63,266 results match your criteria Encephalitis


Differential replication efficiencies between Japanese encephalitis virus genotype I and III in avian cultured cells and young domestic ducklings.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 18;12(12):e0007046. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Department of Swine Infectious Diseases, Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Shanghai, PR China.

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genotype dominance has shifted to genotype I (GI) from genotype III (GIII) in China as demonstrated by molecular epidemiological surveillance. In this study, we performed a serological survey in JEV-non-vaccinated pigs to confirm JEV genotype shift at the sero-epidemiological level. The average ratio of GI/GIII infection was 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007046DOI Listing
December 2018

Multinational survey shows low awareness of tick-borne encephalitis and rabies among travellers to endemic regions.

J Travel Med 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Medical Center of the University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/tay069DOI Listing
December 2018

Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A Review of Psychiatric Phenotypes and Management Considerations: A Report of the American Neuropsychiatric Association Committee on Research.

J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2018 Dec 18:appineuropsych18010005. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

From the Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (Sarkis); the Menninger Clinic and Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Tex. (Coffey); the Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago (Cooper); the British Columbia Neuropsychiatry Program and Vancouver General Hospital Epilepsy Program, University of British Columbia (Hassan); and the Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom (Lennox).

Objective:: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder characterized by prominent neuropsychiatric symptoms. Given the nature of its pathophysiology, psychiatrists tend to be one of the first clinicians encountering patients with the disease.

Methods:: In the present review of patients described in the literature with psychiatric symptoms, the authors aimed to characterize the psychiatric symptoms of the disease and its management in adults and adolescents as well as children (≤12 years old). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.neuropsych.18010005DOI Listing
December 2018

[Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Early diagnosis and treatment in patients with acute-subacute psychotic symptoms].

Rev Neurol 2019 Jan;68(1):18-22

Hospital de Mataro. Consorci Sanitari del Maresme, 08304 Mataro, Espana.

Introduction: Encephalitis due to anti-NMDA receptor antibodies is an acute and severe condition, which, if identified and treated quickly, can entail recovery without any sequelae. It is more prevalent in young females and is often associated with an underlying tumour. The initial symptoms are usually of a psychiatric nature, and in a matter of days or weeks take on a characteristic neurological profile. Read More

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January 2019

Enterovirus A71 Infection and Neurologic Disease, Madrid, Spain, 2016.

Emerg Infect Dis 2019 Jan;25(1)

We conducted an observational study from January 2016 through January 2017 of patients admitted to a reference pediatric hospital in Madrid, Spain, for neurologic symptoms and enterovirus infection. Among the 30 patients, the most common signs and symptoms were fever, lethargy, myoclonic jerks, and ataxia. Real-time PCR detected enterovirus in the cerebrospinal fluid of 8 patients, nasopharyngeal aspirate in 17, and anal swab samples of 5. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2501.181089DOI Listing
January 2019

Clinical Features, Diagnosis, and Outcome of Encephalitis in French Guiana.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Intensive Care Unit, Cayenne General Hospital, Cayenne, French Guiana.

The aim of our study was to describe the clinical features, the etiologies, and the factors associated with poor outcome of encephalitis in French Guiana. Our study was retrospective, including all cases of encephalitis hospitalized in the Cayenne General Hospital, from January 2007 to July 2017. Patients were included through the 2013 encephalitis consortium criteria and the outcome was evaluated using the Glasgow outcome scale at 3 months from the diagnosis of encephalitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0308DOI Listing
December 2018

Frequency and temporal sequence of clinical features in adults with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis presenting with psychiatric symptoms.

Authors:
Ronald J Gurrera

Psychol Med 2018 Dec 18:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

VA Boston Healthcare System,Boston, MA,USA.

Background: Anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAr) encephalitis is the most common autoimmune encephalitis in adults. It mimics psychiatric disorders so often that most patients are initially referred to a psychiatrist, and many are misdiagnosed. Without prompt and effective treatment, patients are likely to suffer a protracted course with significant residual disability, or death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291718003665DOI Listing
December 2018

Patient characteristics and outcome associations in AMPA receptor encephalitis.

