252,034 results match your criteria Emotion Washington D.C.[Journal]


Objective assessment of blinking and facial expressions in Parkinson's disease using vertical electrooculogram and facial surface electromyography.

Physiol Meas 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Istituto di BioRobotica, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Viale Rinaldo Piaggio, 34, Pontedera, 56025, ITALY.

Objective: Hypomimia is a common and early symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD), which reduces the ability of PD patients in manifesting emotions. Currently, it is visually evaluated by the neurologist during neurological examinations for PD diagnosis as described in task 3.2 of the Movement Disorder Society - Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6579/ab1c05DOI Listing

Regulatory Focus and Subjective Well-Being: The Mediating Role of Coping Styles and the Moderating Role of Gender.

J Psychol 2019 Apr 24:1-18. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

a Beijing Normal University.

Although previous research has suggested that regulatory focus may exert considerable impacts on individuals' subjective well-being (SWB), little research has explored the mechanism for this relation and the potential gender difference. The current study investigated the potential mediating effects of coping styles on the relationship between regulatory focus and three aspects of SWB (indicated by life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) among Chinese adolescents. Total of 2943 Chinese adolescents participated in this cross-sectional survey and completed self-reported questionnaires (M = 14. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223980.2019.1601066DOI Listing

[Neural mechanisms of dissociation: implication for borderline personality disorder].

Tijdschr Psychiatr 2019 ;61(4):267-275

Background: Dissociation is a prevalent symptom in borderline personality disorder (BPD), which can have detrimental effects on everyday functioning and treatment. Until now, little is known about the brain networks implicated in dissociation in BPD. Research on dissociative disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder found alterations in networks implicated in cognitive control and arousal modulation. Read More

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January 2019

Mindfulness and wellbeing in older adults' survivors of herdsmen attack. The mediating effect of positive reappraisal.

Aging Ment Health 2019 Apr 24:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

a Department of Psychology , University of Nigeria , Nsukka , Nigeria.

Objective: The Fulani herdsmen are pastoralists who move from place to place in search of vegetation for their herds cattle. The random movement of cattle has frequently led to the destruction of crops belonging to farmers. This has resulted to violent clashes between the two groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2019.1602592DOI Listing

Cultures of conflict: Protests, violent repression, and community values.

Br J Soc Psychol 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey.

What are the cultural origins of societal conflicts that revolve around democratization, women's rights, and modern libertarian values? We propose that deep-seated differences in community-based collective values (at the micro-level) may be related to why people support anti-government protest and why they support repression of such protests (at the macro-level). The hypothesis was examined among residents of Turkey (N = 500). Cultural values, measured at the individual level and community level with the community collectivism scale, correlated with political orientation and emotions, as well as with subsequent support for anti-governmental protest or its repression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjso.12328DOI Listing

Pica behaviors in a German community-based online adolescent and adult sample: an examination of substances, triggers, and associated pathology.

Eat Weight Disord 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Institute of Psychology, Department of Human Sciences, Osnabrück University, Knollstr. 15, 49069, Osnabrück, Germany.

Purpose: To examine self-reported pica substances, situational triggers for, and associated psychosocial burden of pica eating in adolescents and adults in a Western European population.

Methods: A total of 78 individuals aged 16 years and over, who indicated consuming a substance that in their opinion is not considered as food, participated in an online survey. Two questionnaires assessed eating disorder and general psychopathology, and a third asked about the substances consumed, duration and frequency of consumption, triggers for consumption, emotions thereafter, and interest in treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40519-019-00693-wDOI Listing

Effects of acceptance and reappraisal on body dissatisfaction: an experimental comparison of two adaptive emotion regulation strategies.

Eat Weight Disord 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, The International Institute for the Advanced Studies of Psychotherapy and Applied Mental Health, Babeș-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, 37, Republicii Street, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Background: In recent years, research has increasingly focused on body dissatisfaction, which is associated with numerous negative psychological and physical health consequences and, more importantly, with the development and maintenance of eating pathology.

Objective: In the present study, we focused on the effect of two adaptive emotion regulation strategies (acceptance and reappraisal) on body dissatisfaction compared to a control group, and pre- and post-induction of body dissatisfaction.

Methods: A total of 105 women [mean age (M) = 22. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40519-019-00691-yDOI Listing

A computationally bio-inspired framework of brain activities based on cognitive processes for estimating the depth of anesthesia.

