63,682 results match your criteria Encephalitis


Middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity in perinatal cytomegalovirus infection.

J Clin Ultrasound 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee.

A middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity value (MCA-PSV) persistently greater than 1.5 times the median of the normal population is utilized to detect moderate and severe anemia in fetuses at risk. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common perinatal infection and can cause fetal anemia. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jcu.22715
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcu.22715DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

A case of treatable dementia with Lewy bodies remarkably improved by immunotherapy.

Authors:
Kie Abe Yuhei Chiba

J Neuroimmunol 2019 Feb 16;330:35-37. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Department of Psychiatry, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa-Ku, Yokohama-Shi, Kanagawa-Ken 236-0004, Japan. Electronic address:

We report a case of probable dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) with several findings indicating autoimmune encephalitis (e.g. anti-thyroid antibodies in serum and oligoclonal band and anti-N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2019.02.003DOI Listing
February 2019

Suspected Herpes Zoster-associated Encephalitis during Treatment with Oral Tofacitinib in Alopecia Universalis.

Int J Trichology 2018 Nov-Dec;10(6):286-288

Department of Dermatology, University of California, Irvine, California, USA.

Systemic administration of Janus kinase inhibitors (JAKis) is associated with adverse events, including serious infections, malignancy, and herpes zoster (HZ). Herein, we report a case of a 17-year-old male with alopecia universalis who developed suspected HZ-associated encephalitis (HZAE) during treatment with oral tofacitinib. Oral tofacitinib was immediately discontinued, and the patient was started on antiviral treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijt.ijt_87_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369645PMC
February 2019

Incidence of hospitalisation for severe complications of influenza virus infection in Japanese patients between 2012 and 2016: a cross-sectional study using routinely collected administrative data.

BMJ Open 2019 Jan 17;9(1):e024687. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Yamanashi, Chuo City, Japan.

Objective: To calculate the incidence of hospitalisation due to acute respiratory failure, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), febrile seizures and encephalitis/encephalopathy among influenza-positive patients in Japan, where point-of-care tests are routinely used to diagnose influenza.

Design: A cross-sectional study using routinely collected data.

Setting: Japanese clinics and hospitals between 2012 and 2016. Read More

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http://bmjopen.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-02468
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-024687DOI Listing
January 2019
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Acute encephalitis in immunocompetent adults.

Lancet 2019 Feb 14;393(10172):702-716. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK; Department of Neurology, the Walton Center NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK.

Encephalitis is a condition of inflammation of the brain parenchyma, occurs as a result of infectious or autoimmune causes, and can lead to encephalopathy, seizures, focal neurological deficits, neurological disability, and death. Viral causes account for the largest proportion, but in the last decade there has been growing recognition of anti-neuronal antibody syndromes. This Seminar focuses on the diagnosis and management of acute encephalitis in adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32526-1DOI Listing
February 2019

Molecular epidemiology of an enterovirus A71 outbreak associated with severe neurological disease, Spain, 2016.

Euro Surveill 2019 Feb;24(7)

Translational Research Network in Paediatric Infectious Diseases (RITIP), IdiPaz, Madrid, Spain.

IntroductionEnterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is an emerging pathogen that causes a wide range of disorders including severe neurological manifestations. In the past 20 years, this virus has been associated with large outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease with neurological complications in the Asia-Pacific region, while in Europe mainly sporadic cases have been reported. In spring 2016, however, an EV-A71 outbreak associated with severe neurological cases was reported in Catalonia and spread further to other Spanish regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.7.1800089DOI Listing
February 2019

A case of surgically-associated anti GQ1b antibody syndrome accompanied by saccadic ping pong gaze.

BMC Neurol 2019 Feb 19;19(1):28. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Neurology, Harrison International Peace Hospital, 2 Renmin Zhong Road, Taocheng District, Hengshui, 050000, Hebei, China.