J Neurol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Neurology, Washington University in St. Louis, Saint Louis, MO, USA.

Antibody-mediated encephalitis defines a class of diseases wherein antibodies directed at cell-surface receptors are associated with behavioral and cognitive disturbances. One such recently described encephalitis is due to antibodies directed at alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPAR). This entity is exceptionally rare and its clinical phenotype incompletely described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-018-9153-8DOI Listing
December 2018

Extensive perivascular dissemination of cerebral miliary tuberculomas: a case report and review of the literature.

Acta Radiol Open 2018 Dec 11;7(12):2058460118817918. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Radiology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Cerebral tuberculosis (TB) presents most frequently as meningitis in the basilar cistern; however, it can also manifest in various other ways, such as localized encephalitis, abscess, and tuberculoma. Here, focusing on imaging findings, we report an immunocompetent case who demonstrated multiple parenchymal lesions and was diagnosed with cerebral TB after testing positive on QuantiFERON (QTF); her clinical signs/symptoms and laboratory findings responded well to anti-TB medication therapy. The patient was a 60-year-old woman with the chief complaints of headache and consciousness disturbance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2058460118817918DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6291888PMC
December 2018

Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies in neurological disease.

Nat Rev Neurol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Oxford Autoimmune Neurology Group, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies (MOG-Abs) were first detected by immunoblot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay nearly 30 years ago, but their association with multiple sclerosis (MS) was not specific. Use of cell-based assays with native MOG as the substrate enabled identification of a group of MOG-Ab-positive patients with demyelinating phenotypes. Initially, MOG-Abs were reported in children with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41582-018-0112-xDOI Listing
December 2018

A case of Powassan encephalitis acquired in southern Quebec.

CMAJ 2018 Dec;190(50):E1478-E1480

Kelowna General Hospital (Sanderson), Kelowna, BC; University of British Columbia (Sanderson), Vancouver, BC; National Microbiology Laboratory (Lindsay), Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Man.; Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (Campbell), Élisabeth Bruyère Hospital, Ottawa, Ont.; BC Centre for Disease Control Public Health Laboratory (Morshed), Vancouver, BC.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.180905DOI Listing
December 2018

Antiviral and Antioxidant Properties of Echinochrome A.

Mar Drugs 2018 Dec 15;16(12). Epub 2018 Dec 15.

G.P. Somov Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, FEB RAS, Vladivostok 690087, Russia.

The aim of this study was to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antiviral activities of echinochrome A and echinochrome-based antioxidant composition against tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The antioxidant composition, which is a mixture of echinochrome A, ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol (5:5:1), showed higher antioxidant and antiviral effects than echinochrome A. We suppose that echinochrome A and its composition can both directly affect virus particles and indirectly enhance antioxidant defense mechanisms in the hosting cell. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md16120509DOI Listing
December 2018

Anesthesia for patient with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis: A case report with a brief review of the literature.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Dec;97(50):e13651

Department of Anesthesiology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Shinkawa, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo, Japan.

Rationale: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an immune-mediated syndrome caused by the production of antibodies against NMDA receptors. As NMDA receptors are important targets of many anesthetic drugs, the perioperative management of patients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is challenging for anesthesiologists.

Patient Concerns: A 31-year-old woman presented with akinesia and aphasia, which worsened despite steroid therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000013651DOI Listing
December 2018

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Dec;97(50):e13625

Department of Emergency, Henan Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan.

Rationale: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is an auto-immune and paraneoplastic encephalitis with prominent neuropsychiatric manifestations. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor is located in the forebrain and hippocampus and plays a role in learning and memory.

Patient Concerns: A 29-year-old female patient with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, was reported and we also reviewed the literature and summarised the characteristics of the cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000013625DOI Listing
December 2018

NMDAR encephalitis presenting as akinesia in a patient with Parkinson disease.