Australas Phys Eng Sci Med 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Electrical Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

This paper develops a computationally bio-inspired framework of brain activities based on concepts, such as sensory register (SR), encoding, emotion, short-term memory (STM), selective attention, working memory (WM), forgetting, long-term memory (LTM), sustained memory (SM), and response selection for estimating the depth of anesthesia (DOA) using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. Different brain regions, such as the thalamus, cortex, neocortex, amygdala, striatum, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and hippocampus, are considered for developing a cognitive architecture and a computationally bio-inspired framework. A clinical study was managed on twenty-two patients corresponding to three anesthetic states, including awake state, moderate anesthesia, and general anesthesia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13246-019-00743-8DOI Listing

The role of subject presence type on student motivation in a PBL learning environment.

Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

University of North Dakota, 231 Centennial Drive, Stop 7189, Grand Forks, ND, 58202, USA.

Students have been observed as underprepared or skipping steps during the problem-based learning (PBL) process due to fatigue or low motivation, potentially creating a barrier for effective learning. One way to explore resolving this issue is to consider whether variables of problem scenario design can be altered to optimize motivation. This mixed method study considered the impact of presentation modality of the PBL problem subject (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10459-019-09889-2DOI Listing

Data on sentiments and emotions of olympic-themed tweets.

Data Brief 2019 Jun 20;24:103869. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Michigan State University, USA.

Two code files and one dataset related to Olympic Twitter activity are the foundation for this article. Through Twitter's Spritzer streaming API (Application Programming Interface), we collected over 430 million tweets from May 12th, 2016 to September 12th, 2016 windowing the Rio de Janeiro Olympics and Paralympics. We cleaned and filtered these tweets to contain Olympic-related content. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2019.103869DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6468189PMC

Sex-Related Differences in Plasma Oxytocin Levels in Humans.

Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health 2019 26;15:58-63. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, Section of Psychiatry, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Background: Increasing evidence supports a key role of Oxytocin (OT) as a modulator of social relationships in mammals.

Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate possible sex-related differences in plasma OT levels in human beings.

Methods: Forty-five healthy men and 45 women (mean age: 34. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1745017901915010058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446474PMC

Cognitive and emotional empathy in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: A replication and extension study.

Psychiatry Res 2019 Apr 17;276:56-59. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Philipps-University Marburg, Rudolf-Bultmann-Straße 8, 35039 Marburg, Germany.

Impairments of social cognition are defined as core features in the pathology of schizophrenia. In a study by Lehmann and colleagues (2014), patients with schizophrenia have been shown to demonstrate a diminished capacity to understand others' emotions (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2019.04.015DOI Listing

[Clinical efficacy of interactive group sandplay versus individual sandplay in the treatment of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2019 Apr;21(4):342-347

Child Health Center, Fujian Provincial Maternity and Children's Hospital, Fuzhou 350001, China.

Objective: To study the clinical efficacy of interactive group sandplay versus individual sandplay in the treatment of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Methods: A total of 80 ASD children, aged 4-6 years, were enrolled and randomly divided into experimental and control groups, with 40 children in each group. The children in the experimental group joined group sandplay with normal children at a ratio of 1: 3, and those in the control group were treated with individual sandplay. Read More

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Deprivation and threat, emotion dysregulation, and psychopathology: Concurrent and longitudinal associations.

Dev Psychopathol 2019 Apr 24:1-11. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,Chapel Hill, NC,USA.

Maltreatment increases risk for psychopathology in childhood and adulthood, thus identifying mechanisms that influence these associations is necessary for future prevention and intervention. Emotion dysregulation resulting from maltreatment is one potentially powerful mechanism explaining risk for psychopathology. This study tests a conceptual model that distinguishes deprivation and threat as distinct forms of exposure with different pathways to psychopathology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579419000294DOI Listing

Cross-cultural similarity in relationship-specific social touching.

Proc Biol Sci 2019 Apr;286(1901):20190467

10 Division of Psychology, School of Social Sciences, Nanyang Technological University , 14 Nanyang Avenue, 637332 Singapore.

Many species use touching for reinforcing social structures, and particularly, non-human primates use social grooming for managing their social networks. However, it is still unclear how social touch contributes to the maintenance and reinforcement of human social networks. Human studies in Western cultures suggest that the body locations where touch is allowed are associated with the strength of the emotional bond between the person touched and the toucher. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2019.0467DOI Listing

"I Don't Feel Like I Have Any Control of My Life at All . . . Everything Overwhelms Me. Everything": Analyzing Caregiver Uncertainty and Control Through Stance Marking.

Qual Health Res 2019 Apr 23:1049732319840283. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

1 Penn State, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA.

Informal caregivers immersed in the daily care of loved ones at end-of-life stages face such challenges as medical and household issues, worries, doubts, and uncertainties. Using a macro-mezzo-micro approach to discourse, we analyzed parent study interview data involving 46 caregivers facing end-of-life realities. At the mezzo level, we examined caregivers' expressed perceptions of control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1049732319840283DOI Listing

Brain Imaging of the Cortex in ADHD: A Coordinated Analysis of Large-Scale Clinical and Population-Based Samples.

