2,162 results match your criteria Encephalitis California


Varicella Zoster Virus Encephalitis in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients: Case Series and Review of Literature.

Transpl Infect Dis 2018 Dec 12:e13038. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Global Public Health, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.

Herpes zoster encephalitis (HZE) is a rare complication of varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection. We report two cases of HZE in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients and review ten other cases in the literature. In this review, rash was present in 67% of cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.13038DOI Listing
December 2018

Epidemiology of Meningitis and Encephalitis in Infants and Children in the United States, 2011-2014.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2019 Jan;38(1):37-41

bioMérieux, Durham, NC.

Background: Large epidemiologic studies evaluating the etiologies, management decisions and outcomes of infants and children with meningitis and encephalitis in the United States are lacking.

Methods: Children 0-17 years of age with meningitis or encephalitis as assessed by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes available in the Premier Healthcare Database during 2011-2014 were analyzed.

Results: Six thousand six hundred sixty-five patients with meningitis or encephalitis were identified; 3030 (45. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002081DOI Listing
January 2019

Acute Dissemination With Encephalitis in the Era of Biological Therapies.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2018 Nov 17;5(11):ofy259. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Palo Alto Medical Foundation Toxoplasma Serology Laboratory, National Reference Center for the Study and Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis, Palo Alto, California.

We report the case of a 65-year-old patient with pseudolymphoma who developed acute toxoplasmosis following 6 cycles of rituximab and bendamustine therapy. Acute toxoplasmosis in the setting of biological response modifiers, rather than reactivation, is a unique unreported infection. The patient developed severe disease with multi-organ involvement, including retinitis, myocarditis, and myositis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofy259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6237240PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Reemergence of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus in the Americas.

Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Dec;24(12)

We summarize and analyze historical and current data regarding the reemergence of St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV; genus Flavivirus) in the Americas. Historically, SLEV caused encephalitis outbreaks in the United States; however, it was not considered a public health concern in the rest of the Americas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2412.180372DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6256408PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Cost of managing meningitis and encephalitis among infants and children in the United States.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Oct 27. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

bioMérieux, Durham, NC; Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, Hempstead, NY.

A retrospective cohort study design was used to assess the use and costs of diagnostic tests, medication, and total hospitalization costs for pediatric patients with suspected meningitis/encephalitis who received a lumbar puncture (LP) procedure. Related costs were calculated by timing of LP performed and infectious etiology for infants (<1 year) and children (1-17 years). A total of 3030 infants and 3635 children with suspected ME diagnosed between 2011 and 2014 were included in the study. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S07328893183054
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2018.10.012DOI Listing
October 2018
6 Reads

Evaluation of a new West Nile virus nucleic acid test for screening of blood donations.

Transfusion 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Medical and Scientific Affairs, Roche Molecular Systems, Inc., Pleasanton, California.

Background: West Nile virus (WNV) is transmitted to humans through mosquito bites and can be further transmitted to humans through transfusion or transplantation. Because most infected individuals are asymptomatic, blood donor screening is important in areas where WNV is endemic. These studies evaluated the performance of a new test for detection of WNV RNA in blood donations. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/trf.15022
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15022DOI Listing
November 2018
7 Reads
3.230 Impact Factor

A quantitative risk assessment (QRA) of the risk of introduction of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in the United States via infected mosquitoes transported in aircraft and cargo ships.

Prev Vet Med 2018 Nov 24;160:1-9. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, 66506, United States. Electronic address:

Following a qualitative risk assessment, in which we identified and assessed all viable pathways for the introduction of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) into the United States (US), we identified entry through infected vectors via aircraft and cargo ships as the most likely pathway, and thus considered it further in a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) model. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of introduction of JEV in the US via infected mosquitoes transported in aircraft and cargo ships arriving from Asia, using a QRA model. We created a stochastic model to quantify the probability of introduction of at least one infected mosquito in the continental US via aircraft and cargo ships, per at-risk period (March to October) or year, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2018.09.020DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Functional Assessment of 2,177 U.S. and International Drugs Identifies the Quinoline Nitroxoline as a Potent Amoebicidal Agent against the Pathogen .

