39,458 results match your criteria Emphysema

Adverse roles of mast cell chymase-1 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Eur Respir J 2022 Jul 1. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

Faculty of Science, Centre for Inflammation, Centenary Institute and University of Technology Sydney, School of Life Sciences, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Background: COPD is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Cigarette smoke (CS)-induced chronic inflammation inducing airway remodelling, emphysema and impaired lung function is the primary cause. Effective therapies are urgently needed. Read More

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A 34-Year-Old male admitted with pulmonary tuberculosis complicated by hydropneumothorax and mediastinal emphysema.

Int J Mycobacteriol 2022 Apr-Jun;11(2):199-201

Department of Pulmonology, University of Health Sciences, Yedikule Chest Disease and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Spontaneous hydropneumothorax (HP) and mediastinal emphysema (ME) are infrequently presented complications of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). A-34-year-old Pakistani male presented with dyspnea, productive cough, and right-sided pleuritic chest pain. He had no history of any surgery, TB, comorbid disease, or other serious pulmonary diseases. Read More

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A Nomogram for Predicting the Risk of Pulmonary Hypertension for Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Int J Gen Med 2022 22;15:5751-5762. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, People's Republic of China.

Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a life-threatening complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Timely diagnosis of PH in COPD patients is vital to achieve proper treatment; however, there is no algorithm to identify those at high risk. We aimed to develop a predictive model for PH in patients with COPD that provides individualized risk estimates. Read More

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The impact of endoscopic lung volume reduction on physical activity coaching in patients with severe emphysema.

ERJ Open Res 2022 Apr 27;8(2). Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Clinical Dept of Respiratory Diseases, University Hospitals Leuven, BREATHE Dept CHROMETA, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Introduction: Endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) aims to improve pulmonary function in severe emphysema. Physical activity (PA) coaching is expected to improve daily life PA. When improving ventilatory constrains in severe COPD, a better response to PA coaching is expected. Read More

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The prevalence and physiological impacts of centrilobular and paraseptal emphysema on computed tomography in smokers with preserved ratio impaired spirometry.

ERJ Open Res 2022 Apr 27;8(2). Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Dept of Respiratory Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Centrilobular emphysema (CLE) and paraseptal emphysema (PSE) are observed in smokers with preserved ratio impaired spirometry (PRISm, defined as the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV) to forced vital capacity (FVC) ≥0.7 and FEV <80%), but their prevalence and physiological impacts remain unestablished. This multicentre study aimed to investigate its prevalence and to test whether emphysema subtypes are differently associated with physiological impairments in smokers with PRISm. Read More

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Subtyping emphysematous COPD by respiratory volume change distributions on CT.

Thorax 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Background: There is considerable heterogeneity among patients with emphysematous chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesised that in addition to emphysema severity, ventilation distribution in emphysematous regions would be associated with clinical-physiological impairments in these patients.

Objective: To evaluate whether the discordance between respiratory volume change distributions (from expiration to inspiration) in emphysematous and non-emphysematous regions affects COPD outcomes using two cohorts. Read More

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Remodeling of the Aged and Emphysematous Lungs: Roles of Microenvironmental Cues.

Compr Physiol 2022 Jun 29;12(3):3559-3574. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Aging is a slow process that affects all organs, and the lung is no exception. At the alveolar level, aging increases the airspace size with thicker and stiffer septal walls and straighter and thickened collagen and elastic fibers. This creates a microenvironment that interferes with the ability of cells in the parenchyma to maintain normal homeostasis and respond to injury. Read More

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Associations Between Morphological Phenotypes of COPD and Clinical Characteristics in Surgically Resected Patients with COPD and Concomitant Lung Cancer.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2022 21;17:1443-1452. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

First Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Nagano, Japan.

Purpose: The associations between morphological phenotypes of COPD based on the chest computed tomography (CT) findings and clinical characteristics in surgically resected patients with COPD and concomitant lung cancer are unclear. The purpose of this study was to clarify the differences in clinical characteristics and prognosis among morphological phenotypes based on the chest CT findings in these patients.

Patients And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 132 patients with COPD and concomitant lung cancer who had undergone pulmonary resection for primary lung cancer. Read More

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Four Different Reasons of Subcutaneous Emphysema With or Without Pneumomediastinum and Pneumothorax After Facial Bone Surgery.

J Craniofac Surg 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental Center, Chung-Ang University Hospital.

