4,782 results match your criteria Ecology[Journal]


Life table invasion models: spatial progression and species-specific partitioning.

Ecology 2019 Apr 24:e02682. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, California, 95616, USA.

Biological invasions are increasingly being considered important spatial processes that drive global changes, threatening biodiversity, regional economies, and ecosystem functions. A unifying conceptual model of the invasion dynamics could serve as a useful tool for comparison and classification of invasion processes involving different species across large geographic ranges. By dividing these geographic ranges that are subject to invasions into discrete spatial units, we here conceptualize the invasion process as the transition from pristine to invaded spatial units. Read More

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A theory of pulse dynamics and disturbance in ecology.

Ecology 2019 Apr 24:e02734. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA.

We propose four postulates as the minimum set of logical propositions necessary for a theory of pulse dynamics and disturbance in ecosystems: 1) 'Resource Dynamics' characterizes the magnitude, rate, and duration of resource change caused by pulse events, including the continuing changes in resources that are the result of abiotic and biotic processes; 2) 'Energy Flux' characterizes the energy flow that controls the variation in the rates of resource assimilation across ecosystems; 3) 'Patch Dynamics' characterizes the distribution of resource patches over space and time, and the resulting patterns of biotic diversity, ecosystem structure, and cross-scale feedbacks of pulses processes; and 4) 'Biotic Trait Diversity' characterizes the evolutionary responses to pulse dynamics and, in turn, the way trait diversity affects ecosystem dynamics during and after pulse events. We apply the four postulates to an important class of pulse events, biomass-altering disturbances, and derive seven generalizations that predict disturbance magnitude, resource trajectory, rate of resource change, disturbance probability, biotic trait diversification at evolutionary scales, biotic diversity at ecological scales, and functional resilience. Ultimately, theory must define the variable combinations that result in dynamic stability, comprising resistance, recovery, and adaptation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2734DOI Listing

Public assessment of green infrastructure benefits and associated influencing factors in two Ethiopian cities: Bahir Dar and Hawassa.

BMC Ecol 2019 Apr 23;19(1):16. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: Currently, urban green infrastructure is increasingly gaining attention as a source of multiple benefits. Understanding how city residents perceive the benefits of green infrastructure is critical for urban policy and planning. This paper investigates public assessment of the benefits of green infrastructure and the associated influencing factors in Bahir Dar and Hawassa cities of Ethiopia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12898-019-0232-1DOI Listing
April 2019
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Habitat edge responses of generalist predators are predicted by prey and structural resources.

Ecology 2019 Apr 23:e02662. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, 80208, USA.

Generalist predators are thought to be less vulnerable to habitat fragmentation because they use diverse resources across larger spatial scales than specialist predators. Thus, it has been suggested that generalist predators may respond positively to habitat edges or demonstrate no edge response, because they can potentially use prey resources equally well on both sides of the habitat edge. However, most predictions about generalist predator responses to the habitat edge are based solely on prey resources, without consideration of other potential drivers. Read More

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April 2019
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NEOTROPICAL XENARTHRANS: a data set of occurrence of xenarthran species in the Neotropics.