MBio 2018 Oct 30;9(5). Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA

is a pathogenic free-living amoeba that causes a rare but almost always fatal infection of the central nervous system called granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE). Two distinct forms of -a proliferative trophozoite form and a nonproliferative cyst form, which is highly resistant to harsh physical and chemical conditions-have been isolated from environmental samples worldwide and are both observed in infected tissue. Patients suffering from GAE are typically treated with aggressive and prolonged multidrug regimens that often include the antimicrobial agents miltefosine and pentamidine isethionate. Read More

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http://mbio.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/mBio.02051-18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02051-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6212833PMC
October 2018
3 Reads

Diagnostic Testing of Neurologic Infections.

Neurol Clin 2018 Nov;36(4):687-703

Department of Neurology, UCSF Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California, San Francisco, 675 Nelson Rising Lane, NS212A, Campus Box 3206, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address:

Neuroinfectious diseases continue to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide, with many emerging or reemerging infections resulting in neurologic sequelae. Careful clinical evaluation coupled with appropriate laboratory investigations still forms the bedrock for making the correct etiologic diagnosis and implementing appropriate management. The treating physician needs to understand the individual test characteristics of each of the many conventional candidate-based diagnostics: culture, pathogen-specific polymerase chain reaction, antigen, antibody tests, used to diagnose the whole array of neuroinvasive infections. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S07338619183124
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.07.004DOI Listing
November 2018
6 Reads
1.610 Impact Factor

Human herpesvirus 6 associated post-transplant acute limbic encephalitis: Clinical observations of biomarkers for risk of seizure in a pediatric population.

Transpl Infect Dis 2018 Sep 26:e13003. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Department of Neurology, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, Massachusetts.

Background: Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) is a cause of post-transplant acute limbic encephalitis (PALE). Seizures are associated with this disorder yet no predictive biomarkers have been identified. The objective of this study was to evaluate lab and neurodiagnostic biomarkers in patients with HHV6 associated PALE. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/tid.13003
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.13003DOI Listing
September 2018
6 Reads

The Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Balamuthia mandrillaris Disease in the United States, 1974 - 2016.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Sep 20. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Parasitic Diseases Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Balamuthia mandrillaris is a free-living ameba that causes rare, nearly always fatal disease in humans and animals worldwide. B. mandrillaris has been isolated from soil, dust, and water. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy813DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

Sarcocystis calchasi Outbreak in Feral Rock Pigeons ( Columba livia) in California.

Vet Pathol 2018 Sep 16:300985818794262. Epub 2018 Sep 16.

1 California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory, UC Davis, Davis, CA, USA.

Twenty-two feral rock pigeons ( Columba livia) from 10 counties in California with ataxia, torticollis, and difficulty standing and flying were admitted to rehabilitation centers in late winter and spring of 2017 and died or were euthanized. Common necropsy findings included thin body condition, generalized deep red discoloration of organs, and hemorrhagic subcutaneous neck tissues. Meningoencephalitis was observed microscopically in 16 pigeons, and 3 also had protozoal schizonts in the brain. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0300985818794262
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300985818794262DOI Listing
September 2018
10 Reads

St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Disease in the United States, 2003-2017.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Oct;99(4):1074-1079

Arboviral Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado.

St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), an arthropod-borne flavivirus, can cause disease presentations ranging from mild febrile illness through severe encephalitis. We reviewed U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6159600PMC
October 2018
1 Read

Ongoing and emerging arbovirus threats in Europe.

Authors:
Luisa Barzon

J Clin Virol 2018 Oct 23;107:38-47. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padova, via A. Gabelli 63, 35121, Padova, Italy. Electronic address:

During the last decades, arboviruses that are endemic in Europe have expanded their geographic range and caused an increasing number of human outbreaks. These viruses include West Nile virus, which is expanding its area of circulation in central and southern Europe; Usutu virus, with increasing evidence of a role in human disease; tick-borne encephalitis virus, which is being detected in northern areas and at higher altitudes as a consequence of climate warming; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, which is endemic in Eastern Europe and the Middle East, but has been recently detected in Spain; other viruses, such as California encephalitis virus antigenic group, which circulate in northern and central Europe but whose relevance for human disease in largely unknown. In addition, the rise in global travel and trade has posed Europe to an increased risk of introduction and expansion of exotic arthropod vectors and autochthonous transmission of arboviruses, like dengue and chikungunya viruses, following new introductions from endemic areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2018.08.007DOI Listing
October 2018
13 Reads
3.020 Impact Factor

N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptor Antibody Encephalitis: A Concise Review of the Disorder, Diagnosis, and Management.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2018 Aug 31. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Department of Pathology , Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles , California 90033 , United States.

