38,193 results match your criteria Emphysema


Giant cavity pulmonary lesion and pneumothorax simultaneously following COVID-19 pneumonia.

Radiol Case Rep 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Nephrology and Urology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran.

Cavitary lung formation with spontaneous pneumothorax has been rarely reported as a complication of COVID-19 pneumonia. We report a rare case of a 38 years-old male patient affected by COVID-19 pneumonia, exceptionally complicated by a simultaneous giant cavity in the right upper lung and a small right pneumothorax in the right hemithorax. Whilst pneumothorax emphysema, giant bullae and pneumothorax with alveolar rupture are known to potentially develop in COVID-19 patients as a result of high-flow O support, the exact origin of the giant lung cavitation in our patient could be not confirmed. Read More

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Massive Pneumomediastinum and Subcutaneous Emphysema Secondary to Foreign Body Aspiration.

J Emerg Med 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer Sheva, Israel; Pediatric Pulmonary Unit, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer Sheva, Israel; Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion, University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel.

Background: Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) occurs in cases of mediastinal leaks that are not caused by trauma, mechanical ventilation, or other surgical procedures. In most cases, in the pediatric population a trigger can be identified, most commonly asthma. SPM caused by foreign body aspiration is not a common entity. Read More

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Angiogenic regulatory influence of extracellular matrix deposited by resting state asthmatic and non-asthmatic airway smooth muscle cells is similar.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Division of Perinatal Research, Kolling Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the tissue microenvironment that regulates the characteristics of stromal and systemic cells to control processes such as inflammation and angiogenesis. Despite ongoing anti-inflammatory treatment, low levels of inflammation exist in the airways in asthma, which alters ECM deposition by airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells. The altered ECM causes aberrant behaviour of cells, such as endothelial cells, in the airway tissue. Read More

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Imaging findings in 14 dogs and 3 cats with lobar emphysema.

J Vet Intern Med 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Small Animal Teaching Hospital, University of Liverpool, Neston, UK.

Background: Lobar emphysema in dogs and cats is caused by bronchial collapse during expiration and subsequent air trapping. Congenital causes such as bronchial cartilage defects or acquired causes such as compressive neoplastic lesions have been reported. Morbidity results from hyperinflation of the affected lung lobe and compression of adjacent thoracic structures. Read More

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Gender specific airway gene expression in COPD sub-phenotypes supports a role of mitochondria and of different types of leukocytes.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 18;11(1):12848. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Pneumology, National Koranyi Institute for TB and Pulmonology, Budapest, Hungary.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a destructive inflammatory disease and the genes expressed within the lung are crucial to its pathophysiology. We have determined the RNAseq transcriptome of bronchial brush cells from 312 stringently defined ex-smoker patients. Compared to healthy controls there were for males 40 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 73 DEGs for females with only 26 genes shared. Read More

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Impact of early life exposures on respiratory disease.

Authors:
Andrew Bush

Paediatr Respir Rev 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Paediatrics and Paediatric Respirology, Imperial College, UK; Imperial Centre for Paediatrics and Child Health, UK; Consultant Paediatric Chest Physician, Royal Brompton Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, UK. Electronic address:

The antecedents of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) lie before school age. Adverse effects are transgenerational, antenatal and in the preschool years. Antenatal adverse effects impair spirometry by causing low birth weight, altered lung structure and immune function, and sensitizing the foetus to later insults. Read More

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Dynamic Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of Areas of the Lung During Free-Breathing of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Acad Radiol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 260-8670, Japan.

Rationale And Objectives: Changes in the geometry of the chest wall due to lung hyperinflation occur in COPD. However, the quantitative assessment of impaired lung motions and its association with the clinical characteristics of COPD patients are unclear. This study aimed to investigate the respiratory kinetics of COPD patients by dynamic MRI. Read More

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Pneumomediastinum associated with severe pneumonia related to COVID-19: diagnosis and management.

Minerva Med 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Medical Sciences Department, University of Torino, Turin, Italy.

Background: Pneumomediastinum (PNM) can develop as a severe complication of severe COVID 19 and may be correlated with greater morbidity and mortality. PNM is a rarely reported complication in COVID-19 patients and usually associated with endotracheal intubation.

Methods: Our aim is to describe the characteristics of patients with PNM in twenty-one patients with COVID-19 related pneumonia and acute respiratory failure in a retrospective case series. Read More

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Extraction with an electric motor-driven handpiece may still cause subcutaneous emphysema - A case report.

J Dent Sci 2021 Jul 24;16(3):1033-1034. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Dentistry, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.

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Isolated subcutaneous emphysema of the abdominal wall following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.

Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Hospital Moinhos de Vento, Brazil.

Isolated subcutaneous emphysema without retroperitoneal perforation is a rare complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). We present the case of an 87-year-old female who developed an extensive subcutaneous emphysema following ERCP for choledocholithiasis. Abdominal computed tomographic scan revealed air perfectly dissecting the abdominal wall muscle layers, and no evidence of air leak in the pleural, mediastinal or peritoneal spaces. Read More

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A homological approach to a mathematical definition of pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema on computed tomography.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 06 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Three-dimensional imaging is essential to evaluate local abnormalities and understand structure-function relationships in an organ. However, quantifiable and interpretable methods to localize abnormalities remain unestablished. Visual assessments are prone to bias, machine learning methods depend on training images, and the underlying decision principle is usually difficult to interpret. Read More

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Outcomes of lung cancer surgery for patients with interstitial pneumonia and coronary disease.