Authors:
Paloma Marques Santos Adriana Bocchiglieri Adriano Garcia Chiarello Adriano Pereira Paglia Adryelle Moreira Agnis Cristiane de Souza Agustin Manuel Abba Agustin Paviolo Ailin Gatica Akyllan Zoppi Medeiro Alan Nilo Costa Alberto Gonzalez Gallina Alberto A Yanosky Alejandro Jesus Alessandra Bertassoni Alessandro Rocha Alex Augusto Abreu Bovo Alex Bager Alexandra Cravino Mol Alexandre Camargo Martensen Alexandre Casagrande Faustino Alexandre Martins Costa Lopes Alexandre Reis Percequillo Alexandre Vogliotti Alexine Keuroghlian María Alicia de la Colina Allison L Devlin Alvaro García-Olaechea Amadeo Sánchez Ana Carolina Srbek-Araujo Ana Cecilia Ochoa Ana Cristina Mendes Oliveira Ana Cristyna Reis Lacerda Ana Kellen Nogueira Campelo Ana Maria de Oliveira Paschoal Ana Raíssa Cunha Costa Ana Yoko Ykeuti Meiga Anamélia Souza Jesus Anderson Feijó André Hirsch André Luiz Ferreira da Silva André Luis Moura Botelho André Luis Regolin André Monnerat Lanna André Valle Nunes Andreas Kindel Andreia Magro Moraes Andressa Gatti Andrew J Noss Andrezza Bellotto Nobre Anelise Montanarin Ângela Camila Deffaci Anna Carolina Figueiredo de Albuquerque Anne Karoline de Oliveira Antonio Marcelo Mangione Antonio Rossano Mendes Pontes Ariane Teixeira Bertoldi Armando Muniz Calouro Arnaud L J Desbiez Arthur Fernandes Atilla Colombo Ferreguetti Maria Augusta Andrade da Silva Barbara Zimbres Beatriz Fernandes Lima Luciano Benoit de Thoisy Bernardo Brandão S Niebuhr Bernardo Papi Bibiana Gómez-Valencia Bráulio A Santos Breno Campelo Lima Bruna Gomes Oliveira Bruna Silva Santos Bruno Augusto Torres Parahyba Campos Bruno Leles Bruno Rodrigo de Albuquerque França Burton Lim Caetano Troncoso Oliveira Camila Cantagallo Camila Clozato Lara Camila Silveira Lima Carla Cristina Gestich Carla Danielle de Melo-Soares Carlos A Peres Carlos Benhur Kasper Carlos Candia-Gallardo Carlos De Angelo Carlos Eduardo Fragoso Carlos Henrique de Freitas Carlos Henrique Salvador Carlos R Brocardo Carolina Depolito Melo Caroline Leuchtenberger Caryne Braga Catalina Sánchez-Lalinde Cecília Bueno Cecília Licarião Luna Cesar Rojano Cindy Meliza Hurtado Cinthya Chiva Dos Santos Cintia Tellaeche Clarissa Rosa Claudia Bueno de Campos Cláudia Regina Silva Claudia Zukeran Kanda Clinton N Jenkins Colleen McDonough Cristiano Trapé Trinca Cristina Jaques da Cunha Cynthia Elisa Widmer Cyntia Santos Daiane Buscariol Daiane Cristina Carreira Danianderson Rodrigues Carvalho Daniel da Silva Ferraz Daniel Casali Daniel Thornton Daniela Rodrigues Vasconcellos Daniele Barcelos Danielle Brown Daniella Leal Ramos Danielle Oliveira Moreira Débora Regina Yogui Deborah Faria Denis Alessio Sana Denise Lidoro de Mattia Denison José Henz Diana B Friedeberg Diana Letícia Kruger Pacheco Carvalho Diego Astúa Diego Queirolo Diego M Varela Donald P Eaton Douglas Matos Dias Edgar Federico Rivadeneira Ednaldo Cândido Rocha Edson Fiedler de Abreu-Júnior Eduardo Carrano Eduardo Marques Santos Eleonore Zulnara Freire Setz Elildo Alves Ribeiro Carvalho Elisandra de Almeida Chiquito Elizandra de Matos Cardoso Eloisa Neves Mendonça Elvira D'Bastiani Emerson M Vieira Emiliano Esterci Ramalho Emiliano Guijosa-Guadarrama Enrique González Erica Vanessa Maggiorini Erich Fischer Erick Francisco Aguiar Érika Paula Castro Erika de la Peña-Cuéllar Ernesto B Viveiros de Castro Evelyn Beatriz Brítez Ezequiel Andres Vanderhoeven Ezequiel Pedó Fabiana Lopes Rocha Fabiane Girardi Fabio de Oliveira Roque Fábio Dias Mazim Fabio Monteiro de Barros Felipe Martello Felipe Moreli Fantacini Felipe Pedrosa Felipe Bortolotto Peters Fernanda Delborgo Abra Fernanda Cavalcanti de Azevedo Fernanda da Silva Santos Fernanda Guedes da Silva Fernanda Zimmermann Teixeira Fernando Araujo Perini Fernando C Passos Fernando Carvalho Fernando Cesar Cascelli de Azevedo Fernando Ferreira de Pinho Fernando Gonçalves Fernando Lima Fernando M Contreras-Moreno Fernando Pedroni Fernando Rodrigo Tortato Filipe Pereira Rego Santos Flavia Caruso Flávia Pereira Tirelli Flávia Regina Miranda Flávio Henrique Guimarães Rodrigues Flávio Kulaif Ubaid Francesca Belem Lopes Palmeira Franciane Almeida da Silva Francisco Grotta-Neto Franco Leandro de Souza Francys Emanuelle Costa Freddy Pérez-Garduza Frédéric Delsuc Frederico Lemos Fredy Ramirez Pinto Gabriel Ivan Boaglio Gabriel Fávero Massocato Gabriel Preuss Gabriel Selbach Hofmann Gabriel Lima Aguiar Gabriela Schuck Oliveira Gabriela Teixeira Duarte Gabrielle Beca Gastón Andrés Fernandez Giné Graziele Oliveira Batista Guillermo Eduardo Gil Gustavo Gonsioroski Helio Secco Hugo Reis Medeiros Igor Pfeifer Coelho Ingridi Camboim Franceschi Itiberê Bernardi J Antonio de la Torre Jairo José Zocche Jardel Brandão Seibert Jéssica Caroline de Faria Falcão Jéssica Helena Mangueira Dias Joana Zorzal Nodari João Alves Oliveira João Gabriel Ribeiro Giovanelli João Paulo Pandini Favoretti John Polisar Jonas Sponchiado Jorge José Cherem José Fernando Moreira Ramírez José Julio de Toledo José Maurício Barbanti Duarte Jose Roberto de Matos Juan Pablo Arrabal Júlia Emi de Faria Oshima Juliana Fernandes Ribeiro Juliano André Bogoni Julio Javier Chacón Pacheco Karl L Schuchmann Katia M P M B Ferraz Laís Dos Santos Everton Larissa L Bailey Larissa Oliveira Gonçalves Laury Cullen Layla Reis de Andrade Leonardo Carreira Trevelin Lilian Bonjorne Livia de Almeida Rodrigues Lucas Leuzinger Lucas Neves Perillo Luciana Souza Araújo Ludmila Hufnagel Ludmilla Oliveira Ribeiro Luis Renato Rezende Bernardo Luiz Gustavo Rodrigues Oliveira-Santos Luiz Henrique Varzinczak Luiz Henrique Medeiros Borges Luiza Neves Guimarães Lydia Möcklinghoff Marcela Alvares Oliveira Marcelo Magioli Márcia Maria de Assis Jardim Márcio Leite de Oliveira Marcos Adriano Tortato Marcos Dums Maria Eugenia Iezzi Maria João Ramos Pereira Maria Luísa Jorge Maria Santina de Castro Morini Mariana Bueno Landis Mariana Sampaio Xavier Marília A S Barros Marina Lima da Silva Marina Rivero Marina Zanin Marinêz Isaac Marques Mario Henrique Alves Mario S Di Bitetti Martín R Alvarez Maurício Eduardo Graipel Mauricio Neves Godoi Maximiliano Augusto Benedetti Mayara Guimarães Beltrão Miguel Coutinho Moretta Monteiro Milton José de Paula Miriam Lucia Lages Perilli Murillo Prado da Silva Nacho Villar Natasha Moraes De Albuquerque Nathália F Canassa Newton Mota Filho Nicole da Rosa Oliveira Nielson Pasqualotto Nilton Carlos Cáceres Nina Attias Marina Ochoa Favarini Otávio Santi Ribeiro Pablo Rodrigues Gonçalves Patrício Adriano da Rocha Paula Alves Condé Paula Akkawi Paula Cruz Paula Koeler Lira Paula Modenesi Ferreira Paulina Arroyo-Gerala Paulo Afonso Hartmann Paulo de Tarso Zuquim Antas Paulo Henrique Marinho Pedro Henrique de Faria Peres Juan Luis Peña-Mondragón Pryscilla Moura Lombardi Rafael de Souza Laurindo Rafael Souza Cruz Alves Raissa Danielle Praxedes Grangeiro Ramon Lima Silva Raone Beltrão-Mendes Renata Twardowsky Ramalho Bonikowski Juan Reppucci Ricardo Corassa Arrais Ricardo Sampaio Ricardo Sartorello Ricardo 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Simonne Chinem Laura K Honda Helena de Godoy Bergallo Vinicius Alberici Robert Wallace Juan Manuel Campos Krauer Milton Cezar Ribeiro Mauro Galetti

