200 results match your criteria Emerging Themes in Epidemiology [Journal]


(Re-) conceptualising vulnerability as a part of risk in global health emergency response: updating the pressure and release model for global health emergencies.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2019 8;16. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

1Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.

Vulnerability has become a key concept in emergency response research and is being critically discussed across several disciplines. While the concept has been adopted into global health, its conceptualisation and especially its role in the conceptualisation of risk and therefore in risk assessments is still lacking. This paper uses the risk concept pioneered in hazard research that assumes that risk is a function of the interaction between hazard and vulnerability rather than the neo-liberal conceptualisation of vulnerability and vulnerable groups and communities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-019-0084-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454779PMC

On the collapsibility of measures of effect in the counterfactual causal framework.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2019 7;16. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

3Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan.

The relationship between collapsibility and confounding has been subject to an extensive and ongoing discussion in the methodological literature. We discuss two subtly different definitions of collapsibility, and show that by considering causal effect measures based on counterfactual variables (rather than measures of association based on observed variables) it is possible to separate out the component of non-collapsibility which is due to the mathematical properties of the effect measure, from the components that are due to structural bias such as confounding. We provide new weights such that the causal risk ratio is collapsible over arbitrary baseline covariates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-018-0083-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6322247PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Assessment of demographic and perinatal predictors of non-response and impact of non-response on measures of association in a population-based case control study: findings from the Georgia Study to Explore Early Development.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2018 16;15:12. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mailstop E-86, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, Atlanta, GA 30341 USA.

Background: Participation in epidemiologic studies has declined, raising concerns about selection bias. While estimates derived from epidemiologic studies have been shown to be robust under a wide range of scenarios, additional empiric study is needed. The Georgia Study to Explore Early Development (GA SEED), a population-based case-control study of risk factors for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), provided an opportunity to explore factors associated with non-participation and potential impacts of non-participation on association studies. Read More

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https://ete-online.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12982
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-018-0081-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6094575PMC
August 2018
7 Reads

The validity of an area-based method to estimate the size of hard-to-reach populations using satellite images: the example of fishing populations of Lake Victoria.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2018 13;15:11. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

1London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Room G13, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT UK.

Background: Information on the size of populations is crucial for planning of service and resource allocation to communities in need of health interventions. In resource limited settings, reliable census data are often not available. Using publicly available Google Earth Pro and available local household survey data from fishing communities (FC) on Lake Victoria in Uganda, we compared two simple methods (using average population density) and one simple linear regression model to estimate populations of small rural FC in Uganda. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-018-0079-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6090724PMC
August 2018
1 Read

Clarifying questions about "risk factors": predictors versus explanation.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2018 8;15:10. Epub 2018 Aug 8.

1Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy, City University of New York, 55 West 125th St, New York, NY 10027 USA.

Background: In biomedical research much effort is thought to be wasted. Recommendations for improvement have largely focused on processes and procedures. Here, we additionally suggest less ambiguity concerning the questions addressed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-018-0080-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6083579PMC
August 2018
17 Reads

Cannons and sparrows: an exact maximum likelihood non-parametric test for meta-analysis of k 2 × 2 tables.

Authors:
Lawrence M Paul

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2018 26;15. Epub 2018 Jun 26.

Somerset, USA.

Background: The use of meta-analysis to aggregate multiple studies has increased dramatically over the last 30 years. For meta-analysis of homogeneous data where the effect sizes for the studies contributing to the meta-analysis differ only by statistical error, the Mantel-Haenszel technique has typically been utilized. If homogeneity cannot be assumed or established, the most popular technique is the inverse-variance DerSimonian-Laird technique. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-018-0077-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6019839PMC
June 2018
1 Read

Change in quality of malnutrition surveys between 1986 and 2015.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2018 28;15. Epub 2018 May 28.

2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK.

