1,037 results match your criteria Encephalitis Eastern Equine


Applications of minimally invasive multimodal telemetry for continuous monitoring of brain function and intracranial pressure in macaques with acute viral encephalitis.

PLoS One 2020 25;15(6):e0232381. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Alphaviruses such as Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) and Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) are arboviruses that can cause severe zoonotic disease in humans. Both VEEV and EEEV are highly infectious when aerosolized and can be used as biological weapons. Vaccines and therapeutics are urgently needed, but efficacy determination requires animal models. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232381PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7316240PMC

Hypervariable Domain of nsP3 of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus is a Critical Determinant of Viral Virulence.

J Virol 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is the most pathogenic member of the Alphavirus genus in the Togaviridae family. This virus continues to circulate in the New World and has a potential for deliberate use as a bioweapon. Despite the public health threat, to date, no attenuated EEEV variants have been applied as live EEEV vaccines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00617-20DOI Listing

An Overview of Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE).

Neurohospitalist 2020 Jul 17;10(3):161-162. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Neuro-Infectious Diseases Group, Department of Neurology and Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1941874420905762DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7271628PMC

Embryo Microinjection Techniques for Efficient Site-Specific Mutagenesis in Culex quinquefasciatus.

J Vis Exp 2020 May 24(159). Epub 2020 May 24.

Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, San Diego; Tata Institute for Genetics and Society, University of California, San Diego;

Culex quinquefasciatus is a vector of a diverse range of vector-borne diseases such as avian malaria, West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis, Eastern equine encephalitis, lymphatic filariasis, and Saint Louis encephalitis. Notably, avian malaria has played a major role in the extinction of numerous endemic island bird species, while WNV has become an important vector-borne disease in the United States. To gain further insight into C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/61375DOI Listing

Vaccine Advances against Venezuelan, Eastern, and Western Equine Encephalitis Viruses.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Jun 3;8(2). Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Theoretical Biology and Biophysics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 505, USA.

Vaccinations are a crucial intervention in combating infectious diseases. The three neurotropic Alphaviruses, Eastern (EEEV), Venezuelan (VEEV), and Western (WEEV) equine encephalitis viruses, are pathogens of interest for animal health, public health, and biological defense. In both equines and humans, these viruses can cause febrile illness that may progress to encephalitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020273DOI Listing

Impact of the Southern Oscillation Index, Temperature, and Precipitation on Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in Florida.

J Med Entomol 2020 May 6. Epub 2020 May 6.

Global Health Infectious Disease Research, University of South Florida, 3720 Spectrum Blvd, Suite 304, Tampa, FL.

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), an Alphavirus from family Togaviridae, is a highly pathogenic arbovirus affecting the eastern United States, especially Florida. Effects of the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), precipitation, and cooling degree days on EEEV horse case data in Florida from 2004 to 2018 were modeled using distributed lag nonlinear models (DLNMs). The analysis was conducted at statewide and regional scales. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjaa084DOI Listing

Seasonal Changes of Host Use by Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae) in Central Florida.

J Med Entomol 2020 Apr 13. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, University of Florida IFAS, 200 9th Street SE, Vero Beach, FL.

The mosquito Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) is the primary enzootic vector of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), a zoonotic Alphavirus endemic to eastern North America. In its northern range, Cs. melanura is considered a strict avian biter, transmitting EEEV among susceptible birds in a cycle of enzootic amplification. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjaa067DOI Listing

Cryo-EM structure of eastern equine encephalitis virus in complex with heparan sulfate analogues.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 Apr 3;117(16):8890-8899. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), a mosquito-borne icosahedral alphavirus found mainly in North America, causes human and equine neurotropic infections. EEEV neurovirulence is influenced by the interaction of the viral envelope protein E2 with heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans from the host's plasma membrane during virus entry. Here, we present a 5. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1910670117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183182PMC

Eastern Equine Encephalitis Surveillance and Response, Rhode Island, 2019.

R I Med J (2013) 2020 Apr 1;103(3):68-70. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

State Epidemiologist and Medical Director of the Division of Preparedness, Response, Infectious Disease, and Emergency Medical Services at the Rhode Island Department of Health and Clinical Assistant Professor of Health Services, Policy and Practice, at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University.

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Cases of Eastern equine encephalitis in humans associated with , and mosquitoes with the virus in New York State from 1971 to 2012 by analysis of aggregated published data.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 Apr 1;148:e72. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Vector Surveillance Unit, Bureau of Communicable Diseases, Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health, Central New York Regional Office, State of New York, Syracuse, New York 13202, USA.