Authors:
Martine Hoogman Ryan Muetzel Joao P Guimaraes Elena Shumskaya Maarten Mennes Marcel P Zwiers Neda Jahanshad Gustavo Sudre Thomas Wolfers Eric A Earl Juan Carlos Soliva Vila Yolanda Vives-Gilabert Sabin Khadka Stephanie E Novotny Catharina A Hartman Dirk J Heslenfeld Lizanne J S Schweren Sara Ambrosino Bob Oranje Patrick de Zeeuw Tiffany M Chaim-Avancini Pedro G P Rosa Marcus V Zanetti Charles B Malpas Gregor Kohls Georg G von Polier Jochen Seitz Joseph Biederman Alysa E Doyle Anders M Dale Theo G M van Erp Jeffery N Epstein Terry L Jernigan Ramona Baur-Streubel Georg C Ziegler Kathrin C Zierhut Anouk Schrantee Marie F Høvik Astri J Lundervold Clare Kelly Hazel McCarthy Norbert Skokauskas Ruth L O'Gorman Tuura Anna Calvo Sara Lera-Miguel Rosa Nicolau Kaylita C Chantiluke Anastasia Christakou Alasdair Vance Mara Cercignani Matt C Gabel Philip Asherson Sarah Baumeister Daniel Brandeis Sarah Hohmann Ivanei E Bramati Fernanda Tovar-Moll Andreas J Fallgatter Bernd Kardatzki Lena Schwarz Anatoly Anikin Alexandr Baranov Tinatin Gogberashvili Dmitry Kapilushniy Anastasia Solovieva Hanan El Marroun Tonya White Georgii Karkashadze Leyla Namazova-Baranova Thomas Ethofer Paulo Mattos Tobias Banaschewski David Coghill Kerstin J Plessen Jonna Kuntsi Mitul A Mehta Yannis Paloyelis Neil A Harrison Mark A Bellgrove Tim J Silk Ana I Cubillo Katya Rubia Luisa Lazaro Silvia Brem Susanne Walitza Thomas Frodl Mariam Zentis Francisco X Castellanos Yuliya N Yoncheva Jan Haavik Liesbeth Reneman Annette Conzelmann Klaus-Peter Lesch Paul Pauli Andreas Reif Leanne Tamm Kerstin Konrad Eileen Oberwelland Weiss Geraldo F Busatto Mario R Louza Sarah Durston Pieter J Hoekstra Jaap Oosterlaan Michael C Stevens J Antoni Ramos-Quiroga Oscar Vilarroya Damien A Fair Joel T Nigg Paul M Thompson Jan K Buitelaar Stephen V Faraone Philip Shaw Henning Tiemeier Janita Bralten Barbara Franke

Am J Psychiatry 2019 Apr 24:appiajp201918091033. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

The Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (Hoogman, Guimaraes, Shumskaya, Wolfers, Bralten, Franke); the Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behavior, Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (Hoogman, Shumskaya, Mennes, Wolfers, Buitelaar, Bralten, Franke); the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (Muetzel, El Marroun, White, Tiemeier); the Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (Muetzel); the Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behavior, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (Guimaraes, Zwiers, Buitelaar); the Imaging Genetics Center, Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Marina del Rey, Calif. (Jahanshad, Thompson); National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda, Md. (Sudre, Shaw); the Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland (Earl, Fair, Nigg); the Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain (Soliva Vila, Ramos-Quiroga, Vilarroya); Instituto ITACA, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain (Vives-Gilabert); the Olin Neuropsychiatry Research Center, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Conn. (Khadka, Novotny, Stevens); University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Department of Psychiatry, Interdisciplinary Center Psychopathology and Emotion Regulation (ICPE), Groningen, the Netherlands (Hartman, Schweren); Faculty of Behavioral and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Heslenfeld); the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands (Hoekstra); NICHE Lab, Department of Psychiatry, UMC Utrecht Brain Center, Utrecht, the Netherlands (Ambrosino, Oranje, de Zeeuw, Durston); Laboratory of Psychiatric Neuroimaging (LIM-21), Department and Institute of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil (Chaim-Avancini, Rosa, Zanetti, Busatto); the Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Applied Neurosciences (NAPNA), University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil (Chaim-Avancini, Rosa, Zanetti, Busatto); the Developmental Imaging Group, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia (Malpas); the Clinical Outcomes Research Unit (CORe), Department of Medicine, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia (Malpas); the Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia (Malpas); the Child Neuropsychology Section, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany (Kohls, Konrad; Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany (Polier, Seitz); Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine-Brain and Behavior (INM-7), Research Center Jülich, Jülich, Germany (Polier); the Clinical and Research Programs in Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Adult ADHD, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (Biederman); the Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (Biederman, Doyle); the Center for Genomic Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (Doyle); the Departments of Neurosciences, Radiology, and Psychiatry and the Center for Multimodal Imaging and Genetics, University of California San Diego (Dale); the Clinical and Translational Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California Irvine, Irvine (van Erp); the Division of Behavioral Medicine and Clinical Psychology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, and the Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati (Epstein, Tamm); the Center for Human Development, University of California San Diego, San Diego (Jernigan); the Division of Molecular Psychiatry, Center of Mental Health, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany (Ziegler, Lesch); the Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Amsterdam (Schrantee, Reneman); the Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway (Høvik); the Division of Psychiatry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway (Høvik, Haavik); the Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway (Lundervold); the K.G. Jebsen Center for Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway (Lundervold, Haavik); the School of Psychology and the Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, and the Trinity College Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland (Kelly); the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York (Kelly, Castellanos, Yoncheva); the Department of Psychiatry, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland (McCarthy, Skokauskas, Frodl); the Centre for Advanced Medical Imaging, St. James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland (McCarthy); the Center for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, NTNU, Norway, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway (Skokauskas); the Center for MR Research, University Children's Hospital, and the Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology, Zurich (O'Gorman Tuura); Magnetic Resonance Image Core Facility, August Pi i Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain (Calvo, Lazaro); the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology, Institute of Neurosciences, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain (Lera-Miguel, Nicolau, Lazaro); the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience, King's College London (Chantiluke, Christakou, Cubillo, Rubia); the School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences, Centre for Integrative Neuroscience and Neurodynamics, University of Reading, Reading, U.K. (Christakou); the Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Australia (Vance, Coghill, Silk); the Department of Neuroscience, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Falmer, Brighton, U.K. (Cercignani, Gabel, Harrison); the Social, Genetic, and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience, King's College London (Asherson, Kuntsi); the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim/Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany (Baumeister, Brandeis, Hohmann, Banaschewski); the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Psychiatric Hospital, University of Zurich, Zurich (Brandeis, Brem, Walitza); the Neuroscience Center Zurich, University of Zurich and ETH Zurich, Zurich (Brandeis, Brem, Walitza); the D'Or Institute for Research and Education, Rio de Janeiro (Bramati, Tovar-Moll, Mattos); the Morphological Sciences Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Tovar-Moll); the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany (Fallgatter, Schwarz, Ethofer); LEAD Graduate School, University of Tübingen, Germany (Fallgatter); the Department of Biomedical Magnetic Resonance, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany (Kardatzki, Ethofer); the National Medical Research Center for Children's Health, Department of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Densitometry, Moscow (Anikin); the National Medical Research Center for Children's Health, Moscow (Baranov, Solovieva); Russian National Research Medical University, Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation, Central Clinical Hospital MSHE, Moscow (Namazova-Baranova); the National Medical Research Center for Children's Health, Laboratory of Neurology and Cognitive Health, Moscow (Gogberashvili, Karkashadze); the National Medical Research Center for Children's Health, Department of Information Technologies, Moscow (Kapilushniy); the Department of Pediatrics, Erasmus MC-Sophia, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (El Marroun); the Department of Psychology, Education, and Child Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (El Marroun); the Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (White); Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Mattos); the Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia (Coghill); the Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia (Coghill, Silk); the Division of Neuroscience, University of Dundee, Dundee, U.K. (Coghill); the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Center, Capital Region Copenhagen (Plessen); the Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Lausanne, Switzerland (Plessen); the Department of Neuroimaging, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience, King's College London (Mehta, Paloyelis); Sussex Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, Swandean, East Sussex, U.K. (Harrison); the Monash Institute for Cognitive and Clinical Neurosciences (MICCN) and the School of Psychological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia (Bellgrove); Deakin University, School of Psychology, Geelong, Australia (Silk); the Department of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (Lazaro); the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany (Frodl); the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Germany (Frodl); Bezirksklinikum Regensburg, Germany (Zentis); the Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, N.Y. (Castellanos); the Brain Imaging Center, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Amsterdam (Reneman); the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics, and Psychotherapy, Tübingen, Germany (Conzelmann); the Department of Psychology, Biological Psychology, Clinical Psychology, and Psychotherapy, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany (Conzelmann, Pauli, Baur-Streubel, Zierhut); the Laboratory of Psychiatric Neurobiology, Institute of Molecular Medicine, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow (Lesch); the Department of Neuroscience, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience (MHeNS), Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands (Lesch); the Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatic Medicine, and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany (Reif); JARA Institute Molecular Neuroscience and Neuroimaging (INM-11), Institute for Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Center Jülich, Germany (Konrad); Translational Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany (Oberwelland Weiss); Cognitive Neuroscience (INM-3), Institute for Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Center Jülich, Germany (Oberwelland Weiss); the Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil (Busatto, Louza); the Clinical Neuropsychology Section, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Oosterlaan); Emma Children's Hospital Amsterdam Medical Center, Amsterdam (Oosterlaan); the Department of Pediatrics, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Oosterlaan); the Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn. (Stevens); the Department of Psychiatry, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain (Ramos-Quiroga); Biomedical Network Research Center on Mental Health (CIBERSAM), Barcelona, Spain (Lazaro, Ramos-Quiroga); Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), Barcelona, Spain (Vilarroya); the Department of Psychiatry, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland (Fair, Nigg); Karakter Child and Adolescent Psychiatry University Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (Buitelaar); Departments of Psychiatry and of Neuroscience and Physiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York (Faraone); NIHM, Bethesda, Md. (Shaw); the Department of Social and Behavioral Science, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston (Tiemeier).