Background: Representative surveys collecting weight, height and MUAC are used to estimate the prevalence of acute malnutrition. The results are then used to assess the scale of malnutrition in a population and type of nutritional intervention required. There have been changes in methodology over recent decades; the objective of this study was to determine if these have resulted in higher quality surveys. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-018-0075-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5972441PMC
May 2018
3 Reads

The contributions and future direction of Program Science in HIV/STI prevention.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2018 28;15. Epub 2018 May 28.

1Centre for Global Public Health, College of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

Background: Program Science is an iterative, multi-phase research and program framework where programs drive the scientific inquiry, and both program and science are aligned towards a collective goal of improving population health.

Discussion: To achieve this, Program Science involves the systematic application of theoretical and empirical knowledge to optimize the scale, quality and impact of public health programs. Program Science tools and approaches developed for strategic planning, program implementation, and program management and evaluation have been incorporated into HIV and sexually transmitted infection prevention programs in Kenya, Nigeria, India, and the United States. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-018-0076-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5972407PMC
May 2018
7 Reads

Role of survey response rates on valid inference: an application to HIV prevalence estimates.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2018 5;15. Epub 2018 Mar 5.

3Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA USA.

Background: Nationally-representative surveys suggest that females have a higher prevalence of HIV than males in most African countries. Unfortunately, these results are made on the basis of surveys with non-ignorable missing data. This study evaluates the impact that differential survey nonresponse rates between males and females can have on the point estimate of the HIV prevalence ratio of these two classifiers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-018-0074-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5839032PMC
March 2018
3 Reads

Modelling fertility in rural South Africa with combined nonlinear parametric and semi-parametric methods.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2018 2;15. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

4Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL UK.

Background: Central to the study of populations, and therefore to the analysis of the development of countries undergoing major transitions, is the calculation of fertility patterns and their dependence on different variables such as age, education, and socio-economic status. Most epidemiological research on these matters rely on the often unjustified assumption of (generalised) linearity, or alternatively makes a parametric assumption (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-018-0073-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5833110PMC
March 2018
8 Reads

Novel metrics for growth model selection.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2018 23;15. Epub 2018 Feb 23.

1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 1830 E. Monument Street, 5th Floor, Baltimore, MD 21287 USA.

Background: Literature surrounding the statistical modeling of childhood growth data involves a diverse set of potential models from which investigators can choose. However, the lack of a comprehensive framework for comparing non-nested models leads to difficulty in assessing model performance. This paper proposes a framework for comparing non-nested growth models using novel metrics of predictive accuracy based on modifications of the mean squared error criteria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-018-0072-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5824542PMC
February 2018
8 Reads

Effect of correcting for gestational age at birth on population prevalence of early childhood undernutrition.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2018 6;15. Epub 2018 Feb 6.

1Department of Epidemiology, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON Canada.

Background: Postmenstrual and/or gestational age-corrected age (CA) is required to apply child growth standards to children born preterm (< 37 weeks gestational age). Yet, CA is rarely used in epidemiologic studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), which may bias population estimates of childhood undernutrition. To evaluate the effect of accounting for GA in the application of growth standards, we used GA-specific standards at birth (INTERGROWTH-21st newborn size standards) in conjunction with CA for preterm-born children in the application of World Health Organization Child Growth Standards postnatally (referred to as 'CA' strategy) versus postnatal age for all children, to estimate mean length-for-age (LAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) scores at 0, 3, 12, 24, and 48-months of age in the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-018-0070-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5799899PMC
February 2018
9 Reads

Contextual factors in maternal and newborn health evaluation: a protocol applied in Nigeria, India and Ethiopia.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2018 6;15. Epub 2018 Feb 6.

1The Centre for Maternal, Adolescent, Reproductive and Child Health (MARCH), London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT UK.