From 1971 to 2012, in New York State, years with human Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) were more strongly associated with the presence of Aedes canadensis, Coquillettidia perturbans and Culiseta melanura mosquitoes infected with the EEE virus (Fisher's exact test, one-sided P = 0.005, 0.03, 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820000308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7118715PMC

Patterns of mosquito and arbovirus community composition and ecological indexes of arboviral risk in the northeast United States.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 02 24;14(2):e0008066. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Environmental Sciences, Center for Vector Biology & Zoonotic Diseases, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.

Background: In the northeast United States (U.S.), mosquitoes transmit a number of arboviruses, including eastern equine encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon, and West Nile that pose an annual threat to human and animal health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058363PMC
February 2020

Encephalitic Alphaviruses Exploit Caveola-Mediated Transcytosis at the Blood-Brain Barrier for Central Nervous System Entry.

mBio 2020 02 11;11(1). Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA

Venezuelan and western equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV and WEEV, respectively) invade the central nervous system (CNS) early during infection, via neuronal and hematogenous routes. While viral replication mediates host shutoff, including expression of type I interferons (IFN), few studies have addressed how alphaviruses gain access to the CNS during established infection or the mechanisms of viral crossing at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here, we show that hematogenous dissemination of VEEV and WEEV into the CNS occurs via caveolin-1 (Cav-1)-mediated transcytosis (Cav-MT) across an intact BBB, which is impeded by IFN and inhibitors of RhoA GTPase. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02731-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7018649PMC
February 2020

Association of Human Eastern Equine Encephalitis With Precipitation Levels in Massachusetts.

Authors:
Leonard A Mermel

JAMA Netw Open 2020 Jan 3;3(1):e1920261. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Department of Medicine, Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.20261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7042854PMC
January 2020

Notes from the Field: Multistate Outbreak of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus - United States, 2019.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 Jan 17;69(2):50-51. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Arboviral Diseases Branch, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC, Fort Collins, Colorado.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6902a4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6973353PMC
January 2020

Stories to Watch in 2020.

Authors:
Carol Potera

Am J Nurs 2020 01;120(1):19

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.NAJ.0000651988.16341.89DOI Listing
January 2020

Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus - Another Emergent Arbovirus in the United States.

N Engl J Med 2019 Nov;381(21):1989-1992

From the Office of the Director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp1914328DOI Listing
November 2019

Electrocardiography Abnormalities in Macaques after Infection with Encephalitic Alphaviruses.

Pathogens 2019 11 16;8(4). Epub 2019 Nov 16.

Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh, 3501 Fifth Avenue, Ste. 9052, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

Eastern (EEEV) and Venezuelan (VEEV) equine encephalitis viruses (EEVs) are related, (+) ssRNA arboviruses that can cause severe, sometimes fatal, encephalitis in humans. EEVs are highly infectious when aerosolized, raising concerns for potential use as biological weapons. No licensed medical countermeasures exist; given the severity/rarity of natural EEV infections, efficacy studies require animal models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8040240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6969904PMC
November 2019

Cooperativity between the 3' untranslated region microRNA binding sites is critical for the virulence of eastern equine encephalitis virus.

PLoS Pathog 2019 10 28;15(10):e1007867. Epub 2019 Oct 28.

Center for Vaccine Research, Department of Immunology and Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA United States of America.

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), a mosquito-borne RNA virus, is one of the most acutely virulent viruses endemic to the Americas, causing between 30% and 70% mortality in symptomatic human cases. A major factor in the virulence of EEEV is the presence of four binding sites for the hematopoietic cell-specific microRNA, miR-142-3p, in the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of the virus. Three of the sites are "canonical" with all 7 seed sequence residues complimentary to miR-142-3p while one is "non-canonical" and has a seed sequence mismatch. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007867DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6936876PMC
October 2019
1 Read

Cerebral Organoid Models for Neurotropic Viruses.

ACS Infect Dis 2019 12 3;5(12):1976-1979. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

Institute for Medical Engineering and Science , Massachusetts Institute of Technology , Cambridge , Massachusetts 02139 , United States.

Across zoonotic pathogens, RNA viruses are responsible for disproportionate levels of human disease, suffering, and death. Neurotropic RNA viruses (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsinfecdis.9b00339DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058373PMC
December 2019
1 Read

Five Emerging Neuroinvasive Arboviral Diseases: Cache Valley, Eastern Equine Encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, and Usutu.

Semin Neurol 2019 08 18;39(4):419-427. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Neuro-Infectious Diseases Group, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Neurology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado.

There are many arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) capable of neuroinvasion, with West Nile virus being one of the most well known. In this review, we highlight five rarer emerging or reemerging arboviruses capable of neuroinvasion: Cache Valley, eastern equine encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, and Usutu viruses. Cache Valley and Jamestown Canyon viruses likely circulate throughout most of North America, while eastern equine encephalitis and Powassan viruses typically circulate in the eastern half. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1687839DOI Listing
August 2019
3 Reads

The prophylactic and therapeutic activity of a broadly active ribonucleoside analog in a murine model of intranasal venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection.

Antiviral Res 2019 11 5;171:104597. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Emory Institute for Drug Development (EIDD), Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; Drug Innovation Ventures at Emory (DRIVE), Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:

The New World alphaviruses Venezuelan, Eastern, and Western equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV, EEEV and WEEV, respectively) commonly cause a febrile disease that can progress to meningoencephalitis, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. To address the need for a therapeutic agent for the treatment of Alphavirus infections, we identified and pursued preclinical characterization of a ribonucleoside analog EIDD-1931 (β-D-N-hydroxycytidine, NHC), which has shown broad activity against alphaviruses in vitro and has a very high genetic barrier for development of resistance. To be truly effective as a therapeutic agent for VEEV infection a drug must penetrate the blood brain barrier and arrest virus replication in the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2019.104597DOI Listing
November 2019
3 Reads

First Detection of Madariaga virus in Mosquitoes Collected in a Wild Environment of Northeastern Argentina.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 10;101(4):916-918

Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Madariaga virus (MADV), previously known as South American eastern equine encephalitis virus (SA EEEV; family Togaviridae, genus ), is a mosquito-borne virus associated mainly with equine disease. In 2010, the first human outbreak by MADV was reported in Central America, but the mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts involved in the outbreak were not identified. In Argentina, the first epizootic of MADV was in 1930, and since then, several epizootics by MADV have been reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0475DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6779215PMC
October 2019
1 Read

Evaluation of Partially Submerged Sticky Traps On Lake Spillways For Adult Black Fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) Surveillance and Arbovirus Detection.

J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2018 12;34(4):306-310

Sussex County Mosquito Control, 150 Morris Turnpike, Newton, NJ 07860.

Sentinel surveillance systems demonstrate an improved ability to supplement monitoring data and anticipate arbovirus outbreaks (i.e., sentinel avian species). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2987/18-6792.1DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

West Nile Virus and Other Domestic Nationally Notifiable Arboviral Diseases - United States, 2018.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019 Aug 9;68(31):673-678. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

Arthropodborne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the continental United States (1). Other arboviruses, including eastern equine encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon, La Crosse, Powassan, and St. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6831a1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6687196PMC
August 2019
9 Reads

Potential Viroporin Candidates From Pathogenic Viruses Using Bacteria-Based Bioassays.

Viruses 2019 07 9;11(7). Epub 2019 Jul 9.

Department of Biological Chemistry, The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Edmond J. Safra Campus Givat-Ram, Jerusalem 91904, Israel.

Viroporins are a family of small hydrophobic proteins found in many enveloped viruses that are capable of ion transport. Building upon the ability to inhibit influenza by blocking its archetypical M2 H channel, as a family, viroporins may represent a viable target to curb viral infectivity. To this end, using three bacterial assays we analyzed six small hydrophobic proteins from biomedically important viruses as potential viroporin candidates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11070632DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6669592PMC
July 2019
8 Reads

Weather-based forecasting of mosquito-borne disease outbreaks in Canada.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2019 May 2;45(5):127-132. Epub 2019 May 2.

Department of Mathematics and Statistics and Laboratory of Mathematical Parallel Systems, York University, Toronto, ON.

Early warning systems to predict infectious disease outbreaks have been identified as a key adaptive response to climate change. Warming, climate variability and extreme weather events associated with climate change are expected to drive an increase in frequency and intensity of mosquito-borne disease (MBD) outbreaks globally. In Canada, this will mean an increased risk of endemic and emerging MBD outbreaks such as West Nile virus and other MBDs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v45i05a03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6587691PMC
May 2019
5 Reads

Increased risk of endemic mosquito-borne diseases in Canada due to climate change.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2019 Apr 4;45(4):91-97. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MN.

There are currently over 80 species of mosquito endemic in Canada-although only a few of these carry pathogens that can cause disease in humans. West Nile virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus and the California serogroup viruses (including the Jamestown Canyon and snowshoe hare viruses) are mosquito-borne viruses that have been found to cause human infections in North America, including in Canada. Over the last 20 years, the incidence of most of these endemic mosquito-borne diseases (MBD) has increased approximately 10% in Canada, due in large part to climate change. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v45i04a03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6587694PMC
April 2019
5 Reads

SEROLOGICAL SURVEY FOR SELECT INFECTIOUS AGENTS IN WILD MAGELLANIC PENGUINS () IN ARGENTINA, 1994-2008.

J Wildl Dis 2020 01 25;56(1):66-81. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

Field Veterinary Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, 2300 Southern Boulevard, Bronx, New York 10460, USA.

Despite being the most numerous penguin species in South America, exposure of the Magellanic Penguin () to pathogens has not yet been thoroughly assessed. We collected serum from 1,058 Magellanic Penguins at 10 breeding colonies along the entire latitudinal range of this species in Argentina. The work spanned 10 breeding seasons over 15 yr (1994-2008). Read More

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January 2020
16 Reads

A virus-like particle vaccine prevents equine encephalitis virus infection in nonhuman primates.

Sci Transl Med 2019 05;11(492)

Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Western, Eastern, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses (WEEV, EEEV, and VEEV, respectively) are important mosquito-borne agents that pose public health and bioterrorism threats. Despite considerable advances in understanding alphavirus replication, there are currently no available effective vaccines or antiviral treatments against these highly lethal pathogens. To develop a potential countermeasure for viral encephalitis, we generated a trivalent, or three-component, EEV vaccine composed of virus-like particles (VLPs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aav3113DOI Listing
May 2019
11 Reads

The transmission dynamic of Madariaga Virus by bayesian phylogenetic analysis: Molecular surveillance of an emergent pathogen.

Microb Pathog 2019 Jul 25;132:80-86. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Unit of Medical Statistics and Molecular Epidemiology, University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, Italy.

Madariaga Virus (MADV) is an emergent Alphavirus of the eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) strain complex causing epizootic epidemics. In this study the genetic diversity and the transmission dynamics of Madariaga virus has been investigated by Bayesian phylogenetics and phylodynamic analysis. A database of 32 sequences of MADV group structural polyprotein were downloaded from GenBank, aligned manually edited by Bioedit Software. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.04.039DOI Listing
July 2019
8 Reads

Efficacy of a ML336 derivative against Venezuelan and eastern equine encephalitis viruses.

Antiviral Res 2019 07 7;167:25-34. Epub 2019 Apr 7.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Division, School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 53705-2222, USA. Electronic address:

Currently, there are no licensed human vaccines or antivirals for treatment of or prevention from infection with encephalitic alphaviruses. Because epidemics are sporadic and unpredictable, and endemic disease is common but rarely diagnosed, it is difficult to identify all populations requiring vaccination; thus, an effective post-exposure treatment method is needed to interrupt ongoing outbreaks. To address this public health need, we have continued development of ML336 to deliver a molecule with prophylactic and therapeutic potential that could be relevant for use in natural epidemics or deliberate release scenario for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01663542193001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2019.04.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7305796PMC
July 2019
31 Reads

Acute Seroconversion of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Coinfection With California Serogroup Encephalitis Virus.

Front Neurol 2019 19;10:242. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Neurology, McKnight Brain Institute, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States.

Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a severe arboviral neuroinvasive disease with high mortality and neurological sequelae. Treatment for EEE is primarily supportive. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and high-dose steroids have been used as empirical therapy for EEE with some case reports of benefit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2019.00242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433933PMC
March 2019
53 Reads

Complex Epidemiological Dynamics of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus in Florida.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 05;100(5):1266-1274

Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) infection results in high mortality in infected horses and humans. Florida has been identified as an important source of EEEV epidemics to other states in the United States. In this study, we further characterized the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of EEEV in Florida. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0783DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6493969PMC
May 2019
13 Reads
2.699 Impact Factor

Self-Amplifying RNA Vaccines for Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Induce Robust Protective Immunogenicity in Mice.

