67,065 results match your criteria Encephalitis


COVID-19 and the nervous system.

Authors:
Joseph R Berger

J Neurovirol 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

A pandemic due to novel coronavirus arose in mid-December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and in 3 months' time swept the world. The disease has been referred to as COVID-19, and the causative agent has been labelled SARS-CoV-2 due to its genetic similarities to the virus (SARS-CoV-1) responsible for the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic nearly 20 years earlier. The spike proteins of both viruses dictate tissue tropism using the angiotensin-converting enzyme type 2 (ACE-2) receptor to bind to cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-020-00840-5DOI Listing

Role of pattern recognition receptors and interferon-beta in protecting bat cell lines from encephalomyocarditis virus and Japanese encephalitis virus infection.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020 Jun 23;527(1):1-7. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Laboratory of Animal Morphology, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan. Electronic address:

Bats are potential natural hosts of Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Bats appear to have some unique features in their innate immune system that inhibit viral replication causing limited clinical symptoms, and thus, contributing to the virus spill over to humans. Here, kidney epithelial cell lines derived from four bat species (Pteropus dasymallus, Rousettus leschenaultii, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, and Miniopterus fuliginosus) and two non-bat species (Homo sapiens and Mesocricetus auratus) were infected with EMCV and JEV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.04.060DOI Listing

Encephalitis lethargica: a dying fall.

Authors:
Michael S Zandi

Brain 2019 Sep;142(9):2888-2891

National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, and UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awz228DOI Listing
September 2019

Structural and molecular analyses of functional epitopes and escape mutants in Japanese encephalitis virus envelope protein domain III.

Authors:
Urmi Roy

Immunol Res 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Chemistry & Biomolecular Science, Clarkson University, 8 Clarkson Avenue, Potsdam, NY, 13699-5820, USA.

The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is one of the vector borne causes of encephalitis found in southeastern Asia. This positive single-stranded RNA virus is a member of the Flaviviridae family, which notably includes dengue, tick-borne, West Nile, Zika as well as yellow fever, and transmits to humans by infected mosquitos. The main site of interactions for antibodies against this virus is the envelope protein domain III (ED3). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12026-020-09130-yDOI Listing

Analysis of Multiple Risk Factors for Seronegative Rate of Anti-Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Immunization in Human Serum.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2020 May 20;56(5). Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Medical Laboratory Diagnostics, Division of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Hematology, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska Str. 211a, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland.

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infections have been the cause of threatening outbreaks for many years. Apart from several physical and chemical methods to prevent tick bites, active vaccination of people highly exposed to infection is still the most important strategy of prevention. However, in some subjects, the lack of or low response to TBEV antigens is observed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina56050244DOI Listing

A study for precision diagnosing and treatment strategies in difficult-to-treat AIDS cases and HIV-infected patients with highly fatal or highly disabling opportunistic infections.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 May;99(20):e20146

Division of Infectious Diseases, Chongqing Public Health Medical Center, Chongqing, China.

Background: An increased frequency of toxoplasma encephalitis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, has been reported in AIDS patients, especially in those with CD4+ T cell counts <100 cells/μL. Several guidelines recommend the combination of pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and leucovorin as the preferred regimen for AIDS-associated toxoplasma encephalitis. However, it is not commonly used in China due to limited access to pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000020146DOI Listing

ATP1A3: an unusual antigen to consider in patients with subacute ataxia and vertical gaze palsy.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2020 May 12;43:102160. Epub 2020 May 12.

Oncology Department, Instituto Português de Oncologia, Lisbon, Portugal.

The anti-ATP1A3 antibody seems to be directed against a neuronal and cardiac surface protein of the proton ATPase. It was recently identified in a patient with a paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by cerebellar, neuro-ophthalmologic and other neurological symptoms. We report another patient with a similar clinical and radiological syndrome but with a different associated tumor and outcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2020.102160DOI Listing

Antiepileptic drugs for acute encephalitic patients presented with seizure.

Epilepsy Res 2020 May 19;164:106347. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Neurology and National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this study was to clarify the pattern and efficacy of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in acute encephalitis and discuss how long AEDs should be used after the acute phase.