Ecology 2019 Apr 23:e02663. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Xenarthrans-anteaters, sloths, and armadillos-have essential functions for ecosystem maintenance, such as insect control and nutrient cycling, playing key roles as ecosystem engineers. Because of habitat loss and fragmentation, hunting pressure, and conflicts with domestic dogs, these species have been threatened locally, regionally, or even across their full distribution ranges. The Neotropics harbor 21 species of armadillos, 10 anteaters, and 6 sloths. Read More

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Narrow pollen diets are associated with declining Midwestern bumble bee species.

Ecology 2019 Apr 23:e02697. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, 48824, USA.

Many species of bumble bee (Bombus) have declined in range and abundance across Europe, the Americas, and Asia, whereas other species have persisted and remain common and widespread. One explanation as to why some species have declined, based primarily on studies of the European bumble bee fauna, is that declining species have relatively narrow pollen-foraging niches and are less able to use alternative host plants in the absence of their preferred hosts. Though extensively explored in Europe, this hypothesis has not been investigated in North America, in part due to incomplete information on the foraging niche of many species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2697DOI Listing

Pregnant giant devil ray (Mobula mobular) bycatch reveals potential Northern Gulf of California pupping ground.

Authors:
Leo C Gaskins

Ecology 2019 Apr 23:e02689. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Duke University Marine Lab, 135 Duke Marine Lab Road, Beaufort, North Carolina, 28516, USA.

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Demographic senescence and effects on population dynamics of a perennial plant.

Ecology 2019 Apr 21:e02742. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Department of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230, Odense M, Denmark.