Mol Ther 2019 04 7;27(4):850-865. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

GSK, Rockville, MD 20850, USA. Electronic address:

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a known biological defense threat. A live-attenuated investigational vaccine, TC-83, is available, but it has a high non-response rate and can also cause severe reactogenicity. We generated two novel VEE vaccine candidates using self-amplifying mRNA (SAM). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S15250016193000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymthe.2018.12.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453513PMC
April 2019
44 Reads

Rational design of a live-attenuated eastern equine encephalitis virus vaccine through informed mutation of virulence determinants.

PLoS Pathog 2019 02 11;15(2):e1007584. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Center for Vaccine Research, Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA United States of America.

Live attenuated vaccines (LAVs), if sufficiently safe, provide the most potent and durable anti-pathogen responses in vaccinees with single immunizations commonly yielding lifelong immunity. Historically, viral LAVs were derived by blind passage of virulent strains in cultured cells resulting in adaptation to culture and a loss of fitness and disease-causing potential in vivo. Mutations associated with these phenomena have been identified but rarely have specific attenuation mechanisms been ascribed, thereby limiting understanding of the attenuating characteristics of the LAV strain and applicability of the attenuation mechanism to other vaccines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007584DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6386422PMC
February 2019
12 Reads

New World alphavirus protein interactomes from a therapeutic perspective.

Antiviral Res 2019 03 26;163:125-139. Epub 2019 Jan 26.

National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, Manassas, VA, USA. Electronic address:

The New World alphaviruses, Venezuelan, eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV, EEEV, and WEEV), are important human pathogens due to their ability to cause varying levels of morbidity and mortality in humans. There is also concern about VEEV and EEEV being used as bioweapons. Currently, a FDA-approved antiviral is lacking for New World alphaviruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2019.01.015DOI Listing
March 2019
8 Reads

Emergence of Madariaga virus as a cause of acute febrile illness in children, Haiti, 2015-2016.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 01 10;13(1):e0006972. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States of America.

Madariaga virus (MADV), also known as South American eastern equine encephalitis virus, has been identified in animals and humans in South and Central America, but not previously in Hispaniola or the northern Caribbean. MADV was isolated from virus cultures of plasma from an 8-year-old child in a school cohort in the Gressier/Leogane region of Haiti, who was seen in April, 2015, with acute febrile illness (AFI). The virus was subsequently cultured from an additional seven AFI case patients from this same cohort in February, April, and May 2016. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006972
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006972DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6328082PMC
January 2019
63 Reads

Aerosol infection of Balb/c mice with eastern equine encephalitis virus; susceptibility and lethality.

Virol J 2019 01 5;16(1). Epub 2019 Jan 5.

CBR Division, Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl), Room 201, Building 7a,, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, SP4 0JQ, UK.

Background: Eastern equine encephalitis virus is an alphavirus that naturally cycles between mosquitoes and birds or rodents in Eastern States of the US. Equine infection occurs by being bitten by cross-feeding mosquitoes, with a case fatality rate of up to 75% in humans during epizootic outbreaks. There are no licensed medical countermeasures, and with an anticipated increase in mortality when exposed by the aerosol route based on anecdotal human data and experimental animal data, it is important to understand the pathogenesis of this disease in pursuit of treatment options. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-018-1103-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6321726PMC
January 2019
14 Reads

Broad-spectrum monoclonal antibodies against chikungunya virus structural proteins: Promising candidates for antibody-based rapid diagnostic test development.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208851. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

In response to the aggressive global spread of the mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an accurate and accessible diagnostic tool is of high importance. CHIKV, an arthritogenic alphavirus, comprises three genotypes: East/Central/South African (ECSA), West African (WA), and Asian. A previous rapid immunochromatographic (IC) test detecting CHIKV E1 protein showed promising performance for detection of the ECSA genotype. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0208851PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296674PMC
May 2019
36 Reads

Cryo-EM Structures of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Reveal Mechanisms of Virus Disassembly and Antibody Neutralization.

Cell Rep 2018 12;25(11):3136-3147.e5

Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. Electronic address:

Alphaviruses are enveloped pathogens that cause arthritis and encephalitis. Here, we report a 4.4-Å cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), an alphavirus that causes fatal encephalitis in humans. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22111247183184
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2018.11.067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302666PMC
December 2018
53 Reads

Detection of West Nile virus lineage 2 in North-Eastern Spain (Catalonia).

Transbound Emerg Dis 2019 Mar 26;66(2):617-621. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

IRTA, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA IRTA-UAB), Bellaterra, Spain.

