73,593 results match your criteria Encephalitis

Differentiating autoimmune encephalitis from schizophrenia spectrum disorders among patients with first-episode psychosis.

J Psychiatr Res 2022 May 13;151:419-426. Epub 2022 May 13.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Ashikaga Red Cross Hospital, Ashikaga, Tochigi, 326-0843, Japan; Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Although differential diagnosis between autoimmune encephalitis and schizophrenia spectrum disorders is crucial for a good outcome, the psychiatric symptoms that distinguish these two conditions have not been identified even though psychiatric symptoms are often the main manifestation of autoimmune encephalitis. Also, there are many situations in clinical psychiatry in which laboratory testing and imaging studies are not available. Because no comparative study of the psychiatric symptoms between these two conditions has been carried out, we explored diagnostically useful psychiatric symptoms in a retrospective case-control study. Read More

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Clinical features and outcomes of leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 and contactin protein-like 2 antibody-associated autoimmune encephalitis in a Chinese cohort.

J Clin Neurosci 2022 May 18;101:137-143. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Nephrology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China. Electronic address:

The present study aimed to investigate the clinical manifestations, epidemiological characteristics, and outcomes of Chinese patients with voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKC) antibody-associated encephalitis. Patients diagnosed with VGKC antibody-associated encephalitis at our institution between January 2016 and December 2020 were included in this study. We retrospectively evaluated their clinical features, auxiliary examination results, treatments details, long-term outcomes, and risk factors for poor outcome. Read More

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Long-term evolution and prognostic factors of epilepsy in limbic encephalitis with LGI1 antibodies.

J Neurol 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Functional Neurology and Epileptology, Hospices Civils de Lyon and Lyon 1 University, Lyon, France.

Objective: To characterize the evolution of epilepsy in patients with leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 antibody-associated (LGI1ab) limbic encephalitis, including factors associated with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE).

Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients with LGI1 encephalitis managed at two tertiary epilepsy centers between 2005 and 2019 and whose samples were confirmed by the French Reference Center of Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndromes. Raw clinical, biological, EEG, and MRI data were reviewed. Read More

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FLAIR-hyperintense lesions in anti-MOG-associated encephalitis with seizures (FLAMES) in a patient with Crohn's disease on anti-TNF treatment.

Neurologia (Engl Ed) 2022 May;37(4):304-306

Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), Servicio de Neurología, UGC de Neurociencias, Hospital Regional Universitario de Málaga, Málaga, Spain.

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Rare antibody-mediated and seronegative autoimmune encephalitis: An update.

Autoimmun Rev 2022 May 17:103118. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Neuroscience, Central Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Science, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Department of Neurology, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Department of Neurology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

Paralleling advances with respect to more common antibody-mediated encephalitides, such as anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) Ab-mediated encephalitis, the discovery and characterisation of novel antibody-mediated encephalitides accelerated over the past decade, adding further depth etiologically to the spectrum of antibody-mediated encephalitis. Herein, we review the major mechanistic, clinical features and management considerations with respect to anti-γ-aminobutyric acid B (GABA)-, anti-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropinoic receptor- (AMPAR), anti-GABA-, anti-dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein-6 (DPPX) Ab-mediated encephalitides, delineate rarer subtypes and summarise findings to date regarding seronegative autoimmune encephalitis. Read More

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A Case of Opsoclonus-Myoclonus-Ataxia With Neuronal Intermediate Filament IgG Detected in Cerebrospinal Fluid.

J Neuroophthalmol 2022 Jun;42(2):278-281

Department of Neurology (MM, JCR, SJF, LJB, SLG), New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, New York; Department of Neurology (AM, MDM), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; and Departments of Radiology (JH), Ophthalmology (JCR, LJB, SLG), and Department of Population Health (LJB), New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, New York.

Abstract: A 62-year-old man presented with headache, fever, and malaise. He was diagnosed with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, confirmed by serum polymerase chain reaction, and started on oral doxycycline. After 5 days of treatment, the patient began to experience gait imbalance with frequent falls, as well as myoclonus, and confusion. Read More

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A Case of Lethargy Followed by New Abnormal Movements in an Infant With a History of HSV Encephalitis.

Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2022 May 20:99228221098652. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.

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Immunoglobulin M seroneutralization for improved confirmation of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in a flavivirus-endemic area.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Lao-Oxford-Mahosot Hospital-Wellcome Trust-Research Unit, Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR.

Background: The mainstay of diagnostic confirmation of acute Japanese encephalitis (JE) involves detection of anti-JE virus (JEV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Limitations in the specificity of this test are increasingly apparent with the introduction of JEV vaccinations and the endemicity of other cross-reactive flaviviruses. Virus neutralization testing (VNT) is considered the gold standard, but it is challenging to implement and interpret. Read More

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Widespread interspecific phylogenetic tree incongruence between mosquito-borne and insect-specific flaviviruses at hotspots originally identified in Zika virus.

Virus Evol 2022 18;8(1):veac027. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

UMR "Unité des Virus Emergents", Aix-Marseille Université-IRD 190-Inserm 1207-IHU Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France.

Intraspecies (homologous) phylogenetic incongruence, or 'tree conflict' between different loci within the same genome of mosquito-borne flaviviruses (MBFV), was first identified in dengue virus (DENV) and subsequently in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), St Louis encephalitis virus, and Zika virus (ZIKV). Recently, the first evidence of phylogenetic incongruence between interspecific members of the MBFV was reported in ZIKV and its close relative, Spondweni virus. Uniquely, these hybrid proteomes were derived from four incongruent trees involving an -associated DENV node (1 tree) and three different -associated flavivirus nodes (3 trees). Read More

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Pathological and Ultrastructural Characterization of an Edwardsiella ictaluri Triple hemR Mutant.

J Aquat Anim Health 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi, 39762, USA.

Enteric septicemia of catfish, which is caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri, is detrimental to farmed Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus. The hemin receptor HemR is involved in binding and uptake of heme into bacteria. Here, we explored pathological and ultrastructural changes in catfish fry that were immunized with a triple hemR mutant of E. Read More

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Spatial statistical and environmental correlation analyses on vector density, vector infection index and Japanese encephalitis cases at the village and pigsty levels in Liyi County, Shanxi Province, China.

Parasit Vectors 2022 May 19;15(1):171. Epub 2022 May 19.

Academy of Military Medical Sciences State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing, 100071, People's Republic of China.

Background: In the eco-epidemiological context of Japanese encephalitis (JE), geo-environmental features influence the spatial spread of the vector (Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Giles 1901) density, vector infection, and JE cases.

Methods: In Liyi County, Shanxi Province, China, the spatial autocorrelation of mosquito vector density, vector infection indices, and JE cases were investigated at the pigsty and village scales. The map and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) remote sensing databases on township JE cases and geo-environmental features were combined in a Geographic Information System (GIS), and the connections among these variables were analyzed with regression and spatial analyses. Read More

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Nanoliposomes containing limonene and limonene-rich essential oils as novel larvicides against malaria and filariasis mosquito vectors.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2022 May 19;22(1):140. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, Iran.

Background: Mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and encephalitis are still the cause of several hundred thousand deaths annually. The excessive use of chemical insecticides for transmission control has led to environmental pollution and widespread resistance in mosquitoes. Botanical insecticides' efficacies improvement has thus received considerable attention recently. Read More

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[Patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) Who Have Already Visited Some Medical Institutions: Diagnosis, Treatment and Research].

Wakiro Sato

Brain Nerve 2022 May;74(5):652-659

Department of Immunology, Multiple Sclerosis Center, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, National Institute of Neuroscience.

Myalgic encephalitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is an acquired intractable disease characterized by profound fatigue, post-exertional malaise, sleep disturbance, cognitive impairment, and orthostatic intolerance, among other features. The onset often follows an infectious episode. Importantly, the various types of autonomic dysfunctions, pain, and intolerance to various stimuli in ME/CFS patients are intrinsically different from the "fatigue" of healthy individuals. Read More

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[Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis with Poor Recovery on Steroid Pulse and IVIg: Second-Line Immunotherapies and Prediction of Prognosis].

Akio Kimura

Brain Nerve 2022 May;74(5):443-448

Department of Neurology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine.