Background: Periodic alternating ping-pong gaze (PPG) is a rare disease with few reports. To our knowledge, there was no report on anti GQ1b antibody syndrome accompanied by PPG. This paper reported a case of anti GQ1b antibody syndrome with Bickerstaff's Encephalitis (BBE) overlapping classic Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) after aortic valve replacement, accompanied by an excessive PPG in the course of diagnosis and treatment, this was indeed rarely. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-019-1258-xDOI Listing
February 2019

Current Understanding of the Molecular Basis of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Pathogenesis and Vaccine Development.

Viruses 2019 Feb 18;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Pathology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA.

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an alphavirus in the family Togaviridae. VEEV is highly infectious in aerosol form and a known bio-warfare agent that can cause severe encephalitis in humans. Periodic outbreaks of VEEV occur predominantly in Central and South America. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11020164DOI Listing
February 2019

Isolated recurrent myelitis in a persistent MOG positive patient.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2019 Feb 13;30:163-164. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Neurology, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Weizman 6 Street, Tel-Aviv, 6423906, Israel; Autoimmune Neurology Laboratory, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Weizman 6 Street, Tel-Aviv, 6423906, Israel; Autoimmune encephalitis and paraneoplastic syndromes clinic, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Weizman 6 Street, Tel-Aviv, 6423906, Israel.

MOG-Ab positive CNS demyelination typically involves the optic nerve and spinal cord. Recurrent episodes of myelitis without optic neuritis are very rare and according to current literature review represent about 3-5% of positive MOG-Ab cases. We report a 30-year-old woman with positive serum MOG-Ab suffering two discrete episodes of transverse myelitis without ophthalmic involvement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2019.02.016DOI Listing
February 2019

Getting to Know the Neighbours with GTM: the Case of Antiviral Compounds.

Mol Inform 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Laboratory of Chemoinformatics, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, 67081, France.

Recent outbreaks of dangerous viral infections, such as Ebola virus disease, Zika fever, etc., are forcing the search for new antiviral compounds. Preferably, such compounds should possess broad-spectrum antiviral activity, as the development of drugs for the treatment of dozens of viral infections lacking specific treatment would require significant resources. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/minf.201800166DOI Listing
February 2019

Pediatric anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis with catatonia: treatment with electroconvulsive therapy.

Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 2019 Feb 18;17(1). Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Section of Pediatric Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago Medical Center, 5841 S. Maryland Avenue, MC 5044, Chicago, 60637, IL, USA.

Background: Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, an autoimmune disease associated with antibodies against N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, is being diagnosed more frequently, especially in children and young adults. Acute neurological and psychiatric manifestations are the common presenting symptoms. Diagnosing anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is often challenging given the wide range of clinical presentation, and may be further complicated by its overlap of symptoms, brain MRI changes, and CSF findings with other entities affecting the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12969-019-0310-0DOI Listing
February 2019

Chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with central nervous system complications caused by varicella-zoster virus.

J Neuroinflammation 2019 Feb 18;16(1):42. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a common viral agent causing central nervous system (CNS) infections including encephalitis, meningitis, and Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Neurological complications occur frequently despite antiviral treatment. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cytokines are involved in the neuroinflammatory response during CNS infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-019-1428-1DOI Listing
February 2019

Adaptive genetic diversifications among tick-borne encephalitis virus subtypes: A genome-wide perspective.

Virology 2019 Feb 12;530:32-38. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

College of Life Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan, People's Republic of China.

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a severe neurological illness in humans. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), the causative agent, can be grouped into Far Eastern, Siberian, and (Western) European subtypes. These subtypes are characterized by diverse vector specificity, host range and clinical manifestations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2019.02.006DOI Listing
February 2019

An Improved Specimen Handling Procedure for Pathogen Detection of the Cerebrospinal Fluid by Microscope.

Clin Lab 2019 Jan;65(1)

Background: In order to increase the detection rate of pathogenic microorganisms in CSF, an improved specimen handling procedure (ISHP) was created.

Methods: This study enrolled encephalitis and control groups, both groups were handled with traditional specimen handling procedure (TSHP) and ISHP. Glutaraldehyde was added to the ISHP. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7754/Clin.Lab.2018.180706DOI Listing
January 2019

Non-occlusive intestinal ischemia in the ascending colon and rectum: a pediatric case occurring during encephalitis treatment.

Surg Case Rep 2019 Feb 15;5(1):23. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Yamanashi Prefectural Central Hospital, Kofu, Japan.

Background: Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI) is a rare and severe pathological condition that can cause intestinal necrosis without mechanical obstruction of the mesenteric artery. NOMI often develops during the treatment of severe disease in elderly patients and mostly occurs in the intestine supplied by the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). We experienced a 12-year-old patient with NOMI that was segmentally localized in the ascending colon and rectum during encephalitis treatment. Read More

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https://surgicalcasereports.springeropen.com/articles/10.118
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40792-019-0592-yDOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 deletion promotes Theiler's virus-induced seizures in C57BL/6J mice.

Epilepsia 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Animal Sciences, College of Agricultural, Consumer, and Environmental Sciences, Urbana, Illinois.

Objective: Viral encephalitis increases the risk for developing seizures and epilepsy. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (Ido1) is induced by inflammatory cytokines and functions to metabolize tryptophan to kynurenine. Kynurenine can be further metabolized to produce kynurenic acid and the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor agonist quinolinic acid (QuinA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.14675DOI Listing
February 2019
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Self-Amplifying RNA Vaccines for Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Induce Robust Protective Immunogenicity in Mice.

Mol Ther 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

GSK, Rockville, MD 20850, USA. Electronic address:

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a known biological defense threat. A live-attenuated investigational vaccine, TC-83, is available, but it has a high non-response rate and can also cause severe reactogenicity. We generated two novel VEE vaccine candidates using self-amplifying mRNA (SAM). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S15250016193000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymthe.2018.12.013DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Plasticity versus chronicity: Stable performance on category fluency 40 years post-onset.

J Neuropsychol 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Psychology, Durham University, UK.

What is the long-term trajectory of semantic memory deficits in patients who have suffered structural brain damage? Memory is, per definition, a changing faculty. The traditional view is that after an initial recovery period, the mature human brain has little capacity to repair or reorganize. More recently, it has been suggested that the central nervous system may be more plastic with the ability to change in neural structure, connectivity, and function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnp.12180DOI Listing
February 2019

A Rasmussen encephalitis, autoimmune encephalitis, and mitochondrial disease mimicker: expanding the DNM1L-associated intractable epilepsy and encephalopathy phenotype.

Epileptic Disord 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Pediatric Epilepsy, Beaumont Health, Royal Oak, MI 48073.

Dynamin-1-like protein (DNM1L) gene variants have been linked to childhood refractory epilepsy, developmental delay, encephalopathy, microcephaly, and progressive diffuse cerebral atrophy. However, only a few cases have been reported in the literature and there is still a limited amount of information about the symptomatology and pathophysiology associated with pathogenic variants of DNM1L. We report a 10-year-old girl with a one-year history of mild learning disorder and absence seizures who presented with new-onset focal status epilepticus which progressed to severe encephalopathy and asymmetric hemispheric cerebral atrophy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/epd.2019.1036DOI Listing
February 2019
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Iatrogenic CNS demyelination in the era of modern biologics.

Mult Scler 2019 Feb 15:1352458519828601. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA; Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology Program, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA.

The number of reported cases of iatrogenic demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS) is on the rise. This is, in part, related to the recent expansion in the use of biologics. Review of literature from the past decade suggests that in addition to vaccines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha inhibitors and checkpoint inhibitors are the most frequently cited inducers of central inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1352458519828601DOI Listing
February 2019
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Morvan's syndrome treated successfully with rituximab and lacosamide.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Feb 13;12(2). Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Neurology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

We describe a woman with both central and peripheral nervous system symptoms consistent with Morvan's syndrome who was successfully treated with immunosuppression including rituximab and the new antiepileptic drug lacosamide against peripheral nerve hyperexcitability. Despite being over 8 months in hospital and 4 months in an intensive care unit she recovered fully. It is also the first case where cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament-light (NfL) levels were followed during the disease course. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-226832DOI Listing
February 2019
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The psychopathology of NMDAR-antibody encephalitis in adults: a systematic review and phenotypic analysis of individual patient data.