Surg Today 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Departments of General Thoracic Surgery, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 1-3, Hongo 3-chome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8431, Japan.

Purpose: To evaluate the surgical outcomes of lung cancer patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) and/or coronary artery disease (CAD).

Methods: The subjects of this retrospective study were 2830 patients who underwent surgical resection for lung cancer between 2009 and 2018. Seventy-one patients (2. Read More

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Mesenchymal Stromal Cells From Emphysematous Donors and Their Extracellular Vesicles Are Unable to Reverse Cardiorespiratory Dysfunction in Experimental Severe Emphysema.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 31;9:661385. Epub 2021 May 31.

Laboratory of Pulmonary Investigation, Carlos Chagas Filho Institute of Biophysics, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Although bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) appear to be phenotypically and functionally similar to BM-MSCs from healthy sources , the impact of COPD on MSC metabolism and mitochondrial function has not been evaluated. In this study, we aimed to comparatively characterize MSCs from healthy and emphysematous donors (H-MSCs and E-MSCs) and to assess the therapeutic potential of these MSCs and their extracellular vesicles (H-EVs and E-EVs) in an model of severe emphysema. For this purpose, C57BL/6 mice received intratracheal porcine pancreatic elastase once weekly for 4 weeks to induce emphysema; control animals received saline under the same protocol. Read More

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A Retrospective Study on Using a Novel Single Needle Cone Puncture Approach for the Iodine-125 Seed Brachytherapy in Treating Patients With Thoracic Malignancy.

Front Oncol 2021 31;11:640131. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Oncology, Tianjin Beichen Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Background: Patients with progressive thoracic malignancy characterized by large irregular tumors with necrosis and life-threatening symptoms lack effective treatments. We set out to develop a single needle cone puncture method for the Iodine-125 seed (SNCP-I) brachytherapy, and aim to report the initial results.

Methods: 294 patients with advanced thoracic malignancy were treated with local SNCP-I brachytherapy between March 2009 and July 2020, followed by thorough evaluation of clinical outcome, overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and procedure-related complications after treatment. Read More

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Necroptosis Signalling Promotes Inflammation, Airway Remodelling and Emphysema in COPD.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

University of Technology Sydney, 1994, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia;

Rationale: Necroptosis, mediated by RIPK3 and MLKL, is a form of regulated necrosis that can drive tissue inflammation and destruction, however its contribution to COPD pathogenesis is poorly understood.

Objectives: To determine the role of necroptosis in COPD.

Methods: Levels of RIPK3, MLKL and activated phospho-MLKL were measured in lung tissues of COPD patients and non-COPD controls. Read More

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A 17-Year-Old Girl with a Recent History of Marijuana Use Presented with Pneumomediastinum and Pneumopericardium and Tested Positive for SARS-CoV-2 Infection on Hospital Admission.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Jun 16;22:e931800. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Ascension St. John Children's Hospital, Detroit, MI, USA.

BACKGROUND Pneumomediastinum and pneumopericardium have been reported to occur in people who regularly smoke marijuana and have also been reported in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia due to infection with SARS-CoV-2. This report is of a 17-year-old girl with a history of marijuana use who presented with pneumomediastinum and pneumopericardium and was found to be positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection on hospital admission by Abbott ID NOW testing. CASE REPORT A 17-year-old girl presented to the emergency room with a 3-day history of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting and a 1-day history of diarrhea. Read More

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Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage secondary to in a vaping patient.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jun 15;14(6). Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Aspirus Wausau Hospital, Wausau, Wisconsin, USA.

Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH) is known to occur from several infectious and non-infectious aetiologies. Among the infectious aetiologies, , an organism known to cause community-acquired pneumonia, has not been reported in association with DAH prior to this case. On the other hand, vaping, an evolving epidemic concern, has been linked to various types of lung injury, including DAH. Read More

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Clusters of comorbidities in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

Respir Med 2021 Jun 1;185:106490. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Center for Rare Lung Diseases, Department of Respiratory Diseases and Allergy, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Introduction: Comorbidities are common in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and negatively impact health-related quality of life, health-care costs and mortality. Retrospective studies have focused on individual comorbidities, but clusters of multiple comorbidities have rarely been analysed. This study aimed to comprehensively and prospectively assess comorbidities in a multicentre, real-world cohort of patients with IPF, including prespecified conditions of special interest and to analyse clusters of comorbidities and examine characteristics, disease course and mortality of the clusters. Read More

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Unraveling the Interplay of Image Formation, Data Representation and Learning in CT-based COPD Phenotyping Automation: The Need for a Meta-Strategy.

Med Phys 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Siemens Healthineers, CT R&D Image Analytics, Forchheim, Germany.

Purpose: In the literature on automated phenotyping of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), there is a multitude of isolated classical machine learning and deep learning techniques, mostly investigating individual phenotypes, with small study cohorts and heterogeneous meta-parameters, e.g. different scan protocols or segmented regions. Read More

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Subcutaneous emphysema and spontaneous pneumomediastinum in non-intubated COVID-19 patient: Presenting unusual case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Jul 10;84:106071. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Critical Care Nursing, College of Nursing, Urmia University of Medical Science, Iran.

Introduction And Importance: In non-intubated COVID-19 patients, subcutaneous emphysema and spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) remain rarely, with incidence rates of 3.0 and 1.2 per 100,000, respectively; nevertheless, the occurrence of these conditions in COVID-19 patients is unclear. Read More

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Determinants of Lung Fissure Completeness.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

University Medical Center Groningen, Pulmonary diseases, Groningen, Netherlands.

Rationale: New advanced bronchoscopic treatment options for patients with severe COPD have led to increased interest for COPD phenotyping, including fissure completeness.

Objectives: We investigated clinical, environmental, and genetic factors contributing to fissure completeness in patients with and without COPD.

Methods: We used data of 9926 participants of the COPDGene study who underwent chest computed tomography (CT). Read More

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Spontaneous pneumomediastinum in COVID-19 patients. Case series.

Gac Med Mex 2021 ;157(1):110-114

Cardiothoracic Surgery Department.

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is defined as the presence of free air within the mediastinum without an apparent cause such as chest trauma. It is a benign, self-limiting condition that is conservatively treated. Clinical diagnosis is based on two symptoms: chest pain and dyspnea; and on a particular sign: subcutaneous emphysema. Read More

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January 2021

Skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations induced by long-term cigarette smoke exposure.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2021 06 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Massachusetts Amherst, United States.

Because patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) are often physically inactive, it is still unclear whether the lower respiratory capacity in the locomotor muscles of these patients is due to cigarette smoking per se or is secondary to physical deconditioning. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine mitochondrial alterations in the quadriceps muscle of 10 mice exposed to 8-months of cigarette smoke, a sedentary mouse model of emphysema, and 9 control mice, using immunoblotting, spectrophotometry, and high-resolution respirometry in permeabilized muscle fibers. Mice exposed to smoke displayed a two-fold increase in the oxidative stress marker, 4-HNE, (p < 0. Read More

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A case of B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2 UK strain with an atypical radiological presentation.

Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mugla Sitki Koçman University, Mugla.

The new UK strain was first described in December 2020. It was seen for the first time in Turkey in February 2021. It is not yet known whether the new strain has different CT patterns compared to the classical type. Read More

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Gelfoam slurry tract occlusion after computed tomography-guided percutaneous lung biopsy: Does it prevent major pneumothorax?

J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Monash Medical Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Introduction: Computed tomography (CT)-guided lung biopsy is a frequently performed procedure in the diagnostic workup for suspicious lung nodules that can be complicated by pneumothorax. This retrospective study assessed the efficacy of biopsy tract occlusion with a gelatin sponge slurry for preventing post-biopsy pneumothorax.

Methods: Retrospective analysis was conducted on consecutive adult patients who underwent CT-guided lung biopsy over a 10-year period. Read More

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Retroperitoneal emphysema caused by a renal abscess: a case report.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea; Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju, Korea.

We report a case of retroperitoneal emphysema caused by a renal abscess. A 45-year-old man with underlying type 2 diabetes mellitus visited the emergency department with right flank pain and a fever. On physical examination, right costovertebral tenderness in the ipsilateral flank was noted. Read More

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Histone Deacetylase 2 Suppresses Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Senescence via NF-κB Signaling Pathway in Cigarette Smoke-Induced Mice with Emphysema.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2021 4;16:1661-1675. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, 530021, People's Republic of China.

Background: Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). CS not only causes chronic airway inflammation and lung damage but also is involved in skeletal muscle dysfunction (SMD). Previous studies have shown that histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) plays an important role in the progression of COPD. Read More

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Automatic algorithm for quantifying lung involvement in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, infection with SARS-CoV-2, paracoccidioidomycosis and no lung disease patients.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(6):e0251783. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Medical School, Sao Paulo State University Julio de Mesquita Filho, Botucatu, SP, Brazil.

In this work, we aimed to develop an automatic algorithm for the quantification of total volume and lung impairments in four different diseases. The quantification was completely automatic based upon high resolution computed tomography exams. The algorithm was capable of measuring volume and differentiating pulmonary involvement including inflammatory process and fibrosis, emphysema, and ground-glass opacities. Read More

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Subtle Crucial X-Ray Findings in Pediatric Foreign Body Aspiration.

Cureus 2021 May 8;13(5):e14898. Epub 2021 May 8.

Pediatric Surgery, Shizuoka Children's Hospital, Shizuoka, JPN.

Foreign body aspiration (FBA), with potentially life-threatening outcomes, is not unusual in the pediatric population. We report two cases of lobar bronchial radiolucent foreign bodies. Chest X-ray (CXR) showed a slight but significant finding of lobar emphysema without a significant mediastinal shift. Read More

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