Most patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis improve slowly with first-line immunotherapies (steroids, intravenous immunoglobulins, or plasma exchange) and, if necessary, tumor removal. However, the remaining refractory patients require second-line immunotherapies, such as rituximab or cyclophosphamide. We discuss the identification of patients who should receive second-line immunotherapies and the timing of the transition to these immunotherapies based on a review of the literature and our treatment experience. Read More

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[Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis with Poor Recovery on Steroid Pulse and IVIg: Practical Approach to Intensive Immunotherapy].

Brain Nerve 2022 May;74(5):433-442

Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine.

Anti-N-methyl--aspartate receptor encephalitis (NMDARE) is a well-defined autoimmune encephalitis that is responsive to early intensive immunotherapy. Recent international consensus regarding treatment of NMDARE provides a practical treatment algorithm for immunotherapy escalation, while considering a patient's age, disease severity, and other background information. First-line immunotherapy, which includes an intravenous (IV) corticosteroid pulse with the addition of either intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) or plasma exchange, should be offered to all NMDARE-diagnosed patients as soon as possible. Read More

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[Etiology and epidemiology of hand, foot and mouth disease in China].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2022 May;43(5):771-783

Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine Center, Beijing Youan Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China.

Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has been widespread in the world, and caused fever, rashes and other clinical symptoms of children, and sometimes inducing respiratory failure, brainstem encephalitis, and other complications, even death. The disease is mainly caused by enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus 16 (CV-A16). Since 2013, the proportion of HFMD cases caused by other enteroriruses has gradually increased, causing severe and even fatal cases. Read More

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Paraneoplastic encephalitis: clinically based approach on diagnosis and management.

Postgrad Med J 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Neuro-oncology, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 Villeurbanne, Lyon, France

Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNSs) comprise a subset of immune-mediated nervous system diseases triggered by an underlying malignancy. Each syndrome usually shows a distinct clinical presentation and outcome according to the associated neural antibodies. PNSs generally have a subacute onset with rapid progression and severe neurological disability. Read More

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Pathogenic mechanisms in neuronal surface autoantibody-mediated encephalitis.

J Neuroimmunol 2022 May 2;368:577867. Epub 2022 May 2.

Johns Hopkins Encephalitis Center, Division of Neuroimmunology and Neuroinfectious Diseases, Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore 21287, MD, United States. Electronic address:

In recent years, autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies against neuronal cell surface proteins has become a well-recognized phenomenon. Here, we describe clinical features and diagnosis of these conditions before turning to the mechanisms by which autoantibodies are generated and cause disease. The clinical syndrome typically evolves in a subacute fashion and is quite variable, although short-term memory loss, behavioral changes, and seizures are common. Read More

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Japanese Encephalitis Virus as another emerging infectious disease: is a lack of epidemiological tools the pig in the room?

Int J Epidemiol 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

School of Allied Health Science and Practice, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

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Hemichorea in Rasmussen's Encephalitis-A Rare Case.

Mov Disord Clin Pract 2022 May 11;9(4):542-545. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Department of Neurology All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi India.

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Anti-Neuronal Autoantibodies (Cell Surface and Onconeural) and Their Association With Natural Autoantibodies in Synthetic Cannabinoid-Induced Psychosis.

Front Psychiatry 2022 2;13:850955. Epub 2022 May 2.

Department of Pediatrics, Clinical Centre, University of Pécs Medical School, Pécs, Hungary.

Patients suffering from encephalitis may present psychiatric symptoms; however, the clinical relevance of anti-neuronal antibodies in patients experiencing a psychotic episode without encephalitis is still unclear. In this study, we examined the presence of anti-neuronal cell surface autoantibodies and onconeural autoantibodies in serum samples of 22 synthetic cannabinoid users presenting with psychosis. We found only two positive cases; however, seven patients had borderline results. Read More

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FSME: Jede Impfung zählt.

Nicola Zink

MMW Fortschr Med 2022 May;164(10):19

Springer Medizin Verlag GmbH, Aschauer Str. 30, 81549, München, Germany.

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Climate Change and Cascading Risks from Infectious Disease.