Demographic rates in plants are usually assumed to be more stage or size dependent than age dependent, and aging is therefore not considered in demographic models. However, little is known about the effect of age on demographic rates, as there still are few studies based on long-term individual-based plant population data that consider both individual age and size. In addition, little is known about how aging of individuals may affect population dynamics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2742DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Altitudinal gradients fail to predict fungal symbiont responses to warming.

Ecology 2019 Apr 21:e02740. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Department of Biology, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 87131, USA.

Climate change is shifting altitudinal species ranges, with potential to disrupt species interactions. Altitudinal gradient studies and warming experiments can both increase understanding of climate effects on species interactions, but few studies have used both together to improve predictions. We examined whether plant-fungal symbioses responded similarly to altitude and 23 years of experimental warming. Read More

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April 2019
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Bedrock nitrogen weathering stimulates biological nitrogen fixation.

Ecology 2019 Apr 21:e02741. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Dept. of Land, Air, and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.

Global ecosystem models suggest that bedrock nitrogen (N) weathering contributes 10-20% of total N inputs to the natural terrestrial biosphere and >38% of ecosystem N supplies in temperate forests specifically. Yet, the role of rock N weathering in shaping ecological processes and biogeochemical fluxes is largely unknown. Here, we show that temperate forest ecosystems underlain by N-rich bedrock exhibit higher free-living N fixation rates than similar forests residing on N-poor parent materials, across sites experiencing a range of climate and tectonic regimes. Read More

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April 2019
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Insect community structure covaries with host plant chemistry but is not affected by prior herbivory.

Ecology 2019 Apr 21:e02739. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3SZ, UK.

By feeding on plant tissue, insect herbivores can change several characteristics of their hosts. These changes have the potential to alter the quality of the plant for other herbivore species, potentially altering the structure of the community of species attacking the plant at a later point in time. We tested whether herbivory early in the season changes host plant performance, polyphenol chemistry, and the community structure of sessile herbivores later in the season. Read More

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Janzen-Connell effects in a forest BEF experiment: Strong distance-dependent seedling establishment of multiple species.

Ecology 2019 Apr 18:e02736. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Kiel University, Institute for Ecosystem Research / Geobotany.

The Janzen-Connell (JC) hypothesis is a major ecological explanation for high species richness, in particular in tropical forest ecosystems. Central components of the JC hypothesis are non-competitive effects of distance- and density-dependence, two drivers that contribute independently to species coexistence, but which are ultimately linked in the field. However, while numerous studies provide evidence for either distance- or density-dependent effects based on observational data, experimental testing of simultaneous and interactive effects of distance and density has rarely been conducted yet, especially in a comprehensive multispecies approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2736DOI Listing

A meta-analysis of herbivore effects on plant attractiveness to pollinators.

Ecology 2019 Apr 18:e02707. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies (CSIC), Global Change Research Group, C/Miquel Marquès 21, 07190, Esporles, Balearic Islands, Spain.

Herbivores may directly or indirectly affect plant attractiveness to pollinators. Although several studies have reported on these effects, there is yet no general consensus on the strength and sign of such interactions or their contingency on herbivory features such as the plant tissue attacked. We performed a meta-analysis of studies testing for effects of herbivores on floral traits, plant attractiveness to pollinators, and plant reproductive success. Read More

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April 2019
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Migration triggers in a large herbivore: Galápagos giant tortoises navigating resource gradients on volcanoes.

Ecology 2019 Apr 18:e02658. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Environmental and Forest Biology, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, State University of New York, Syracuse, New York, 13210, USA.

To understand how migratory behavior evolved and to predict how migratory species will respond to global environmental change it is important to quantify the fitness consequences of intra- and inter-individual variation in migratory behavior. Intra-individual variation includes behavioral responses to changing environmental conditions and hence behavioral plasticity in the context of novel or variable conditions. Inter-individual variation determines the degree of variation on which selection can act and the rate of evolutionary responses to changes in average and extreme environmental conditions. Read More

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The stoichiometric legacy of fire regime regulates the roles of micro-organisms and invertebrates in decomposition.

Ecology 2019 Apr 16:e02732. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Griffith School of Environment and Science and the Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD, Australia.

Decadal-scale increases in fire frequency have the potential to deplete ecosystems of essential nutrients and consequently impede nutrient-limited biological processes via stoichiometric imbalance. Decomposition, a fundamental ecosystem function and strong driver of future fire occurrence, is highly sensitive to nutrient availability and is, therefore, particularly important in this context. Here we show that forty years of quadrennial (4yB) and biennial (2yB) prescribed burning result in severely P- and N-depleted litter stoichiometry, respectively, relative to fire exclusion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2732DOI Listing

High-frequency sampling and piecewise models reshape dispersal kernels of a common reef coral.

Ecology 2019 Apr 16:e02730. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, 4811, Australia.