Background: Understanding the context of a health programme is important in interpreting evaluation findings and in considering the external validity for other settings. Public health researchers can be imprecise and inconsistent in their usage of the word "context" and its application to their work. This paper presents an approach to defining context, to capturing relevant contextual information and to using such information to help interpret findings from the perspective of a research group evaluating the effect of diverse innovations on coverage of evidence-based, life-saving interventions for maternal and newborn health in Ethiopia, Nigeria, and India. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-018-0071-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5800046PMC
February 2018
6 Reads

An introduction to instrumental variable assumptions, validation and estimation.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2018 22;15. Epub 2018 Jan 22.

Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Bartholins Allé 2, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.

The instrumental variable method has been employed within economics to infer causality in the presence of unmeasured confounding. Emphasising the parallels to randomisation may increase understanding of the underlying assumptions within epidemiology. An instrument is a variable that predicts exposure, but conditional on exposure shows no independent association with the outcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-018-0069-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5776781PMC
January 2018
2 Reads

Multiple imputation using linked proxy outcome data resulted in important bias reduction and efficiency gains: a simulation study.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2017 19;14:14. Epub 2017 Dec 19.

Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Oakfield House, Oakfield Grove, Bristol, UK.

Background: When an outcome variable is missing not at random (MNAR: probability of missingness depends on outcome values), estimates of the effect of an exposure on this outcome are often biased. We investigated the extent of this bias and examined whether the bias can be reduced through incorporating proxy outcomes obtained through linkage to administrative data as auxiliary variables in multiple imputation (MI).

Methods: Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) we estimated the association between breastfeeding and IQ (continuous outcome), incorporating linked attainment data (proxies for IQ) as auxiliary variables in MI models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-017-0068-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5735815PMC
December 2017
2 Reads

Flexible semiparametric joint modeling: an application to estimate individual lung function decline and risk of pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2017 14;14:13. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, MLC 5041, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45229 USA.

Background: Epidemiologic surveillance of lung function is key to clinical care of individuals with cystic fibrosis, but lung function decline is nonlinear and often impacted by acute respiratory events known as pulmonary exacerbations. Statistical models are needed to simultaneously estimate lung function decline while providing risk estimates for the onset of pulmonary exacerbations, in order to identify relevant predictors of declining lung function and understand how these associations could be used to predict the onset of pulmonary exacerbations.

Methods: Using longitudinal lung function (FEV) measurements and time-to-event data on pulmonary exacerbations from individuals in the United States Cystic Fibrosis Registry, we implemented a flexible semiparametric joint model consisting of a mixed-effects submodel with regression splines to fit repeated FEV measurements and a time-to-event submodel for possibly censored data on pulmonary exacerbations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-017-0067-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5699130PMC
November 2017
13 Reads

Spatial analysis of cluster randomised trials: a systematic review of analysis methods.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2017 21;14:12. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: Cluster randomised trials (CRTs) often use geographical areas as the unit of randomisation, however explicit consideration of the location and spatial distribution of observations is rare. In many trials, the location of participants will have little importance, however in some, especially against infectious diseases, spillover effects due to participants being located close together may affect trial results. This review aims to identify spatial analysis methods used in CRTs and improve understanding of the impact of spatial effects on trial results. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-017-0066-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5609008PMC
September 2017
2 Reads

Decision trees in epidemiological research.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2017 20;14:11. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, West Bank Office Building, 1300 South Second St, Suite 300, Minneapolis, MN 55454 USA.

Background: In many studies, it is of interest to identify population subgroups that are relatively homogeneous with respect to an outcome. The nature of these subgroups can provide insight into effect mechanisms and suggest targets for tailored interventions. However, identifying relevant subgroups can be challenging with standard statistical methods. Read More

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http://ete-online.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12982-
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-017-0064-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5607590PMC
September 2017
22 Reads

Challenges in modeling complexity of neglected tropical diseases: a review of dynamics of visceral leishmaniasis in resource limited settings.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2017 18;14:10. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

Simon A. Levin-Mathematical Computational and Modeling Science Center, School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ USA.