Abstract: In the present study, the authors report rare case series with subcutaneous emphysema with or without pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax after orthognathic and facial bone contouring surgery, compare their clinical and radiologic findings, and suggest precautions. Four patients who showed subcutaneous emphysema on follow up chest X-ray and computed tomography after orthognathic and facial bone contouring surgery were included in the study. In all cases post-op subcutaneous emphysema were detected, however, the aspect and mechanisms of post-op air spread were all different. Read More

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Budesonide/glycopyrronium/formoterol fumarate triple therapy prevents pulmonary hypertension in a COPD mouse model via NFκB inactivation.

Respir Res 2022 Jun 27;23(1):173. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki, Chuo, Kobe, Japan.

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a health problem that results in death, commonly due to the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Here, by utilizing a mouse model of intratracheal elastase-induced emphysema that presents three different phases of COPD, we sought to observe whether budesonide/glycopyrronium/formoterol fumarate (BGF) triple therapy could prevent COPD-PH in addition to ameliorating COPD progression.

Methods: We utilized intratracheal elastase-induced emphysema mouse model and performed experiments in three phases illustrating COPD progression: inflammatory (1 day post-elastase), emphysema (3 weeks post-elastase) and PH (4 weeks post-elastase), while treatments of BGF and controls (vehicle, one-drug, and two-drug combinations) were started in prior to elastase instillation (inflammatory phase), at day 7 (emphysema), or at day 14 (PH phase). Read More

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Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation rescue for severe pneumocystis pneumonia with the Macklin effect: a case report.

BMC Infect Dis 2022 Jun 27;22(1):577. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Department of Emergency, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of China.

Background: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) in an immunocompromised host is often associated with the Macklin effect, which can progress to spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM), subcutaneous emphysema (SCE), and pneumothorax (PNX). Diagnosing the causative organism of these conditions in non-HIV infected patients and treating hypoxemia while preventing further lung damage can be challenging. This study examines the case of a non-HIV infected male with SPM, SCE, and PNX secondary to severe Pneumocystis jirovecii (PJ) infection. Read More

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Cervicofacial and mediastinal emphysema following dental extraction.

Diagn Interv Imaging 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Radiology, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP 05652-900, Brazil.

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Climate-mediated air pollution associated with COPD severity.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jun 24:156969. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City, Taiwan; School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; Cell Physiology and Molecular Image Research Center, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Air pollution has been reported to be associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our study aim was to examine the mediating effects of air pollution on climate-associated health outcomes of COPD patients. A cross-sectional study of 117 COPD patients was conducted in a hospital in Taiwan. Read More

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[Emphysematous gastritis. Report of a case in the elderly].

Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2022 Mar 1;60(2):236-241. Epub 2022 Mar 1.

Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Hospital General de Zona con Medicina Familiar No. 16, Servicio de Geriatría. Torreón, Coahuila, México.

Introduction: Emphysematous gastritis is an uncommon pathology but with high mortality, its clinical presentation is insidious, the tomography image is distinguished by a pattern of linear bubbles with thickening of the gastric wall.

Background: This is a 78-year-old male, previously healthy, functional, who was admitted for pertrochanteric fracture of the left hip, who during hospitalization presented hyperactive delirium, abdominal distention with decreased perstalsis in addition to arterial hypotension, an abdominal tomography with evidence of gastric dilation and multiple air bubbles in the wall. He is managed with a broad spectrum antibiotic, fluid therapy and parenteral nutrition, with a favorable response. Read More

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Bilateral Emphysematous Pyelonephritis Associated with COVID Pneumonia: A Case Report.

Am J Case Rep 2022 Jun 27;23:e936370. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Department of Urology, Euromedik, Belgrade, Serbia.

BACKGROUND 0ptviral pneumonia and bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis create a rapid acute respiratory distress syndrome. CASE REPORT A 59-year-old diabetic man with altered awareness was admitted as an emergency due to fever, shivering, and pain in the lap. Based on the accurate diagnosis, we concluded that the patient had bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis, as well as inflammatory changes in the lung parenchyma caused by coronavirus infection (SARS-CoV-2). Read More

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A forgotten double-J ureteral stent resulting in an emphysematous perinephric abscess: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2022 Jun 24;101(25):e29418. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Internal Medicine, HANSUNG Union Internal Medicine Clinic and Dialysis Center, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Rationale: Double-J stents (DJSs) are urologic devices widely used for urinary tract obstruction treatment. Perinephric abscess is a condition with purulent accumulation resulting from urinary tract infection retained between the renal capsule and Gerota's fascia. Emphysematous urinary tract infection in patients with a forgotten DJS is extremely rare. Read More

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Interleukin-17A and interleukin-22 production by conventional and non-conventional lymphocytes in three different end-stage lung diseases.

Clin Transl Immunology 2022 16;11(6):e1398. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Pediatric Pneumology, Allergology and Neonatology Hannover Medical School Hannover Germany.

Objectives: The contribution of adaptive innate lymphocytes to IL-17A and IL-22 secretion at the end stage of chronic lung diseases remains largely unexplored. In order to uncover tissue- and disease-specific secretion patterns, we compared production patterns of IL-17A and IL-22 in three different human end-stage lung disease entities.

Methods: Production of IL-17A, IL-22 and associated cytokines was assessed in supernatants of re-stimulated lymphocytes by multiplex assays and multicolour flow cytometry of conventional T cells, iNKT cells, γδ T cells and innate lymphoid cells in bronchial lymph node and lung tissue from patients with emphysema ( = 19), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis ( = 14) and cystic fibrosis ( = 23), as well as lung donors ( = 17). Read More

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Inhaled Steroids, Sex and Emphysema Index - Clinical Parameters with Impact on the Effectiveness of Valve Implantation in Patients with Severe Emphysema.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2022 20;17:1423-1430. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Pneumology and Critical Care Medicine, Thoraxklinik at University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Aims And Objectives: Many patients with chronic obstructive lung disease suffer from emphysema. Valve implantation may be a reasonable method in patients presenting advanced emphysema and absent interlobar collateral ventilation (CV). However, other clinical parameters influencing the effectiveness of endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) are not well known. Read More

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Efficacy and Safety of LigaSure in Laparoscopic Sutureless Appendectomy.

Cureus 2022 May 5;14(5):e24764. Epub 2022 May 5.

Pediatric Surgery, King George's Medical University (KGMU), Lucknow, IND.

Background The closure of the appendiceal stump is a crucial step during an appendectomy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the LigaSure Vessel Sealing System in laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) for sealing and dividing the base of the appendix. Material and methods Laparoscopic appendectomy was performed using the 5-mm LigaSure Vessel Sealer in 53 patients, and the mesoappendix along with the base of the appendix was divided by LigaSure. Read More

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Current status of interventional therapy for pulmonary emphysema with bronchoscopy.

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2022 May;47(5):665-672

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Branch of National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008.

Pulmonary emphysema is one of phenotypes of lung disease that can progress to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The pathogenesis is unknown, which may be closely related to smoking, infection, gene mutation, and air pollution. Pathological features of emphysema include the decreased airway elasticity at the distal end of the bronchioles and over-hyperinflation. Read More

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ISM1 suppresses LPS-induced acute lung injury and post-injury lung fibrosis in mice.

Mol Med 2022 Jun 25;28(1):72. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117543, Republic of Singapore.

Background: Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) are clinical syndromes characterized by acute lung inflammation, pulmonary edema and hypoxemia, with up to 50% mortality rate without effective pharmacological therapy. Following the acute inflammation, repair and remodeling occurs which in some cases resulting in lung fibrosis. The pathophysiology of ALI/ARDS remains incompletely understood. Read More

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A Challenge for Emphysema Quantification Using a Deep Learning Algorithm With Low-dose Chest Computed Tomography.

J Thorac Imaging 2022 Jul 5;37(4):253-261. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine.

Purpose: We aimed to identify clinically relevant deep learning algorithms for emphysema quantification using low-dose chest computed tomography (LDCT) through an invitation-based competition.

Materials And Methods: The Korean Society of Imaging Informatics in Medicine (KSIIM) organized a challenge for emphysema quantification between November 24, 2020 and January 26, 2021. Seven invited research teams participated in this challenge. Read More

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The Normal Lung Index From Quantitative Computed Tomography for the Evaluation of Obstructive and Restrictive Lung Disease.

J Thorac Imaging 2022 Jul 16;37(4):246-252. Epub 2021 Dec 16.

Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul.

Purpose: Our objective was to evaluate whether the normal lung index (NLI) from quantitative computed tomography (QCT) analysis can be used to predict mortality as well as pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and interstitial lung disease (ILD).