In September 2017, West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 was detected in Catalonia (Northern Spain) in northern goshawks by passive surveillance. The phylogenetic analyses showed that it was related to the Central/Southern European strains, evidencing WNV lineage 2 spread to Western Europe. WNV local transmission was later detected in bearded vultures housed at the Wildlife Recovery center where the goshawk was transferred to. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/tbed.13086
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13086DOI Listing
March 2019
39 Reads

Protective antibodies against Eastern equine encephalitis virus bind to epitopes in domains A and B of the E2 glycoprotein.

Nat Microbiol 2019 01 19;4(1):187-197. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus with a high case mortality rate in humans. EEEV is a biodefence concern because of its potential for aerosol spread and the lack of existing countermeasures. Here, we identify a panel of 18 neutralizing murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the EEEV E2 glycoprotein, several of which have 'elite' activity with 50 and 99% effective inhibitory concentrations (EC and EC) of less than 10 and 100 ng ml, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-018-0286-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6294662PMC
January 2019
54 Reads

West Nile virus infection in horses in Saudi Arabia (in 2013-2015).

Zoonoses Public Health 2019 03 6;66(2):248-253. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

West Nile virus (WNV) is an important emerging zoonotic arbovirus giving rise to clinical syndromes of varying severity in humans and horses. Culex mosquitoes are the main vector. Although WNV has been reported in many countries in the Middle East and Asia, little is known about its prevalence in equine populations in the Arabian Peninsula. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/zph.12532
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/zph.12532DOI Listing
March 2019
36 Reads
2.065 Impact Factor

Transmission of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus From an Organ Donor to 3 Transplant Recipients.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 07;69(3):450-458

Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, NCEZID, CDC, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Background: In fall 2017, 3 solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients from a common donor developed encephalitis within 1 week of transplantation, prompting suspicion of transplant-transmitted infection. Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) infection was identified during testing of endomyocardial tissue from the heart recipient.

Methods: We reviewed medical records of the organ donor and transplant recipients and tested serum, whole blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and tissue from the donor and recipients for evidence of EEEV infection by multiple assays. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy923DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6488434PMC
July 2019
99 Reads

West Nile Virus and Other Nationally Notifiable Arboviral Diseases - United States, 2017.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Oct 19;67(41):1137-1142. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Arthropodborne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes or ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the continental United States (1). Other arboviruses, including Jamestown Canyon, La Crosse, Powassan, St. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6741a1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6193690PMC
October 2018
45 Reads

A Case of Eastern Equine Encephalitis.

Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2019 02 15;58(2):245-246. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

2 Our Lady of the Lake Children's Hospital, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0009922818806842DOI Listing
February 2019
11 Reads

Zoonotic Viral Diseases of Equines and Their Impact on Human and Animal Health.

Open Virol J 2018 31;12:80-98. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

ICAR-National Research Centre on Equines, Hisar-125001, India.

Introduction: Zoonotic diseases are the infectious diseases that can be transmitted to human beings and vice versa from animals either directly or indirectly. These diseases can be caused by a range of organisms including bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi. Viral diseases are highly infectious and capable of causing pandemics as evidenced by outbreaks of diseases like Ebola, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, West Nile, SARS-Corona, Nipah, Hendra, Avian influenza and Swine influenza. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874357901812010080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6142672PMC
August 2018
26 Reads

Using Bloodmeal Analysis to Assess Disease Risk to Wildlife at the New Northern Limit of a Mosquito Species.

Ecohealth 2018 09 21;15(3):543-554. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Center for Vector Biology, Department of Entomology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901, USA.

The historically southeastern mosquito species Culex erraticus has over the last 30 years undergone a marked expansion north. We evaluated this species' potential to participate in local disease cycles in the northeastern USA by identifying the vertebrate sources of blood in Cx. erraticus specimens from New Jersey. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10393-018-1371-0DOI Listing
September 2018
27 Reads

First record of Culex (Culex) bidens (Diptera: Culicidae) in Colombia: Taxonomic and epidemiological implications.

Acta Trop 2018 Dec 18;188:251-257. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Universidad del Sinú, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Grupo de Investigación en Enfermedades Tropicales y Resistencia Bacteriana, Montería, Colombia.

Arbovirus transmission cycles must be studied locally since both vectors and hosts vary in different regions. Colombia has a highly diverse mosquito fauna. Culex (Culex) bidens is reported here for the first time in Colombia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.09.010DOI Listing
December 2018
8 Reads