4,618 results match your criteria Ecology[Journal]


Bottom-up trait-mediated indirect effects decrease pathogen transmission in a tritrophic system.

Authors:
Bret D Elderd

Ecology 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 70803, USA.

A plant's induction of secondary defenses helps to decrease herbivore damage by changing resource quality. While these chemical or physical defenses may directly decrease herbivory, they can also have indirect consequences. In a tritrophic system consisting of a plant, an insect herbivore, and an insect pathogen, plant based trait-mediated indirect effects (TMIEs) can alter host-pathogen interactions and, thereby, indirectly affect disease transmission. Read More

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December 2018

Inter-individual consistency in habitat selection patterns and spatial range constraints of female little bustards during the non-breeding season.

BMC Ecol 2018 Dec 5;18(1):56. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Departament de Biologia Evolutiva, Ecologia i Ciències Ambientals, Institut de Recerca de la Biodiversitat (IRBio), Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 643, 08028, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Identifying the factors that affect ranging behavior of animals is a central issue to ecology and an essential tool for designing effective conservation policies. This knowledge provides the information needed to predict the consequences of land-use change on species habitat use, especially in areas subject to major habitat transformations, such as agricultural landscapes. We evaluate inter-individual variation relative to environmental predictors and spatial constraints in limiting ranging behavior of female little bustards (Tetrax tetrax) in the non-breeding season. Read More

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December 2018

Reviewers of Manuscripts.

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Ecology 2018 Dec;99(12):2884-2901

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December 2018

Errata.

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Ecology 2018 Dec 24;99(12):2902-2903. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

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December 2018

Specificity of plant-plant communication for Baccharis salicifolia sexes but not genotypes.

Ecology 2018 Dec;99(12):2731-2739

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, 92697, California, USA.

Plants are able to adjust their anti-herbivore defenses in response to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by herbivore-damaged neighbors, and some of these changes increase resistance against subsequent herbivory. This phenomenon of plant-plant communication is thought to be widespread, but recent investigations have cautioned that it can be context dependent, including variation in the strength of communication based on the identity of plants and their associated herbivores. Here, we performed three greenhouse experiments using multiple male and female genotypes of the dioecious woody shrub Baccharis salicifolia and its specialist aphid Uroleucon macolai to test for specificity of plant-plant communication with respect to plant sex and genotype. Read More

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December 2018

Ad Hoc Editors of Manuscripts.

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Ecology 2018 Dec;99(12):2884

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December 2018

Errata.

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Ecology 2018 Dec 26;99(12):2904. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

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December 2018

Partitioning wild bee and hoverfly contributions to plant-pollinator network structure in fragmented habitats.

Ecology 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Animal Ecology, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, 35392, Giessen, Germany.

The risk of ecosystem function degradation with biodiversity loss has emerged as a major scientific concern in recent years. Possible relationships between taxonomic diversity and magnitude and stability of ecosystem processes build upon species' functional characteristics, which determine both susceptibility to environmental change and contribution to ecosystem properties. The functional diversity within communities thus provides a potential buffer against environmental disturbance, especially for properties emerging from interactions among species. Read More

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December 2018

Dining dangerously: Geophagy by snowshoe hares.

Ecology 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Biology and Wildlife, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99775, USA.

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December 2018

Post-fire forest regeneration shows limited climate tracking and potential for drought-induced type conversion.

Ecology 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616.

Disturbance such as wildfire may create opportunities for plant communities to reorganize in response to climate change. The interaction between climate change and disturbance may be particularly important in forests, where many of the foundational plant species (trees) are long-lived and where poor initial tree establishment can result in conversion to shrub- or graminoid-dominated systems. The response of post-disturbance vegetation establishment to post-disturbance weather conditions-particularly to extreme weather-could therefore provide useful information about how forest communities will respond to climate change. Read More

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December 2018

Mass medusae release and temporal reproductive segregation among the three Red Sea fire coral species.

Ecology 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

School of Zoology, The George S. Wise, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 69978, Tel-Aviv, Israel.

The reproductive patterns of coral communities with many of the same species can vary geographically (Shlesinger and Loya 1985), raising interesting questions of natural selection and ecology. Species of the colonial cnidarian genus Millepora have received the common name "fire corals" due to the painful sting inflicted to humans by the release of venom from their stinging cells. Despite their popular name and some similarities with scleractinian stony corals of the class Anthozoa, fire corals belong to a different class of organisms (i. Read More

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December 2018

Belowground plant parts are crucial for comprehensively estimating total plant richness in herbaceous and woody habitats.