J Neuroimmunol 2018 Dec 12;328:35-37. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Neuroimmunology Laboratory, IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy. Electronic address:

We describe the case of a woman with Parkinson disease who developed an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibody-mediated encephalitis. As a novelty, the encephalitis presentation mimicked a worsening of the pre-existing extrapyramidal syndrome, manifesting mainly as severe bradykinesia and, eventually, akinesia. Brain MRI was normal, whereas cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis disclosed unique-to-CSF oligoclonal bands. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2018.12.002DOI Listing
December 2018

Broad-spectrum monoclonal antibodies against chikungunya virus structural proteins: Promising candidates for antibody-based rapid diagnostic test development.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208851. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

In response to the aggressive global spread of the mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an accurate and accessible diagnostic tool is of high importance. CHIKV, an arthritogenic alphavirus, comprises three genotypes: East/Central/South African (ECSA), West African (WA), and Asian. A previous rapid immunochromatographic (IC) test detecting CHIKV E1 protein showed promising performance for detection of the ECSA genotype. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0208851PLOS
December 2018

Japanese Encephalitis Virus-induced let-7a/b interacted with the NOTCH-TLR7 pathway in microglia and facilitated neuronal death via caspase activation.

J Neurochem 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, Faridabad, India.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) released from the activated microglia upon neurotropic virus infection may exacerbate the neuronal damage. Here, we identified let-7a and let-7b (let-7a/b) as one of the essential miRNAs overexpressed upon Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV) infection and released in the culture supernatant of the JEV-infected microglial cells through extracellular vesicles. The let-7a/b were previously reported to modulate inflammation in microglial cells through Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) pathways; though their role in accelerating JEV pathogenesis remain unexplored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnc.14645DOI Listing
December 2018

Detection of bacterial pathogens in sterile fluids with the FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis identification system.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Fernando Cobo, Department of Microbiology, Hospital Virgen de las Nieves Avda Fuerzas Armadas, 2 18014 Granada, Spain.

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December 2018

Meningeal carcinomatosis presenting with leukoencephalopathy-like imaging findings.

eNeurologicalSci 2019 Mar 19;14:21-23. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Neurology, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tenodai, Tsukuba-city, Japan.

Meningeal carcinomatosis is a unique and rare form of metastasis observed in patients with malignant tumours. Diagnosis is simple when the primary lesion of the malignant tumour is clear, and when multiple miliary lesions are confirmed via cranial contrast MRI; however, many patients exhibit atypical imaging findings. In the present report, we discuss the case of a 72-year-old man who presented with subacute consciousness impairment and MRI findings suggestive of progressive, bilateral leukoencephalopathy-like lesions around the ventricles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ensci.2018.11.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6275227PMC

Severe disease activity in a patient with multiple sclerosis after daclizumab discontinuation.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2018 Dec 1;28:57-59. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Neurology, San Raffaele Hospital, via Olgettina 48, 20132 Milan, Italy.

Daclizumab, a MS treatment targeting IL2-receptor, has been recently withdrawn following reports of immune-mediated encephalitis. We report the case of a 39-years-old woman treated with daclizumab that presented a progressive decrease in the strength at her lower limbs which further worsened after the drug was stopped. Post-treatment MRI showed more than 20 new enhancing lesions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2018.11.034DOI Listing
December 2018

Autoimmune encephalitis following alemtuzumab treatment of multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2018 Dec 3;28:31-33. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Neurology, St Vincent's Hospital, 390 Victoria St, Darlinghurst, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia.

Secondary autoimmune disorders are a recognised complication of alemtuzumab treatment for multiple sclerosis. We report a case of autoimmune encephalitis manifesting as a polymorphic epilepsia partialis continua / status epilepticus seven months after the second course of alemtuzumab in a patient with previous autoimmune hypothyroidism and immune thrombocytopenic purpura. An MRI revealed multifocal cortical abnormalities and neuronal loss was evident on biopsy. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22110348183053
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2018.12.004DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Recent Progress on Functional Genomics Research of Enterovirus 71.

Virol Sin 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Antimicrobial Agents, Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100050, China.