Materials And Methods: Normal subjects (n=20) and patients with COPD (n=172) and ILD (n=114) who underwent PFTs and chest CT were enrolled retrospectively in this study. QCT measures included the NLI, defined as the ratio of the lung with attenuation between -950 and -700 Hounsfield units (HU) over the total lung volume (-1024 to -250 HU, mL), high-attenuation area (-700 to -250 HU, %), emphysema index (>6% of pixels < -950 HU), skewness, kurtosis, and mean lung attenuation. Read More

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Computed tomography on lung cancer screening is useful for adjuvant comorbidity diagnosis in developing countries.

ERJ Open Res 2022 Apr 20;8(2). Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Graduate Program in Pathology, Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyse and quantify the prevalence of six comorbidities from lung cancer screening (LCS) on computed tomography (CT) scans of patients from developing countries.

Methods: For this retrospective study, low-dose CT scans (n=775) were examined from patients who underwent LCS in a tertiary hospital between 2016 and 2020. An age- and sex-matched control group was obtained for comparison (n=370). Read More

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Crocodile Oil Modulates Inflammation and Immune Responses in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

Molecules 2022 Jun 12;27(12). Epub 2022 Jun 12.

Faculty of Fisheries Technology and Aquatic Resources, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290, Thailand.

Crocodile oil (CO) is generated from the fatty tissues of crocodiles as a by-product of commercial aquaculture. CO is extensively applied in the treatment of illnesses including asthma, emphysema, skin ulcers, and cancer, as well as wound healing. Whether CO has anti-inflammatory properties and encourages an immune response remains uncertain. Read More

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CardioNet: Automatic Semantic Segmentation to Calculate the Cardiothoracic Ratio for Cardiomegaly and Other Chest Diseases.

J Pers Med 2022 Jun 17;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Unmanned Vehicle Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Korea.

Semantic segmentation for diagnosing chest-related diseases like cardiomegaly, emphysema, pleural effusions, and pneumothorax is a critical yet understudied tool for identifying the chest anatomy. A dangerous disease among these is cardiomegaly, in which sudden death is a high risk. An expert medical practitioner can diagnose cardiomegaly early using a chest radiograph (CXR). Read More

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Airflow Obstruction in Adults with Williams Syndrome and Mice with Elastin Insufficiency.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2022 Jun 10;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 10.

National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Williams-Beuren syndrome (WS) results from the deletion of 25-27 coding genes, including elastin (), on human chromosome 7q11.23. Elastin provides recoil to tissues; emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have been linked to its destruction. Read More

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Effect Analysis of Lung Rehabilitation Training in 5A Nursing Mode for Elderly Patients with COPD Based on X-Ray.

Comput Math Methods Med 2022 13;2022:1963426. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Department of Respiratory, The Affiliated People's Hospital of Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315040 Zhejiang, China.

This study was aimed at evaluating the application effect of pulmonary rehabilitation training under 5A nursing mode based on X-ray in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Then, 84 elderly patients with chronic obstructive emphysema were selected as the research subjects. COPD knowledge level questionnaire, caregiver self-efficacy scale (CSES), COPD assessment test (CAT), and 6-minute walking experiment (6MWD) were adopted, and the clinical application effect of pulmonary rehabilitation training and conventional nursing under 5A nursing mode was comprehensively compared. Read More

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Complications of primary pediatric endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis: A 25-year single surgeon experience.

Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol 2022 Jun 29;7(3):658-661. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Department of Otolaryngology West Virginia University Morgantown West Virginia USA.

Objective: To report our experience on the complications of primary pediatric endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS).

Methods: Case series of pediatric ESS performed from 1991 to 2016 on children who failed maximal medical therapy and/or adenoidectomy. Inclusion criteria were children (age <12 years old) who underwent primary ESS with or without adenoidectomy for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) after failed maximal medical therapy and/or adenoidectomy. Read More

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Musculoskeletal and Esthetic Complications after Neonatal Thoracotomy: Revisited.

J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg 2022 May-Jun;27(3):293-296. Epub 2022 May 12.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Atal Bihari Vajpayee Institute of Medical Sciences, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Aim: The aim is to study the complications of neonatal thoracotomy and its preventive measures.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 53 neonates who underwent thoracotomy from January 2017 to December 2019 for a period of 3 years. Patient demographic data, primary disease for which they underwent thoracotomy, postoperative complications (immediate and delayed) during follow-up were documented. Read More

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