Anti-NMDA ( N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is one of the most common paraneoplastic encephalitides. It occurs in both sexes, across all age ranges, and may occur in the presence or absence of an associated tumor. Its pathogenesis and clinical presentation relate to the presence of IgG1 or IgG3 antibodies targeting the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor, leading to a disinhibition of neuronal excitatory pathways. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acschemneuro.8b00304
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.8b00304DOI Listing
August 2018
22 Reads

Otitis and meningoencephalitis associated with infectious coryza ( Avibacterium paragallinarum) in commercial broiler chickens.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2018 Sep 21;30(5):784-788. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

California Animal Health & Food Safety Laboratory System, University of California-Davis, Turlock Branch, Turlock, CA (Crispo, Cooper, Bickford, Stoute).

Infectious coryza, caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum, is an acute respiratory disease of poultry that can result in substantial morbidity, mortality, and economic losses. In March 2017, the Turlock branch of the California Animal Health and Food Safety laboratory system encountered an unusual clinical and pathologic presentation of infectious coryza in 6 live, 29-d-old, commercial broiler chickens that were submitted for diagnostic investigation. Antemortem evaluation revealed severe neurologic signs, including disorientation, torticollis, and opisthotonos. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1040638718792964
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1040638718792964DOI Listing
September 2018
18 Reads

Mosquito-Borne Diseases.

Prim Care 2018 Sep;45(3):393-407

Department of Family Medicine, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, 1200 California Street, Suite 240, Redlands, CA 92374, USA.

Mosquito-borne diseases have become more common as previously geographically isolated diseases have spread globally. Chikungunya, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, malaria, West Nile, yellow fever, and Zika are a few of the common and emerging viral diseases spread by mosquitoes. A thorough patient history, physical, and knowledge of diagnostic testing based on symptom duration is important to make a quick and accurate diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pop.2018.05.001DOI Listing
September 2018
4 Reads

Uremia induces upregulation of cerebral tissue oxidative/inflammatory cascade, down-regulation of Nrf2 pathway and disruption of blood brain barrier.

Am J Transl Res 2018 15;10(7):2137-2147. Epub 2018 Jul 15.

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of California Irvine, USA.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) results in various central nervous systems (CNS) disorders including cognitive dysfunction, depression, anxiety, movement disorders, seizures and encephalopathy. Uremic retention products, oxidative stress, inflammation and impaired blood-brain barrier have been implicated as the major mediators of CKD-induced CNS disorders. However, mechanisms of CKD-induced cerebral tissue oxidative stress, inflammation and impaired blood brain barrier have not been fully elucidated and were explored. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6079125PMC
July 2018
8 Reads

Nipah virus epidemic in southern India and emphasizing "One Health" approach to ensure global health security.

J Family Med Prim Care 2018 Mar-Apr;7(2):275-283

Medical Laboratory Specialist, Etobicoke, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Nipah virus (NiV) encephalitis first reported in "Sungai Nipah" in Malaysia in 1999 has emerged as a global public health threat in the Southeast Asia region. From 1998 to 2018, more than 630 cases of NiV human infections were reported. NiV is transmitted by zoonotic (from bats to humans, or from bats to pigs, and then to humans) as well as human-to-human routes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_137_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6060941PMC

Brain MRI Features of CSF Human Immunodeficiency Virus Escape.

J Neuroimaging 2018 Nov 5;28(6):601-607. Epub 2018 Aug 5.

University of California at San Francisco, Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital and Trauma Center, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA.

Background And Purpose: HIV infection of the central nervous system (CNS) is a nearly universal feature of untreated systemic HIV infection. While combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) that suppresses systemic infection usually suppresses CNS (CNS) HIV infection, exceptions have been reported with discordance between CSF and blood HIV RNA concentrations such that CSF demonstrates higher HIV concentrations than blood, referred to as CSF HIV escape. Rarely, CSF HIV escape presents with neurological symptoms, called neurosymptomatic escape. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jon.12552DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

HSV1/2 Genital Infection in Mice Cause Reversible Delayed Gastrointestinal Transit: A Model for Enteric Myopathy.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2018 17;5:176. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

In an interesting investigation by Khoury-Hanold et al. (1), genital infection of mice with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) were reported to cause multiple pelvic organ involvement and obstruction. A small subset of mice succumbed after the first week of HSV1 infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2018.00176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6056620PMC
July 2018
3 Reads

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis mortality, United States, 1979-2016: Vaccine-induced declines in SSPE deaths.

Vaccine 2018 08 26;36(35):5222-5225. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Department of Population Health and Disease Prevention, University of California, 653 E. Peltason Drive, Irvine, CA 92697, United States. Electronic address:

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by measles virus. We estimate SSPE age-specific mortality in the United States, 1979-2016. The general decline in SSPE mortality reflects that of measles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.07.030DOI Listing

Apparent resolution of parrot bornavirus infection in cockatiels ().

Vet Med (Auckl) 2017 6;8:31-36. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

Schubot Exotic Bird Health Center, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX,

Parrot bornavirus (PaBV), the etiologic agent of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), is a major cause of concern in the avian health community. Within an infected flock, some birds will develop PDD and succumb to disease, while others remain healthy. Until now, there has been no study describing the results of long-term infection in apparently healthy carriers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/VMRR.S134969DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6042499PMC

Autoimmune encephalitis after herpes simplex encephalitis: insights into pathogenesis.

Lancet Neurol 2018 Sep 23;17(9):733-735. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

Weill Institute for Neurosciences, MS and Neuroinflammation Clinic, University of California, 94158, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(18)30279-5DOI Listing
September 2018
10 Reads

Determination of system level alterations in host transcriptome due to Zika virus (ZIKV) Infection in retinal pigment epithelium.

Sci Rep 2018 Jul 25;8(1):11209. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

BIDMC Genomics, Proteomics, Bioinformatics and Systems Biology Centre, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Previously, we reported that Zika virus (ZIKV) causes ocular complications such as chorioretinal atrophy, by infecting cells lining the blood-retinal barrier, including the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). To understand the molecular basis of ZIKV-induced retinal pathology, we performed a meta-analysis of transcriptome profiles of ZIKV-infected human primary RPE and other cell types infected with either ZIKV or other related flaviviruses (Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, and Dengue). This led to identification of a unique ZIKV infection signature comprising 43 genes (35 upregulated and 8 downregulated). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-29329-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6060127PMC
July 2018
2 Reads
5.080 Impact Factor

Coxiella burnetii Endocarditis and Meningitis, California, USA, 2017.

Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Aug;24(8)

The epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii infection in the United States is not well characterized. We report a case-patient with C. burnetii endocarditis and meningitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2408.180249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6056110PMC
August 2018
2 Reads

Real-time Utilization of Metagenomic Sequencing in the Diagnosis and Treatment Monitoring of an Invasive Adenovirus B55 Infection and Subsequent Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis in an Immunocompetent Young Adult.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2018 Jun 16;5(6):ofy114. Epub 2018 May 16.

Zhejiang-California International Nanosystems Institute, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Metagenomic sequencing has shown tremendous promise in solving difficult infectious diseases cases. In this study, we utilized this technology to help guide the care of a critically ill patient with severe pneumonia, fever of unknown origin, and subsequent encephalitis in the intensive care unit (ICU).

Methods: Shotgun metagenomic sequencing was performed on the patient's blood, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and cerebral spinal fluid by using an Illumina MiniSeq sequencer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofy114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6016423PMC
June 2018
3 Reads

Protecting children against Japanese encephalitis in Bali, Indonesia.

Lancet 2018 06;391(10139):2500-2501

International Vaccine Institute, Seoul 08826, South Korea; Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31191-7DOI Listing
June 2018
10 Reads

First report of the isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris in the northern region of Japan.

Parasitol Res 2018 Sep 30;117(9):2895-2900. Epub 2018 Jun 30.

Department of Bioscience and Laboratory Medicine, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, 036-8564, Japan.