Ecology 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Biology, University of Regina, 3737 Wascana Parkway, Regina, SK, S4S 0A2, Canada.

Most studies consider aboveground plant species richness as a representative biodiversity measure. This approach inevitably assumes that the partitioning of total plant species richness into above- and belowground components is constant or at least consistent within and across vegetation types. However, with studies considering belowground plant richness still scarce and completely absent along vegetation gradients, this assumption lacks experimental support. Read More

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December 2018

Multiple drivers of contrasting diversity-invasibility relationships at fine spatial grains.

Ecology 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Earth to Oceans Research Group, Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6, Canada.

The diversity-invasibility hypothesis and ecological theory predict that high-diversity communities should be less easily invaded than species-poor communities, but empirical evidence does not consistently support this prediction. While fine-scale experiments tend to yield the predicted negative association between diversity and invasibility, broad-scale observational surveys generally report a positive correlation. This conflicting pattern between experiments and observational studies is referred to as the invasion paradox, and is thought to arise because different processes control species composition at different spatial scales. Read More

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December 2018

Temporal clustering of extreme climate events drives a regime shift in rocky intertidal biofilms.

Ecology 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Biology, University of Pisa, CoNISMa, Via Derna 1, Pisa, Italy.

Research on regime shifts has focused primarily on how changes in the intensity and duration of press disturbances precipitate natural systems into undesirable, alternative states. By contrast, the role of recurrent pulse perturbations, such as extreme climatic events, has been largely neglected, hindering our understanding of how historical processes regulate the onset of a regime shift. We performed field manipulations to evaluate whether combinations of extreme events of temperature and sediment deposition that differed in their degree of temporal clustering generated alternative states in rocky intertidal epilithic microphytobenthos (biofilms) on rocky shores. Read More

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December 2018

Spatial scale modulates the inference of metacommunity assembly processes.

Ecology 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Germany.

The abundance and distribution of species across the landscape depend on the interaction between local, spatial and stochastic processes. However, empirical syntheses relating these processes to spatio-temporal patterns of structure in metacommunities remains elusive. One important reason for this lack of synthesis is that the relative importance of the core assembly processes (dispersal, selection and drift) critically depends on the spatial grain and extent over which communities are studied. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Semi-arid ecosystem sensitivity to precipitation extremes: weak evidence for vegetation constraints.

Ecology 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Graduate Degree Program in Ecology and Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Colorado, 80523, USA.

In semi-arid regions, vegetation constraints on plant growth responses to precipitation (PPT) are hypothesized to place an upper limit on net primary productivity (NPP), leading to predictions of future shifts from currently-defined linear to saturating NPP-PPT relationships as increases in both dry and wet PPT extremes occur. We experimentally tested this prediction by imposing a replicated gradient of growing season PPT (GSP, n = 11 levels, n = 4 replicates) - ranging from the driest to wettest conditions in the 75-year climate record - within a semi-arid grassland. We focused on responses of two key ecosystem processes: aboveground NPP (ANPP) and soil respiration (R ). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Interactions between commercial fishing vessels and a pelagic seabird in the southern Mediterranean Sea.

BMC Ecol 2018 Dec 4;18(1):54. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Animal Ecology and Systematics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, 35392, Giessen, Germany.

Background: Fishing activities can influence foraging behaviour of many seabird species worldwide. Seabirds are attracted by fishing vessels which can facilitate access to demersal fish as a novel food resource that otherwise would be unavailable. On the other hand, intense fishing activities cause depletion of fish stocks with a reduction of natural prey available for seabirds. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Silicon uptake by a pasture grass experiencing simulated grazing is greatest under elevated precipitation.

BMC Ecol 2018 Dec 4;18(1):53. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, Western Sydney University, Richmond, NSW, Australia.