Objectives: Neglected tropical diseases (NTD), account for a large proportion of the global disease burden, and their control faces several challenges including diminishing human and financial resources for those distressed from such diseases. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the second-largest parasitic killer (after malaria) and an NTD affects poor populations and causes considerable cost to the affected individuals. Mathematical models can serve as a critical and cost-effective tool for understanding VL dynamics, however, complex array of socio-economic factors affecting its dynamics need to be identified and appropriately incorporated within a dynamical modeling framework. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-017-0065-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5604165PMC
September 2017
4 Reads

Randomised and non-randomised studies to estimate the effect of community-level public health interventions: definitions and methodological considerations.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2017 7;14. Epub 2017 Sep 7.

Department of Disease Control, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, London, WC1E 7HT UK.

Background: The preferred method to evaluate public health interventions delivered at the level of whole communities is the cluster randomised trial (CRT). The practical limitations of CRTs and the need for alternative methods continue to be debated. There is no consensus on how to classify study designs to evaluate interventions, and how different design features are related to the strength of evidence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-017-0063-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5590121PMC
September 2017
2 Reads

Model checking in multiple imputation: an overview and case study.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2017 23;14. Epub 2017 Aug 23.

Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, The Royal Children's Hospital, Flemington Road, Parkville, VIC 3052 Australia.

Background: Multiple imputation has become very popular as a general-purpose method for handling missing data. The validity of multiple-imputation-based analyses relies on the use of an appropriate model to impute the missing values. Despite the widespread use of multiple imputation, there are few guidelines available for checking imputation models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-017-0062-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5569512PMC
August 2017
7 Reads

Causality in cancer research: a journey through models in molecular epidemiology and their philosophical interpretation.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2017 7;14. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

Department of Philosophy, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

In the last decades, Systems Biology (including cancer research) has been driven by technology, statistical modelling and bioinformatics. In this paper we try to bring biological and philosophical thinking back. We thus aim at making different traditions of thought compatible: (a) causality in epidemiology and in philosophical theorizing-notably, the "sufficient-component-cause framework" and the "mark transmission" approach; (b) new acquisitions about disease pathogenesis, e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-017-0061-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5463386PMC
June 2017
12 Reads

On hazard ratio estimators by proportional hazards models in matched-pair cohort studies.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2017 5;14. Epub 2017 Jun 5.

Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 Japan.

Background: In matched-pair cohort studies with censored events, the hazard ratio (HR) may be of main interest. However, it is lesser known in epidemiologic literature that the partial maximum likelihood estimator of a common HR conditional on matched pairs is written in a simple form, namely, the ratio of the numbers of two pair-types. Moreover, because HR is a noncollapsible measure and its constancy across matched pairs is a restrictive assumption, marginal HR as "average" HR may be targeted more than conditional HR in analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-017-0060-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5460539PMC
June 2017
26 Reads

Do children with neurological disabilities use more inpatient resources: an observational study.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2017 27;14. Epub 2017 Apr 27.

Child Development Centre, St George's Hospital, Blackshaw Road, Tooting, London, SW17 0QT UK.

Background: Advances in healthcare have improved the survival of children with neurological disabilities (ND). Studies in the US have shown that children with ND use a substantial proportion of resources in children's hospitals, however, little research has been conducted in the UK. We aimed to test the hypothesis that children with neurological disabilities use more inpatient resources than children without neurological disabilities, and to quantify any significant differences in resource use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-017-0059-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5408490PMC
April 2017
3 Reads

Comparison of response patterns in different survey designs: a longitudinal panel with mixed-mode and online-only design.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2017 21;14. Epub 2017 Mar 21.

Department of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Brunswick, Germany.

Background: Increasing availability of the Internet allows using only online data collection for more epidemiological studies. We compare response patterns in a population-based health survey using two survey designs: mixed-mode (choice between paper-and-pencil and online questionnaires) and online-only design (without choice).

Methods: We used data from a longitudinal panel, the Hygiene and Behaviour Infectious Diseases Study (HaBIDS), conducted in 2014/2015 in four regions in Lower Saxony, Germany. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-017-0058-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5361716PMC
March 2017
25 Reads

Estimating the prevalence of dementia using multiple linked administrative health records and capture-recapture methodology.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2017 27;14. Epub 2017 Feb 27.

School of Public Health, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4006 Australia.

Background: Obtaining population-level estimates of the incidence and prevalence of dementia is challenging due to under-diagnosis and under-reporting. We investigated the feasibility of using multiple linked datasets and capture-recapture techniques to estimate rates of dementia among women in Australia.

Methods: This work is based on the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-017-0057-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5327574PMC
February 2017
6 Reads

Participatory epidemiology: the contribution of participatory research to epidemiology.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2017 10;14. Epub 2017 Feb 10.

Catholic University of Applied Sciences Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Epidemiology has contributed in many ways to identifying various risk factors for disease and to promoting population health. However, there is a continuing debate about the ability of epidemiology not only to describe, but also to provide results which can be better translated into public health practice. It has been proposed that participatory research approaches be applied to epidemiology as a way to bridge this gap between description and action. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-017-0056-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5301332PMC
February 2017
12 Reads

Exploring diurnal variation using piecewise linear splines: an example using blood pressure.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2017 2;14. Epub 2017 Feb 2.

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

Background: There are many examples of physiological processes that follow a circadian cycle and researchers are interested in alternative methods to illustrate and quantify this diurnal variation. Circadian blood pressure (BP) deserves additional attention given uncertainty relating to the prognostic significance of BP variability in relation to cardiovascular disease. However, the majority of studies exploring variability in ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) collapse the data into single readings ignoring the temporal nature of the data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-017-0055-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5290604PMC
February 2017
9 Reads

Parameters associated with design effect of child anthropometry indicators in small-scale field surveys.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2016 7;13:13. Epub 2016 Dec 7.

Emergency Response and Recovery Branch, Division of Global Health Protection, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333 USA.

Background: Cluster surveys provide rapid but representative estimates of key nutrition indicators in humanitarian crises. For these surveys, an accurate estimate of the design effect is critical to calculate a sample size that achieves adequate precision with the minimum number of sampling units. This paper describes the variability in design effect for three key nutrition indicators measured in small-scale surveys and models the association of design effect with parameters hypothesized to explain this variability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-016-0054-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5142286PMC
December 2016
19 Reads

Nutrition surveillance using a small open cohort: experience from Burkina Faso.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2016 15;13:12. Epub 2016 Nov 15.

Brixton Heath, Llawryglyn, Powys, Wales UK.

Background: Nutritional surveillance remains generally weak and early warning systems are needed in areas with high burden of acute under-nutrition. In order to enhance insight into nutritional surveillance, a community-based sentinel sites approach, known as the Listening Posts (LP) Project, was piloted in Burkina Faso by Action Contre la Faim (ACF). This paper presents ACF's experience with the LP approach and investigates potential selection and observational biases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-016-0052-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5111239PMC
November 2016
5 Reads

Comparison of dementia recorded in routinely collected hospital admission data in England with dementia recorded in primary care.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2016 28;13:11. Epub 2016 Oct 28.

Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, OX3 7LF UK.

Background: Electronic linkage of UK cohorts to routinely collected National Health Service (NHS) records provides virtually complete follow-up for cause-specific hospital admissions and deaths. The reliability of dementia diagnoses recorded in NHS hospital data is not well documented.

Methods: For a sample of Million Women Study participants in England we compared dementia recorded in routinely collected NHS hospital data (Hospital Episode Statistics: HES) with dementia recorded in two separate sources of primary care information: a primary care database [Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), n = 340] and a survey of study participants' General Practitioners (GPs, n = 244). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-016-0053-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5084368PMC
October 2016
6 Reads

Effects of recall time on cause-of-death findings using verbal autopsy: empirical evidence from rural South Africa.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2016 18;13:10. Epub 2016 Oct 18.

WHO Collaborating Centre for Verbal Autopsy, Umeå Centre for Global Health Research, Epidemiology and Global Health, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden ; Medical Research Council/Wits University Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Verbal autopsy (VA) is a widely used technique for assigning causes to non-medically certified deaths using information gathered from a close caregiver. Both operational and cultural factors may cause delays in follow-up of deaths. The resulting time lag-from death to VA interview-can influence ways in which terminal events are remembered, and thus affect cause-of-death assignment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-016-0051-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5069872PMC
October 2016
19 Reads

Assessing delivery practices of mothers over time and over space in Uganda, 2003-2012.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2016 14;13. Epub 2016 Jun 14.

METRe Group, Department of International Health, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA UK.

Background: It is well known that safe delivery in a health facility reduces the risks of maternal and infant mortality resulting from perinatal complications. What is less understood are the factors associated with safe delivery practices. We investigate factors influencing health facility delivery practices while adjusting for multiple other factors simultaneously, spatial heterogeneity, and trends over time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-016-0049-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4908697PMC
June 2016
10 Reads

A distributional approach to obtain adjusted comparisons of proportions of a population at risk.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2016 7;13. Epub 2016 Jun 7.

Division of Health and Social Care Research, King's College London, London, UK ; NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London, London, UK.

Background: Dichotomisation of continuous data has statistical drawbacks such as loss of power but may be useful in epidemiological research to define high risk individuals.

Methods: We extend a methodology for the presentation of comparison of proportions derived from a comparison of means for a continuous outcome to reflect the relationship between a continuous outcome and covariates in a linear (mixed) model without losing statistical power. The so called "distributional method" is described and using perinatal data for illustration, results from the distributional method are compared to those of logistic regression and to quantile regression for three different outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-016-0050-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4897957PMC
June 2016
9 Reads

Is Middle-Upper Arm Circumference "normally" distributed? Secondary data analysis of 852 nutrition surveys.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2016 4;13. Epub 2016 May 4.

Department of Medical Statistics, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT UK.

Background: Wasting is a major public health issue throughout the developing world. Out of the 6.9 million estimated deaths among children under five annually, over 800,000 deaths (11. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-016-0048-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4855367PMC
May 2016
10 Reads

Maximising follow-up participation rates in a large scale 45 and Up Study in Australia.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2016 14;13. Epub 2016 Apr 14.

Prevention Research Collaboration, Level 6 Charles Perkins Centre D17, Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia.

Background: The issue of poor response rates to population surveys has existed for some decades, but few studies have explored methods to improve the response rate in follow-up population cohort studies.

Methods: A sample of 100,000 adults from the 45 and Up Study, a large population cohort in Australia, were followed up 3.5 years after the baseline cohort was assembled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-016-0046-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4832455PMC
April 2016
11 Reads

Dimension reduction and shrinkage methods for high dimensional disease risk scores in historical data.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2016 5;13. Epub 2016 Apr 5.

Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 1620 Tremont Street (Suite 3030), Boston, MA 02120 USA.

Background: Multivariable confounder adjustment in comparative studies of newly marketed drugs can be limited by small numbers of exposed patients and even fewer outcomes. Disease risk scores (DRSs) developed in historical comparator drug users before the new drug entered the market may improve adjustment. However, in a high dimensional data setting, empirical selection of hundreds of potential confounders and modeling of DRS even in the historical cohort can lead to over-fitting and reduced predictive performance in the study cohort. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-016-0047-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4822311PMC
April 2016
10 Reads

Methods of nutrition surveillance in low-income countries.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2016 18;13. Epub 2016 Mar 18.

Save the Children, 1 St John's Lane, London, EC1M 4AR UK.