Infect Dis Ther 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Center for Health and the Global Environment (CHanGE), University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA.

Climate change is adversely affecting the burden of infectious disease throughout the world, which is a health security threat. Climate-sensitive infectious disease includes vector-borne diseases such as malaria, whose transmission potential is expected to increase because of enhanced climatic suitability for the mosquito vector in Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and South America. Climatic suitability for the mosquitoes that can carry dengue, Zika, and chikungunya is also likely to increase, facilitating further increases in the geographic range and longer transmission seasons, and raising concern for expansion of these diseases into temperate zones, particularly under higher greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Read More

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Progressive MRI findings of West Nile virus encephalitis in a patient with diabetes mellitus.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 May 18;15(5). Epub 2022 May 18.

Radiology, Kocaeli University School of Medicine, Izmit, Turkey.

A man in his 70s was admitted to our hospital with complaints of fatigue, loss of appetite and fever. His neurological examination was normal. He had a medical history of diabetes mellitus for 25 years. Read More

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Great balls of fire! The basal ganglia on fire.

Clin Med (Lond) 2022 May;22(3):276-277

Aster Medcity, Kochi, India.

A 76-year-old man presented to the hospital with intermittent dizziness, memory impairment and jerky movements. Evaluation revealed them to be faciobrachial dystonic seizures and antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channel complexes were found. He was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone and rituximab, and made a remarkable recovery. Read More

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MAVS mediates a protective immune response in the brain to Rift Valley fever virus.

PLoS Pathog 2022 May 18;18(5):e1010231. Epub 2022 May 18.

Biosciences and Biotechnology Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, United States of America.

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne virus capable of causing hepatitis, encephalitis, blindness, hemorrhagic syndrome, and death in humans and livestock. Upon aerosol infection with RVFV, the brain is a major site of viral replication and tissue damage, yet pathogenesis in this organ has been understudied. Here, we investigated the immune response in the brain of RVFV infected mice. Read More

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Genetic and Pathogenic Characterisation of a Virulent Akabane Virus Isolated from Goats in Yunnan, China.

J Vet Res 2022 Mar 10;66(1):35-42. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Yunnan Tropical and Subtropical Animal Virus Disease Laboratory, Yunnan Animal Science and Veterinary Institute, Kunming 650224, China.

Introduction: Akabane virus (AKAV) has been detected in a variety of host species in China, but there are only limited records of its occurrence in goats. However, more attention needs to be paid to understanding the diversity of viruses in this species. The aim of the study was to explore the genotype characteristics and variation trend of AKAV and their relationship with virulence in Yunnan, China. Read More

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Fulminant anti-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor GluR1 antibodies encephalitis in a Chinese boy: a case report.

BMC Pediatr 2022 May 17;22(1):287. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Neurology Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, China International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Child Development and Critical Disorders, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Pediatrics, No.136 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Chongqing, 400014, China.

Background: Anti-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) encephalitis is a rare autoimmune synaptic encephalitis associated with autoantibodies that cause a selective decrease in surface expression and changes in receptor localization. Anti-AMPAR encephalitis is poorly recognized, especially in children, and its clinical phenotype is incompletely described.

Case Presentation: We report a case of anti-AMPAR GluR1 antibody-mediated autoimmune encephalitis in a 12-year-old male. Read More

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Atypical Imaging Findings in Anti-GQ1b Brainstem Encephalitis.

Can J Neurol Sci 2022 May 18:1-2. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Neurology, Hospital Egas Moniz, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Ocidental, Lisboa, Portugal.

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How do we reduce acyclovir overuse? Impact of FilmArray meningitis/encephalitis panel tests for pediatric patients.

J Infect Chemother 2022 May 14. Epub 2022 May 14.

Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Pediatrics, Kobe Children's Hospital, Hyogo, Japan.

Background: Few Japanese hospitals can perform in-house cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to screen for herpes simplex virus, leading to patients being administered acyclovir (ACV) for several days. The FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel (ME Panel) is a multiplex PCR test that can identify 14 major pathogens within 1 h. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of the ME Panel in children admitted with central nervous system infections in Japan. Read More

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