Lancet Psychiatry 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Oxford Autoimmune Neurology Group, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; Department of Neurology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Early immunotherapy administration improves outcomes in patients with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-antibody encephalitis. As most patients with NMDAR-antibody encephalitis present to psychiatrists, the psychopathology of NMDAR-antibody encephalitis needs to be clearly defined to encourage accurate clinical identification and prompt treatment.

Methods: For this systematic review, we searched PubMed for all studies published in English between Jan 1, 2005, and Oct 7, 2017, to identify individually reported adult patients (≥18 years) who satisfied consensus criteria for definite NMDAR-antibody encephalitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(19)30001-XDOI Listing
February 2019
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A transdiagnostic pattern of psychiatric symptoms in autoimmune encephalitis.

Authors:
Carsten Finke

Lancet Psychiatry 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Neurology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin 10115, Germany. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(19)30038-0DOI Listing
February 2019

The role of CNS macrophages in streptococcal meningoencephalitis.

J Leukoc Biol 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Institute for Immunodeficiency, Center for Chronic Immunodeficiency (CCI), Medical Center and Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

In the healthy brain, microglia and other CNS macrophages are the most abundant immune cell type. Thus, they form the natural immune cell interface with streptococci, which are the leading cause of bacterial meningitis and encephalitis in infants and young children. In homeostasis, the blood-brain barrier allows for very limited access of immune cells circulating in the periphery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JLB.4MR1118-419RDOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Fulminant Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Mimicking Autoimmune Encephalitis.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2019 Mar;38(3):e64

Department of Neurology, King George's Medical University, Uttar Pradesh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002148DOI Listing

Clinical spectrum of central nervous system myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein autoimmunity in adults.

Curr Opin Neurol 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Service de Neurologie, Sclérose en Plaques, Pathologies de la Myéline et Neuro-Inflammation, Hôpital Neurologique Pierre Wertheimer Hospices Civils de Lyon.

Purpose Of Review: The clinical interest for auto-antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) has recently reemerged, with the use of more specific detection methods. Large national cohorts have allowed characterizing a more precise clinical spectrum delineated by the presence of human MOG-antibodies.

Recent Findings: In adults with MOG-antibodies, optic neuritis is the most frequent clinical presentation, with features different from multiple sclerosis (MS), including bilateral involvement and predilection for the anterior part of the optic nerve. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WCO.0000000000000681DOI Listing
February 2019
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Ipsilateral motor evoked potentials in a patient with unihemispheric cortical atrophy due to Rasmussen encephalitis.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Jun;14(6):1025-1028

Department of Neurorehabilitation, Hospital of Vipiteno, Vipiteno; Research Unit for Neurorehabilitation South Tyrol, Bolzano, Italy.

The role of the ipsilaterally descending motor pathways in the recovery mechanisms after unilateral hemispheric damage is still poorly understood. Motor output reorganization was investigated in a 56-year-old male patient with acquired unilateral hemispheric atrophy due to Rasmussen encephalitis. In particular, the ipsilateral corticospinal pathways were explored using focal transcranial magnetic stimulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.250581DOI Listing

Prognosis in autoimmune encephalitis: Database.

Data Brief 2018 Dec 13;21:2694-2703. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Neuroscience, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Autoimmune encephalitis is a rare and debilitating disease. An important question in clinical neurology is what factors may be correlated with outcomes in autoimmune encephalitis. There is observational data describing statistical analyses on such variables, but there are no review articles that collaborate and interpret this information. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.11.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6290378PMC
December 2018

Corrigendum: Human West Nile Virus Disease Outbreak in Pakistan, 2015-2016.

Front Public Health 2018 29;6:384. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Comparative Diagnostic and Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2018.00384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6362614PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Evidence for Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses in a Cohort of Intractable Pediatric Epilepsy Surgery Patients.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:121. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Neurosurgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

Brain-infiltrating lymphocytes (BILs) were isolated from resected brain tissue from 10 pediatric epilepsy patients who had undergone surgery for Hemimegalencephaly (HME) ( = 1), Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) ( = 2), Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) ( = 4), and Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) ( = 3). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were also isolated from blood collected at the time of the surgery. Cells were immunostained with a panel of 20 antibody markers, and analyzed by mass cytometry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6362260PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

The US11 gene of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 promotes neuroinvasion and periocular replication following corneal infection.

J Virol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH.

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) cycles between phases of latency in sensory neurons and replication in mucosal sites. HSV-1 encodes two key proteins that antagonize the shutdown of host translation; US11 through preventing PKR activation, and ICP34.5 through mediating eIF2α dephosphorylation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02246-18DOI Listing
February 2019
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Molecular basis of a protective/neutralizing monoclonal antibody targeting envelope proteins of both tick-borne encephalitis virus and louping ill virus.

J Virol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101, China

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and louping ill virus (LIV) are members of the tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFVs) in the family , which cause encephalomeningitis and encephalitis in humans and other animals. Although vaccines against TBEV and LIV are available, infection rates are rising due to the low vaccination coverage. To date, no specific therapeutics have been licensed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02132-18DOI Listing
February 2019

A case report of a teenager with severe hand, foot, and mouth disease with brainstem encephalitis caused by enterovirus 71.

BMC Pediatr 2019 Feb 13;19(1):59. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Intensive Care Unit, Key Medical Laboratory of Pediatrics, Chongqing Health Bureau, Ministry of Education; Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China.

Background: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute viral infection occurring mostly in infants and children. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection mostly occurs in children < 5 years of age. Severe cases, however, are usually encountered in children under the age of 3 years, and exceedingly rare in teenagers > 14 years and adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-019-1428-4DOI Listing
February 2019
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Blimp1 Prevents Methylation of Foxp3 and Loss of Regulatory T Cell Identity at Sites of Inflammation.

Cell Rep 2019 Feb;26(7):1854-1868.e5

Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Department of Experimental Neuroimmunology, Technical University of Munich, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Munich, Germany; Munich Cluster for Systems Neurology (SyNergy), Feodor-Lynen-Str. 17, 81377 Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Foxp3 regulatory T (Treg) cells restrict immune pathology in inflamed tissues; however, an inflammatory environment presents a threat to Treg cell identity and function. Here, we establish a transcriptional signature of central nervous system (CNS) Treg cells that accumulate during experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) and identify a pathway that maintains Treg cell function and identity during severe inflammation. This pathway is dependent on the transcriptional regulator Blimp1, which prevents downregulation of Foxp3 expression and "toxic" gain-of-function of Treg cells in the inflamed CNS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.01.070DOI Listing
February 2019

Reversible myoclonus-ataxia encephalitis related to anti-mGLUR1 autoantibodies.

Mov Disord 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Toulouse, Toulouse, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.27634DOI Listing
February 2019

The recruitment of peripheral blood leukocytes to the brain is delayed in susceptible BALB/c compared to resistant C57BL/6 mice during herpes simplex virus encephalitis.

J Neurovirol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Research Center in Infectious Diseases, CHU of Quebec and Laval University, 2705 Boul. Laurier, Quebec City, QC, G1V 4G2, Canada.

The cerebral immune response induced by herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis (HSE) was evaluated in susceptible BALB/c and resistant C57BL/6 mice. BALB/c and C57BL/6 (named C57BL/6-high) mice were respectively infected intranasally with 1 × 10 and 5 × 10 plaque-forming units (PFUs) of HSV-1. C57BL/6 mice (named C57BL/6-low) infected with a low inoculum (1 × 10 PFUs) of HSV-1 were tested in parallel. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00730-5DOI Listing
February 2019

Pathogen-associated acute encephalitis syndrome: therapeutics and management.