Background: In 1974 a joint FAO/UNICEF/WHO Expert Committee met to develop methods for nutrition surveillance. There has been much interest and activity in this topic since then, however there is a lack of guidance for practitioners and confusion exists around the terminology of nutrition surveillance. In this paper we propose a classification of data collection activities, consider the technical issues for each category, and examine the potential applications and challenges related to information and communication technology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-016-0045-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4797352PMC
March 2016
7 Reads

Hypertension and diabetes in Africa: design and implementation of a large population-based study of burden and risk factors in rural and urban Malawi.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2016 1;13. Epub 2016 Feb 1.

Karonga Prevention Study, Karonga, Malawi ; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: The emerging burden of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa threatens the gains made in health by the major international effort to combat infectious diseases. There are few data on distribution of risk factors and outcomes in the region to inform an effective public health response. A comprehensive research programme is being developed aimed at accurately documenting the burden and drivers of NCDs in urban and rural Malawi; to design and test intervention strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-015-0039-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4736489PMC
February 2016
38 Reads

The obese gut microbiome across the epidemiologic transition.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2016 11;13. Epub 2016 Jan 11.

Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Molecular Medicine, Northwestern University, Evanston, USA ; Jesse Brown Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Chicago, IL USA.

The obesity epidemic has emerged over the past few decades and is thought to be a result of both genetic and environmental factors. A newly identified factor, the gut microbiota, which is a bacterial ecosystem residing within the gastrointestinal tract of humans, has now been implicated in the obesity epidemic. Importantly, this bacterial community is impacted by external environmental factors through a variety of undefined mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-015-0044-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4710045PMC
January 2016
9 Reads

Modelling subject-specific childhood growth using linear mixed-effect models with cubic regression splines.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2016 7;13. Epub 2016 Jan 7.

Program in Global Disease Control and Epidemiology, Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA.

Background: Childhood growth is a cornerstone of pediatric research. Statistical models need to consider individual trajectories to adequately describe growth outcomes. Specifically, well-defined longitudinal models are essential to characterize both population and subject-specific growth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-015-0038-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4705630PMC
January 2016
12 Reads

Satellite-aided survey sampling and implementation in low- and middle-income contexts: a low-cost/low-tech alternative.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2015 23;12:20. Epub 2015 Dec 23.

Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK ; CABDyN Complexity Centre, Saïd Business School, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK ; Green Templeton College, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: The increasing availability of online maps, satellite imagery, and digital technology can ease common constraints of survey sampling in low- and middle-income countries. However, existing approaches require specialised software and user skills, professional GPS equipment, and/or commercial data sources; they tend to neglect spatial sampling considerations when using satellite maps; and they continue to face implementation challenges analogous to conventional survey implementation methods. This paper presents an alternative way of utilising satellite maps and digital aides that aims to address these challenges. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-015-0041-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4690225PMC
December 2015
2 Reads

County-level hurricane exposure and birth rates: application of difference-in-differences analysis for confounding control.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2015 22;12:19. Epub 2015 Dec 22.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Rural Public Health, Texas A&M Health Science Center, College Station, TX USA.

Background: Epidemiological analyses of aggregated data are often used to evaluate theoretical health effects of natural disasters. Such analyses are susceptible to confounding by unmeasured differences between the exposed and unexposed populations. To demonstrate the difference-in-difference method our population included all recorded Florida live births that reached 20 weeks gestation and conceived after the first hurricane of 2004 or in 2003 (when no hurricanes made landfall). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-015-0042-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4688997PMC
December 2015
3 Reads

A reference relative time-scale as an alternative to chronological age for cohorts with long follow-up.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2015 18;12:18. Epub 2015 Dec 18.

College of Health and Wellbeing, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE UK.

Background: Epidemiologists have debated the appropriate time-scale for cohort survival studies; chronological age or time-on-study being two such time-scales. Importantly, assessment of risk factors may depend on the choice of time-scale. Recently, chronological or attained age has gained support but a case can be made for a 'reference relative time-scale' as an alternative which circumvents difficulties that arise with this and other scales. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-015-0043-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4684933PMC
December 2015
2 Reads

High-frequency use of corrections, health, and social services, and association with mental illness and substance use.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2015 18;12:17. Epub 2015 Dec 18.

