70,237 results match your criteria Encephalitis


"Starry Sky" appearance on Brain CT, neurocysticercal encephalitis.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Radiology Department, Fann University Hospital Center, Dakar, Senegal.

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Etiology of acute meningitis and encephalitis from hospital-based surveillance in South Kazakhstan oblast, February 2017-January 2018.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(5):e0251494. Epub 2021 May 14.

Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States of America.

Encephalitis and meningitis (EM) are severe infections of the central nervous system associated with high morbidity and mortality. The etiology of EM in Kazakhstan is not clearly defined, so from February 1, 2017 to January 31, 2018 we conducted hospital-based syndromic surveillance for EM at the Shymkent City Hospital, in the South Kazakhstan region. All consenting inpatients meeting a standard case definition were enrolled. Read More

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Functional hemispherectomy: can preoperative imaging predict outcome?

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020 Jun 21;25(6). Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Institute, Miami Children's Hospital, Miami, Florida.

Objective: Although hemispherectomy is an effective treatment for children with intractable hemispheric epilepsy syndromes, as many as 40% of patients eventually develop seizure recurrence. The causes of seizure recurrence in these patients are incompletely understood. The authors sought to evaluate the efficacy of hemispherectomy at their center and determine whether contralateral MRI abnormalities can predict seizure recurrence. Read More

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Delayed Benefit From Aggressive Immunotherapy in Waxing and Waning Anti-IgLON5 Disease.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2021 Jul 13;8(4). Epub 2021 May 13.

From the Department of Neurology (P.S., A.H., C.M., C.D., C.L., A.M.), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, AP-HP, Paris, France; Department of Neurology (D.Z., J.S., F.P.), Versailles Hospital, Le Chesnay, France; Department of Neurology (D.Z.), CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; Department of Neurophysiology (B.G.), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, AP-HP, Paris, France; Sorbonne University (C.L., I.A., A.M.), Paris, France; Sleep Disorder Unit (I.A., A.G.), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, AP-HP, Paris, France; Service de Neurologie 2-Mazarin (D.P.), Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière et Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, AP-HP, Centre de Compétence des Syndromes Neurologiques Paranéoplasiques et Encéphalites Autoimmunes, Paris, France; French Reference Center on Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndromes and Autoimmune Encephalitis (J.H.), Hospices Civils de Lyon, Institut NeuroMyoGene, INSERM U1217/CNRS UMR5310, Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France.

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Encephalitis Associated with Sarcocystis halieti Infection in a Free-ranging Little Owl (Athene noctua).

J Wildl Dis 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Institute of Animal Pathology, University of Bern, Länggassstrasse 122, 3012 Bern, Switzerland.

A juvenile Little Owl (Athene noctua) was diagnosed with granulomatous encephalitis and muscular sarcocysts. Sarcocystis halieti was identified in the brain and muscle tissue by PCR and subsequent sequencing. This is the first report of S. Read More

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The Neurologic Manifestations of Coronavirus Disease 2019.

J Neurol Res 2020 Aug 23;10(4):107-112. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Neurology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, USA.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing global pandemic that has so far affected 216 countries and more than 5 million individuals worldwide. The infection is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). While pulmonary manifestations are the most common, neurological features are increasingly being recognized as common manifestations of the COVID-19, especially in the cases of severe infection. Read More

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Neurologic Compromise in COVID-19: A Literature Review.

J Neurol Res 2020 Oct 4;10(5):164-172. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Texas Health at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease caused by a new coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been associated with many neurological symptoms. The purpose of this article is to describe the neurological manifestations so far reported and their probable pathogenesis. We conducted a literature review on EMBASE, MEDLINE and SCIELO databases using the terms "COVID-19", "COVID", "neurological", "neurologic", "manifestations", "implications", "Guillain-Barre syndrome", "encephalopathy". Read More

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October 2020

Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia in a 24-Year-Old Patient With COVID-19 Complicated by Secondary Cryptococcemia and Acute Necrotizing Encephalitis: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

J Med Cases 2020 Nov 23;11(11):362-365. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Windsor Regional Hospital, Windsor, ON, Canada.

Since the initial reported outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many unique case reports have been published in the medical literature. Here we report a complicated clinical course of a young patient with COVID-19 who presented initially with recurrent autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). He subsequently developed bilateral pulmonary emboli, and ultimately succumbed to encephalitis and cryptococcemia in the context of being treated with high dose immunosuppression for the AIHA. Read More

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November 2020

Encephalitis as Neurological Complication of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis of Incidence, Outcomes and Predictors.