Future Microbiol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Center for Advanced Research (CFAR) - Stem Cell/Cell Culture Unit, Faculty of Medicine, King George's Medical University (KGMU), Lucknow 226003, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fmb-2018-0334DOI Listing
February 2019

[Guideline for fecal bacteriotherapy to treat recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis].

Klin Mikrobiol Infekc Lek 2018 Jun;24(2):57-64

Department of Inectious Diseases, 3rd Medical faculty, Charles University, Prague, Hospital na Bulovce, Czech Republic, e-mail:

We present a case of a 17-year-old female with anti-NMDAR encephalitis probably associated with vaccination against yellow fever. Her symptoms occurred 27 days after vaccination against yellow fever. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis manifested as acute psychosis, memory loss and catatonia following fever with complex partial epileptic seizures. Read More

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June 2018
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Clinical spectrum of the anti-GQ1b antibody syndrome: a case series of eight patients.

Acta Neurol Belg 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Neurology, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.

Anti-GQ1b antibodies can be detected in the serum of patients with Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) and its incomplete forms such as acute ophthalmoparesis (AO), acute ptosis, acute mydriasis, acute oropharyngeal palsy and acute ataxic neuropathy (AAN), as well as in pharyngeal-cervical-brachial weakness, Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis (BBE) and in overlap syndromes with Guillain-Barré syndrome (MFS-GBS, BBE-GBS). We searched the laboratory medicine database at University Hospitals Leuven between 2002 and 2017 for serum samples with anti-GQ1b IgG antibodies. We identified eight patients with anti-GQ1b antibodies: 4 MFS, 2 AO, 1 MFS-GBS and 1 AAN. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13760-019-01093-8DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Protean Neurologic Manifestations of Two Rare Dermatologic Disorders: Sweet Disease and Localized Craniofacial Scleroderma.

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2019 Feb 12;19(3):11. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

NYU Multiple Sclerosis Comprehensive Care Center, Department of Neurology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To describe diverse neurologic and neuroradiologic presentations of two rare, immunologically mediated skin conditions: Sweet disease and localized scleroderma (morphea).

Recent Findings: Core syndromes of neuro-Sweet disease (NSD) are steroid responsiveness, recurrent meningitis, and encephalitis. Focal neurologic, neuro-vascular, and neuro-ophthalmologic syndromes have been reported recently in NSD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11910-019-0929-8DOI Listing
February 2019
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Controlling dog rabies in Africa: successes, failures and prospects for the future.

Authors:
C Sabeta E C Ngoepe

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):439-449

Rabies is an acute and progressive encephalitis caused by lyssaviruses (family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales). Approximately 99% of the estimated 59,000 annual human rabies deaths in Africa and Asia are attributed to dog bites and are preventable through parenteral dog vaccination. In addition to dog rabies, the rabies virus also circulates in wildlife carnivores in southern Africa and virus exchange occurs readily across species barriers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2813DOI Listing
August 2018
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Antivirals for human use against rabies and prospects for their future application.

Authors:
P Koraka B Martina

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):673-680

Rabies is probably the deadliest and most severe encephalitis known to humankind. Caused by any lyssavirus, it is recognised as a disease of the poor, the less fortunate and the young. No other known infectious disease can cause 100% mortality, and rabies and the clinical manifestations which precede a death from the disease are often described as excruciating. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2832DOI Listing
August 2018
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Global rabies management: perspectives on regional strategies for prevention and control.

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):711-727

Rabies is a major neglected zoonotic disease, despite the availability of highly sensitive diagnostic tests and efficacious human and animal vaccines. Perpetuation of rabies among multiple species of bats and wild carnivores, together with the presence of diverse lyssaviruses, remains a challenge for the prevention and control of this disease. However, most of the global burden may be reduced by mass vaccination of dogs, the major reservoir. Read More

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http://doc.oie.int/dyn/portal/index.seam?page=alo&aloId=
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2835DOI Listing
August 2018
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Historical, current and expected future occurrence of rabies in enzootic regions.