Department of Criminology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC Canada.

Background: A subgroup of individuals becomes entrenched in a "revolving door" involving corrections, health, and social welfare services. Little research has investigated the numbers of people that are in frequent contact with multiple public agencies, the costs associated with these encounters, or the characteristics of the people concerned. The present study used linked administrative data to examine offenders who were also very frequent users of health and social services. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-015-0040-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4683696PMC
December 2015
4 Reads

Design and implementation of a sexual health intervention for migrant construction workers situated in Shanghai, China.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2015 11;12:16. Epub 2015 Nov 11.

Shanghai Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China.

Background: China's growing population of internal migrants has exceeded 236 million. Driven by rapid development and urbanization, this extreme population mobility creates opportunities for transmission of HIV and sexually-transmitted infections (STI). Large numbers of rural migrants flock to megacities such as Shanghai in search of employment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-015-0033-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4642640PMC
November 2015
9 Reads

Vulnerability of Brazilian municipalities to hantavirus infections based on multi-criteria decision analysis.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2015 1;12:15. Epub 2015 Oct 1.

Laboratório de Parasitologia Médica e Biologia de Vetores, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, Brazil.

Background: Hantavirus infection is an emerging zoonosis transmitted by wild rodents. In Brazil, high case-fatality rates among humans infected with hantavirus are of serious concern to public health authorities. Appropriate preventive measures partly depend on reliable knowledge about the geographical distribution of this disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-015-0036-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4590690PMC
October 2015
17 Reads

Applying the Bradford Hill criteria in the 21st century: how data integration has changed causal inference in molecular epidemiology.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2015 30;12:14. Epub 2015 Sep 30.

Cardno ChemRisk, 4840 Pearl East Circle, Suite 300 West, Boulder, CO 80301 USA.

In 1965, Sir Austin Bradford Hill published nine "viewpoints" to help determine if observed epidemiologic associations are causal. Since then, the "Bradford Hill Criteria" have become the most frequently cited framework for causal inference in epidemiologic studies. However, when Hill published his causal guidelines-just 12 years after the double-helix model for DNA was first suggested and 25 years before the Human Genome Project began-disease causation was understood on a more elementary level than it is today. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-015-0037-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4589117PMC
October 2015
85 Reads

Development of an international scale of socio-economic position based on household assets.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2015 22;12:13. Epub 2015 Sep 22.

National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, Emmanuel Kaye Building, 1b Manresa Road, London, SW3 6LR UK.

Background: The importance of studying associations between socio-economic position and health has often been highlighted. Previous studies have linked the prevalence and severity of lung disease with national wealth and with socio-economic position within some countries but there has been no systematic evaluation of the association between lung function and poverty at the individual level on a global scale. The BOLD study has collected data on lung function for individuals in a wide range of countries, however a barrier to relating this to personal socio-economic position is the need for a suitable measure to compare individuals within and between countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-015-0035-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4578326PMC
September 2015
9 Reads

Sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers tested at STI clinics in the Netherlands, 2006-2013.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2015 28;12:12. Epub 2015 Aug 28.

Epidemiology and Surveillance Unit, Centre for Infectious Diseases Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands.

Background: Specialised sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in the Netherlands provide STI care for high-risk groups, including female sex workers (FSW), at the clinic and by outreach visiting commercial sex workplaces with a permit. The objective was to investigate the STI positivity rate and determinants of an STI diagnosis among FSW tested by STI clinics in the Netherlands.

Methods: Sexually transmitted infection clinics report demographic, behavioural and diagnostic information of every consultation to the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment. Read More

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http://gooa.las.ac.cn/external/download/1222851/4435188/2015
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-015-0034-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4552148PMC
August 2015
11 Reads