the alphavirus chikungunya (CHIKV) by PRNT. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/zph.12460DOI Listing
August 2018
4 Reads

Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus in the United States, 2003-2016.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 May 15;98(5):1472-1477. Epub 2018 Mar 15.

Arboviral Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus found in the eastern United States. Eastern equine encephalitis virus disease in humans is rare but can result in severe, often fatal, illness. This report summarizes the national EEEV surveillance data for 2003 through 2016, including human disease cases and nonhuman infections. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0927DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5953388PMC
May 2018
1 Read

The challenges posed by equine arboviruses.

Equine Vet J 2018 Jul 14;50(4):436-445. Epub 2018 Apr 14.

School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire, UK.

Equine populations worldwide are at increasing risk of infection by viruses transmitted by biting arthropods, including mosquitoes, biting midges (Culicoides), sandflies and ticks. These include the flaviviruses (Japanese encephalitis, West Nile and Murray Valley encephalitis), alphaviruses (eastern, western and Venezuelan encephalitis) and the orbiviruses (African horse sickness and equine encephalosis). This review provides an overview of the challenges faced in the surveillance, prevention and control of the major equine arboviruses, particularly in the context of these viruses emerging in new regions of the world. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evj.12829DOI Listing
July 2018
2 Reads

A Serosurvey of Flavivirus Infection in Horses and Birds in Slovakia.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2018 04 13;18(4):206-213. Epub 2018 Feb 13.

5 Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Veterinary Medicine , Budapest, Hungary .

In central Europe, at least three flaviviruses circulate among vectors and vertebrate hosts. West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are mosquito-borne viruses maintained in the nature by enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and birds. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a flavivirus causing annual human cases in Slovakia. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2017.2216DOI Listing
April 2018
10 Reads

West Nile Virus and Other Nationally Notifiable Arboviral Diseases - United States, 2016.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Jan 12;67(1):13-17. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the continental United States (1,2). Other arboviruses, including La Crosse, Powassan, Jamestown Canyon, St. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm6701a3.htm?s_cid=mm6
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6701a3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5769797PMC
January 2018
8 Reads

Novel Insect-Specific Eilat Virus-Based Chimeric Vaccine Candidates Provide Durable, Mono- and Multivalent, Single-Dose Protection against Lethal Alphavirus Challenge.

J Virol 2018 02 30;92(4). Epub 2018 Jan 30.

Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Center for Tropical Diseases, and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA

Most alphaviruses are mosquito borne and exhibit a broad host range, infecting many different vertebrates, including birds, rodents, equids, humans, and nonhuman primates. Recently, a host-restricted, mosquito-borne alphavirus, Eilat virus (EILV), was described with an inability to infect vertebrate cells based on defective attachment and/or entry, as well as a lack of genomic RNA replication. We investigated the utilization of EILV recombinant technology as a vaccine platform against eastern (EEEV) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV), two important pathogens of humans and domesticated animals. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01274-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5790933PMC
February 2018
16 Reads

Biotechnological Applications of an Insect-Specific Alphavirus.

DNA Cell Biol 2017 Dec 21;36(12):1045-1049. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

1 Institute for Human Infections and Immunity and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

The coupling of viral and arthropod host diversity, with evolving methods of virus discovery, has resulted in the identification and classification of a growing number of novel insect-specific viruses (ISVs) that appear to be evolutionarily related to many human pathogens but have either lost or have yet to gain the ability to replicate in vertebrates. The discovery of ISVs has raised many questions as to the origin and evolution of many human pathogenic viruses and points to the role that arthropods may play in this evolutionary process. Furthermore, the use of ISVs to control the transmission of arthropod-borne viruses has been proposed and demonstrated experimentally. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dna.2017.4019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5729857PMC
December 2017
8 Reads

Differential Diagnosis of Flavivirus Infections in Horses Using Viral Envelope Protein Domain III Antigens in Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2017 12 30;17(12):825-835. Epub 2017 Oct 30.

1 Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland , St Lucia, Australia .

In Australia, infection of horses with the West Nile virus (WNV) or Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) occasionally results in severe neurological disease that cannot be clinically differentiated. Confirmatory serological tests to detect antibody specific for MVEV or WNV in horses are often hampered by cross-reactive antibodies induced to conserved epitopes on the envelope (E) protein. This study utilized bacterially expressed recombinant antigens derived from domain III of the E protein (rE-DIII) of MVEV and WNV, respectively, to determine whether these subunit antigens provided specific diagnostic markers of infection with these two viruses. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2017.2172DOI Listing
December 2017
35 Reads

Wetland characteristics linked to broad-scale patterns in Culiseta melanura abundance and eastern equine encephalitis virus infection.

Parasit Vectors 2017 Oct 18;10(1):501. Epub 2017 Oct 18.

Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.

Background: Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is an expanding mosquito-borne threat to humans and domestic animal populations in the northeastern United States. Outbreaks of EEEV are challenging to predict due to spatial and temporal uncertainty in the abundance and viral infection of Cs. melanura, the principal enzootic vector. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-2482-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5648514PMC
October 2017
5 Reads

Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Capsid-The Clever Caper.

Viruses 2017 09 29;9(10). Epub 2017 Sep 29.

National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, Manassas, VA 20110, USA.

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a New World alphavirus that is vectored by mosquitos and cycled in rodents. It can cause disease in equines and humans characterized by a febrile illness that may progress into encephalitis. Like the capsid protein of other viruses, VEEV capsid is an abundant structural protein that binds to the viral RNA and interacts with the membrane-bound glycoproteins. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/9/10/279
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v9100279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5691631PMC
September 2017
18 Reads

Emerging arboviruses in Quebec, Canada: assessing public health risk by serology in humans, horses and pet dogs.

Epidemiol Infect 2017 10 28;145(14):2940-2948. Epub 2017 Sep 28.

Groupe de recherche en épidémiologie des zoonoses et santé publique, Faculté de médecine vétérinaire,Université de Montréal,Saint-Hyacinthe, Québec,Canada.

Periodic outbreaks of West Nile virus (WNV), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and to a lesser extent, California serogroup viruses (CSGV), have been reported in parts of Canada in the last decade. This study was designed to provide a broad assessment of arboviral activity in Quebec, Canada, by conducting serological surveys for these arboviruses in 196 horses, 1442 dogs and 485 humans. Sera were screened by a competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and positive samples confirmed by plaque reduction neutralisation tests. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268817002205DOI Listing
October 2017
11 Reads

Enzootic mosquito vector species at equine encephalitis transmission foci in the República de Panamá.

PLoS One 2017 22;12(9):e0185491. Epub 2017 Sep 22.

Instituto Commemorativo Gorgas de Estudios de la Salud, Ciudad de Panamá, República de Panamá, Departmento de Entomología Medica.

The identification of mosquito vector species present at arboviral enzootic transmission foci is important to understand transmission eco-epidemiology and to propose and implement prevention and control strategies that reduce vector-borne equine encephalitis transmission. The goal of this study was to identify mosquito species potentially involved in the transmission of enzootic equine encephalitis, in relation to their abundance and diversity at three endemic regions in the República de Panamá. We sampled adult mosquitoes during the dry and rainy season of Panamá. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0185491PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5609755PMC
October 2017
17 Reads

Wing variation in Culex nigripalpus (Diptera: Culicidae) in urban parks.

Parasit Vectors 2017 Sep 18;10(1):423. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Culex nigripalpus has a wide geographical distribution and is found in North and South America. Females are considered primary vectors for several arboviruses, including Saint Louis encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and Eastern equine encephalitis virus, as well as a potential vector of West Nile virus. In view of the epidemiological importance of this mosquito and its high abundance, this study sought to investigate wing variation in Cx. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-2348-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5604421PMC
September 2017
47 Reads

Environmental Drivers of Seasonal Patterns of Host Utilization by Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae) in Florida.

J Med Entomol 2017 Sep;54(5):1365-1374

Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, University of Florida IFAS, 200 9th St. SE, Vero Beach, FL 32962.

Field studies were carried out in four Florida counties to investigate winter and spring ecology of host use by Culiseta melanura (Coquillet), the primary vector of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) in North America. Bloodmeal analysis by PCR was used to identify 233 host bloodmeals, which mainly originated from birds (78.5%) and reptiles (17. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjx140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5850491PMC
September 2017
21 Reads

Development of high-throughput and high sensitivity capillary gel electrophoresis platform method for Western, Eastern, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (WEVEE) virus like particles (VLPs) purity determination and characterization.

Electrophoresis 2017 10 20;38(20):2610-2621. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

Vaccine Production Program, VRC, NIAID, NIH, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.

In this paper, we describe development of a high-throughput, highly sensitive method based on Lab Chip CGE-SDS platform for purity determination and characterization of virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines. A capillary gel electrophoresis approach requiring about 41 s per sample for analysis and demonstrating sensitivity to protein initial concentrations as low as 20 μg/mL, this method has been used previously to evaluate monoclonal antibodies, but this application for lot release assay of VLPs using this platform is unique. The method was qualified and shown to be accurate for the quantitation of VLP purity. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.201700217DOI Listing
October 2017
28 Reads

Eastern equine encephalitis.

Pract Neurol 2017 Oct 28;17(5):387-391. Epub 2017 Jul 28.

Department of Pathology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

We describe a patient who died from a fulminant presentation of encephalitis. After an exhaustive search, we found no treatable cause. Postmortem PCR analysis of brain tissue led to a diagnosis of eastern equine encephalitis. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/practneurol-2017-001659DOI Listing
October 2017
8 Reads

Serologic Evidence of Various Arboviruses Detected in White-Tailed Deer () in the United States.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Aug 19;97(2):319-323. Epub 2017 Jul 19.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, Colorado.

White-tailed deer () are an abundant mammal with a wide geographic distribution in the United States, which make them good sentinels for monitoring arboviral activity across the country. Exposure to various arboviruses has been detected in white-tailed deer, typically in conjunction with another diagnostic finding. To better assess the exposure of white-tailed deer to seven arboviruses, we tested 1,508 sera collected from 2010 to 2016 for antibodies to eastern equine encephalitis (2. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0180
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5544104PMC
August 2017
11 Reads

The role of birds in arboviral disease surveillance in Harris County and the City of Houston, Texas.

US Army Med Dep J 2017 Jan-Jun(1-17):1-12

Mosquito and Vector Control Division, Harris County Public Health, Houston, Texas.

Avian arboviral surveillance is an integral part of any disease-based integrated mosquito control program. The Harris County Public Health Mosquito and Vector Control Division has performed arboviral surveillance in the wild birds of Harris County and the City of Houston since 1965. Blood samples from live trapped birds were tested for arboviral antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV), St. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
February 2018
18 Reads

Fatal Eastern Equine Encephalitis in a Patient on Maintenance Rituximab: A Case Report.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2017 12;4(1):ofx021. Epub 2017 Feb 12.

Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

A 63-year-old woman on rituximab maintenance for follicular lymphoma presented with headaches, vomiting, and fever, and was diagnosed with eastern equine encephalomyelitis by cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis immunoglobulin (Ig)G/IgM remained negative due to rituximab treatment, and magnetic resonance imaging showed minimal abnormalities, making this a diagnostically challenging case. Despite therapy with intravenous Ig, the patient rapidly declined and died on hospital day 12. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofx021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5414020PMC
February 2017
9 Reads

Hypervariable Domain of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus nsP3 Redundantly Utilizes Multiple Cellular Proteins for Replication Complex Assembly.

J Virol 2017 07 26;91(14). Epub 2017 Jun 26.

Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a representative member of the New World alphaviruses. It is pathogenic for a variety of vertebrate hosts, in which EEEV induces a highly debilitating disease, and the outcomes are frequently lethal. Despite a significant public health threat, the molecular mechanism of EEEV replication and interaction with hosts is poorly understood. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00371-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5487569PMC
July 2017
43 Reads

Aedeomyia squamipennis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Florida, USA, a New State and Country Record.

J Med Entomol 2017 05;54(3):788-792

University of Florida IFAS, Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, 200 9th St., SE, Vero Beach, FL 32962

Aedeomyia squamipennis (Lynch Arribalzaga) is a tropical mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) found throughout most of the American Tropics, from eastern Mexico through Argentina, including several Caribbean islands. Larvae are typically associated with bodies of water with dense growths of aquatic vegetation, particularly Pistia stratiotes L., water lettuce. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjw226DOI Listing
May 2017
17 Reads

Potential Sympatric Vectors and Mammalian Hosts of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus in Southern Mexico.

J Wildl Dis 2017 07 6;53(3):657-661. Epub 2017 Apr 6.

1 Departamento de Etología, Fauna Silvestre y Animales de Laboratorio, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad 3000, Delegación Coyoacán, México DF, CP 04510.

Arboviruses are important zoonotic agents with complex transmission cycles and are not well understood because they may involve many vectors and hosts. We studied sympatric wild mammals and hematophagous mosquitoes having the potential to act as hosts and vectors in two areas of southern Mexico. Mosquitoes, bats, and rodents were captured in Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas), between November 2010 and August 2011. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/2016-11-249DOI Listing
July 2017
14 Reads

Seasonal Patterns in Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Antibody in Songbirds in Southern Maine.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2017 05 13;17(5):325-330. Epub 2017 Mar 13.

1 Vector-Borne Disease Laboratory, Maine Medical Center Research Institute , Scarborough, Maine.

The intent of this study was to assess passerine eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEv) seroprevalence during the breeding season in southern Maine by testing songbird species identified in the literature as amplifying hosts of this virus. In 2013 and 2014, we collected serum samples from songbirds at a mainland site and an offshore island migratory stopover site, and screened samples for EEEv antibodies using plaque reduction neutralization tests. We compared seasonal changes in EEEv antibody seroprevalence in young (hatched in year of capture) and adult birds at the mainland site, and also compared early season seroprevalence in mainland versus offshore adult birds. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2016.2029DOI Listing
May 2017
4 Reads