Methods: Patients with acute encephalitis who presented with seizure were enrolled. The clinical features were systematically gathered, and the information about AEDs and seizures was obtained by a clinical follow-up and (or) a telephone interview based on a structured form. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2020.106347DOI Listing

Zoonotic Alphaviruses in Fatal and Neurologic Infections in Wildlife and Nonequine Domestic Animals, South Africa.

Emerg Infect Dis 2020 Jun;26(6):1182-1191

Alphaviruses from Africa, such as Middelburg virus (MIDV), and Sindbis virus (SINV), were detected in horses with neurologic disease in South Africa, but their host ranges remain unknown. We investigated the contribution of alphaviruses to neurologic infections and death in wildlife and domestic animals in this country. During 2010-2018, a total of 608 clinical samples from wildlife and nonequine domestic animals that had febrile, neurologic signs or unexplained deaths were tested for alphaviruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2606.191179DOI Listing

Fatal Encephalitis Caused by Cristoli Virus, an Emerging Orthobunyavirus, France.

Emerg Infect Dis 2020 Jun;26(6):1287-1290

We report the discovery of a new orthobunyavirus, Cristoli virus, by means of shotgun metagenomics. The virus was identified in an immunodepressed patient with fatal encephalitis. Full-length genome sequencing revealed high-level expression of a virulence factor, possibly explaining the severity of the infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2606.191431DOI Listing

Cross-Protection Induced by Encephalitis Vaccines against COVID-19 Might be a Reason for Relatively Lower Mortality Rate in Some Countries.

Arch Acad Emerg Med 2020 21;8(1):e54. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Yamanashi University-Faculty of Medicine, 1110, Shimokato, Chuo, Yamanashi 409-3898, Japan.

COronaVIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an on-going pandemic attributed to a novel virus named SARS-CoV-2. Comparing the statistics of incidence and death rates between nations reveals that there is discrepancy amongst countries in these regards, even between countries that share borders. We herein present information from the literature indicating how cross-protection against COVID-19 conferred by the encephalitis vaccine could be the reason for lower fatality rate in the countries where immunization against encephalitis is widespread or included in national programs. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212070PMC

Gliomatosis cerebri and rasmussen´s encephalitis: two different entities causing refractory epilepsy. Comparison through two clinical cases.

Neurochirurgie 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Neurosurgery Department, Sant Joan de Déu Barcelona Children's Hospital, Barcelona, Spain; Pediatric Epilepsy Surgery Unit, Sant Joan de Déu Barcelona Children's Hospital, Barcelona, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuchi.2020.01.003DOI Listing

Evaluation of Viral RNA Recovery Methods in Vectors by Metagenomic Sequencing.

Viruses 2020 May 19;12(5). Epub 2020 May 19.

Biology Division, Spiez Laboratory, Swiss Federal Office for Civil Protection, Austrasse, CH-3700 Spiez, Switzerland.

Identification and characterization of viral genomes in vectors including ticks and mosquitoes positive for pathogens of great public health concern using metagenomic next generation sequencing (mNGS) has challenges. One such challenge is the ability to efficiently recover viral RNA which is typically dependent on sample processing. We evaluated the quantitative effect of six different extraction methods in recovering viral RNA in vectors using negative tick homogenates spiked with serial dilutions of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and surrogate Langat virus (LGTV). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12050562DOI Listing

Spatiotemporal and Socioeconomic Risk Factors for Dengue at the Province Level in Vietnam, 2013-2015: Clustering Analysis and Regression Model.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2020 May 19;5(2). Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London WC1H 9SH, UK.

Dengue is a serious infectious disease threat in Vietnam, but its spatiotemporal and socioeconomic risk factors are not currently well understood at the province level across the country and on a multiannual scale. We explore spatial trends, clusters and outliers in dengue case counts at the province level from 2011-2015 and use this to extract spatiotemporal variables for regression analysis of the association between dengue case counts and selected spatiotemporal and socioeconomic variables from 2013-2015. Dengue in Vietnam follows anticipated spatial trends, with a potential two-year cycle of high-high clusters in some southern provinces. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5020081DOI Listing

Psychiatric and neuropsychiatric presentations associated with severe coronavirus infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis with comparison to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Lancet Psychiatry 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

UCL Institute of Mental Health, University College London, London, UK.

Background: Before the COVID-19 pandemic, coronaviruses caused two noteworthy outbreaks: severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), starting in 2002, and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), starting in 2012. We aimed to assess the psychiatric and neuropsychiatric presentations of SARS, MERS, and COVID-19.

Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases (from their inception until March 18, 2020), and medRxiv, bioRxiv, and PsyArXiv (between Jan 1, 2020, and April 10, 2020) were searched by two independent researchers for all English-language studies or preprints reporting data on the psychiatric and neuropsychiatric presentations of individuals with suspected or laboratory-confirmed coronavirus infection (SARS coronavirus, MERS coronavirus, or SARS coronavirus 2). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30203-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7234781PMC

Distinctive binding properties of human monoclonal LGI1 autoantibodies determine pathogenic mechanisms.

Brain 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Oxford Autoimmune Neurology Group, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Autoantibodies against leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) are found in patients with limbic encephalitis and focal seizures. Here, we generate patient-derived monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against LGI1. We explore their sequences and binding characteristics, plus their pathogenic potential using transfected HEK293T cells, rodent neuronal preparations, and behavioural and electrophysiological assessments in vivo after mAb injections into the rodent hippocampus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awaa104DOI Listing

Herpesvirus Encephalitis in a Little Blue Penguin ().

Vet Pathol 2020 May 21:300985820926678. Epub 2020 May 21.

Michigan State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, East Lansing, MI, USA.

An 11-day-old little blue penguin () died unexpectedly. Prior to hatching, the egg experienced trauma and resultant defects were repaired. The chick hatched without complication and was clinically normal prior to death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300985820926678DOI Listing

Impact of the Southern Oscillation Index, Temperature, and Precipitation on Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in Florida.

J Med Entomol 2020 May 6. Epub 2020 May 6.

Global Health Infectious Disease Research, University of South Florida, 3720 Spectrum Blvd, Suite 304, Tampa, FL.

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), an Alphavirus from family Togaviridae, is a highly pathogenic arbovirus affecting the eastern United States, especially Florida. Effects of the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), precipitation, and cooling degree days on EEEV horse case data in Florida from 2004 to 2018 were modeled using distributed lag nonlinear models (DLNMs). The analysis was conducted at statewide and regional scales. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjaa084DOI Listing

Stroke in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection: case series.

J Neurol 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Clinical Neurology Unit, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Friuli Centrale, Presidio Ospedaliero Santa Maria della Misericordia, Udine, Italy.

Background: Italy is one of the most affected countries by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The responsible pathogen is named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic infection to severe pneumonia, leading to intensive care unit admission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-020-09885-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238403PMC

Miller Fisher Variant of Guillain-Barré Syndrome in a Child.

J Pediatr Neurosci 2020 Jan-Mar;15(1):60-62. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Paediatrics, Grant Government Medical College and Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy Group of Hospitals, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS), a rare form of Guillain-Barré Syndrome, presents with the classical triad of ophthalmoplegia, areflexia, and ataxia. We describe the case of a 7-year-old boy who presented with diplopia, speech difficulty, dysphagia, gait disturbance, and difficulty in eyeball movements since 5 days. On examination, the child was having ataxia, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, drooling of saliva, dysphonia, and absent gag reflex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/JPN.JPN_146_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227762PMC

[Ictal EEG pattern of transient epileptic amnesia in acute phase of non-herpetic limbic encephalitis].

Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Neurology, Japan Community Health care Organization, Hoshigaoka Medical Centre.

A 60-year-old, right-handed woman was admitted to our hospital for amnesia as the only neurological abnormal findings following the autonomic symptoms and transient episodes of loss of awareness. EEG during the amnesia showed rhythmic alpha activity arising from the left mid-temporal region. Although this ictal activity showed evolution in the frequency and amplitude, the location was limited in the bilateral temporal areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5692/clinicalneurol.60.cn-001414DOI Listing

The global seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in deer from 1978 to 2019: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Acta Trop 2020 May 17:105529. Epub 2020 May 17.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong Province, 266109, PR China. Electronic address:

Toxoplasma gondii infecting virtually all warm-blooded animals, including humans, is an intracellular protozoan parasite. The immunocompromised patients or pregnant women infected by Toxoplasma usually can cause encephalitis or abortion. Deer are also the important intermediate host of the parasite and people can be infected by ingesting the undercooked venison. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105529DOI Listing

A prospective cohort study to identify clinical, biological and imaging features that predict etiology of acute encephalitis.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Maladies infectieuses, CHUGA, Grenoble, France.

Background: New diagnostic tools have been developed to improve the diagnosis of infectious encephalitis. Using a prospective cohort of encephalitis patients, our objective was to identify possible clusters of patients with similar patterns among encephalitis of unknown cause, and to describe to what extent the patient's initial presentation may be predictive of encephalitis etiology, particularly Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Varicella-zona virus (VZV).

Methods: The national cohort of infectious encephalitis in France (ENCEIF) is an ongoing prospective cohort study implemented in France in 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa598DOI Listing

A Case of Multiple Sclerosis-Like Relapsing Remitting Encephalomyelitis Following Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation and a Review of the Published Literature.

Front Immunol 2020 5;11:668. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Haematology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, United Kingdom.

Complications involving the central nervous system (CNS) occur in 9-14% of patients following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), including stroke-like episodes, demyelination, encephalitis, and nonspecific neurological symptoms. Here we report a case of multiple sclerosis (MS) like relapsing remitting encephalomyelitis following allogeneic HSCT, which did not respond to disease modifying therapies (DMTs) and "domino" autologous HSCT. A 53-year-old male was treated with allogeneic HSCT for lymphoid blast transformation of chronic myeloid leukemia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00668DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7214636PMC

Clinical and Electroencephalographic Features of the Seizures in Neuronal Surface Antibody-Associated Autoimmune Encephalitis.

Front Neurol 2020 5;11:280. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

To investigate clinical and electroencephalographic features of the seizures in different types of neuronal surface antibody (NSAb)-associated autoimmune encephalitis (AE). The clinical data of the seizures were analyzed in 18 patients with NSAb-associated AEs diagnosed in the First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University. From May 2013 to April 2019, a total of 18 cases of NSAb-associated AE were diagnosed, including 9 cases of leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 protein (LGI1) antibody-associated encephalitis, 7 cases of anti--methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, and 2 cases of anti-γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor (GABAR) encephalitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7214674PMC

COVID-19-associated meningoencephalitis complicated with intracranial hemorrhage: a case report.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Neurospinal Hospital, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

The coronavirus pandemic that started in December 2019 is mainly related to clinical pictures consistent with respiratory symptoms; nevertheless, reports about neurological complications have recently appeared in the medical literature. We describe a case of a 36-year-old coronavirus-positive patient that was admitted on emergency basis; his clinical presentation included neurological symptoms such as drowsiness and mild confusion. Imaging revealed findings consistent with meningoencephalitis complicated by intracerebral hematoma and subdural hematoma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-020-04402-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7237227PMC

[Isolated metamorphopsia and visual pseudohallucinations in a patient with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis].

Ophthalmologe 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Neurologie und neurologische Frührehabilitation, Asklepios Klinik Nord-Heidberg, Hamburg, Deutschland.

This article reports the case of a 40-year-old male patient with isolated metamorphopsia and visual pseudohallucinations lasting for 2 weeks. As the ophthalmological findings were not pathological, a further neurological examination was performed. After diagnosis of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis, which can be manifested in various psychiatric, neurological and ophthalmological ways, the oligosymptomatic patient received high-dose corticosteroid treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins, which stopped the symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00347-020-01120-7DOI Listing

Lipid-Specific Labeling of Enveloped Viruses with Quantum Dots for Single-Virus Tracking.

mBio 2020 May 19;11(3). Epub 2020 May 19.

College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Virology, The Institute for Advanced Studies, Wuhan Institute of Biotechnology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, People's Republic of China

Quantum dots (QDs) possess optical properties of superbright fluorescence, excellent photostability, narrow emission spectra, and optional colors. Labeled with QDs, single molecules/viruses can be rapidly and continuously imaged for a long time, providing more detailed information than when labeled with other fluorophores. While they are widely used to label proteins in single-molecule-tracking studies, QDs have rarely been used to study virus infection, mainly due to a lack of accepted labeling strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00135-20DOI Listing

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus: the problem is not over for tropical America.

Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2020 May 19;19(1):19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas del Trópico (IIBT), Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad de Córdoba, Montería, Córdoba, Colombia.

The equine encephalitis viruses, Venezuelan (VEEV), East (EEEV) and West (WEEV), belong to the genus alphavirus, family Togaviridae and still represent a threat for human and animal public health in the Americas. In both, these infections are characterized by high viremia, rash, fever, encephalitis and death. VEEV encephalitis is similar, clinically, to other arboviral diseases, such as dengue, Zika or chikungunya. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12941-020-00360-4DOI Listing

Evervac: phase I/II study of immunogenicity and safety of a new adjuvant-free TBE vaccine cultivated in Vero cell culture.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020 May 19:1-8. Epub 2020 May 19.

Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "Chumakov Federal Scientific Center for Research and Development of Immune-and-Biological Products of Russian Academy of Sciences" (FSBSI "Chumakov FSC R&D IBP RAS"), Moscow, Russia.

Approximately 10,000 cases of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), a serious disease of the central nervous system caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), are registered worldwide every year. Vaccination against TBE remains the most essential measure of preventing the disease. Unlike available TBE vaccines, a new inactivated lyophilized candidate vaccine Evervac is produced in Vero continuous cell culture and its final formulation does not include aluminum-based adjuvants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1757990DOI Listing

Phenotypic and Genotypic Comparison of a Live-Attenuated Genotype I Japanese Encephalitis Virus SD12-F120 Strain with Its Virulent Parental SD12 Strain.

Viruses 2020 May 16;12(5). Epub 2020 May 16.

Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai 200241, China.

The phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of a live-attenuated genotype I (GI) strain (SD12-F120) of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) were compared with its virulent parental SD12 strain to gain an insight into the genetic changes acquired during the attenuation process. SD12-F120 formed smaller plaque on BHK-21 cells and showed reduced replication in mouse brains compared with SD12. Mice inoculated with SD12-F120 via either intraperitoneal or intracerebral route showed no clinical symptoms, indicating a highly attenuated phenotype in terms of both neuroinvasiveness and neurovirulence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12050552DOI Listing

Measuring Alphavirus Fidelity Using Non-Infectious Virus Particles.

Viruses 2020 May 15;12(5). Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA.

Mutations are incorporated into the genomes of RNA viruses at an optimal frequency and altering this precise frequency has been proposed as a strategy to create live-attenuated vaccines. However, determining the effect of specific mutations that alter fidelity has been difficult because of the rapid selection of the virus population during replication. By deleting residues of the structural polyprotein PE2 cleavage site, E3D56-59, in Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) TC-83 vaccine strain, non-infectious virus particles were used to assess the effect of single mutations on mutation frequency without the interference of selection that results from multiple replication cycles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12050546DOI Listing

Zoonotic risks of pathogens from sheep and their milk borne transmission.

Small Rumin Res 2020 May 15:106123. Epub 2020 May 15.

Royal GD, Department of Small Ruminant Health, Deventer, The Netherlands.

Sheep were domesticated around 9000 BC in the Middle East, and since then milk from sheep gradually became very popular, not only for drinking but also for making cheeses and other dairy products. Nowadays, these dairy products are also important for people with an allergy to cow milk, and these products are an essential part of the local daily diet in regions of the world that are not suitable for cows and goats. Consumption of raw milk and raw milk products has a zoonotic risk, and with regard to sheep, the main pathogens associated with such dairy products are: , spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2020.106123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227596PMC

Neurologic Manifestations of Severe Respiratory Viral Contagions.

Crit Care Explor 2020 Apr 29;2(4):e0107. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Both authors: Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Endemic and pandemic viral respiratory infections have recently emerged as a critical topic of investigation given the recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 outbreak. Data from such outbreaks indicate that severe systemic comorbidities including acute neurologic illness are associated with illness and lead to significant outcome differences. Herein, we will discuss the neurologic manifestations of severe viral respiratory infections including coronavirus, influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, metapneumovirus, and enterovirus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCE.0000000000000107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7188429PMC

Economic Evaluation: Onsite HSV PCR Capabilities for Pediatric Care.

Pediatr Qual Saf 2020 Mar-Apr;5(2):e266. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, Tex.

Objective: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis has an overall mortality rate of 11%-29% with treatment. Although rare, HSV encephalitis is frequently tested for and empirically treated, especially in the neonatal population. HSV infection can be diagnosed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, although this frequently requires sending samples to reference laboratories. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/pq9.0000000000000266DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7190250PMC

Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Signaling May Contribute to Chronic West Nile Virus Post-infectious Proinflammatory State.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 30;7:164. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS, United States.

West Nile virus (WNV) causes a spectrum of human disease ranging from a febrile illness (WNV fever) to severe neuroinvasive disease (meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis). Since WNV gained entry into North America in 1999, clinicians caring for WNV survivors have observed persistent neurological symptoms occurring long-after the production of neutralizing antibodies and clearance of the virus. Accordingly, alternative pathogeneses other than direct viral invasion have been hypothesized to explain these post-infectious symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.00164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7203783PMC

NMDAR Encephalitis Associated With Acute Chikungunya Virus Infection: A New Trigger?

Front Pediatr 2020 30;8:176. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Faculdade Israelita de Ciências da Saúde Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil.

Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is the most frequent cause of autoimmune encephalitis. Chikungunya (CHIK) is an arbovirus responsible for outbreaks of fever, cutaneous rash and arthritis in underdeveloped countries, and a trigger for autoimmunity. We report a five-year-old male patient with fever, myalgia, headache and conjunctivitis for 5 days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204150PMC

Brain Death Secondary to Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Encephalitis.

Case Rep Crit Care 2020 1;2020:5329420. Epub 2020 May 1.

Ryan White Center for Pediatric Infectious Disease and Global Health, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

A two-year-old female presented with acutely altered mental status following eight days of fever and rash. She had been camping at an Indiana campground 11 days prior to the onset of illness and was evaluated twice for her fever and rash prior to admission. Laboratory evaluation on admission revealed thrombocytopenia, hyponatremia, and elevated transaminases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5329420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218968PMC

Neurologic complications of COVID-19.

Am J Emerg Med 2020 May 16. Epub 2020 May 16.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, United States of America.

Background: Much of the focus regarding the global pandemic of coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has been on the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and hematologic complications. However, neurologic complications have arisen as an increasingly recognized area of morbidity and mortality.

Objective: This brief report summarizes the neurologic complications associated with COVID-19 with an emphasis on the emergency medicine clinician. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2020.05.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7229718PMC

Japanese encephalitis vaccination in pregnancy among U.S. active duty military women.

Vaccine 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Deployment Health Research Department, Naval Health Research Center, 140 Sylvester Road, San Diego, CA 92106, USA.

Introduction: Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine is an inactivated vaccine that has shown no risks in pregnancy in animal models, but epidemiologic studies are lacking. U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.05.023DOI Listing

Neurological manifestations of COVID-19 and other coronavirus infections: A systematic review.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2020 May 15;194:105921. Epub 2020 May 15.

National Autnomous University of Honduras, School of Medical Sciences, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

Background: Increasing research reports neurological manifestations of COVID-19 patients. SARS-CoV-2 shares homology with other human coronaviruses that have also had nervous system involvement.

Objective: To review the neurological aspects of SARS-cov2 and other coronavirus, including transmission pathways, mechanisms of invasion into the nervous system, and mechanisms of neurological disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2020.105921DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227498PMC

Association Between Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Exposure and Inflammatory Central Nervous System Events.

JAMA Neurol 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Importance: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors are common therapies for certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. An association between TNF inhibitor exposure and inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) events has been postulated but is poorly understood.

Objective: To evaluate whether TNF inhibitor exposure is associated with inflammatory demyelinating and nondemyelinating CNS events in patients with an indication for TNF inhibitor use and to describe the spectrum of those CNS events. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.1162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235930PMC

Kawasaki disease presented with status epilepticus and diffusion MRI abnormalities in the subcortical white matter.

Turk J Pediatr 2020 ;62(2):315-319

Department of Pediatrics, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan.

Background: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, self-limited vasculitis of unknown etiology that occurs predominantly in infants and young children. Encephalitis/encephalopathy is an extremely rare complication of KD.

Case: A previously healthy 8-month-old Japanese boy had a prolonged seizure after febrile illness for one day. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.24953/turkjped.2020.02.020DOI Listing
January 2020

Steroid-responsive encephalitis in Covid-19 disease.

Ann Neurol 2020 May 17. Epub 2020 May 17.

Neurology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, Italy.

Covid-19 infection has the potential for targeting the central nervous system and several neurological symptoms have been described in patients with severe respiratory distress. Here we described the case of a 60-year old subject with SARS-CoV-2 infection but only mild respiratory abnormalities who developed an akinetic mutism due to encephalitis. MRI was negative whereas EEG showed generalized theta slowing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.25783DOI Listing

Complete genomic sequences of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype IIID isolates from mosquitoes.

Arch Virol 2020 May 16. Epub 2020 May 16.

Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter Street, Frederick, MD, 21702, USA.

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an important pathogen of medical and veterinary importance in the Americas. In this report, we present the complete genome sequences of five VEEV isolates obtained from pools of Culex (Melanoconion) gnomatos (4) or Culex (Melanoconion) pedroi (1) from Iquitos, Peru. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses showed that all five isolates grouped within the VEEV complex sister to VEEV IIIC and are members of subtype IIID. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-020-04647-xDOI Listing

Novel findings of HLA association with anti-LGI1 encephalitis: HLA-DRB1*03:01 and HLA-DQB1*02:01.

J Neuroimmunol 2020 Apr 15;344:577243. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Neurology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

This study was to investigate whether autoimmune encephalitis is associated with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes in Chinese Han population. We compared and analyzed the HLA genotypes of 101 patients with autoimmune encephalitis (77 anti-NMDAR, 11 anti-LGI1 and 13 anti-GABAR antibody, respectively) to the 200 healthy control groups. Our results showed that the DRB1*03:01 or DQB1*02:01 allele and the extended DRB1*03:01 ~ DQB1*02:01 haplotype represented the strong susceptibility locus for anti-LGI1 encephalitis (OR = 18. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2020.577243DOI Listing

Improved detection of dengue and Zika viruses using multiplex RT-qPCR assays.

J Virol Methods 2020 May 14:113862. Epub 2020 May 14.

Virology Unit, Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, Institut Pasteur International Network, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Electronic address:

Dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are important viral pathogens, known to cause human infections with similar symptoms, are transmitted by common vectors and co-circulate in intertropical regions. Moreover, dengue fever results from infection with one of four different serotypes of dengue virus. Considering the recent ZIKV emergence, multiplex and up-to-date assays are more preferable for detection of both viruses in a single reaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2020.113862DOI Listing

Human Herpesvirus 6 Detection during the Evaluation of Sepsis in Infants Using the FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel.

J Pediatr 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN; Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN.

We used the FilmArray meningitis/encephalitis panel for evaluation of sepsis in febrile neonates. We detected human herpesvirus 6, a virus we did not routinely test for previously, in the cerebrospinal fluid of 7 neonates. In all 7 cases, detection of the virus did not warrant antiviral treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.03.023DOI Listing

Clinical characteristics of GAD 65 associated autoimmune encephalitis.

Acta Neurol Scand 2020 May 16. Epub 2020 May 16.

Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100070, P.R. China.

Objectives: To examine the clinical characteristics of autoimmune encephalitis associated with the glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD 65) antibody.

Materials And Methods: Medical records of all patients that diagnosed with GAD65 antibody-associated encephalitis were retrospectively analyzed. Data regarding demographics and symptoms, neurological signs, laboratory and imaging results, treatment and prognosis were collected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ane.13281DOI Listing