Objective: Neuroimaging studies show structural alterations of various brain regions in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although nonreplications are frequent. The authors sought to identify cortical characteristics related to ADHD using large-scale studies.

Methods: Cortical thickness and surface area (based on the Desikan-Killiany atlas) were compared between case subjects with ADHD (N=2,246) and control subjects (N=1,934) for children, adolescents, and adults separately in ENIGMA-ADHD, a consortium of 36 centers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.18091033DOI Listing

Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and Psychotherapy in Anxiety and Depressive Disorders: A Viewpoint.

Brain Sci 2019 Apr 14;9(4). Epub 2019 Apr 14.

Service de Physiologie, Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hôpital Henri-Mondor, AP-HP, 94010 Créteil, France.

Among the most prevalent psychiatric conditions stand anxiety and depression. Psychotherapy and medications are considered effective treatments in these clinical settings. However, pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy (i. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3425/9/4/82
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9040082DOI Listing
April 2019
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Holding soft objects increases expectation and disappointment in the Cyberball task.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215772. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.

When a person is excluded from a group, she/he often experiences negative emotions, referred to as social pain. Previous studies have reported that touching/holding soft objects can lead to a decrease of negative attitude toward uncertain events, and it is possible that such physical intervention may also be effective for reducing social pain induced by the group exclusion. This study examines the effects of holding soft objects on social pain. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215772PLOS

Attachment security is associated with the experience of specific positive emotions in middle childhood.

Attach Hum Dev 2019 Apr 23:1-13. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

a Department of Psychological Sciences , Kent State University , Kent , OH , USA.

Adaptive emotion expression characterizes secure parent-child relationships in which children rely on attachment figures for secure base and safe haven support. We hypothesized that more securely attached children would report experiencing greater positive emotion. Children (N=92; M=11. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616734.2019.1604775DOI Listing

Chronic tension-type headache and coping strategies in adolescents: A qualitative interview study.

Physiother Res Int 2019 Apr 22:e1778. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Department of Health and Functioning, Western Norway of Applied and Sciences, Post Box 7030, N-Bergen, Norway.

Objective: Headache is the most common cause of chronic pain in children and adolescents and may influence on several of the life's arenas such as high absence from school and inability to maintain leisure time activities. Adolescents with chronic headache also report co-morbidities such as anxiety, depression, insomnia, and reduced quality of life. This study aimed to explore which strategies adolescents use to cope with chronic tension-type headache in everyday life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pri.1778DOI Listing

Sharing Personal Information about Anatomical Body Donors: What First-Year Medical Students Want to Know and how it Affects Emotional Responses to Dissection.

Clin Anat 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Office of Medical Student Education, Larner College of Medicine at the University of Vermont, Burlington, VT.

Introduction: Among educators who teach in the human anatomy lab, there has been lively debate about sharing information about anatomical donors. One consideration in this debate is concern about the emotional effect of personalizing donors on the students. The purpose of this study was to evaluate student responses to being exposed to donor information (DI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ca.23389DOI Listing

Nurses' and nursing assistants' emotional skills: a major determinant of motivation for patient education.

J Adv Nurs 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Teaching Hospital of Lille, Transversal Unit of Patient Education, Lille, France.

Aims: To exploreprofessionals' (i.e. nurses and nursing assistants) motivation for Patient Educationaccording to their emotional skills. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jan.14033DOI Listing

Altered inter-hemispheric communication of default-mode and visual networks underlie etiology of primary insomnia : Altered inter-hemispheric communication underlie etiology of insomnia.

Brain Imaging Behav 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, 305#, Eastern Zhongshan Rd, Nanjing, 210002, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

To identify altered inter-hemispheric communication between patients with primary insomnia (PIs) and good sleepers (GSs), and their relationships with sleep and emotion-related parameters. Forty-eight PIs and 48 status-matched GSs were asked to complete a number of sleep and emotion-related questionnaires. Voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity(VMHC) and seed-based functional connectivity were used to characterize the inter-hemispheric coordination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11682-019-00064-0DOI Listing

Differential insular cortex sub-regional atrophy in neurodegenerative diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Brain Imaging Behav 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, Section Clinical Neuroanatomy and Biobanking, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, De Boelelaan 1108, 1081 HZ, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

The insular cortex is proposed to function as a central brain hub characterized by wide-spread connections and diverse functional roles. As a result, its centrality in the brain confers high metabolic demands predisposing it to dysfunction in disease. However, the functional profile and vulnerability to degeneration varies across the insular sub-regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11682-019-00099-3DOI Listing

Procreative consciousness in a global market: gay men's paths to surrogacy in the USA.

Authors:
Marcin Smietana

Reprod Biomed Soc Online 2018 Nov 21;7:101-111. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Reproductive Sociology Research Group, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

This article explores one of the contemporary contexts of reproductive decision-making: gay men's paths to surrogacy within the globalised USA fertility industry. The stories collected from qualitative interviews and ethnographic research with 37 gay men from several countries in Europe and the USA, who all had children through surrogacy in the USA, show that the men's understandings of their own reproductive aspirations and opportunities changed over time, as if recovering the fertility that was lost by coming out. This shift in the men's procreative consciousness - i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rbms.2019.03.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6465560PMC
November 2018

Illness Representation and Self-Care Ability in Older Adults with Chronic Disease.

Geriatrics (Basel) 2018 Jul 31;3(3). Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Department of Nursing, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

Chronic illness affects >50% of adults in the United States and accounts for >80% of healthcare spending. The purpose of this study was to determine whether beliefs about one's chronic disease (illness representation) are associated with self-care activation, emergency department (ED) visits, or hospitalizations. Using a cross-sectional design, we recruited older adults with heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and chronic kidney disease. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2308-3417/3/3/45
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics3030045DOI Listing
July 2018
1 Read

Early-life Chronic Stressors, Rumination, and the Onset of Vulvodynia.

J Sex Med 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Introduction: Vulvodynia is a debilitating, chronic vulvar pain condition. Community-based case-control studies have consistently shown associations between early-life chronic stressors and vulvodynia onset.

Aim: We examined rumination as a specific stress response involved in the psychobiological mechanism of vulvodynia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsxm.2019.03.010DOI Listing

Unraveling the asymmetry of Mona Lisa smile.

Cortex 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Human Neurosciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli, IS, Italy.

The Mona Lisa portrait, by Leonardo da Vinci, is one of the most famous paintings in the world. Over the years, there have been a number of debated topics on the painting, including the valence of the emotion expressed on her face. Nevertheless, the most recent interpretations agree that Mona Lisa expression is happiness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.03.020DOI Listing

Reliability of Fronto⁻Amygdala Coupling during Emotional Face Processing.

Brain Sci 2019 Apr 19;9(4). Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London WC1N 3AZ, UK.

One of the most exciting translational prospects for brain imaging research is the potential use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) 'biomarkers' to predict an individual's risk of developing a neuropsychiatric disorder or the likelihood of responding to a particular intervention. This proposal depends critically on reliable measurements at the level of the individual. Several previous studies have reported relatively poor reliability of amygdala activation during emotional face processing, a key putative fMRI 'biomarker'. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9040089DOI Listing

Recognition of Emotion Intensities Using Machine Learning Algorithms: A Comparative Study.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Apr 21;19(8). Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, The University of Toledo, 2801 W Bancroft St, MS 308, Toledo, OH 43606, USA.

Over the past two decades, automatic facial emotion recognition has received enormous attention. This is due to the increase in the need for behavioral biometric systems and human-machine interaction where the facial emotion recognition and the intensity of emotion play vital roles. The existing works usually do not encode the intensity of the observed facial emotion and even less involve modeling the multi-class facial behavior data jointly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19081897DOI Listing

Abandonment landscapes: user attitudes, alternative futures and land management in Castro Laboreiro, Portugal.

Reg Environ Change 2018 10;18(5):1509-1520. Epub 2018 Feb 10.

1Environmental Geography group, Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Land abandonment is an important process for the European Union, which primarily occurs in less productive, remote and mountainous areas with unfavourable conditions for agriculture. Future management directions of these abandonment areas are under debate, with increasing calls to adjust policies to the local characteristics, including the promotion of rewilding and the management of succession of larger areas of less-productive land. While there is an increase in studies focusing on the environmental impacts of land abandonment, there are few studies that focus on the perceptions of abandonment by different user groups, even though an understanding of local perceptions, opportunities and trade-offs associated with changing land management is crucial for landscape-related policies and planning measures. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10113-018-1294-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10113-018-1294-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448354PMC
February 2018
1 Read

Altered whole brain functional connectivity pattern homogeneity in medication-free major depressive disorder.

J Affect Disord 2019 Apr 8;253:18-25. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Key Laboratory of Adolescent Cyberpsycology and Behavior (CCNU) of Ministry of Education, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China; School of Psychology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China. Electronic address:

Background: Many previous studies have revealed abnormal functional connectivity patterns between brain areas underlying the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). However, how to exactly characterize the voxel-wise whole brain functional connectivity pattern changes in MDD remains unclear, which will provide more convincing evidence for localizing the exactly functional connectivity abnormality in MDD.

Methods: In this study, we employed our newly developed whole brain functional connectivity homogeneity (FcHo) method to identify the voxel-wise changes of functional connectivity patterns in 27 medication-free MDD patients and 34 gender-, age-, and education level-matched healthy controls (HC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2019.04.040DOI Listing
April 2019
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Alexithymia in individuals with chronic pain and its relation to pain intensity, physical interference, depression, and anxiety: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Pain 2019 May;160(5):994-1006

University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.

Numerous studies have examined how alexithymia (difficulty identifying and describing one's emotions and a preference for externally oriented thinking) relates to chronic pain and associated disability. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize individual studies that either assessed alexithymia in individuals with chronic pain vs controls or related alexithymia to pain intensity, physical interference, depression, and anxiety. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO from inception through June 2017; 77 studies met the criteria (valid assessment of alexithymia in adults or children with any chronic pain condition) and were included in analyses (n = 8019 individuals with chronic pain). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001487DOI Listing

Anger Inhibition and Pain Modulation.

Ann Behav Med 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Psychology, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK, USA.

Background: The tendency to inhibit anger (anger-in) is associated with increased pain. This relationship may be explained by the negative affectivity hypothesis (anger-in increases negative affect that increases pain). Alternatively, it may be explained by the cognitive resource hypothesis (inhibiting anger limits attentional resources for pain modulation). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/abm/kaz016DOI Listing

Feeling bad is not always unhealthy: Culture moderates the link between negative affect and diurnal cortisol profiles.

Emotion 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Psychology.

Prior research has demonstrated that the daily experience of negative affect is associated with increased levels of proinflammatory activity as evidenced by higher interleukin-6 among Americans but not among Japanese. This cultural difference may be driven by culturally divergent beliefs about negative affect as a source of threat to self-image versus as natural and integral to life. Here, we examined whether culture may moderate the relationship between negative affect and biological stress responses, with a focus on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/emo0000605DOI Listing

Third-party punishment following observed social rejection.

Emotion 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Psychology.

Humans routinely punish others for violating social norms. This behavior is referred to as third-party punishment. Much of the research on this topic has been done in the context of group cooperation and unjust economic interactions. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/emo0000607
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/emo0000607DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

The measurement of within-person affect variation.

Emotion 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Institute for Psychology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin.

The number of intensive longitudinal studies that investigate affective experiences at the within-person rather than the between-person level is rapidly increasing. This paradigmatic shift comes with new challenges, such as questions revolving around how to measure within-person affect variation or more fundamental questions about the reliability and validity of constructs at the within-person level. We provide a review of substantive research published in Emotion since 2005, which revealed that to date no consensus has been established on measurement instruments for assessing within-person affective experiences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/emo0000583DOI Listing

Lack of Association Between Serotonin Transporter Gene (SLC6A4) Promoter Methylation and Amygdala Response During Negative Emotion Processing in Individuals With Alcohol Dependence.

Alcohol Alcohol 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Section on Clinical Genomics and Experimental Therapeutics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive (10CRC), Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Aims: Differences in DNA methylation of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) have been shown to alter SLC6A4 expression and predict brain functions in healthy individuals. This study investigated the association between SLC6A4 promoter methylation and threat-related amygdala activation in individuals with alcohol dependence (AD).

Methods: Methylation of the SLC6A4 promoter region was assessed using peripheral blood DNA from 45 individuals with AD and 45 healthy controls (HCs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agz032DOI Listing

Moderate emotional reactions to stressful life events are associated with lowest risk of increased alcohol consumption: evidence from the Whitehall II study.

Eur J Public Health 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Psychology, Claremont McKenna College, Claremont, CA, USA.

Background: Research investigating the associations between stress-related negative emotions and alcohol consumption often assumes a linear dose-response relationship. Based on the current theories of emotions, we questioned this assumption and hypothesized that both very low and very high levels of negative emotional response (NER) to stressful life events are related to increased alcohol consumption.

Methods: We used data from Phases 1 (1985-88) and 2 (1989-90) of the British Whitehall II study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckz066DOI Listing

Coming in Warm: Qualitative Study and Concept Map to Cultivate Patient-centered Empathy in Emergency Care.

AEM Educ Train 2019 Apr 28;3(2):136-144. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Emergency Medicine Indiana University School of Medicine Indianapolis IN.

Background: Increased empathy may improve patient perceptions and outcomes. No training tool has been derived to teach empathy to emergency care providers. Accordingly, we engaged patients to assist in creating a concept map to teach empathy to emergency care providers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aet2.10328DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6457357PMC

Intervention strategies for improvement of disasters risk perception: Family-centered approach.

J Educ Health Promot 2019 14;8:63. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Health in Disaster and Emergency, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Introduction: Today, the role of people in crisis management plans is of particular importance due to the prepared community approach. It is difficult or impossible to attract public involvement due to the low level of public perception of risk. Therefore, it is necessary to discover the status of risk perception and its affecting factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_200_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6442268PMC

HY7714 Restores TNF-α Induced Defects on Tight Junctions.

Prev Nutr Food Sci 2019 Mar 31;24(1):64-69. Epub 2019 Mar 31.

R&BD Center, Korea Yakult Co., Ltd., Gyeonggi 17086, Korea.

In addition to intestinal balance, probiotics are known to have beneficial effects on skin inflammation, metabolic diseases, and emotions. Previously, we have reported the skin anti-aging effects of HY7714 (HY7714) in a clinical trial. To prove the protective skin effects of HY7714 through the intestinal tight junction (TJ), we investigated the effects of HY7714 on the intestines through tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α induced TJ defects in Caco-2 cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3746/pnf.2019.24.1.64DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456235PMC

Visualizing mental representations in schizophrenia patients: A reverse correlation approach.

Schizophr Res Cogn 2019 Sep 6;17:100138. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

University Medical Centre Utrecht Brain Centre, dept of Psychiatry, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Schizophrenia patients have difficulties recognizing emotional states from faces, in particular those with negative valence, with severe consequences for daily life. What do these patients see in their minds eye, when they think of a face expressing a particular emotion or trait? The content of such mental representations can shed light into the nature of their deficits, but are usually inaccessible. For the first time, we explored the applicability of reverse correlation, which has been successfully used to visualize mental representations in healthy populations, to visualize mental representations in schizophrenia patients. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22150013183005
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scog.2019.100138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454059PMC
September 2019
1 Read

Couple Therapy and Vaginismus: A single case approach.

J Sex Marital Ther 2019 Apr 21:1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

b Nursing and Midwifery School , Guilan University of Medical Sciences , Rasht , Iran .

Background: Although Vaginismus or an involuntary contraction of the vaginal muscles as one of the causes sexual intercourse difficult is relatively common in Iran, But few studies has addressed it.

Methods: This research is a single-case type (AB) design. Initially, a pre-test were taken from all participants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0092623X.2019.1610126DOI Listing

"It's not just the wheelchair, it's everything else": Australian parents' perspectives of wheelchair prescription for children with neuromuscular disorders.

Disabil Rehabil 2019 Apr 21:1-10. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

b Discipline of Paediatrics, School of Women's and Children's Health , UNSW Medicine, UNSW Sydney , Sydney , NSW , Australia.

Purpose: Standards of care for neuromuscular disorders recommend timely provision of wheelchair equipment to support independent and spontaneous movement, age-appropriate participation, and psychological, social, cognitive and communication skills. Parental engagement is crucial to initiating wheelchair prescription. No studies have investigated parents' perceptions of this process or their experiences of their child's transition to wheelchair equipment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09638288.2019.1595749DOI Listing

Communicating Antibiotic Stewardship: Emotional Responses and Their Impact on Adherence.

Health Commun 2019 Apr 22:1-11. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

a Department of Communication Arts and Sciences , The Pennsylvania State University.

Although watchful watching has been recommended as a means of reducing unnecessary use of antibiotics, nonadherence has frequently been observed. Drawing from appraisal theories of emotion, this study (n = 579) examined (a) the factors that shape pediatric caregivers' emotional experiences in the medical contexts and (b) the influence of emotions on (non)adherence behavioral intentions. Caregivers reported more intense negative emotions and less intense positive emotions following watchful waiting advice versus receiving an antibiotic prescription. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2019.1598615DOI Listing