Balamuthia mandrillaris is a free-living amoeba that lives in soil and water near human settlements. B. mandrillaris was first isolated from a mandrill baboon that died at the San Diego Zoo Wildlife Park in California in 1986, and the first human infection was reported in 1990. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-018-5980-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6105249PMC
September 2018

Safety of repeated doses of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine in adults and adolescents.

Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2018 Aug 3;27(8):921-925. Epub 2018 Jun 3.

Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA, USA.

In light of waning immunity to pertussis following receipt of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, maintaining protection may require repeated Tdap vaccination. We evaluated the safety of repeated doses of tetanus-containing vaccine in 68 915 nonpregnant adolescents and adults in the Vaccine Safety Datalink population who had received an initial dose of Tdap. Compared with 7521 subjects who received a subsequent dose of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria (Td) vaccine, the 61 394 subjects who received a subsequent dose of Tdap did not have significantly elevated risk of medical visits for seizure, cranial nerve disorders, limb swelling, pain in limb, cellulitis, paralytic syndromes, or encephalopathy/encephalitis/meningitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pds.4569DOI Listing
August 2018
5 Reads

Herpes Zoster Infection in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis Receiving Tofacitinib.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2018 Sep;24(10):2258-2265

Pfizer Inc., Collegeville, Pennsylvania.

Background: Tofacitinib is an oral, small molecule Janus kinase inhibitor that is being investigated for ulcerative colitis (UC). Tofacitinib is approved for rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis, where it has been shown to increase herpes zoster (HZ) risk. We evaluated HZ risk among UC patients using tofacitinib. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ibdjournal/article/24/10/2258/50251
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izy131DOI Listing
September 2018
9 Reads

HIV disease and diabetes interact to affect brain white matter hyperintensities and cognition.

AIDS 2018 Aug;32(13):1803-1810

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Background: Since the onset of combination antiretroviral therapy use, the incidence of HIV-associated dementia and of HIV encephalitis has fallen dramatically. The present study investigates the extent of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) among individuals with HIV disease, and factors that predict their presence and their impact on psychomotor speed.

Methods: A total of 322 men participating in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (185 HIV-infected, age: 57. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000001891DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6082131PMC
August 2018
5 Reads

Encephalitis is mediated by ROP18 of , a severe pathogen in AIDS patients.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 06 21;115(23):E5344-E5352. Epub 2018 May 21.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, People's Republic of China;

The neurotropic parasite is a globally distributed parasitic protozoan among mammalian hosts, including humans. During the course of infection, the CNS is the most commonly damaged organ among invaded tissues. The polymorphic rhoptry protein 18 (ROP18) is a key serine (Ser)/threonine (Thr) kinase that phosphorylates host proteins to modulate acute virulence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1801118115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6003310PMC
June 2018
2 Reads

Generation of a Lineage II Powassan Virus (Deer Tick Virus) cDNA Clone: Assessment of Flaviviral Genetic Determinants of Tick and Mosquito Vector Competence.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2018 07 21;18(7):371-381. Epub 2018 May 21.

1 Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Fort Collins, Colorado.

The Flavivirus genus comprises a diverse group of viruses that utilize a wide range of vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. The genus includes viruses that are transmitted solely by mosquitoes or vertebrate hosts as well as viruses that alternate transmission between mosquitoes or ticks and vertebrates. Nevertheless, the viral genetic determinants that dictate these unique flaviviral host and vector specificities have been poorly characterized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2017.2224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6026929PMC
July 2018
6 Reads

Ovarian teratoma associated Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis: a difficult diagnosis with a favorable prognosis.

Autops Case Rep 2018 Apr-Jun;8(2):e2018019. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

University of California, Davis Medical Center, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine . Sacramento, CA , USA .

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is a recently described auto-immune and paraneoplastic encephalitis with prominent neuropsychiatric manifestations affecting young adults with ovarian teratoma. The availability of a novel assay to measure these antibodies might suggest an etiology for this potentially life-threatening disease, which if early recognized can be treated promptly with surgery with chances of a good clinical outcome. Reported prognostic indicators for a good outcome depend on the presence of a tumor, prompt treatment and no admission to an intensive care unit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4322/acr.2018.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5953185PMC
April 2018
2 Reads

ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Togaviridae.

J Gen Virol 2018 Jun 10;99(6):761-762. Epub 2018 May 10.

1​Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA.

The Togaviridae is a family of small, enveloped viruses with single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes of 10-12 kb. Within the family, the genus Alphavirus includes a large number of diverse species, while the genus Rubivirus includes the single species Rubella virus. Most alphaviruses are mosquito-borne and are pathogenic in their vertebrate hosts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.001072DOI Listing
June 2018
9 Reads

Update From the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 May;7(2):93-99

Stanford University School of Medicine, California.

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), a group of medical and public health experts, meets 3 times per year to develop recommendations for vaccine use in the United States. The group has 15 voting members, each of whom is appointed to a 4-year term. ACIP members and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) staff discuss the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccine research, effectiveness, safety data, and clinical trial results. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy028DOI Listing
May 2018
6 Reads

Cyclic hypersomnolence with symptoms of narcolepsy with cataplexy: An unusual presentation of probable immune-mediated encephalitis.

eNeurologicalSci 2018 Mar 28;10:26-27. Epub 2018 Jan 28.

Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive #0935, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

We report a case of probable encephalitis presenting as narcolepsy with cataplexy, but with cyclical exacerbation and cognitive difficulties. Our patient continued to worsen despite treatment for narcolepsy and later was thought to have an immune-mediated encephalopathy. Treatment with intravenous gamma immunoglobulin (IVIG) led to complete recovery. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S24056502183000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ensci.2018.01.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5933995PMC
March 2018
4 Reads

Scented Sugar Baits Enhance Detection of St. Louis Encephalitis and West Nile Viruses in Mosquitoes in Suburban California.

J Med Entomol 2018 Aug;55(5):1307-1318

Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA.

Scented sugar baits deployed in California deserts detected early West Nile virus (WNV) transmission by mosquitoes, representing a potential improvement to conventional arbovirus surveillance that relies heavily on infection rates in mosquito pools. In this study, we expanded deployment of scented sugar baits into suburban Sacramento and Yolo (2015, 2016) and Riverside Counties (2016), California. The goal of the study was to determine whether scented sugar baits detect WNV and St. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjy064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6113650PMC
August 2018
9 Reads

Risk factors associated with seropositivity to California serogroup viruses in humans and pet dogs, Quebec, Canada.

Epidemiol Infect 2018 Jul 2;146(9):1167-1176. Epub 2018 May 2.

Groupe de recherche en épidémiologie des zoonoses et santé publique, Faculté de médecine vétérinaire,Université de Montréal,Saint-Hyacinthe, Québec,Canada.

Jamestown Canyon and snowshoe hare viruses are two emerging human pathogens associated with cases of neuroinvasive disease in North America. This study aimed to identify environmental and individual risk factors for seropositivity to these arboviruses in humans and pet dogs from Québec, Canada, 2012-2014. In humans, areas with moderate densities of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were associated with higher odds of seropositivity compared with areas with low densities of white-tailed deer (OR 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268818001000DOI Listing
July 2018
5 Reads

Cost of managing meningitis and encephalitis among adult patients in the United States of America.

Int J Infect Dis 2018 Jun 24;71:117-121. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Premier Research Services, Premier Healthcare Solutions Inc., Charlotte, NC, USA; University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.

Objective: To determine the associated costs related to the diagnosis and treatment of meningitis and encephalitis (ME) in adult patients in the USA.

Methods: A retrospective observational study design was used to assess the use and costs of diagnostic tests and antimicrobial treatment and the total hospitalization costs for adult patients with suspected ME, who received a lumbar puncture procedure during an emergency department visit or during the first two service days of an inpatient stay. Related costs were calculated by timing of lumbar puncture performed and infectious etiology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2018.04.799DOI Listing

Retrospective Evaluation of Infants Aged 1 to 60 Days with Residual Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Tested Using the FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) Panel.

J Clin Microbiol 2018 Jul 25;56(7). Epub 2018 Jun 25.