Eur J Neurol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Neurology, National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore, Singapore.

Introduction: Although COVID-19 predominantly affects the respiratory system, recent studies have reported the occurrence of neurological disorders such as stroke, in relation to COVID-19 infection. Encephalitis is an inflammatory condition of the brain that has been described as a severe neurological complication of COVID-19. Despite a growing number of reported cases, encephalitis related to COVID-19 infection has not been adequately characterized. Read More

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The well responsiveness of drug-resistant focal seizures in anti-AMPA2 receptor encephalitis to perampanel treatment.

Neurol Sci 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Neurology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, 250012, Shandong, China.

Anti-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor encephalitis is an anti-neuronal surface antigen autoimmune encephalitis and is relatively rare. Our study evaluated a patient who developed anti-AMPA2 receptor encephalitis with memory deficits and refractory focal seizures as paroxysmal jerking on right face as well as dystonic seizure on right hand. On this patient, the combination treatment of levetiracetam, carbamazepine, and clonazepam, monthly periodic intravenous immunoglobin and immunosuppressive therapies for 5 months was not effective for the focal seizures, while his memory loss was slightly improved. Read More

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Application of multiple omics and network projection analyses to drug repositioning for pathogenic mosquito-borne viruses.

Sci Rep 2021 May 12;11(1):10136. Epub 2021 May 12.

Cellular and Molecular Biotechnology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tokyo, 135-0064, Japan.

Pathogenic mosquito-borne viruses are a serious public health issue in tropical and subtropical regions and are increasingly becoming a problem in other climate zones. Drug repositioning is a rapid, pharmaco-economic approach that can be used to identify compounds that target these neglected tropical diseases. We have applied a computational drug repositioning method to five mosquito-borne viral infections: dengue virus (DENV), zika virus (ZIKV), West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and Chikungunya virus (CHIV). Read More

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Autoimmune Encephalitis in First Episode Psychoses: All Smoke and No Fire?

Neurology 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic in Florida; Jacksonville, Florida, USA.

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Clinical, Neuroimmunologic, and CSF Investigations in First Episode Psychosis.

Neurology 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clínic, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain;

Objectives: To report the neuropsychiatric features and frequency of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and other neuronal IgG antibodies in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP), and assess the performance of reported warning signs and criteria for autoimmune psychosis (AP).

Methods: Prospective observational study of patients with FEP assessed for neuropsychiatric symptoms, serum and CSF neuronal antibodies (brain immunohistochemistry, cell-based assays, live neurons), and warning signs and criteria of AP. Previous autoimmune FEP series were reviewed. Read More

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Mechanism through which retrocyclin targets flavivirus multiplication.

J Virol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Center for Biosafety Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China

Currently, there are no approved drugs for the treatment of flavivirus infection. Accordingly, we tested the inhibitory effects of the novel θ-defensin retrocyclin-101 (RC-101) against flavivirus infection, and investigated the mechanism underlying the potential inhibitory effects. First, RC-101 robustly inhibited both Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) infections. Read More

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Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation controls virus protein homeostasis that is required for the flavivirus propagation.

J Virol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Science, Hirosaki University, Aomori, Japan

Many positive-stranded RNA viruses encode polyproteins and viral proteins are generated by processing the polyproteins. This system produces an equal amount of each viral protein, though their required amounts are different. In this study, we found that the extra membrane-anchored non-structural (NS) proteins of Japanese encephalitis virus and dengue virus are rapidly and selectively degraded by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. Read More

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Paraneoplastic optic neuropathy secondary to adenocarcinoma of the lung.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 12;14(5). Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Science Malaysia-Kesihatan Campus, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

We describe an uncommon cause of paraneoplastic optic neuropathy in adenocarcinoma of the lung. A 45-year-old healthy woman presented with seizure and encephalitis, followed by an acute visual loss in both eyes for 1 week. Her visual acuity was no perception of light in the right eye and hand movement in the left eye. Read More

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Field evaluation of four commercial light traps, trap placement, and effect of carbon dioxide on phlebotomine sand fly collection in northern Thailand.

