125 results match your criteria Elbow and Forearm Overuse Injuries


Preseason Upper Extremity Range of Motion and Strength in Relation to In-Season Injuries in NCAA Division I Gymnasts.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Jan 20;9(1):2325967120977090. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Physical Therapy, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Background: Gymnastics is a demanding sport that places unique forces on the upper extremity. The repetitive nature of the sport and the high-impact forces involved may predispose the gymnast to overuse injuries. Risk factors for injuries in gymnastics are not well understood. Read More

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January 2021

The Anatomy, Presentation and Management Options of Cubital Tunnel Syndrome.

J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol 2020 Dec;25(4):393-401

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust, Wolverhampton, UK.

Cubital tunnel syndrome is the second most common nerve compression syndrome seen in the upper limb. Paresthesia and weakness are the two most common presentations in the hand. If left untreated, compression can lead to irreversible nerve damage, resulting in a loss of function of the forearm and hand. Read More

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December 2020

Initial Evaluation by a Non-Surgeon Provider Does Not Delay the Surgical Care of Pediatric Forearm and Elbow Trauma in a Walk-In Orthopaedic Clinic.

Cureus 2020 May 15;12(5):e8139. Epub 2020 May 15.

Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Tennessee, Memphis, USA.

Introduction Walk-in and after-hours clinics are being increasingly utilized in orthopedics and are especially beneficial for patients with simple sprains, fractures, or overuse injuries that might otherwise require an emergency room visit. To meet the increased patient load, additional staffing often is required, which might include a family medicine physician, nurse practitioner, or physician assistant. Few studies have evaluated the performance of these non-surgeon providers in an orthopedic clinical setting. Read More

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Estimating upper extremity joint loads of persons with spinal cord injury walking with a lower extremity powered exoskeleton and forearm crutches.

J Biomech 2020 06 8;107:109835. Epub 2020 May 8.

Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 505 Smyth Road, Ottawa, ON K1H8M2 Canada; University of Ottawa, Faculty of Medicine, 451 Smyth Rd, Ottawa, ON K1H8M5, Canada.

Lower extremity powered exoskeletons with crutch support can provide upright mobility to persons with complete spinal cord injury (SCI); however, crutch use for balance and weight transfer may increase upper extremity (UE) joint loads and injury risk. This research presented the first exoskeleton-human musculoskeletal model to estimate upper extremity biomechanics, driven by 3D motion data of persons with complete SCI walking with an exoskeleton and crutch assistance. Forearm crutches instrumented with strain gauges, force plates, and a 3D motion capture system were used to collect kinematic and kinetic data from five persons with complete SCI while walking with the ARKE exoskeleton. Read More

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Ulnar intraneural cysts as a cause of cubital tunnel syndrome: presentation of a case and review of the literature.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2019 Oct 21;29(7):1559-1563. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Department of Οrthopedics, University Hospital of Ioannina, Stavros Niarchos Avenue, 45500, Ioannina, Greece.

Introduction: Intraneural cysts usually involve the common peroneal nerve, and in many cases, they are causing symptoms due to neural compression. It is hypothesized that these cysts originate from the adjacent joints while articular pathology is a major contributing factor for the formation of these lesions. Although ulnar nerve is the second most commonly affected nerve, these lesions usually develop distally at the Guyon tunnel, so cubital tunnel syndrome due to epineural cysts is very rare. Read More

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October 2019

Isolated complete ulnar collateral ligament tear of the elbow in a gymnast: does it need surgery?

Phys Sportsmed 2019 09 11;47(3):242-246. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

The Division of Shoulder Surgery, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University , Baltimore , MD , USA.

Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) tears can occur from trauma or chronic overuse, and the treatment depends on the type of sport the patient plays and the severity of symptoms. Overuse UCL injuries are most commonly due to micro-trauma in overhead athletes such as baseball players, softball players, and tennis players. Acute complete UCL tears in athletes due to trauma are less common but generally operative treatment is recommended. Read More

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September 2019

Screening of Axonal Degeneration in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Using Ultrasonography and Nerve Conduction Studies.

J Vis Exp 2019 01 11(143). Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Orthopedics & Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong;

Axonal degeneration, indicative of surgical decompression, may coexist in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) as the disease progresses. However, the current diagnostic and severity gradation system cannot clearly indicate its coexistence, resulting in confusion of appropriate treatment prescription. There are also constraints in conventional methods for differentiation as well. Read More

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January 2019

Simultaneous Compression of the Median and Ulnar Nerve at the Elbow: A Retrospective Study.

J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol 2018 Jun;23(2):198-204

* 5th Orthopaedic Department, Hand and Upper Extremity Service, Asklepieion Voulas General Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Background: Simultaneous compression of the median and ulnar nerve at the elbow region has not been sufficiently highlighted in the literature. The purposes of the present study are to report our experience regarding this entity, to elucidate the clinical features, and to describe the operative technique and findings as well as the results of simultaneous decompression performed through the same medial incision.

Methods: We performed a retrospective study of thirteen elbows in thirteen patients -nine men and four women- with simultaneous compression of the median and ulnar nerve at the elbow region between 2000 and 2011. Read More

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The 7 Structures Distal to the Elbow That Are Critical to Successful Anterior Transposition of the Ulnar Nerve.

Hand (N Y) 2019 11 22;14(6):776-781. Epub 2018 Apr 22.

Washington University in St. Louis, MO, USA.

Ulnar nerve transposition (UNT) surgery is performed for the treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome. Improperly performed UNT can create iatrogenic pain and neuropathy. The aim of this study is to identify anatomical structures distal to the medial epicondyle that should be recognized by all surgeons performing UNT to prevent postoperative neuropathy. Read More

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November 2019

Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome in Athletes.

J Hand Surg Am 2017 Nov;42(11):917-923

Tufts University School of Medicine, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA; Department of Hand and Upper Extremity Surgery, Newton-Wellesley Hospital, Newton, MA; Hand Surgery Research and Education Foundation, Newton, MA. Electronic address:

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) refers to exercise-induced, reversible increases in pressure within well-defined inelastic fascial compartments leading to compromised tissue perfusion followed by functional loss, ischemic pain, and neurologic symptoms. Symptoms typically resolve when the activity ceases and there are usually no permanent sequelae. In the upper extremity, this condition most commonly affects athletes during sports requiring repetitive and vigorous gripping, such as rowers. Read More

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November 2017

Ulnar neuropathy and medial elbow pain in women's fastpitch softball pitchers: a report of 6 cases.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2017 Dec 28;26(12):2220-2225. Epub 2017 Sep 28.

West Tennessee Bone and Joint Clinic, Jackson, TN, USA.

Background: Elite-level women's fastpitch softball players place substantial biomechanical strains on the elbow that can result in medial elbow pain and ulnar neuropathic symptoms. There is scant literature reporting the expected outcomes of the treatment of these injuries. This study examined the results of treatment in a series of these patients. Read More

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December 2017

Ulnar Nerve Cross-Sectional Area for the Diagnosis of Cubital Tunnel Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis of Ultrasonographic Measurements.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2018 04 6;99(4):743-757. Epub 2017 Sep 6.

Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: To examine the performance of sonographic cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements in the diagnosis of cubital tunnel syndrome (CuTS).

Data Sources: Electronic databases, comprising PubMed and EMBASE, were searched for the pertinent literature before July 1, 2017.

Study Selection: Fourteen trials comparing the ulnar nerve CSA measurements between participants with and without CuTS were included. Read More

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Anatomy of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve and its significance in ulnar nerve surgery: An anatomical study.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2017 Nov 28;70(11):1582-1588. Epub 2017 Jun 28.

Division of Plastic, Aesthetic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 29/4, 8036 Graz, Austria.

Background: During cubital tunnel surgery, the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (MACN) may be injured, causing painful scars, neuromas, hypaesthesia or hyperalgesia. As the literature on the anatomy of crossing branches in this area is contradictory, this study aimed to re-examine the anatomy of the MACN in this region.

Methods: Forty upper limbs were dissected. Read More

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November 2017

Intermuscular aponeuroses between the flexor muscles of the forearm and their relationships with the ulnar nerve.

Surg Radiol Anat 2016 Dec 12;38(10):1183-1189. Epub 2016 May 12.

Department of Anatomy, Catholic Institute for Applied Anatomy, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 06591, Korea.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to clarify the morphological characteristics of the intermuscular aponeurosis between the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS; IMAS), and that between the FCU and flexor digitorum profundus (FDP; IMAP), and their topographic relationships with the ulnar nerve.

Materials And Methods: Fifty limbs of 38 adult cadavers were studied.

Results: The IMAS extended along the deep surface of the FCU adjoining the FDS, having the appearance of a ladder, giving off "steps" that decreased in width from superficial to deep around the middle of the forearm. Read More

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December 2016

Sonographic Measurements Can Be Misleading for Diagnosing Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Acta Reumatol Port 2016 Jan-Mar;41(1):40-4

Objectives: To compare the nerve cross sectional areas (CSA) of patients with RA without any sign of peripheral neuropathy to healthy controls.

Methods: Clinical, electrophysiological and sonographic assessments were done by three blinded researchers. The patients who had an electrodiagnostic or clinical of peripheral neuropathy were excluded from the study. Read More

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October 2017

Surface Electromyography of the Forearm Musculature During the Windmill Softball Pitch.

Orthop J Sports Med 2015 Jan 22;3(1):2325967114566796. Epub 2015 Jan 22.

Mercy St Vincent Medical Center, Toledo, Ohio, USA.

Background: Previous studies investigating the windmill softball pitch have focused primarily on shoulder musculature and function, collecting limited data on elbow and forearm musculature. Little information is available in the literature regarding the forearm. This study documents forearm muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity that has not been previously published. Read More

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January 2015

Anteriorly positioned ulnar nerve at the elbow: a rare anatomical event: case report.

J Hand Surg Am 2015 May 24;40(5):984-6. Epub 2015 Mar 24.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem, NC. Electronic address:

Two patients with an anteriorly positioned ulnar nerve at the elbow, identified during cubital tunnel release, are presented. Upon encountering an empty cubital tunnel, additional dissection found the ulnar nerve to course posterior to and to penetrate through the intermuscular septum 3 to 5 cm proximal to the medial epicondyle. It then ran anterior to the pronator-flexor mass before entering the forearm between the ulnar and the humeral heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris. Read More

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Mechanistic experimental pain assessment in computer users with and without chronic musculoskeletal pain.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2014 Dec 6;15:412. Epub 2014 Dec 6.

Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction (SMI), Department of Health Science and Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers Vej 7D, 9220 Aalborg, Denmark.

Background: Musculoskeletal pain from the upper extremity and shoulder region is commonly reported by computer users. However, the functional status of central pain mechanisms, i.e. Read More

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December 2014

Treatment of medial epicondylar tendinopathy in athletes.

Sports Med Arthrosc Rev 2014 Sep;22(3):164-8

*Menlo Medical Clinic, Menlo Park, CA †Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University Medical Center, Palo Alto, CA ‡Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, St Elisabeth Hospital Tilburg, Tilburg, The Netherlands.

Medial epicondylar tendinopathy, also known as golfer's elbow, is less common than lateral elbow tendinopathy. Overhead throwing athletes and those participating in sports that require repeated forearm pronation and wrist flexion are most commonly affected by this disorder. This problem predominates in amateur as opposed to professional athletes and is also seen more commonly in patients over 40 years of age. Read More

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September 2014

Ultrasonography of palm to elbow segment of median nerve in different degrees of diabetic polyneuropathy.

Clin Neurophysiol 2014 Apr 5;125(4):844-848. Epub 2013 Nov 5.

Bundang Cha Medical Center, South Korea.

Objective: To identify the relationship between the ultrasonographic cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve and electrophysiologic findings in diabetic patients.

Methods: Sixty diabetic patients, 30 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and 30 healthy volunteers participated. The participants were divided into 4 groups: Control Group; Group I, diabetic patients without diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN); Group II, diabetic patients with DPN; and Group III, patients with CTS. Read More

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Effects of forearm and palm supports on the upper extremity during computer mouse use.

Appl Ergon 2014 May 18;45(3):564-70. Epub 2013 Sep 18.

Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Department of Physical Therapy, Bouvé College of Health Sciences, Northeastern University, 6 Robinson Hall, 360 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

The use of forearm and palm supports has been associated with lower neck and shoulder muscle activity as well as reduced musculoskeletal discomfort during keyboard use, however, few studies have investigated their effect during computer mouse use. Eight men and eight women completed several computer mousing tasks in six arm support conditions: Forearm Support, Flat Palm Support, Raised Palm Support, Forearm + Flat Palm Support, Forearm + Raised Palm Support, and No Support. Concurrently, an infrared three-dimensional motion analysis system measured postures, six-degree-of-freedom force-torque sensors measured applied forces & torques, and surface electromyography measured muscle activity. Read More

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[Update in Current Care guidelines: repetitive strain injuries of the hand and forearm].

Duodecim 2013 ;129(13):1340-1

Repetitive strain injuriesof the upper extremities refer to pain in the forearm, wrist and hand, caused by excessive strain. Diagnoses include tenosynovitis, epicondylitis and carpal tunnel syndrome. Treatment is aimed at alleviating pain, restoring normal physical functioning and maintain ability to work. Read More

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Self-reported physical exposure association with medial and lateral epicondylitis incidence in a large longitudinal study.

Occup Environ Med 2013 Sep 3;70(9):670-3. Epub 2013 Jul 3.

Division of General Medical Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA.

Introduction: Although previous studies have related occupational exposure and epicondylitis, the evidence is moderate and mostly based on cross-sectional studies. Suspected physical exposures were tested over a 3-year period in a large longitudinal cohort study of workers in the USA.

Method: In a population-based study including a variety of industries, 1107 newly employed workers were examined; only workers without elbow symptoms at baseline were included. Read More

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September 2013

Biomechanical characteristics of osteochondral defects of the humeral capitellum.

Am J Sports Med 2013 Aug 7;41(8):1909-14. Epub 2013 Jun 7.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Osaka Medical College, 2-7, Daigaku-machi, Takatsuki, Osaka, Japan.

Background: The repetitive, excessive compression forces in the radiocapitellar joint caused by elbow valgus stresses during throwing motions can result in osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the humeral capitellum in adolescent athletes.

Purpose: To assess the effect of elbow valgus torque on contact pressure in the radiocapitellar joint and that of central and lateral capitellar osteochondral defects on radiocapitellar joint contact pressure, elbow valgus laxity, and ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) strain.

Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Read More

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Participatory ergonomic intervention versus strength training on chronic pain and work disability in slaughterhouse workers: study protocol for a single-blind, randomized controlled trial.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2013 Feb 21;14:67. Epub 2013 Feb 21.

National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Lersø Parkalle 105, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in the shoulder, arm and hand is high among slaughterhouse workers, allegedly due to the highly repetitive and forceful exposure of these body regions during work. Work disability is a common consequence of these pains. Lowering the physical exposure through ergonomics intervention is the traditional strategy to reduce the workload. Read More

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February 2013

[Cubital tunnel syndrome and the scratch test to determine the surgical procedure].

Acta Ortop Mex 2012 Nov-Dec;26(6):375-8

Background: Neuropathy due to ulnar nerve compression at the elbow level is the second most frequent neuropathy. The scratch collapse test is useful to diagnose compression neuropathies. This test helps us rank compression sites and decide the type of treatment to use. Read More

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Laxity of the ulnar nerve during elbow flexion and extension.

J Hand Surg Am 2012 Jun 1;37(6):1163-7. Epub 2012 May 1.

University of Toronto Hand Program, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose: To evaluate the dynamic anatomy of the ulnar nerve at the elbow.

Methods: We studied 11 fresh cadavers. We placed metal clips on the ulnar nerve at three locations: at the medial epicondyle (point A), 3 cm proximal to the epicondyle (point B), and 14 cm proximal to the epicondyle (point C). Read More

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A new median motor test: comparison with conventional motor studies in carpal tunnel syndrome.

J Clin Neurophysiol 2012 Feb;29(1):84-8

Department of Neurophysiology, University General Hospital, Albacete, Spain.

Introduction: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most commonly operated of entrapment peripheral neuropathies, and its surgical outcome largely depends on the underlying mechanism involved. Early identification of CTS is essential because it is associated with a better prognosis.

Aim: To identify CTS at an earlier stage and hence improve the potential future outcome, the authors propose incorporating a new method of using the second lumbricalis (2L-MC) to register the nerve conduction. Read More

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February 2012

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm in a major league baseball pitcher.

Am J Sports Med 2011 Oct 11;39(10):2242-4. Epub 2011 Aug 11.

Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic, Los Angeles, CA 90045, USA.

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October 2011

Neglected reverse Essex-Lopresti injury with ulnar nerve compression.

Chin J Traumatol 2011 Apr;14(2):111-3

Department of Orthopaedics, UCMS and GTB Hospital, Delhi 110095, India.

A 45 year old woman was diagnosed as having anteromedial radial head dislocation and distal radius fracture five months after her injury on right forearm. The radial head dislocation led to ulnar nerve compression. She had severe restriction of her elbow movements. Read More

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