Models of dispersal potential are required to predict connectivity between populations of sessile organisms. However, to date, such models do not allow for time-varying rates of acquisition and loss of competence to settle and metamorphose, and permit only a limited range of possible survivorship curves. We collect high-resolution observations of coral larval survival and metamorphosis, and apply a piecewise modeling approach that incorporates a broad range of temporally-varying rates of mortality and loss of competence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2730DOI Listing

Contrasting vegetation states do not diverge in soil organic matter storage: evidence from historical sites in tundra.

Ecology 2019 Apr 16:e02731. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Sweden.

Ecosystems where severe disturbance has induced permanent shifts in vegetation and soil processes may represent alternative stable states. To date, little is known on how long-lasting changes in soil processes are following such disturbances, and how the changes in plant and soil processes between the alternative states eventually manifest themselves in soil organic matter (SOM) storage. Here, we analyzed plant density, the shrub:forb -ratio, microbial respiration, extracellular enzyme activities and SOM stocks in soils of subarctic tundra and historical milking grounds, where reindeer herding induced a vegetation transition from deciduous shrubs to graminoids several centuries earlier but were abandoned a century ago. Read More

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April 2019
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Migration of soil microbes may promote tree seedling tolerance to drying conditions.

Ecology 2019 Apr 16:e02729. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 391 Russell Labs, 1630 Linden Dr., Madison, Wi, 53706.

Soil-microbial interactions have the potential to mediate the ability of tree populations to persist in their current location or establish in new areas. Immigration of microbial taxa from drier conditions may promote seedling tolerance to drying climates. In a greenhouse experiment, we determined seedling performance of Ostrya virginiana and Betula nigra seedlings after experimentally swapping sterilized soils and local and foreign microbial inocula from nine sites over a gradient of precipitation and soil types, in well-watered and water reduced conditions. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ecy.2729
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April 2019
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Nitrogen fixation does not balance fire-induced nitrogen losses in longleaf pine savannas.

Ecology 2019 Apr 16:e02735. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602, USA.

Fire is a critical force in structuring ecosystems, but it also removes substantial amounts of nitrogen (N), which can limit plant growth. Biological N fixation (BNF) may alleviate fire-induced N deficiencies that inhibit ecosystem recovery, yet if and how BNF achieves this under frequent fire is unclear. This problem is further complicated in the context of modern human influences (such as land-use history and atmospheric N deposition), which may confound the relationship between fire and fixation. Read More

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April 2019
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Plant community responses to stand-level nutrient fertilization in a secondary tropical dry forest.

Ecology 2019 Apr 15:e02691. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Departments of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior and Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota, 55108, USA.

The size of the terrestrial carbon (C) sink is mediated by the availability of nutrients that limit plant growth. However, nutrient controls on primary productivity are poorly understood in the geographically extensive yet understudied tropical dry forest biome. To examine how nutrients influence above- and belowground biomass production in a secondary, seasonally dry tropical forest, we conducted a replicated, fully factorial nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization experiment at the stand scale in Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2691DOI Listing

Ecological character displacement alters the outcome of priority effects during community assembly.

Ecology 2019 Apr 15:e02727. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Biology, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.

Character displacement may facilitate species coexistence through niche partitioning. However, the degree to which character displacement influences broader patterns of community assembly is unclear. Here, we capitalize on a natural experiment of community assembly on the oceanic island of Bermuda. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2727DOI Listing

Fluctuation-independent niche differentiation and relative non-linearity drive coexistence in a species-rich grassland.

Ecology 2019 Apr 15:e02726. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Ecología y Recursos Naturales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior S/N, Cd. Universitaria, 04510, Mexico City, Mexico.

Despite the advances in ecological theory, evidence for the relative importance of the different mechanisms that promote species coexistence is lacking. Some mechanisms depend on the presence of interannual fluctuations in the environment combined with inter-specific differences in the responses to such fluctuations. Among coexistence mechanisms, niche differentiation and storage effects have received much attention, whereas relative non-linearity (RNL) has been thought to be an unlikely and weak mechanism for multi-species coexistence and remains untested in nature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2726DOI Listing

Pathogenic modification of plants enhances long-distance dispersal of non-persistently transmitted viruses to new hosts.

Ecology 2019 Apr 13:e02725. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge.

Aphids spread the majority of plant viruses through 'non-persistent' transmission (NPT) whereby virus particles attach transiently to these insects' probing mouthparts. Virus acquisition from infected plants and inoculation to healthy host plants is favored when aphids briefly probe plant epidermal cells. It is well established that NPT virus infection can alter plant-vector interactions, and moreover such pathogen modifications are found in a range of plant and animal systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2725DOI Listing

Landscape patterns in top-down control of decomposition: omnivory disrupts a tropical detrital-based trophic cascade.

Ecology 2019 Apr 11:e02723. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA.

Detrital-based trophic cascades are often considered weak or absent in tropical stream ecosystems because of the prevalence of omnivorous macroconsumers and the dearth of leaf-shredding insects. In this study, we isolate top-down effects of three macroconsumer species on detrital processing in headwater streams draining Trinidad's northern mountains. We separated effects of different macroconsumers by experimentally manipulating their temporal access to isolated benthic habitat over the diel-cycle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2723DOI Listing

Consumptive and non-consumptive effects of predators vary with the ontogeny of their prey.

Ecology 2019 Apr 8:e02649. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Centre d'Estudis Avançats de Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Carrer d'Accés a la cala Sant Francesc 14, Blanes, 17300, Spain.

Predators exert a strong influence on ecological communities by reducing the abundance of prey (consumptive effects) and shaping their foraging behavior (non-consumptive effects). Although the prevalence of trophic cascades triggered by non-consumptive effects is increasingly recognized in a wide range of ecosystems, how its relative strength changes as prey individuals grow in size along various life stages remains poorly resolved. We investigated how the effects of predators vary with the ontogeny of a key herbivorous sea urchin, which is responsible for transforming diverse macroalgal forests to a barren state dominated by bare rock and encrusting coralline algae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2649DOI Listing
April 2019
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Innovations in data integration for modeling populations.

Ecology 2019 Apr 5:e02713. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Environmental Science, Policy& Management, and Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720.

Assessing the status of species in the Anthropocene requires an understanding of basic ecological processes affecting population dynamics and the impacts of ongoing climate and environmental changes. Various combinations of forces and their feedbacks drive species distributions and abundances across large spatial and temporal scales, which can be a challenge to analyze with traditional ecological tools. Evaluating the relative effects of these forces on population dynamics is often difficult because data are insufficient and/or comprised of disparate types. Read More

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April 2019
2 Reads

Lianas have a seasonal growth advantage over co-occurring trees.

Ecology 2019 Apr 4:e02655. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

School of Geography, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, United Kingdom.

The seasonal growth advantage hypothesis posits that plant species that grow well during seasonal drought will increase in abundance in forests with increasing seasonality of rainfall both in absolute numbers and also relative to co-occurring plant species that grow poorly during seasonal drought. That is, seasonal drought will give some plant species a growth advantage that they lack in aseasonal forests, thus allowing them attain higher abundance. For tropical forest plants, the seasonal growth advantage hypothesis may explain the distribution of drought-adapted species across large-scale gradients of rainfall and seasonality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2655DOI Listing

Saurian surprise: lizards pollinate South Africa's enigmatic hidden flower.

Ecology 2019 Apr 4:e02670. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Plant Sciences and Afromontane Research Unit, University of the Free State, Phuthaditjhaba, South Africa.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2670DOI Listing
April 2019
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A silent orchestra: convergent song loss in Hawaiian crickets is repeated, morphologically varied, and widespread.

Ecology 2019 Apr 3:e02694. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

School of Biology, University of St Andrews.

Host-parasite interactions are predicted to drive the evolution of defences and counter-defences, but the ability of either partner to adapt depends on new and advantageous traits arising. The loss of male song in Hawaiian field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus) subject to fatal parasitism by eavesdropping flies (Ormia ochracea) is a textbook example of rapid evolution in one such arms race (Dugatkin 2008). Male crickets ordinarily sing to attract females by rubbing their forewings together, which produces sound by exciting acoustic resonating structures formed from modified wing veins ('normal-wing', Nw: Fig. Read More

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April 2019
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Phosphorus alleviation of salinity stress: effects of saltwater intrusion on an Everglades freshwater peat marsh.

Ecology 2019 Apr 3:e02672. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Biological Sciences and Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, Florida, 33199, USA.

Saltwater intrusion and salinization of coastal wetlands around the world are becoming a pressing issue due to sea level rise. Here, we assessed how a freshwater coastal wetland ecosystem responds to saltwater intrusion. In wetland mesocosms, we continuously exposed Cladium jamaicense Crantz (sawgrass) plants and their peat soil collected from a freshwater marsh to two factors associated with saltwater intrusion in karstic ecosystems: elevated loading of salinity and phosphorus (P) inputs. Read More

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April 2019
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Ecological filtering in scrub fragments restructures the taxonomic and functional composition of native bee assemblages.

Ecology 2019 Apr 3:e02654. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego, MC0116, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California, 92093, USA.

Predicting the long-term consequences of habitat alteration for the preservation of biodiversity and ecosystem function requires an understanding of how ecological filters drive taxonomic and functional biodiversity loss. Here, we test a set of predictions concerning the role of ecological filters in restructuring native bee assemblages inhabiting fragmented coastal sage scrub ecosystems in southern California, USA. In 2011 and 2012, we collected native bees in scrub habitat belonging to two treatment categories: large natural reserves and small habitat fragments embedded in an urban landscape. Read More

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April 2019
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Mushroom attracts hornets for spore dispersal by a distinctive yeasty scent.

Ecology 2019 Apr 2:e02718. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Yoshida Nihonmatsu-cho, Sakyo, Kyoto, 606-8501, Japan.

We recently observed that the fruiting bodies of the fungus Protubera nipponica (Protophallaceae, Phallales) are visited by several species of social hornets (Fig. 1, Video S1). Although social hornets have rarely been considered as mushroom feeders, they have been reported to consume the fruiting bodies of P. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2718DOI Listing
April 2019
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The scale-dependent effect of environmental filters on species turnover and nestedness in an estuarine benthic community.

Ecology 2019 Apr 1:e02721. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Laboratório de Ciências Marinhas, Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, Tubarão, Santa Catarina, 88704-900, Brazil.

Environmental filtering is a major mechanism structuring ecological communities. However, it is still not clear how different abiotic drivers composing the environmental filter interact with each other to determine local species assemblage and create spatial patterns in species distribution. Here, we evaluated the effects of two strong and uncorrelated environmental variables (salinity and sediment properties) on the β-diversity of an estuarine macrobenthic community while accounting for spatial effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2721DOI Listing

Biotic homogenization within and across eight widely distributed grasslands following invasion by Bromus inermis.

Ecology 2019 Apr 1:e02717. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada, T6G 2E9.

Invasive species can alter community structure and function of the communities they invade, as well as lead to biotic homogenization across their invasive range, thus affecting large-scale diversity patterns. The mechanisms by which invasive species can lead to biotic homogenization are poorly understood. We argue that invasive species acting as a strong, deterministic and consistent filters within and across invaded communities are likely to cause biotic homogenization at multiple spatial scales. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2717DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Can marine reserves restore lost ecosystem functioning? A global synthesis.

Ecology 2019 Apr;100(4):e02617

Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, Maryland, 21037, USA.

Marine protected areas (MPAs) have grown exponentially, emerging as a widespread tool to conserve biodiversity and enhance fisheries production. Although numerous empirical studies and global syntheses have evaluated the effects of MPAs on community structure (e.g. Read More

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April 2019
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Erratum.

Authors:

Ecology 2019 Apr 12;100(4):e02632. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

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Resolving misaligned spatial data with integrated species distribution models.

Ecology 2019 Apr 1:e02709. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources and Program in Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology, North Carolina State University.

Advances in species distribution modeling continue to be driven by a need to predict species responses to environmental change coupled with increasing data availability. Recent work has focused on development of methods that integrate multiple streams of data to model species distributions. Combining sources of information increases spatial coverage and can improve accuracy in estimates of species distributions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2709DOI Listing

Toward a mechanistic understanding of "peat collapse" and its potential contribution to coastal wetland loss.

Ecology 2019 Apr 1:e02720. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Aquatic Biogeochemistry Laboratory, Department of Biology, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd. BIO 302, Orlando, FL, 32816.

Coastal wetlands are susceptible to loss in both health and extent via stressors associated with global climate change and anthropogenic disturbance. Peat collapse may represent an additional phenomenon contributing to coastal wetland loss in organic-rich soils through rapid vertical elevation decline. However, the term "peat collapse" has been inconsistently used in the literature, leading to ambiguities regarding the mechanisms, timing, and spatial extent of its contribution to coastal wetland loss. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2720DOI Listing
April 2019
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Invasive perennial forb effects on gross soil nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide fluxes depend on phenology.

Ecology 2019 Apr 1:e02716. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Ecosystem Sciences Division, Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, Berkeley, California, 94720, USA.

Invasive plants can increase soil nitrogen (N) pools and accelerate soil N cycling rates, but their effect on gross N cycling and nitrous oxide (N O) emissions has rarely been studied. We hypothesized that perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) invasion would increase rates of N cycling and gaseous N loss, thereby depleting ecosystem N and causing a negative feedback on invasion. We measured a suite of gross N cycling rates and net N O fluxes in invaded and uninvaded areas of an annual grassland in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta region of northern California. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2716DOI Listing
April 2019
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Meta-ecosystem processes alter ecosystem function and can promote herbivore-mediated coexistence.

Ecology 2019 Apr 1:e02699. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Biology, McGill University, 1205 Avenue Docteur Penfield, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 1B1, Canada.

Herbivory and dispersal play roles in the coexistence of primary producers with shared resource limitation by imposing trade-offs either through apparent competition or dispersal limitation. These mechanisms of coexistence can further interact with meta-ecosystem effects, which results in spatial heterogeneity through the movement of herbivores and nutrients. Here, we investigate how herbivores influence autotroph coexistence through a meta-ecosystem effect, and how this effect couples mechanisms of coexistence to ecosystem structure and functioning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2699DOI Listing

Identifying occupancy model inadequacies: can residuals separately assess detection and presence?

Ecology 2019 Apr 1:e02703. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Mathematical Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, 59717, USA.

Occupancy models are widely applied to estimate species distributions, but few methods exist for model checking. Thorough model assessments can uncover inadequacies and allow for deeper ecological insight by exploring structure in the observed data not accounted for by a model. We introduce occupancy model residual definitions that utilize the posterior distribution of the partially latent occupancy states. Read More

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April 2019
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Integrated population models: powerful methods to embed individual processes in population dynamics models.

Ecology 2019 Mar 30:e02715. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Swiss Ornithological Institute, CH-6204, Sempach, Switzerland.

Population dynamics models have long assumed that populations are composed of a restricted number of groups, where individuals in each group have identical demographic rates and where all groups are similarly affected by density-dependent and -independent effects. However, individuals usually vary tremendously in performance and in their sensitivity to environmental conditions or resource limitation, such that individual contributions to population growth will be highly variable. Recent efforts to integrate individual processes in population models open up new opportunities for the study of eco-evolutionary processes, such as the density-dependent influence of environmental conditions on the evolution of morphological, behavioral and life-history traits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2715DOI Listing

A practical guide for combining data to model species distributions.

Ecology 2019 Mar 30:e02710. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Department of Biology, San Francisco State University.

Understanding and accurately modeling species distributions lies at the heart of many problems in ecology, evolution, and conservation. Multiple sources of data are increasingly available for modeling species distributions, such as data from citizen science programs, atlases, museums, and planned surveys. Yet reliably combining data sources can be challenging because data sources can vary considerably in their design, gradients covered, and potential sampling biases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2710DOI Listing

Integrating social and ecological data to model metapopulation dynamics in coupled human and natural systems.

Ecology 2019 Mar 30:e02711. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California-Berkeley, 130 Mulford Hall #3114, Berkeley, California, 94720, USA.

Understanding how metapopulations persist in dynamic working landscapes requires assessing the behaviors of key actors that change patches as well as intrinsic factors driving turnover. Coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) research uses a multidisciplinary approach to identify the key actors, processes, and feedbacks that drive metapopulation and landscape dynamics. We describe a framework for modeling metapopulations in CHANS that integrates ecological and social data by coupling stochastic patch occupancy models of metapopulation dynamics with agent-based models of land-use change. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2711DOI Listing
March 2019
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Disentangling data discrepancies with integrated population models.

Ecology 2019 Mar 29:e02714. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Michigan State University, Department of Integrative Biology, 288 Farm Lane RM 203, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA.

A common challenge for studying wildlife populations occurs when different survey methods provide inconsistent or incomplete inference on the trend, dynamics, or viability of a population. A potential solution to the challenge of conflicting or piecemeal data relies on the integration of multiple data types into a unified modeling framework, such as integrated population models (IPMs). IPMs are a powerful approach for species that inhabit spatially and seasonally complex environments. Read More

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Flatworm mucus as the base of a food web.

BMC Ecol 2019 03 29;19(1):15. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Animal Ecology, University of Bielefeld, Konsequenz 45, 33615, Bielefeld, Germany.

Background: By altering their habitats, engineering species can improve their own fitness. However, the effect of this strategy on the fitness of coexisting species or on the structure of the respective food web is poorly understood. In this study, bacteria and bacterivorous nematodes with short (Caenorhabditis elegans) and long (Plectus acuminatus) life cycles were exposed to the mucus secreted by the freshwater flatworm Polycelis tenuis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12898-019-0231-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441204PMC

Coexistence and competitive exclusion in mutualism.

Ecology 2019 Mar 28:e02708. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, P.O. Box 210088, Tucson, Arizona, 85721, USA.

The competitive exclusion principle is fundamental to understanding coexistence. Well-established theories predict the conditions for coexistence in consumer-resource interactions. Given that species often compete for commodities offered by mutualists, competitive exclusion theory should also be critical to understanding how mutualisms function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2708DOI Listing

Cross-kingdom interactions between slime molds and arthropods: a spore dispersal mutualism hypothesis.

Ecology 2019 Mar 28:e02702. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Osaka Institute of Public Health, 8-34 Tojo-cho, Tennoji, Osaka, 543-0026, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2702DOI Listing

Habitat explains patterns of population decline for an invasive crayfish.

Ecology 2019 Mar 28:e02659. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Environmental Change Initiative, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, Indiana, 46617, USA.

Invasive nonindigenous species are defined by their impacts: they substantially change native communities or ecosystems. Accordingly, invasive species might transform their habitats in ways that eventually become unfavorable to them, causing population declines or even extirpations. Here we use over 40 yr of systematically collected data on the abundance of the invasive rusty crayfish Faxonius rusticus from 17 lakes in northern Wisconsin, USA to explore whether population declines of this invader are related to the prevalence of rocky habitat, which shelters crayfish from predators and is unchanged by crayfish. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2659DOI Listing