BioFire Diagnostics, LLC, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

In pediatric practice it is common for infants under 2 months of age to undergo evaluation for sepsis when they are ill, often including lumbar puncture to assess for central nervous system (CNS) infection. The FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) panel is a newly approved test for rapid identification of CNS pathogens. Our objective was to study the epidemiology of CNS infection in young infants and the potential impact of rapid multiplex PCR on their care. Read More

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http://jcm.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JCM.00277-18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00277-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6018345PMC
July 2018
16 Reads

Central Nervous System Inflammation and Infection during Early, Nonaccelerated Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Rhesus Macaques.

J Virol 2018 06 14;92(11). Epub 2018 May 14.

U.S. Military HIV Research Program, Department of Retrovirology, AFRIMS, Bangkok, Thailand

Studies utilizing highly pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) have largely focused on the immunopathology of the central nervous system (CNS) during end-stage neurological AIDS and SIV encephalitis. However, this may not model pathophysiology in earlier stages of infection. In this nonaccelerated SHIV model, plasma SHIV RNA levels and peripheral blood and colonic CD4 T cell counts mirrored early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00222-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5952152PMC
June 2018
3 Reads

Fatal Powassan Encephalitis (Deer Tick Virus, Lineage II) in a Patient With Fever and Orchitis Receiving Rituximab.

JAMA Neurol 2018 Jun;75(6):746-750

Neuropathology Division, Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: Powassan virus is a rare but increasingly recognized cause of severe neurological disease.

Objective: To highlight the diagnostic challenges and neuropathological findings in a fatal case of Powassan encephalitis caused by deer tick virus (lineage II) in a patient with follicular lymphoma receiving rituximab, with nonspecific anti-GAD65 antibodies, who was initially seen with fever and orchiepididymitis.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Comparison of clinical, radiological, histological, and laboratory findings, including immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, antibody detection, and unbiased sequencing assays, in a single case report (first seen in December 2016) at an academic medical center. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2018.0132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5885183PMC
June 2018
7 Reads

One Year in the Life of a Rapid Syndromic Panel for Meningitis/Encephalitis: a Pediatric Tertiary Care Facility's Experience.

J Clin Microbiol 2018 May 25;56(5). Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA

Early establishment of infectious processes allows for expedited clinical management of meningitis and encephalitis. The FilmArray meningitis/encephalitis (FA-M/E) panel provides rapid detection of potential pathogens associated with encephalitis/meningitis in both immunocompetent and compromised patients. Here, we conducted a 1-year review of the performance of the FA-M/E panel at a tertiary care children's hospital. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01940-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5925728PMC
May 2018
13 Reads

Use of temperature to improve West Nile virus forecasts.

PLoS Comput Biol 2018 03 9;14(3):e1006047. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America.

Ecological and laboratory studies have demonstrated that temperature modulates West Nile virus (WNV) transmission dynamics and spillover infection to humans. Here we explore whether inclusion of temperature forcing in a model depicting WNV transmission improves WNV forecast accuracy relative to a baseline model depicting WNV transmission without temperature forcing. Both models are optimized using a data assimilation method and two observed data streams: mosquito infection rates and reported human WNV cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5862506PMC
March 2018
4 Reads

Serological surveillance for Tahyna virus (California encephalitis orthobunyavirus, Peribunyaviridae) neutralizing antibodies in wild ungulates in Austria, Hungary and Romania.

Zoonoses Public Health 2018 06 8;65(4):459-463. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

Institute of Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria.

A serosurvey for Tahyna virus (TAHV), a mosquito-borne California encephalitis orthobunyavirus (Peribunyaviridae) endemic to Europe, was performed to estimate the activity of TAHV on a broad geographic scale. Sera from wild boar (Sus scrofa), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) were collected from Austria, Hungary and Romania. Samples were tested for neutralizing antibodies against TAHV using a virus microneutralization assay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/zph.12457DOI Listing

Diagnosis of Zika Virus Infection by Peptide Array and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

MBio 2018 03 6;9(2). Epub 2018 Mar 6.

Center for Infection and Immunity, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA

Zika virus (ZIKV) is implicated in fetal stillbirth, microcephaly, intracranial calcifications, and ocular anomalies following vertical transmission from infected mothers. In adults, infection may trigger autoimmune inflammatory polyneuropathy. Transmission most commonly follows the bite of infected mosquitoes but may also occur through sexual intercourse or receipt of blood products. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00095-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5844993PMC
March 2018
19 Reads