Background: Grasses are hyper-accumulators of silicon (Si) and often up-regulate Si following herbivory. Positive correlations exist between Si and plant water content, yet the extent to which Si uptake responses can be mediated by changes in soil water availability has rarely been studied and never, to our knowledge, under field conditions. We used field-based rain-exclusion shelters to investigate how simulated grazing (shoot clipping) and altered rainfall patterns (drought and elevated precipitation, representing 50% and 150% of ambient precipitation levels, respectively) affected initial patterns of root- and shoot-Si uptake in a native Australian grass (Microlaena stipoides) in Si-supplemented and untreated soils. Read More

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December 2018

Seasonal deviation effects foliar endophyte assemblage and diversity in Asparagus racemosus and Hemidesmus indicus.

BMC Ecol 2018 Dec 4;18(1):52. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois, Chicago, USA.

Background: Fungal endophytes are the living symbionts which cause no apparent damage to the host tissue. The distribution pattern of these endophytes within a host plant is mediated by environmental factors. This study was carried out to explore the fungal endophyte community and their distribution pattern in Asparagus racemosus and Hemidesmus indicus growing in the study area. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Flower strip networks offer promising long term effects on pollinator species richness in intensively cultivated agricultural areas.

BMC Ecol 2018 Dec 4;18(1):55. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Bayer AG, Bee Care Centre, 40789, Monheim, Germany.

Background: Intensively cultivated agricultural landscapes often suffer from substantial pollinator losses, which may be leading to decreasing pollination services for crops and wild flowering plants. Conservation measures that are easy to implement and accepted by farmers are needed to halt a further loss of pollinators in large areas under intensive agricultural management. Here we report the results of a replicated long-term study involving networks of mostly perennial flower strips covering 10% of a conventionally managed agricultural landscape in southwestern Germany. Read More

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December 2018

Combining high-throughput imaging flow cytometry and deep learning for efficient species and life-cycle stage identification of phytoplankton.

BMC Ecol 2018 Dec 3;18(1):51. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Software Engineering for Safety-Critical Systems Group, Technische Universität Ilmenau, Ehrenbergstraße 29, 98693, Ilmenau, Germany.

Background: Phytoplankton species identification and counting is a crucial step of water quality assessment. Especially drinking water reservoirs, bathing and ballast water need to be regularly monitored for harmful species. In times of multiple environmental threats like eutrophication, climate warming and introduction of invasive species more intensive monitoring would be helpful to develop adequate measures. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Comparison of large-scale citizen science data and long-term study data for phenology modeling.

Ecology 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States.

Large-scale observational data from citizen science efforts are becoming increasingly common in ecology, and researchers often choose between these and data from intensive local-scale studies for their analyses. This choice has trade-offs related to spatial scale, observer variance, and inter-annual variability. Here we explored this issue with phenology by comparing models built using data from the large-scale, citizen science USA National Phenology Network (USANPN) effort with models built using data from more intensive studies at Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Fox sightings in a city are related to certain land use classes and sociodemographics: results from a citizen science project.

BMC Ecol 2018 Nov 29;18(1):50. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Institute of Zoology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Gregor Mendel Strasse 33, 1180, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes L.) have become successful inhabitants of urban areas in recent years. However, our knowledge about the occurrence, distribution and association with land uses of these urban foxes is poor, partly because many favoured habitats are on private properties and therefore hardly accessible to scientists. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Species-specific interference exerted by the shrub Cistus clusii Dunal in a semi-arid Mediterranean gypsum plant community.

BMC Ecol 2018 Nov 29;18(1):49. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología, CSIC, Avda. Montañana, 1005, 50059, Saragossa, Spain.

Background: The gypsovag shrub Cistus clusii is locally dominant in semi-arid gypsum plant communities of North-Eastern Spain. This species commonly grows in species-poor patches even though it has nurse potential, suggesting interference on neighbouring species. Other Cistus species exert a chemically mediated interference on plant communities, suggesting that it might be a common phenomenon in this genus. Read More

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November 2018

Hierarchical multi-population viability analysis.

Ecology 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

US Forest Service, 322 E Front St, Boise, Idaho, 83702, USA.

Population viability analysis (PVA) uses concepts from theoretical ecology to provide a powerful tool for quantitative estimates of population dynamics and extinction risks. However, conventional statistical PVA requires long-term data from every population of interest, whereas many species of concern exist in multiple isolated populations that are only monitored occasionally. We present a hierarchical multi-population viability analysis model that increases inference power from sparse data by sharing information among populations to assess extinction risks while accounting for incomplete detection and sampling biases with explicit observation and sampling sub-models. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Experimental habitat fragmentation disrupts nematode infections in Australian skinks.

Ecology 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, 80309-0334, USA.

Habitat conversion and fragmentation threaten biodiversity and disrupt species interactions. While parasites are recognized as ecologically important, the impacts of fragmentation on parasitism are poorly understood relative to other species interactions. This lack of understanding is in part due to confounding landscape factors that accompany fragmentation. Read More

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November 2018

Effects of biotic interactions on tropical tree performance depend on abiotic conditions.

Ecology 2018 Dec 28;99(12):2740-2750. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Section for Ecoinformatics & Biodiversity, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 114, Aarhus, 8000, Denmark.

Predicting biotic responses to environmental change requires understanding the joint effects of abiotic conditions and biotic interactions on community dynamics. One major challenge is to separate the potentially confounding effects of abiotic environmental variation and local biotic interactions on individual performance. The stress gradient hypothesis (SGH) addresses this issue directly by predicting that the effects of biotic interactions on performance become more positive as the abiotic environment becomes more stressful. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Fake spawns and floating particles: a rebuttal of Karkarey et al. "Alternative reproductive tactics and inverse size-assortment in a high-density fish spawning aggregation".

BMC Ecol 2018 Nov 27;18(1):48. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, 93016, USA.

Courtship and spawning behaviors of coral reef fishes are very complex, and sufficient sampling effort and proper methods are required to draw informed conclusions on their mating systems that are grounded in contemporary theories of mate choice and sexual selection. We reviewed the recent study by Karkarey et al. (BMC Ecol 17:10, 2017) on the spawning behavior of Squaretail coralgrouper (Plectropomus areolatus) from India and found no evidence to support their findings of alternative reproductive tactics, unique school-spawning involving a single male with multiple females, or inverse size-assortment. Read More

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November 2018

Home sweet suboxic home: remarkable hypoxia tolerance in two demersal fish species in the Gulf of California.

Ecology 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, California, 95039, USA.

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November 2018
1 Read

Movement responses to environment: fast inference of variation among southern elephant seals with a mixed effects model.

Ecology 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia.

Like many species, movement patterns of southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) are being influenced by long-term environmental change. These seals migrate up to 4000 km from their breeding colonies, foraging for months in a variety of Southern Ocean habitats. Understanding how movement patterns vary with environmental features and how these relationships differ among individuals employing different foraging strategies can provide insight into foraging performance at a population level. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Classifying development stages of primeval European beech forests: is clustering a useful tool?

BMC Ecol 2018 Nov 20;18(1):47. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Sachgebiet Waldnaturschutz/Naturwald, Nordwestdeutsche Forstliche Versuchsanstalt NW-FVA, Grätzelstrasse 2, 37079, Goettingen, Germany.

Background: Old-growth and primeval forests are passing through a natural development cycle with recurring stages of forest development. Several methods for assigning patches of different structure and size to forest development stages or phases do exist. All currently existing classification methods have in common that a priori assumptions about the characteristics of certain stand structural attributes such as deadwood amount are made. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Moonlight enhances growth in larval fish.

Ecology 2018 Nov 13. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

School of BioSciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, 3010, Australia.

Moonlight mediates trophic interactions and shapes the evolution of life-history strategies for nocturnal organisms. Reproductive cycles and important life-history transitions for many marine organisms coincide with moon phases, but few studies consider the effects of moonlight on pelagic larvae at sea. We evaluated effects of moonlight on growth of pelagic larvae of a temperate reef fish using 'master chronologies' of larval growth constructed from age-independent daily increment widths recorded in otoliths of 321 individuals. Read More

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November 2018

Immature survival, fertility, and density dependence drive global population dynamics in a long-lived species.

Ecology 2018 Dec 13;99(12):2823-2832. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

MUSE - Museo delle Scienze, Sezione Zoologia dei Vertebrati, Corso del Lavoro e della Scienza 3, 38122, Trento, Italy.

Disentangling the influence of demographic parameters and the role of density dependence on species' population dynamics is a challenge, especially when fractions of the population are unobservable. Additionally, due to the difficulty of gathering data at large spatial scales, most studies ignore the global dynamic of a species, which would integrate local heterogeneity dynamics and remove the noise of dispersal. We developed an integrated population model (IPM) at a global scale to disentangle the main demographic drivers of population dynamics in a long-lived species. Read More

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December 2018

A colorful killer: Daphnia infected with the bacterium Spirobacillus cienkowskii exhibit unexpected color variation.

Ecology 2018 Nov 13. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Biological Sciences Building, 1105 North University Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48109, USA.

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November 2018

Comparative foliar metabolomics of a tropical and a temperate forest community.

Ecology 2018 Dec 12;99(12):2647-2653. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Apartado 0843-03092, Balboa, Ancón, Republic of Panama.

Plant enemies that attack chemically similar host species are thought to mediate competitive exclusion of chemically similar plants and select for chemical divergence among closely related species. This hypothesis predicts that plant defenses should diverge rapidly, minimizing phylogenetic signal. To evaluate this prediction, we quantified metabolomic similarity for 203 tree species that represent >89% of all individuals in large forest plots in Maryland and Panama. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Dry conditions and disturbance promote liana seedling survival and abundance.

Ecology 2018 Nov 9. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 48109.

Species composition and community structure in neotropical forests have been severely affected by increases in climate change and disturbance. Among the most conspicuous changes is the proliferation of lianas. These increases have affected not only the carbon storage capacity of forests but also tree dynamics by reducing tree growth and increasing mortality. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Frequency of virus-resistant hosts determines experimental community dynamics.

Ecology 2018 Nov 9. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Microbiology, University of Helsinki, Viikinkaari 9, 00014, Helsinki, Finland.

Parasites, such as bacterial viruses (phages), can have large effects on host populations both at the ecological and evolutionary levels. In the case of cyanobacteria, phages can reduce primary production and infected hosts release intracellular nutrients influencing planktonic food web structure, community dynamics, and biogeochemical cycles. Cyanophages may be of great importance in aquatic food webs during large cyanobacterial blooms unless the host population becomes resistant to phage infection. Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

Flower movement balances pollinator needs and pollen protection.

Ecology 2018 Nov 9. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Evolutionary Neuroethology, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Jena, Germany.

Flower signaling and orientation are key characteristics that determine a flower's pollinator guild. However, many flowers actively move during their daily cycle, changing both their detectability and accessibility to pollinators. The flowers of the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata orientate their corolla upward at sunset and downward after sunrise. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Past the climate optimum: Recruitment is declining at the world's highest juniper shrublines on the Tibetan Plateau.

Ecology 2018 Nov 9. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología (IPE-CSIC), Avda. Montañana, 1005, 50059, Zaragoza, Spain.

Alpine biomes are climate change hotspots, and treeline dynamics in particular have received much attention as visible evidence of climate-induced shifts in species distributions. Comparatively little is known, however, about the effects of climate change on alpine shrubline dynamics. Here, we reconstruct decadally-resolved shrub recruitment history (age structure) through the combination of field surveys and dendroecology methods at the world's highest juniper (Juniperus pingii var. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Asymmetric interactions and their consequences for vital rates and dynamics: the smaller tea tortrix as a model system.

Ecology 2018 Nov 9. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Penn State University, State College, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Asymmetric interactions among conspecifics can have diverse effects on population dynamics including stabilization, generation of cycles and induction of chaotic fluctuations. A difficult challenge, however, is establishing the link between the impact of asymmetric interactions on life history and the consequences for population dynamics. The smaller tea tortrix, Adoxophyes honmai, is a good example. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Weather fluctuations affect the impact of consumers on vegetation recovery following a catastrophic die-off.

Ecology 2018 Nov 9. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

School of Environment, State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, China.

Prolonged droughts exacerbated by climate change have been widely documented to interact with consumers to decimate vegetation in many ecosystems. Although climate change is also increasing within-year variation in precipitation and temperature, how weather fluctuations affect the impact of consumers on vegetation processes remains poorly understood. In a salt marsh that has recently experienced drought-associated vegetation die-off, we investigated how top-down control of plant recovery by a prominent salt marsh grazer varies with weather. Read More

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November 2018
10 Reads

Enhancing soil organic carbon, particulate organic carbon and microbial biomass in semi-arid rangeland using pasture enclosures.

BMC Ecol 2018 Nov 6;18(1):45. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), 90183, Umeå, Sweden.

Background: Rehabilitation of degraded rangelands through the establishment of enclosures (fencing grazing lands) is believed to improve soil quality and livelihoods, and enhance the sustainability of rangelands. Grazing dominated enclosure (GDE) and contractual grazing enclosure (CGE) are the common enclosure management systems in West Pokot County, Kenya. Under CGE, a farmer owning few animals leases the enclosure to households with relatively more livestock, while GDE is where the livestock utilizing the enclosure are purely owned by the farmer. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Demographic consequences of reproductive interference in multi-species communities.

BMC Ecol 2018 Nov 6;18(1):46. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S3B2, Canada.

Background: Reproductive interference can mediate interference competition between species through sexual interactions that reduce the fitness of one species by another. Theory shows that the positive frequency-dependent effects of such costly errors in mate recognition can dictate species coexistence or exclusion even with countervailing resource competition differences between species. While usually framed in terms of pre-mating or post-zygotic costs, reproductive interference manifests between individual Caenorhabditis nematodes from negative interspecies gametic interactions: sperm cells from interspecies matings can migrate ectopically to induce female sterility and premature death. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Books and Monographs Received through July 2018.

Authors:

Ecology 2018 Dec 2;99(12):2883. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

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December 2018

Erratum.

Authors:

Ecology 2018 Nov;99(11):2642

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November 2018

Atlantic butterflies: a data set of fruit-feeding butterfly communities from the Atlantic forests.

Ecology 2018 Dec 31;99(12):2875. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual de São Paulo (UNESP), Laboratório de Ecologia Espacial e Conservação (LEEC), Rio Claro, SP, Brasil.

Butterflies are one of the best-known insect groups, and they have been the subject of numerous studies in ecology and evolution, especially in the tropics. Much attention has been given to the fruit-feeding butterfly guild in biodiversity conservation studies, due to the relative ease with which taxa may be identified and specimens sampled using bait traps. However, there remain many uncertainties about the macroecological and biogeographical patterns of butterflies in tropical ecosystems. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Soil drivers of local-scale tree growth in a lowland tropical forest.

Ecology 2018 Dec 30;99(12):2844-2852. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Apartado 0843-03092, Balboa, Ancon, Panama.

Soil nutrients influence the distribution of tree species in lowland tropical forests, but their effect on productivity, especially at local scales, remains unclear. We used tree census, canopy occupancy, and soil data from the Barro Colorado Island (BCI; Panama) 50-ha forest dynamics plot to investigate the influence of soil nutrients and potential toxins on aboveground tree productivity. Growth was calculated as the increase in diameter of 150,000 individual stems ≥1 cm diameter at breast height, representing 207 species. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Loss of foundation species: disturbance frequency outweighs severity in structuring kelp forest communities.

Ecology 2018 Nov 30;99(11):2442-2454. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Marine Science Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, California, 93106, USA.

Disturbances often cause the disproportionate loss of foundation species but understanding how the frequency and severity of disturbance to such organisms influence biological communities remains unresolved. This gap in knowledge exists in part because of the rarity of ecologically meaningful studies capable of disentangling different elements of disturbance. Hence, we carried out a long-term (9 yr), large-scale (2,000 m plots), spatially replicated (4 sites) field experiment in which we manipulated disturbance to a globally distributed marine foundation species, the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera, and tracked community responses over time. Read More

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November 2018

The measurement and quantification of generalized gradients of soil fertility relevant to plant community ecology.

Ecology 2018 Oct 30. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Laboratoire d'Écologie Fonctionnelle Département de biologie, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada, J1K 2R1.

We propose an operational definition of soil "fertility" that is applicable to plant community ecology and develop a method of measuring and quantifying it, using structural equations modeling, that is generalizable to soils in different regions whose fertility has different causes. To do this, we used structural equation modelling (SEM). The measurement submodel predicts the latent "generalized fertility", F , of a soil using four indicator variables: the relative growth rates of Festuca rubra, Trifolium pretense, Triticum aestivum and Arabidopsis thaliana. Read More

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October 2018

Local adaptation of photoperiodic plasticity maintains life cycle variation within latitudes in a butterfly.

Ecology 2018 Oct 30. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Department of Zoology, Stockholm University.

The seasonal cycle varies geographically, and organisms are under selection to express life cycles that optimally exploit their spatiotemporal habitats. In insects, this often means producing an annual number of generations (voltinism) appropriate to the local season length. Variation in voltinism may arise from variation in environmental factors (e. Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads