36,931 results match your criteria Emphysema


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and related phenotypes: polygenic risk scores in population-based and case-control cohorts.

Lancet Respir Med 2020 Jul;8(7):696-708

Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Genetic factors influence chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk, but the individual variants that have been identified have small effects. We hypothesised that a polygenic risk score using additional variants would predict COPD and associated phenotypes.

Methods: We constructed a polygenic risk score using a genome-wide association study of lung function (FEV and FEV/forced vital capacity [FVC]) from the UK Biobank and SpiroMeta. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30101-6DOI Listing

Evaluation of chromium accumulation and resulting histopathological changes in Libyan jirds (Mammals, Rodentia), affected by effluent from Ghazghan leather industrial town, Iran.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

The leather industry is one of the major producers of wastewater, releasing large amounts of various chemicals into the environment. Chromium (Cr) is the most commonly used agent in the tanning industry. Accumulation in the animal body can adversely affect the functioning of animal tissues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09801-1DOI Listing

Serum vitamin D is associated with improved lung function markers but not with prevalence of asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 9;10(1):11542. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Human Nutrition Department, College of Health Sciences, QU Health, Qatar University, P.O.Box 2713, Doha, Qatar.

Hypovitaminosis D has been linked to several non-bone diseases. Relation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and lung function and lung diseases has received little attention at the global level. Cross-sectional data from three National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, and 2011-2012 were used to investigate the relationship between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and lung function makers [forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)] and lung diseases (asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis) with multivariate regression models (n = 11,983; men, 6,010; women, 5,973). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67967-7DOI Listing

Mediastinal emphysema as the initial presentation of acute severe asthma.

Int J Pediatr Adolesc Med 2020 Jun 6;7(2):100-101. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Department of Pediatrics, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Pondicherry, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpam.2020.02.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7335813PMC

Sublobar resection: functional evaluation and pathophysiological considerations.

J Thorac Dis 2020 Jun;12(6):3363-3368

Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences (DIBIC), Università degli Studi di Milano, Division of Respiratory Diseases, Ospedale L. Sacco, ASST Fatebenefratelli-Sacco, Milan, Italy.

To date, pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are part of consolidated standard operating procedures in thoracic surgery. PFTs are usually used to assess the pre-operative risk, post-operative outcomes and complications after pulmonary resections. The only functional parameter used in common practice is the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2019.12.35DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330776PMC

Hemoptysis complicating ultrasound-guided transthoracic needle lung biopsy: air bronchial sign is a risk predictor.

J Thorac Dis 2020 Jun;12(6):3167-3177

1Department of Ultrasound, 2Department of Respiratory Disease, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510120, China.

Background: Hemoptysis is the most frequently reported complication of ultrasound-guided transthoracic needle lung biopsy (US-TTLB). However, factors influencing the occurrence of hemoptysis as a result of US-TTLB remain uncertain. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of hemoptysis as a complication of US-TTLB and to identify the related risk factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-20-1247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330789PMC

Management of cardiovascular comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

J Thorac Dis 2020 May;12(5):2791-2802

WHO Global Coordination Mechanism for NCD Prevention and Control, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is а highly prevalent, complex and heterogeneous clinical condition which is associated with significant concomitant diseases. COPD and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) often coexist due to the high prevalence of each of these pathological conditions separately as well as the common risk factors (particularly smoking), mechanisms of interaction and influence of systemic inflammation. In addition, decreased pulmonary function in COPD is closely associated with an increased risk of congestive CVDs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2020.03.60DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330365PMC

Airway complications after lung transplantation: benefit of a conservative bronchoscopy strategy.

J Thorac Dis 2020 May;12(5):2625-2634

Department of Thoracic Surgery and Lung and Heart-Lung Transplantation, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France.

Background: After lung transplantation (LT), between 2% and 25% of bronchial anastomoses develop complications requiring therapeutic intervention. The status of healing of both bronchial anastomoses and downhill airways are well described by the French consensual MDS standardized grading system (Macroscopic, Diameter, Suture). We analyzed risks factors for airway complications (AC) after transplantation and the way we managed them. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2020.03.21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330399PMC

"Selective bronchus-blowing" method for effective inflate-deflate line identification in lung segmentectomy.

J Thorac Dis 2020 May;12(5):2146-2152

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: We examined two methods for the intraoperative selective bronchial delivery of air, and compared their effectiveness.

Methods: We recruited patients undergoing lung resection with the selective bronchus-blowing method in pulmonary segmentectomy for lung tumors. We assessed two types of bronchial ventilation methods: high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) and the bronchus-blowing method, which deliver air to target bronchi using HFJV or a 20G cannula inserted directly into the bronchi, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2020.04.35DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330322PMC

[Iatrogenic Injury of the Bronchus Suspiciously Caused by Sengstaken-Blakemore Tube into the Airway].

Kyobu Geka 2020 Jul;73(7):547-551

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Aomori, Japan.

Background: Tracheobronchial injury is often operated urgently because of the risk of high mortality. However, small injuries can recover by conservative management.

Case: A 65-year-old man was treated for esophageal varix with transcatheter arterial embolization therapy. Read More

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Paraseptal Emphysema: From the Periphery of the Lobule to Center of the Stage.

Authors:
Alejandro A Diaz

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Brigham and Women's Hospital, 1861, Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States;

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202006-2138EDDOI Listing

Emphysema at CT in Smokers with Normal Spirometry: Why It Is Clinically Significant.

Radiology 2020 Jul 7:202576. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

From the Department of Radiology, Hôpital FOCH, 40 rue Worth, 92150 Suresnes, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020202576DOI Listing

Iatrogenic cervicofacial emphysema after dental procedures: a case series and radiographic review.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2020 Jun 17. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Associate Professor in Surgery and Pediatrics, Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Surgery, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; Chief, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2020.06.005DOI Listing

Visual Emphysema at Chest CT in GOLD Stage 0 Cigarette Smokers Predicts Disease Progression: Results from the COPDGene Study.

Radiology 2020 Jul 7:192429. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

From the Department of Radiology (A.S.O., S.H., D.A.L.), Department of Biostatistics (M.S., K.P.), Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine (E.A.R.), and Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine (J.D.C.), National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson St, Room A367, Denver, CO 80206.

Background The clinical significance of visually evident emphysema on CT images in individuals without spirometric evidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by current diagnostic criteria is, to the knowledge of the authors, unknown. Purpose To evaluate whether participants with visually evident emphysema at CT were more likely to have progressive disease and increased mortality at 5 years compared with those without visual emphysema. Materials and Methods This secondary analysis of the prospective Genetic Epidemiology of COPD study evaluated current or former smokers enrolled between 2008 and 2011 who did not meet current criteria for COPD (defined as Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease stage 0). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020192429DOI Listing

Thymoquinone (Tq) protects necroptosis induced by autophagy/mitophagy-dependent oxidative stress in human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE).

J Food Biochem 2020 Jul 7:e13366. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. Herein, we demonstrate protective effects of Thymoquinone (Tq), an active constituent from Nigella sativa, against cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced abnormalities in bronchial epithelial cells. Dose-dependent reduction in cell viability was observed in BEAS-2B cells when exposed to different CSE concentrations, which was significantly reversed by Tq evident by LDH release. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13366DOI Listing

Comparison of valve-less and standard insufflation on pneumoperitoneum-related complications in robotic partial nephrectomy: a prospective randomized trial.

J Robot Surg 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Swedish Medical Center, 1101 Madison St, Suite 1400, Seattle, WA, 98104, USA.

To prospectively compare standard and valve-less insufflation systems on pneumoperitoneum-related complications in robotic-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted during a 1.5-year period to compare insufflation-related complications in partial nephrectomy surgery by a single surgeon. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11701-020-01117-zDOI Listing

The ATF6-EGF Pathway Mediates the Awakening of Slow-Cycling Chemoresistant Cells and Tumor Recurrence by Stimulating Tumor Angiogenesis.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 2;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Creative Research Initiative Center for concurrent control of emphysema and lung cancer, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Slow-cycling cancer cells (SCCs) with a quiescence-like phenotype are believed to perpetrate cancer relapse and progression. However, the mechanisms that mediate SCC-derived tumor recurrence are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying cancer recurrence after chemotherapy, focusing on the interplay between SCCs and the tumor microenvironment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071772DOI Listing

Relations between vital capacity, CO diffusion capacity and computed tomographic findings of former asbestos-exposed patients: a cross-sectional study.

J Occup Med Toxicol 2020 1;15:21. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Institute for Occupational and Maritime Medicine (ZfAM), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (UKE), Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Asbestos-related lung diseases are one of the leading diagnoses of the recognized occupational diseases in Germany, both in terms of their number and their socio-economic costs. The aim of this study was to determine whether pulmonary function testing (spirometry and CO diffusion measurement (D)) and computed tomography of the thorax (TCT) are relevant for the early detection of asbestos-related pleural and pulmonary fibrosis and the assessment of the functional deficiency.

Methods: The records of 111 formerly asbestos-exposed workers who had been examined at the Institute for Occupational and Maritime Medicine, Hamburg, Germany, with data on spirometry, D and TCT were reviewed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12995-020-00272-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7328276PMC

Hyperinflation With Pulmonary Dysfunction in Donor Lungs With Smoking History During Lung Perfusion.

J Surg Res 2020 Jul 1;255:502-509. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Inflammation and Immunity, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio; Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio; Transplant Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio. Electronic address:

Background: Donor lungs with smoking history are perfused in ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) to expand donor lung pool. However, the impact of hyperinflation of perfused lungs in EVLP remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of hyperinflation, using an ex vivo measurement delta V, during EVLP in smoker's lungs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2020.05.019DOI Listing

Impact of quantitative pulmonary emphysema score on the rate of pneumothorax and chest tube insertion in CT-guided lung biopsies.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 3;10(1):10978. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353, Berlin, Germany.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of pneumothorax and need for chest tube insertion in CT-guided lung biopsies and identify predictors focusing on pulmonary emphysema determined with quantitative computed tomography. To that end, we retrospectively analysed the incidence of pneumothorax and chest tube insertion in 371 CT-guided lung biopsies with respect to the quantitative emphysema score determined with the density mask technique. Other possible impact factors considered were lesion diameter, length of biopsy pathway within the lung parenchyma, lung lobe, needle size, puncture technique, patient positioning and interventionalist's level of experience. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67348-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7335035PMC

Autophagy in chronic lung disease.

Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci 2020 12;172:135-156. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, United States; Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Joan and Sanford I. Weill Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, United States. Electronic address:

The development of chronic lung disease occurs as a consequence of multiple cellular events that involve an initial insult which often leads to the development of chronic inflammation, and the dysregulation of cellular proliferation and cell death mechanisms. Multiple cell types in the lung are key to the respiratory and protective/barrier functions necessary to manage the chronic exposures to environmental, mechanical, and oxidative stressors. Autophagy is essential to lung development and homeostasis, as well as the prevention and development of disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pmbts.2020.02.001DOI Listing

Complications after 100 sessions of cone-beam computed tomography-guided lung radiofrequency ablation: a single-center, retrospective experience.

Int J Hyperthermia 2020 ;37(1):763-771

Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

To evaluate complications after consecutive 100 sessions of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of lung tumors A retrospective study was conducted from January 2016 and October 2018. All procedures were performed using a CBCT virtual navigation guidance system, combining three-dimentional CBCT, needle planning software, and real-time fluoroscopy. Complications were evaluated for each RFA session in 63 consecutive patients (31 male, 32 female; mean age 58. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02656736.2020.1784472DOI Listing
January 2020

Enhanced Notch3 signaling contributes to pulmonary emphysema in a Murine Model of Marfan syndrome.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 2;10(1):10949. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Surgery, 987690 Nebraska Medical Center, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 68198-790, USA.

Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a heritable disorder of connective tissue, caused by mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene. Pulmonary functional abnormalities, such as emphysema and restrictive lung diseases, are frequently observed in patients with MFS. However, the pathogenesis and molecular mechanism of pulmonary involvement in MFS patients are underexplored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67941-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7331498PMC

Predictive value of Chartis measurement for lung function improvements in bronchoscopic lung volume reduction.

Ther Adv Respir Dis 2020 Jan-Dec;14:1753466620932507

Department of Pneumology, University Medicine Essen-Ruhrlandklinik, Essen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany.

Background: Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) valve implantation can be achieved by targeting severely hyperinflated and emphysematously destructed lung areas in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. Lack of collateral ventilation (CV) is important for good outcomes with BLVR. CV can be measured using the catheter-based Chartis system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1753466620932507DOI Listing

Obesity and Morbidity Risk in the U.S. Veteran.

Healthcare (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;8(3). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

School of Health Administration, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666, USA.

The obesity epidemic in the United States has been well documented and serves as the basis for a number of health interventions across the nation. However, those who have served in the U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8030191DOI Listing

Diagnostic Features in Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema (CPFE): A Systematic Review.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

The University of British Columbia Faculty of Medicine, 12358, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.202002-122RLDOI Listing

Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum in a Young Adult: A Rare Presentation.

Cureus 2020 May 26;12(5):e8306. Epub 2020 May 26.

Surgery, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Puducherry, IND.

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) refers to the presence of air in the mediastinum without any obvious cause. It is an uncommon condition occurring due to alveolar rupture as a result of increased intrathoracic pressure. It is commonly seen in young males, patients with known asthmatic disorders and pulmonary diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320661PMC

Endoscopic Lung Volume Reduction Results in Improvement of Diaphragm Mobility as Measured by Sonography.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2020 22;15:1465-1470. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Marienkrankenhaus Kassel, Kassel 34127, Germany.

Background: Hyperinflation in patients with pulmonary emphysema is an important cause of reduced diaphragm mobility. We investigated whether endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) could improve diaphragm mobility.

Methods: Diaphragm mobility data obtained by sonography from 44 patients were compared before and 3-6 months after ELVR therapy with a Spiration™ valve system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S247526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319505PMC

An Integrative Approach of the Fissure Completeness Score and Chartis Assessment in Endobronchial Valve Treatment for Emphysema.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2020 9;15:1325-1334. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Department of Pneumology, Berlin, Germany.

Purpose: Lung volume reduction using one-way endobronchial valves is a bronchoscopic treatment for patients with severe emphysema without collateral ventilation between the treatment target lobe and the ipsilateral lobe(s). CT-scan fissure analysis is often used as a surrogate to predict the absence of collateral ventilation. We aimed to evaluate the predictive value of the fissure completeness score (FCS) compared to the functional Chartis measurement of collateral ventilation and to provide cut-off values of the FCS in patient selection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S242210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294564PMC

Day and Night Control of COPD and Role of Pharmacotherapy: A Review.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2020 4;15:1269-1285. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Biomedicine and Internal and Specialistic Medicine (DIBIMIS), University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

The topic of 24-hour management of COPD is related to day-to-night symptoms management, specific follow-up and patients' adherence to therapy. COPD symptoms strongly vary during day and night, being worse in the night and early morning. This variability is not always adequately considered in the trials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S240033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283230PMC

Relationship of CT densitometry to lung physiological parameters and health status in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: initial report of a centralised database of the NIHR rare diseases translational research collaborative.

BMJ Open 2020 Jun 30;10(6):e036045. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK

Objectives: To establish a database network for the study of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) and compare the results to CT lung density as the most direct measure of emphysema.

Design: A central electronic database was established to permit the upload of anonymised patient data from remote sites. Prospectively collected CT data were recorded onto disc, anonymised, analysed at the coordinating centre and compared with the clinical features of the disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-036045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7328802PMC

Quantitative analysis of pulmonary vasculature in systemic sclerosis at spirometry-gated chest CT.

Ann Rheum Dis 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Dept Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Objective: To prospectively investigate whether differences in pulmonary vasculature exist in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and how they are distributed in patients with different pulmonary function.

Methods: Seventy-four patients with SSc undergoing chest CT scan for interstitial lung disease (ILD) screening or follow-up were prospectively enrolled. A thorough clinical, laboratory and functional evaluation was performed the same day. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-217359DOI Listing

Risk Assessment for Use of a Porcine Circovirus-Contaminated Reagent in a Barrier Maintained Rodent Colony.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

A proposal for the use of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) to develop a mouse model of pulmonary emphysema raised concerns about introducing contaminating porcine viruses into our barrier facility. Porcine Circovirus (PCV) is a known contaminant of vaccines and cell cultures that have been exposed to porcine-derived reagents. Endemic infection of PCV3 in laboratory mice has been reported, and some evidence supports natural PCV infection in wild mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-20-000012DOI Listing

Acute exacerbations of COPD versus IPF in patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema.

Respir Res 2020 Jun 30;21(1):164. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Departments of Thoracic Medicine and Surgery, the Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, 3401 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19140, USA.

Rationale: Patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) may develop acute exacerbations of IPF (AE-IPF) or COPD (AE-COPD). The incidence and the characteristics of exacerbations in patients with CPFE (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-020-01432-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325151PMC

Small airway immunoglobulin A profile in emphysema-predominant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shanxi Bethune Hospital Affiliated to Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030032, China.

Background: Due to airway remodeling and emphysematous destruction in the lung, the two classical clinical phenotypes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are emphysema and bronchiolitis. The present study was designed to investigate the levels of small airway immunoglobulin A (IgA) in COPD with "emphysema phenotype." The study also evaluated the associations between the small airway IgA levels and the severity of disease by the extent of emphysema versus airflow limitation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000000863DOI Listing

Emphysema quantification using low-dose computed tomography with deep learning-based kernel conversion comparison.

Eur Radiol 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Internal Medicine and Environmental Health Center, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, 1 Kangwondaehak-gil, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, 24341, Republic of Korea.

Objective: This study determined the effect of dose reduction and kernel selection on quantifying emphysema using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) and evaluated the efficiency of a deep learning-based kernel conversion technique in normalizing kernels for emphysema quantification.

Methods: A sample of 131 participants underwent LDCT and standard-dose computed tomography (SDCT) at 1- to 2-year intervals. LDCT images were reconstructed with B31f and B50f kernels, and SDCT images were reconstructed with B30f kernels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-07020-3DOI Listing

[Endothelium-related and neuro-mediated mechanisms of emphysema development in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

Ter Arkh 2020 Apr 27;92(3):116-124. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Pacific State Medical University.

Emphysema is one of the main manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and smoking is one of the most significant risk factors. The results of studies in humans and animals show the vascular endothelium initiates and modulates the main pathological processes in COPD and smoking is an important factor initiating, developing and persisting inflammation and remodeling of blood vessels and tissues, including the destruction of small respiratory tracts with the development of lung tissue destruction and emphysema. The latest studies describe mechanisms not just associated with the endothelium, but specific neuro-mediated mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26442/00403660.2020.03.000347DOI Listing

Alveolar Macrophage Phenotype and Compartmentalization Drive Different Pulmonary Changes in Mouse Strains Exposed to Cigarette Smoke.

COPD 2020 Jun 29:1-15. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

COPD can manifest itself with different clinical phenotypes characterized by different disease progression and response to therapy. Although a remarkable number of studies have been carried out, little is known about the mechanisms underlying phenotypes that could guide the development of viable future therapies. Several murine strains mirror some human phenotypes after smoke exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15412555.2020.1783648DOI Listing

Determining Static Hyperinflation in Patients with Severe Emphysema: Relation Between Lung Function Parameters and Patient-Related Outcomes.

Lung 2020 Jun 28. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Department of Pulmonary Diseases AA11, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction techniques are minor invasive treatment modalities for severely hyperinflated emphysema patients. The severity of static lung hyperinflation determines eligibility and success rate for these treatments. However, it is not exactly known what parameter should be used to optimally reflect hyperinflation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00408-020-00368-9DOI Listing

Pneumoperitoneum after transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach.

Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol 2020 Jun 30;5(3):580-583. Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Singapore General Hospital Singapore.

Background: Transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach (TOETVA) is a relatively safe procedure with comparable safety profile as open thyroidectomy. While gas insufflation complications such as subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum have been reported postoperatively, there have been no reports of pneumoperitoneum.

Case Report: Our patient underwent an uneventful TOETVA to remove her left thyroid lobe. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lio2.393DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314460PMC

Diagnostic Accuracy of Multidetector CT in Detection of Early Interstitial Lung Disease With Its Role in Characterization.

Cureus 2020 May 23;12(5):e8253. Epub 2020 May 23.

Radiodiagnosis, Era's Lucknow Medical College and Hospital, Lucknow, IND.

Background Multidetector CT (MDCT) has emerged as a useful option for early diagnosis of interstitial lung disease (ILD) with adequate accuracy. Methods A total of 80 patients with restricted pulmonary functions and clinical suspicion of ILD were enrolled in the study. MDCT evaluation was done using Siemens Somatom Force 384 slice multidetector computer tomography machine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308819PMC

Construction of a hybrid lung model by combining a real geometry of the upper airways and an idealized geometry of the lower airways.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2020 Jun 20;196:105613. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Facultad de Enfermería, Universidad de Oviedo, Instituto Nacional de Silicosis and GRUBIPU-ISPA, Spain. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: Health care costs represent a substantial an increasing percentage of global expenditures. One key component is treatment of respiratory diseases, which account for one in twelve deaths in Europe. Computational simulations of lung airflow have potential to provide considerable cost reduction and improved outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2020.105613DOI Listing

COVID-19 and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: two intersecting pandemics.

Eur J Clin Invest 2020 Jun 26:e13338. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Clinica Medica "A. Murri", Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", Bari, 70124, Italy.

Background: Initial evidence from China suggests that most vulnerable subjects to COVID-19 infection suffer from pre-existing illness, including metabolic abnormalities. The pandemic characteristics and high-lethality rate of COVID-19 infection have raised concerns about interactions between virus pathobiology and components of the metabolic syndrome.

Methods: We harmonized the information from the recent existing literature on COVID-19 acute pandemic and mechanisms of damage in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as an example of chronic (non-communicable) metabolic pandemic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eci.13338DOI Listing

ARIA-EAACI statement on Asthma and COVID-19 (June 2, 2020).

Authors:
Jean Bousquet Marek Jutel Cezmi A Akdis Ludger Klimek Oliver Pfaar Kari C Nadeau Thomas Eiwegger Anna Bedbrook Ignacio J Ansotegui Josep M Anto Claus Bachert Eric D Bateman Kazi S Bennoor Emilia Camelia Berghea Karl-Christian Bergmann Hubert Blain Mateo Bonini Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich Louis-Philippe Boulet Luisa Brussino Roland Buhl Paulo Camargos G Walter Canonica Victoria Cardona Thomas Casale Sharon Chinthrajah Mübeccel Akdis Tomas Chivato George Christoff Alvaro A Cruz Wienczyslawa Czarlewski Stefano Del Giacco Hui Du Yehia El-Gamal Wytske J Fokkens Joao A Fonseca Yadong Gao Mina Gaga Bilun Gemicioglu Maia Gotua Tari Haahtela David Halpin Eckard Hamelmann Karin Hoffmann-Sommergruber Marc Humbert Nataliya Ilina Juan-Carlos Ivancevich Guy Joos Musa Khaitov Bruce Kirenga Edward F Knol Fanny W Ko Seppo Koskinen Marek L Kowalski Helga Kraxner Dmitri Kudlay Piotr Kuna Maciej Kupczyk Violeta Kvedariene Amir H Abdul Latiff Lan T Le Michael Levin Desiree Larenas-Linnemann Renaud Louis Mohammad R Masjedi Erik Melén Florin Mihaltan Branislava Milenkovic Yousser Mohammad Mario Morais-Almeida Joaquim Mullol Leyla Namazova Hugo Neffen Elisabete Nunes Paul O'Byrne Robyn O'Hehir Liam O'Mahony Ken Ohta Yoshitaka Okamoto Gabrielle L Onorato Petr Panzner Nikos G Papadopoulos Gianni Passalacqua Vincenzo Patella Ruby Pawankar Nhân Pham-Thi Bernard Pigearias Todor A Popov Francesca Puggioni Frederico S Regateiro Giovanni Rolla Menachem Rottem Boleslaw Samolinski Joaquin Sastre Jurgen Schwarze Aziz Sheikh Nicola Scichilone Manuel Soto-Quiros Milan Sova Stefania Nicola Rafael Stelmach Charlotte Suppli-Ulrik Luis Taborda-Barata Teresa To Peter-Valentin Tomazic Sanna Toppila-Salmi Ioanna Tsiligianni Omar Usmani Arunas Valiulis Maria Teresa Ventura Giovanni Viegi Theodor Vontetsianos De Yun Wang Sian Williams Gary Wk Wong Arzu Yorgancioglu Mario Zernotti Mihaela Zidarn Torsten Zuberbier Ioana Agache

Allergy 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Transylvania University Brasov, Brasov, Romania.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14471DOI Listing

Impact of Local High Doses of Radiation by Neutron Activated Mn Dioxide Powder in Rat Lungs: Protracted Pathologic Damage Initiated by Internal Exposure.

Biomedicines 2020 Jun 23;8(6). Epub 2020 Jun 23.

The Center for Peace, Hiroshima University, Higashi-senda-machi, Naka -ku, Hiroshima 730-0053, Japan.

Internal radiation exposure from neutron-induced radioisotopes environmentally activated following atomic bombing or nuclear accidents should be considered for a complete picture of pathologic effects on survivors. Inhaled hot particles expose neighboring tissues to locally ultra-high doses of β-rays and can cause pathologic damage. MnO powder was activated by a nuclear reactor to make MnO which emits β-rays. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8060171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7345208PMC

Optimal threshold in low-dose CT quantification of emphysema.

Eur J Radiol 2020 May 28;129:109094. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Medical Imaging, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710061, China.

Objective: Low-dose CT is now widely used in the screening of lung cancer and the detection of pulmonary nodules. There has also been increasing interest in using Low-dose CT for evaluating emphysema. In conventional dose CT, the threshold of -950HU is a common threshold for density-based emphysema quantification for worldwide population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2020.109094DOI Listing

Subcutaneous emphysema following dental care of a patient with ventriculoperitoneal shunt: Case report.

Authors:
Jenelle Fleagle

Spec Care Dentist 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, Delaware.

Introduction: Pediatric dental treatment utilizing an air-driven handpiece and triplex syringe in the operating room has been common practice for many decades. Adverse effects with compressed air are rarely reported in the dental community but can cause serious complications for pediatric patients in the unlikely event they occur.

Case Report: We present a case of subcutaneous emphysema of a 4-year-old presenting for dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia, which was further complicated by the presence of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt and the patient's neuroatypical status. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/scd.12490DOI Listing

Level of serum IL-33 and emphysema paraseptal in clove cigarette smoker with spontaneous pneumothorax: A case report.

Respir Med Case Rep 2020 12;30:101133. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Pulmonology and Respiratory Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University - Dr Soetomo Academic Hospital, Indonesia.

A young male clove cigarette smoker experienced spontaneous pneumothorax and later paraseptal emphysema was detected on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan without respiratory symptoms. Smoking is a known risk factor for emphysema. Paraseptal emphysema is a type of emphysema that rarely causes respiratory symptoms, nevertheless, usually accompanied by spontaneous pneumothorax. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmcr.2020.101133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7300223PMC