Acta Trop 2021 May 9:105953. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Chemistry and Life Science, United States, Military Academy West Point, West Point, NY, 10996, USA. Electronic address:

Several light trap devices have been invented and developed to assess the abundance of sand flies. Traps available in the market have different designs and attractant combinations to catch sand fly vectors. We evaluated the efficacy of four commercial light traps and determined the effect of trap placement and carbon dioxide (CO) on sand fly collection in northern Thailand. Read More

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GAD65 autoimmunity after treatment with nivolumab: a multifocal presentation.

Neurol Sci 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Neurology Unit, Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine, and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Policlinico GB Rossi, P.le LA Scuro 10, 37134, Verona, Italy.

Introduction: Neurological disorders are considered rare complications of immune-checkpoint inhibitor.

Case Description: We report a 63-year-old man with recurrence of melanoma who presented epilepsy, limbic encephalitis, cerebellar ataxia, and stiff person syndrome soon after treatment with nivolumab, an immune-checkpoint inhibitor. On autoimmune screening, serum and CSF GAD65 were detected. Read More

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Acute Enterovirus Encephalitis as a Cause for Isolated Visual and Auditory Hallucinations in a 22-Year-Old Patient.

Case Rep Psychiatry 2021 23;2021:6687735. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Psychiatry, Social Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Straße 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany.

Viral encephalitis often presents with severe illness, headache, fever, behavioral changes, altered level of consciousness, and focal neurologic deficits. One of the most feared kind of virus encephalitis is herpes simplex encephalitis; however, other central virus infections are also capable of presenting with psychiatric symptoms. Here, we report the case of a 22-year-old woman with first time visual and auditory hallucinations due to an acute enterovirus encephalitis with no cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities but a positive PCR result for enterovirus (ECHO). Read More

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Frontotemporal Dementia with Parkinsonism and Epilepsy Associated with VGKC Antibodies: Case Report and Literature Review.

Case Rep Neurol 2021 Jan-Apr;13(1):205-210. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Neurology, Royal Cornwall Hospitals NHS Trust, Truro, United Kingdom.

Antibodies directed against the voltage-gated potassium channel complex (anti-VGKCs) are implicated in several autoimmune conditions including limbic encephalitis and epilepsy. However, emerging evidence suggests that only specific subtypes of anti-VGKCs are pathogenic. We present the case of a 55-year-old man who initially presented with focal unaware seizures and behavioural changes mimicking anti-VGKC-seropositive encephalitis that further progressed to parkinsonism with evidence of frontotemporal dementia and pre-synaptic dopaminergic deficit. Read More

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Electrophysiological Evaluation in Identifying Unique Sleep Features Among Anti-LGI1 Encephalitis Patients During Active and Recovery Phase.

Nat Sci Sleep 2021 3;13:527-536. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Neurology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, Jinan City, Shandong Province, 250021, People's Republic of China.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to illustrate the electrophysiological features of sleep disturbances in patients with anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 (anti-LGI1) encephalitis in both active and recovery stages.

Methods: Retrospectively filed video electroencephalogram (VEEG) and polysomnography (PSG) data in 24 patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis were analyzed in comparison with that in 20 individuals without sleep disorders as control group.

Results: Sleep efficiency (SE) and total sleep time involving REM and NREM sleep were significantly decreased in patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis during the active stage compared to that during the recovery stage and in the control group. Read More

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Autoantibodies in neurological disease.

Authors:
Harald Prüss

Nat Rev Immunol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

The realization that autoantibodies can contribute to dysfunction of the brain has brought about a paradigm shift in neurological diseases over the past decade, offering up important novel diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities. Detection of specific autoantibodies to neuronal or glial targets has resulted in a better understanding of central nervous system autoimmunity and in the reclassification of some diseases previously thought to result from infectious, 'idiopathic' or psychogenic causes. The most prominent examples, such as aquaporin 4 autoantibodies in neuromyelitis optica or NMDAR autoantibodies in encephalitis, have stimulated an entire field of clinical and experimental studies on disease mechanisms and immunological abnormalities. Read More

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Anti-Adenylate Kinase 5 Encephalitis With Histologic Evidence of CNS Vasculitis.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2021 Jul 11;8(4). Epub 2021 May 11.

From the Department of Clinical Neurosciences (A.V., V.L., P.S.C., R.D.P.), Service of Neurology, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne; and Department of Pathology (J.P.B.), Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne.

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Bortezomib in anti-N-Methyl-d-Aspartate-Receptor (NMDA-R) encephalitis: A systematic review.

J Neuroimmunol 2021 Apr 28;356:577586. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Clinical Unit of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Health Sciences, Cattinara University Hospital ASUGI, University of Trieste, Strada di Fiume, 447, 34149 Trieste, Italy.

N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a potentially treatable condition, although a small proportion of patients remains refractory to immunotherapy. Bortezomib is a proteasome inhibitor that has a promising role in autoimmune conditions. We performed an independent PubMed search employing "Anti-N-Methyl‑D-Aspartate encephalitis AND bortezomib", including papers published between January 1st, 2007 to April 15th, 2021. Read More

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Assessing the role of a tissue-based assay in the diagnostic algorithm of autoimmune encephalitis.

J Neuroimmunol 2021 Apr 30;356:577601. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy; UOC Neurologia, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario "A. Gemelli" IRCCS, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Tissue-based assay (TBA) is a widely-used method to detect neural autoantibodies, but the diagnostic accuracy for autoimmune encephalitis (AE) has not yet been adequately measured. We retrospectively evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of an indirect immunofluorescence TBA (IIF-TBA) in 159 patients with suspected AE. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were collected and tested from December 2012 to September 2020. Read More

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Feasibility of chitosan-based nanoparticles approach for intranasal immunisation of live attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Pharmaceutical Development of Green Innovations Group (PDGIG), Faculty of Pharmacy, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000, Thailand. Electronic address:

Intranasal (IN) administration, a non-invasive route, is explored to overcome the limitations of conventional subcutaneous (SC) injection for Japanese encephalitis (JE) immunisation. Mucoadhesive nanoparticles (NPs) are recognised for the benefits they offer via IN delivery, such as extended retention time of the vaccine on the mucosa. The purpose of this study was to evaluate immunisation effect of live attenuated Japanese encephalitis-chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV)-loaded mucoadhesive NPs based on chitosan (CS) or chitosan maleimide (CM), a novel mucoadhesive polymer, via the IN route to improve the mucosal immunisation against JE. Read More

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Genetic variants and immune responses in a cohort of patients with varicella zoster virus encephalitis.

J Infect Dis 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: Infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) may involve different central nervous system (CNS) manifestations, including meningitis, encephalitis, and vasculitis. In cases where otherwise healthy individuals are affected, an inborn error of immunity may underlie increased susceptibility or severity of infection.

Methods: We collected a cohort of 17 adults who experienced VZV encephalitis and performed whole exome sequencing. Read More

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Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus infection.

Arch Virol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Scientific Chair of Sheikh Mohammad Hussein Alamoudi for Viral Hemorrhagic Fever, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: This review article summarizes what has been published on Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV), a novel flavivirus that was discovered in Saudi Arabia in 1995.

Methods: PubMed was used to search for studies published from January 1995 to June 2019 using the key words Alkhumra virus, Alkhurma virus, novel flavivirus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. Additionally, records of the Saudi Ministry of Health were reviewed. Read More

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Global Incidence of Neurological Manifestations Among Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19-A Report for the GCS-NeuroCOVID Consortium and the ENERGY Consortium.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 05 3;4(5):e2112131. Epub 2021 May 3.

College of Nursing, The Ohio State University, Columbus.

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic continues to affect millions of people globally, with increasing reports of neurological manifestations but limited data on their incidence and associations with outcome.

Objective: To determine the neurological phenotypes, incidence, and outcomes among adults hospitalized with COVID-19.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study included patients with clinically diagnosed or laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 at 28 centers, representing 13 countries and 4 continents. Read More

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Clinical characteristics and Elevated ProGRP and Positive Oligocolonal Bands of Thirteen Chinese Cases with Anti-GABABR Encephalitis.

Int J Dev Neurosci 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Neurology, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China, 251102; Institute of Epilepsy, Shandong University, Jinan, China, 251102.

Objective: To improve the clinical understanding of anti-gamma-aminobutyric-acid B receptor encephalitis (anti-GABABR encephalitis) by analyzing 13 cases.

Methods: We retrospectively studied demographic and clinical features including clinical symptoms, serum/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) laboratory findings (including antibody test), brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electroencephalogram (EEG), treatment plan, and treatment effect for 13 patients with a definitive diagnosis of anti-GABABR encephalitis.

Results: Seven patients (53. Read More

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