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main pathogens that causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). HFMD caused by EV71 infection is mostly self-limited; however, some infections can cause severe neurological diseases, such as aseptic meningitis, brain stem encephalitis, and even death. There are still no effective clinical drugs used for the prevention and treatment of HFMD. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12250-018-0071-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12250-018-0071-9DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Varicella Zoster Virus Encephalitis in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients: Case Series and Review of Literature.

Transpl Infect Dis 2018 Dec 12:e13038. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Global Public Health, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.

Herpes zoster encephalitis (HZE) is a rare complication of varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection. We report two cases of HZE in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients and review ten other cases in the literature. In this review, rash was present in 67% of cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.13038DOI Listing
December 2018

Building a network for multicenter, prospective research of central nervous system infections in South America: Process and lessons learned.

eNeurologicalSci 2018 Dec 4;13:63-69. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Hospital Emergencias Pediatricas, Lima, Peru.

Multicenter collaborative networks are essential for advancing research and improving clinical care for a variety of conditions. Research networks are particularly important for central nervous system infections, which remain difficult to study due to their sporadic occurrence and requirement for collection and testing of cerebrospinal fluid. Establishment of long-term research networks in resource-limited areas also facilitates diagnostic capacity building, surveillance for emerging pathogens, and provision of appropriate treatment where needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ensci.2018.07.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6284170PMC
December 2018

Comparative Analysis of Different Serological and Molecular Tests for the Detection of Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLVs) in Belgian Sheep and Goats.

Viruses 2018 Dec 8;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Unit of Enzootic, Vector-Borne and Bee Diseases, Sciensano, Groeselenberg 99, 1180 Brussels, Belgium.

Countries rely on good diagnostic tests and appropriate testing schemes to fight against economically important small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infections. We undertook an extensive comparative analysis of seven commercially available serological tests and one in-house real-time PCR (qPCR) detecting genotype A and B strains using a large panel of representative Belgian field samples and samples from experimentally infected sheep and goats. ELISAs generally performed well and detected seroconversion within three weeks post experimental infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v10120696DOI Listing
December 2018

The Multifaceted Roles of Autophagy in Flavivirus-Host Interactions.

Authors:
Po-Yuan Ke

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 7;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology and Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan.

Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular process in which intracellular components are eliminated via lysosomal degradation to supply nutrients for organelle biogenesis and metabolic homeostasis. Flavivirus infections underlie multiple human diseases and thus exert an immense burden on public health worldwide. Mounting evidence indicates that host autophagy is subverted to modulate the life cycles of flaviviruses, such as hepatitis C virus, dengue virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus and Zika virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123940DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

A large screen for paraneoplastic neurological autoantibodies; diagnosis and predictive values.

Clin Immunol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Medicine A, Tel Hashomer, Israel; Sackler School of Medicine, Ramat Aviv, Israel; The Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases, Tel-Hashomer, Israel; The Dr. Pinchas Borenstein Talpiot Medical Leadership Program 2013, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Israel. Electronic address:

Background: Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are a group of syndromes that affect the central and peripheral neuromuscular system in association with cancer. Specific antibodies may assist in the diagnosis of PNS. The antibodies tested can be classified into those directed against intracellular neuronal proteins ("well characterized" PNS: Hu, Yo, RI, CV2, amphiphysin, Ma1, Ma2) and those directed against neural surface antigens (autoimmune encephalitis syndromes: NMDA, AMPA, LGI1, CASPR2, GABAR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2018.12.007DOI Listing
December 2018

Japanese Encephalitis Virus NS1' Protein Antagonizes Interferon Beta Production.

Virol Sin 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne virus and the major cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. NS1', a 52-amino acid C-terminal extension of NS1, is generated with a -1 programmed ribosomal frameshift and is only present in members of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup of flaviviruses. Previous studies demonstrated that NS1' plays a vital role in virulence, but the mechanism is unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12250-018-0067-5DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Prognostic evaluation of child patients with infectious encephalitis through AEEG and REEG.

Exp Ther Med 2018 Dec 19;16(6):5243-5247. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Department of Internal Medicine, Weifang People's Hospital, Weifang, Shandong 261000, P.R. China.

This study investigated prognostic evaluation of child patients with viral encephalitis through ambulatory electroencephalogram (AEEG) and regular electroencephalogram (REEG). A total of 94 child patients who were clinically diagnosed with viral encephalitis in Yantaishan Hospital of Yantai from May 2010 to July 2014, was examined with AEEG and REEG, respectively and randomly divided into AEEG group (n=47) and REEG group (n=47). The probabilities of detecting abnormal electroencephalographic activities with two examination methods were compared. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2018.6882DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6257196PMC
December 2018

Tick-Borne Flaviviruses, with a Focus on Powassan Virus.

Clin Microbiol Rev 2019 Jan 12;32(1). Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute for Veterinary Medical Research, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary

SUMMARYThe tick-borne pathogen Powassan virus is a rare cause of encephalitis in North America and the Russian Far East. The number of documented cases described since the discovery of Powassan virus in 1958 may be <150, although detection of cases has increased over the past decade. In the United States, the incidence of Powassan virus infections expanded from the estimated 1 case per year prior to 2005 to 10 cases per year during the subsequent decade. Read More

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http://cmr.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/CMR.00106-17
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00106-17DOI Listing
January 2019
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Management of Autoimmune Encephalitis: An Observational Monocentric Study of 38 Patients.

Front Immunol 2018 22;9:2708. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Neurology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Over the last years the clinical picture of autoimmune encephalitis has gained importance in neurology. The broad field of symptoms and syndromes poses a great challenge in diagnosis for clinicians. Early diagnosis and the initiation of the appropriate treatment is the most relevant step in the management of the patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02708DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6262885PMC
November 2018

Comparison of Four Commercial IgG-Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for the Detection of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Antibodies.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

3 Interregional Blood Transfusion SRC, Bern, Switzerland.

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the most important arboviral disease in many parts of Europe and Asia. Both the diagnosis of TBE as well as the conduction of surveillance studies are based on the demonstration of specific antibodies. For reasons of simplicity, automatization, and quick availability of test results, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are the method of choice for anti-TBE virus antibody detection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2359DOI Listing
December 2018

[Neuroimaging of Epstein-Barr virus-associated encephalitis].

An Pediatr (Barc) 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Servicio de Neuropediatría, Centro Hospitalar de São João, Oporto, Portugal.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anpedi.2018.09.016DOI Listing
December 2018

Loss of Transfected Human Brain Micro-Vascular Endothelial Cell Integrity during Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

Intervirology 2018 Dec 12:1-11. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, MAHSA University, Saujana Putra Campus, Jenjarum,

Objective: Herpes simplex virus infection through the neuronal route is the most well-studied mode of viral encephalitis that can persists in a human host for a lifetime. However, the involvement of other possible infection mechanisms by the virus remains underexplored. Therefore, this study aims to determine the temporal effects and mechanisms by which the virus breaches the human brain micro-vascular endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000495180DOI Listing
December 2018

Cryo-EM Structures of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Reveal Mechanisms of Virus Disassembly and Antibody Neutralization.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3136-3147.e5

Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. Electronic address:

Alphaviruses are enveloped pathogens that cause arthritis and encephalitis. Here, we report a 4.4-Å cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), an alphavirus that causes fatal encephalitis in humans. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22111247183184
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2018.11.067DOI Listing
December 2018
8 Reads

Importance of cerebrospinal fluid investigation during dengue infection in Brazilian Amazonia Region.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2018 Dec 10;114:e180450. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

BACKGROUND Amazon, the largest tropical forest of the world, has suffered from dengue outbreaks since 1998. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients, from Amazonas state, suspected of central nervous system (CNS) viral infection was studied using molecular and immunological methods. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the importance of CSF investigation in patients with acute dengue virus (DENV) infection of CNS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0074-02760180450DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

New-Onset Geriatric Epilepsy in China: A Single-Center Study.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2018 Dec;131(24):2915-2920

Department of Neurology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China.

Background: Few studies have been published on new-onset geriatric epilepsy especially in older Chinese people. This study was to have a comprehensive understanding of new-onset geriatric epilepsy and find a more reasonable diagnosis and management of epilepsy in older people.

Methods: One hundred and three patients with onset age 60 years and older were admitted between January 2008 and December 2016. Read More

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http://www.cmj.org/text.asp?2018/131/24/2915/247194
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0366-6999.247194DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Continued Evidence of Decline in the Enzootic Activity of Western Equine Encephalitis Virus in Colorado.

J Med Entomol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

Western equine encephalitis (WEE) was once prevalent and routinely isolated from mosquitoes in Colorado; however, isolations of Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) have not been reported from mosquito pools since the early 1990s. The objective of the present study was to test pools of Culex tarsalis (Coquillett) mosquitoes sampled from Weld County, CO, in 2016 for evidence of WEEV infection. Over 7,000 mosquitoes were tested, but none were positive for WEEV RNA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjy214DOI Listing
December 2018

Cerebrolysin increases motor recovery and decreases inflammation in a mouse model of autoimmune encephalitis.

Rom J Morphol Embryol 2018 ;59(3):755-762

Department of Research Methodology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Romania;

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex chronic neurodegenerative disease that involves an abnormal autoimmune response directed against the brain, nerves and spinal cord; it is considered the most frequent cause of neurological disability, because MS-associated inflammatory lesions can affect a wide range of systems to a varying degree and may cause a plethora of neurological comorbidities and symptoms. The symptoms are quite variable from patient to patient and depend on the spatial distribution of the central nervous system (CNS) lesions, but usually involve sensory disturbances, cognitive deficits, unilateral vision loss, bladder dysfunction, ataxia, fatigue, double vision, weakness of the limbs and intestinal disorders. Experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) mouse model reproduces the pathological features of the human disease, and is a widely used model used for studying the pathology and different treatment options in the preclinical stage. Read More

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January 2018
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Toxoplasma Encephalitis following Tandem Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Case Rep Infect Dis 2018 11;2018:9409121. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

University of Iowa, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Infection with is a rare but often fatal complication in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients. Most cases have been reported in allogeneic (allo-) HSCT recipients, with only narrative reports following autologous HSCT (ASCT). We report the case of a 58-year-old Caucasian male presenting with toxoplasma encephalitis following tandem ASCT for myeloma and successfully treated with diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction analysis of cerebrospinal fluid. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/9409121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6252224PMC
November 2018

Epidemiology of Meningitis and Encephalitis in Infants and Children in the United States, 2011-2014.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2019 Jan;38(1):37-41

bioMérieux, Durham, NC.

Background: Large epidemiologic studies evaluating the etiologies, management decisions and outcomes of infants and children with meningitis and encephalitis in the United States are lacking.

Methods: Children 0-17 years of age with meningitis or encephalitis as assessed by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes available in the Premier Healthcare Database during 2011-2014 were analyzed.

Results: Six thousand six hundred sixty-five patients with meningitis or encephalitis were identified; 3030 (45. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002081DOI Listing
January 2019

Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody-associated disease: practical considerations.

Pract Neurol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Clinical Neurology, John Radcliffe University Hospital, Oxford, UK

The field of central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory diseases has recently broadened to include a new condition associated with pathogenic serum antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). This is distinct from multiple sclerosis (MS) and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). MOG antibody-associated disease phenotypes are varied and range from classical neuromyelitis optica to acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis and cortical encephalitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/practneurol-2017-001787DOI Listing
December 2018

Faciobrachial dystonic seizures expressed as epileptic spasms, followed by focal seizures in anti-LGI1 encephalitis: a video-polygraphic study.

Epileptic Disord 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Epilepsy Centre - Clinic of Nervous System Diseases, Riuniti Hospital, Foggia, Italy.

The origin of faciobrachial dystonic seizures in anti-LGI1 encephalitis is controversial due to a lack of neurophysiological characterization. We report a 68-year-old man with subacute anterograde memory loss and involuntary faciobrachial movements. Video-polygraphic recordings disclosed repetitive events characterized by sudden, short contraction of the upper limbs and ipsilateral hemiface. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/epd.2018.1010DOI Listing
December 2018

Rasmussen syndrome: an atypical presentation in ten patients.

Epileptic Disord 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital de Pediatría "Prof Dr Juan P Garrahan", Buenos Aires, Argentina.

The aim of this study was to analyse the electroclinical and imaging findings and outcome of patients with Rasmussen syndrome (RS) with atypical manifestations. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of 10 of 44 consecutive patients with RS with atypical features, followed between 1999 and 2017. Six patients were boys and four were girls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/epd.2018.1007DOI Listing
December 2018
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Problematic molecular diagnosis of HSV-1 infection due to a single nucleotide polymorphism in the US7 gene.

J Clin Virol 2018 Dec 3;110:42-44. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Virology Laboratory, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, 151 Route Saint Antoine Ginestiere, 06202 Nice Cedex 3, France. Electronic address:

Background: HSV-1 infection is very common worldwide and can be associated with severe medical conditions such as encephalitis and neonatal herpes. Current diagnosis relies heavily on molecular assays targeting the viral genome. One of the pitfalls of these assays is genetic variability, as viral polymorphisms located in the target region can impair the detection of HSV-1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2018.12.001DOI Listing
December 2018

Follow-up study on Chinese children with relapsing MOG-IgG-associated central nervous system demyelination.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2018 Dec 3;28:4-10. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Some studies have reported clinical features of relapsing MOG-IgG-associated CNS demyelination principally in Caucasians children. It is not clear whether Chinese children share the same phenotype.

Objective: To delineate the clinical characteristics in Chinese children with relapsing MOG-IgG-associated demyelination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2018.12.001DOI Listing
December 2018

Electroconvulsive therapy for anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis: A systematic review of cases.

Brain Stimul 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Metro South Addiction and Mental Health, Brisbane, Australia; University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Background: Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis most commonly presents with psychiatric symptoms such as behavioural disturbance, catatonia and psychosis. Although the primary treatment is with immunomodulatory therapy, psychiatric symptoms often require adjuvant management. Side effects and treatment resistance limits the use of psychotropics, but the role of ECT has been minimally reviewed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2018.11.016DOI Listing
December 2018

[Dramatic improvement after decompressive craniectomy in a fulminant stroke-like case of herpes simplex encephalitis].

Presse Med 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Hôpital d'instruction des armées Sainte-Anne, service de neurochirurgie, BP600, 83800 Toulon Cedex 09, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lpm.2018.11.005DOI Listing
December 2018

Treatment options in pediatric super-refractory status epilepticus.

Brain Dev 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Division of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand. Electronic address:

Background: Super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) is a seizure that continues >24 h after anesthesia, or recurs on the reduction of anesthesia. SRSE is extremely difficult-to-control and associated with poor outcome. To date, optimal therapy and outcome data in children is limited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2018.11.011DOI Listing
December 2018

Platelet factor 4 promotes rapid replication and propagation of Dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses.

EBioMedicine 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Disease Biology Laboratory, Regional Centre for Biotechnology, National Capital Region Biotech Science Cluster, Faridabad, India. Electronic address:

Background: Activated platelets release cytokines/proteins including CXCL4 (PF4), CCL5 and fibrinopeptides, which regulate infection of several pathogenic viruses such as HIV, H1N1 and HCV in human. Since platelet activation is the hallmark of Dengue virus (DV) infection, we investigated the role of platelets in DV replication and also in a closely related Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV).

Methods And Findings: Microscopy and PCR analysis revealed a 4-fold increase in DV replication in primary monocytes or monocytic THP-1 cells in vitro upon incubation with either DV-activated platelets or supernatant from DV-activated platelets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2018.11.049DOI Listing
December 2018