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):729-739

Rabies is one of the oldest recorded pathogens, with the broadest distribution of any known viral zoonosis. Antarctica is believed to be free of all lyssaviruses, but no laboratory-based surveillance has taken place to support this supposition. Re-introduction of the disease is possible in Pacific Oceania, as evidenced by a historical outbreak in Guam and the translocation of rabid bats to Hawaii. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2836DOI Listing
August 2018
2 Reads

A Rare Case of Bartonella Encephalitis With Hemiplegia.

Child Neurol Open 2019 31;6:2329048X19826480. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

McGovern Medical School, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USA.

The authors describe a 12-year-old girl with an atypical presentation of encephalitis. She presented with fever and altered mental status and developed flaccid paralysis of her left upper extremity a day later. An electroencephalogram showed slowing over her right hemisphere. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2329048X19826480
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2329048X19826480DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360466PMC
January 2019
4 Reads

Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells as Model to Evaluate Species Tropism of Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2019 28;9. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Institute of Virology and Immunology (IVI), Bern, Switzerland.

Several mosquito-borne Flaviviruses such as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), Dengue Virus (DENV), and Zika virus (ZIKV) can cause severe clinical disease. Being zoonotic, Flaviviruses infect a wide variety of terrestrial vertebrates, which dependent of the virus-host interactions, can enhance ongoing epidemics and maintain the virus in the environment for prolonged periods. Targeted species can vary from amphibians, birds to various mammals, dependent on the virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360178PMC
January 2019
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Human Tick-Borne Diseases in Australia.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2019 28;9. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Neuroinflammation Group, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

There are 17 human-biting ticks known in Australia. The bites of , and can cause paralysis, inflammation, and severe local and systemic reactions in humans, respectively. Six ticks, including , and may transmit , or subsp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360175PMC
January 2019
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[Analysis of common pathogens and epidemiological characteristics of acute bacterial meningitis cases in Shandong Province].

Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2019 Feb;53(2):179-184

Division of Expanded Immunization Program, Shandong Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Academy of Preventive Medicine, Shandong University; Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Control and Prevention, Jinan 250014, China.

To analyze epidemiological characteristics of acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) cases and the common pathogens infected in Jinan, Shandong Province. Epidemiological and clinical informations and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood specimens of acute meningitis/encephalitis syndrome (AMES) cases (total 3 918 cases) were collected in the six sentinel hospitals from 2013 to 2016. , and were detected by the methods of real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR), bacterial culture and latex agglutination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2019.02.011DOI Listing
February 2019
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[Etiologic surveillance and analysis of acute meningitis and encephalitis syndrome in Jinan city in 2013-2016].

Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2019 Feb;53(2):174-178

Division of Expanded Immunization Program, Shandong Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Academy of Preventive Medicine, Shandong University; Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Control and Prevention, Jinan 250014, China.

To characterize the etiology and epidemiological characteristics of the acute meningitis and encephalitis syndrome (AMES) in Jinan city in 2013-2016. The epidemiological data, clinical diagnosis, serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were collected from 3 577 AMES cases in 6 sentinel hospitals in Jinan city in 2013-2016. Samples of all cases were made sero-diagnosis for Immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibody to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and negative cases of JEV for enterovirus (EV), mumps virus (MuV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2019.02.010DOI Listing
February 2019
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[Analysis of current epidemiological and clinical characteristics for laboratory confirmed epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis cases in Shandong Province, 2007-2016].

Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2019 Feb;53(2):169-173

Division of Expanded Immunization Program, Shandong Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Academy of Preventive Medicine, Shandong University; Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Control and Prevention, Jinan 250014, China.

To analyze epidemiological and clinical characteristics of laboratory confirmed epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis cases. Epidemiological and clinical informations and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood specimens of AMES (acute meningitis/encephalitis syndrome) cases were collected in the six sentinel hospitals from 2007 to 2016. () species and serogroup identification were detected by the methods of real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) and bacterial culture, and epidemiological and clinical characteristics of laboratory confirmed epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis cases were analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2019.02.009DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads