5,436 results match your criteria Echoviruses


Echovirus 30 and coxsackievirus A9 infection among young neonates with sepsis in Iran.

Iran J Microbiol 2018 Aug;10(4):258-265

Biostatistic Department, School of Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background And Objectives: Human enteroviruses (EV) are the most common causes of neonatal sepsis-like disease. The frequencies of EV including coxsackievirus A, coxsackievirus B and Echovirus serotypes have been studied in young infants (younger than three months) with sepsis. So far, the role of enteroviruses among neonates with sepsis was not determined in Ahvaz, Iran. Read More

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August 2018
1 Read

An upstream protein-coding region in enteroviruses modulates virus infection in gut epithelial cells.

Nat Microbiol 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Division of Virology, Department of Pathology, Addenbrooke's Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Enteroviruses comprise a large group of mammalian pathogens that includes poliovirus. Pathology in humans ranges from sub-clinical to acute flaccid paralysis, myocarditis and meningitis. Until now, all of the enteroviral proteins were thought to derive from the proteolytic processing of a polyprotein encoded in a single open reading frame. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Sero-molecular epidemiology of enterovirus-associated encephalitis in Zhejiang Province, China, from 2014 to 2017.

Int J Infect Dis 2018 Nov 10;79:58-64. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Zhejiang Provincial Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.

Background: Recently, both sporadic and outbreak aseptic meningitis caused by enteroviruses have been reported in Zhejiang Province based on a surveillance system.

Methods: This study analysed the epidemiologic features, phylogenetic characteristics and prevalence of enterovirus neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) from 2014 to 2017 in Zhejiang Province.

Results: A total of 584 samples were collected. Read More

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November 2018
9 Reads

Anti-infective activities of 11 plants species used in traditional medicine in Malaysia.

Exp Parasitol 2018 Nov 27;194:67-78. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, 43500 Semenyih, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Treatment of drug resistant protozoa, bacteria, and viruses requires new drugs with alternative chemotypes. Such compounds could be found from Southeast Asian medicinal plants. The present study examines the cytotoxic, antileishmanial, and antiplasmodial effects of 11 ethnopharmacologically important plant species in Malaysia. Read More

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November 2018
15 Reads
1.860 Impact Factor

Serotype-specific immunity explains the incidence of diseases caused by human enteroviruses.

Science 2018 08;361(6404):800-803

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, St Mary's Campus, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK.

Human enteroviruses are a major cause of neurological and other diseases. More than 100 serotypes are known that exhibit unexplained complex patterns of incidence, from regular cycles to more irregular patterns, and new emergences. Using 15 years of surveillance data from Japan (2000-2014) and a stochastic transmission model with accurate demography, we show that acquired serotype-specific immunity can explain the diverse patterns of 18 of the 20 most common serotypes (including Coxsackieviruses, Echoviruses, and Enterovirus-A71). Read More

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August 2018
17 Reads

Coxsackievirus B5 Aseptic Meningitis in Infants in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, in 2016.

J Nippon Med Sch 2018 ;85(3):187-190

Department of Pediatrics, Nippon Medical School Chiba Hokusoh Hospital.

Background: Infantile aseptic meningitis is a rare infection of the central nervous system. Coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5) is an enterovirus that is sometimes associated with aseptic meningitis and encephalitis.

Case Presentation: We report on three isolated infants with aseptic meningitis caused by CVB5 in the spring and summer of 2016 with nearly identical 404-bp CVB5 Viral Capsid Protein 1 (VP1) sequences. Read More

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October 2018
12 Reads

Astragalus Root dry extract restores connexin43 expression by targeting miR-1 in viral myocarditis.

Phytomedicine 2018 Jul 7;46:32-38. Epub 2018 Jul 7.

Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology Institute, Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities, Tongliao, Inner Mongolia, PR China; First Clinical Medical of Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities, Tongliao, Inner Mongolia, PR China; Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory of Mongolian Medicine Pharmacology for Cardio-Cerebral Vascular System, Tongliao, Inner Mongolia, PR China; Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities, Tongliao, Inner Mongolia, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Viral myocarditis is defined as viral infection of myocardial tissue leading to impaired heart function and heart failure. Accumulating evidences have shown that arrhythmia is one of important complicating diseases of viral myocarditis causing increased mortality and morbidity. There are no effective treatment for the viral infection and complicating arrhythmia. Read More

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July 2018
9 Reads

Smart Card Decontamination in a High-Containment Laboratory.

Health Secur 2018 Jul/Aug;16(4):244-251. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Lindsay R. Gabbert, MPS, is a Life Scientist at Leidos, and Justin D. Smith, MS, was an ORISE Fellow and a Life Scientist at Leidos; John G. Neilan, PhD, is the Director; and Max V. Rasmussen, PhD, is a Microbiologist; all at the US Department of Homeland Security Science Group, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY. Geoffrey S. Ferman, MS, is Biological Safety Officer, US Department of Homeland Security, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY.

Validated procedures for decontamination of laboratory surfaces and equipment are essential to biosafety and biorisk programs at high-containment laboratories. Each high-containment laboratory contains a unique combination of surfaces, procedures, and biological agents that require decontamination methods tailored to specific facility practices. The Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC) is a high-containment laboratory operating multiple biosafety level (BSL)-3, ABSL-3, and BSL-3 Ag spaces. Read More

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December 2018

Coxsackievirus-B4E2 can infect monocytes and macrophages in vitro and in vivo.

Virology 2018 09 26;522:271-280. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Université de Lille, Faculté de Médecine, CHU de Lille, Laboratoire de Virologie/EA3610, F-59037 Lille, France. Electronic address:

Viral RNA (vRNA) is found in mice inoculated with coxsackievirus-B4E2 (CV-B4E2). The CV-B4E2 infection of murine spleen cells in vitro is enhanced with CV-B4E2-infected mouse serum. It has been investigated whether monocyte/macrophages were targets of CV-B4E2 in mice. Read More

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September 2018
15 Reads

Cross-platform metabolic profiling deciphering the potential targets of Shenfu injection against acute viral myocarditis in mice.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2018 Oct 21;160:1-11. Epub 2018 Jul 21.

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, China. Electronic address:

Acute viral myocarditis (AVMC) is typically caused by cardiotropic viral infection. There is a paucity of specific treatment options available with proven efficacy. Chinese patented pharmaceutical product Shenfu injection (SFI) has potent efficacy on treating AVMC in clinical practice. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

In vitro antiviral activity of twenty-seven medicinal plant extracts from Southwest Nigeria against three serotypes of echoviruses.

Virol J 2018 07 18;15(1):110. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Department of Virology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Echoviruses, a serotype of enteroviruses, infect millions of people globally and there is no specific drug treatment or vaccine available for its management. The screening of medicinal plants used locally for the treatment of infectious diseases, can provide a reliable option in the discovery of potent therapeutic compounds. This study was carried out to investigate the antiviral activities of 27 medicinal plant extracts, belonging to 26 different plant species, selected from Nigerian ethnobotany, against echovirus 7, 13 and 19 serotypes (E7, E13 and E19, respectively). Read More

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July 2018
8 Reads

Hypoglycemic Toxins and Enteroviruses as Causes of Outbreaks of Acute Encephalitis-Like Syndrome in Children, Bac Giang Province, Northern Vietnam.

Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Aug;24(8):1435-1443

We investigated the cause of seasonal outbreaks of pediatric acute encephalitis-like syndrome associated with litchi harvests (May-July) in northern Vietnam since 2008. Nineteen cerebrospinal fluid samples were positive for human enterovirus B, and 8 blood samples were positive for hypoglycemic toxins present in litchi fruits. Patients who were positive for hypoglycemic toxins had shorter median times between disease onset and admission, more reports of seizures, more reports of hypoglycemia (glucose level <3 mmol/L), lower median numbers of leukocytes in cerebrospinal fluid, and higher median serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase than did patients who were positive for enteroviruses. Read More

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August 2018
9 Reads

Stress Granule Formation is One of the Early Antiviral Mechanisms for Host Cells Against Coxsackievirus B Infection.

Virol Sin 2018 Aug 29;33(4):314-322. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150081, China.

Stress granules (SGs) are intracellular granules formed when cellular translation is blocked and have been reported to be involved in a variety of viral infections. Our previous studies revealed that SGs are involved in the coxsackievirus B (CVB) infection process, but the role of SGs in CVB infection has not been fully explored. In this study, we found that CVB type 3 (CVB3) could induce SG formation in the early phase of infection. Read More

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Rapamycin and ZSTK474 can have differential effects at different post‑infection time‑points regarding CVB3 replication and CVB3‑induced autophagy.

Mol Med Rep 2018 Jul 17;18(1):1088-1094. Epub 2018 May 17.

Department of Pediatrics, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410013, P.R. China.

Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection has been shown to stimulate autophagy. We have demonstrated that the inhibition of phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) signaling pathway could affect the autophagic reaction induced by CVB3 infection in our previous study. However, the processes associating autophagy and CVB3 replication remain to be determined. Read More

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July 2018
6 Reads

Salivary anti-coxsackievirus-B4 neutralizing activity and pattern of immune parameters in patients with type 1 diabetes: a pilot study.

Acta Diabetol 2018 Aug 17;55(8):827-834. Epub 2018 May 17.

Université de Lille, Faculté de Médecine, CHU de Lille, Laboratoire de Virologie EA3610, 59000, Lille, France.

Aims: Enteroviruses, especially coxsackieviruses B (CV-B), have been associated with the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). An anti-CV-B4 neutralizing activity in saliva of T1D patients was previously reported. Our aim was to study the association between the saliva anti-CV-B4 neutralizing activity and immune parameters in T1D patients in comparison with non-diabetic individuals. Read More

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August 2018
8 Reads

NF-κB-mediated metabolic remodelling in the inflamed heart in acute viral myocarditis.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2018 Aug 3;1864(8):2579-2589. Epub 2018 May 3.

Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands; Department of Physiology, CARIM, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Acute viral myocarditis (VM), characterised by leukocyte infiltration and dysfunction of the heart, is an important cause of sudden cardiac death in young adults. Unfortunately, to date, the pathological mechanisms underlying cardiac failure in VM remain incompletely understood. In the current study, we investigated if acute VM leads to cardiac metabolic rewiring and if this process is driven by local inflammation. Read More

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August 2018
2 Reads
4.880 Impact Factor

Higher parental occupational social contact is associated with a reduced risk of incident pediatric type 1 diabetes: Mediation through molecular enteroviral indices.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(4):e0193992. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

School of Women's and Children's Health, University of New South Wales, New South Wales, Australia.

We aimed to examine the association between parental occupational social contact and hygiene factors on type 1 diabetes (T1D) risk and possible mediation of these effects through child enteroviral infection. We interviewed 333 incident T1D cases and 660 controls from 2008-2011 in Melbourne, Australia. Enteroviral indices (ribonucleic acid by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Coxsackie B virus antibody levels) in peripheral blood were measured in nested case control samples. Read More

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July 2018
10 Reads

Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease and Echovirus 3: A Comment to Høgsberg & Bygum.

Acta Derm Venereol 2018 07;98(7):718

Infectious Diseases and Dermatology Unit, Centre Hospitalier de Fréjus-Saint-Raphaël, 240 avenue Saint Lambert, FR-83600 Fréjus, France.

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July 2018
1 Read

The life cycle of non-polio enteroviruses and how to target it.

Nat Rev Microbiol 2018 Jun;16(6):368-381

Virology Division, Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

The genus Enterovirus (EV) of the family Picornaviridae includes poliovirus, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, numbered enteroviruses and rhinoviruses. These diverse viruses cause a variety of diseases, including non-specific febrile illness, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, neonatal sepsis-like disease, encephalitis, paralysis and respiratory diseases. In recent years, several non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) have emerged as serious public health concerns. Read More

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June 2018
24 Reads

Discovery of Bioactive Natural Products for the Treatment of Acute Respiratory Infections - An Integrated Approach.

Planta Med 2018 Jul 19;84(9-10):684-695. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

In this work, an integrated approach for the identification of new antiviral agents from natural sources for the treatment of acute respiratory infections is presented. The approach comprises (i) the selection of starting material based on traditional knowledge, (ii) phenotypic screening of extracts for antiviral activity, and (iii) the implementation of predictions to identify antiviral compounds and derive the molecular mechanism underlying their biological activity. A variety of starting materials from plants and fungi was selected for the production of 162 extracts. Read More

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July 2018
12 Reads

Evolution of echovirus 11 in a chronically infected immunodeficient patient.

PLoS Pathog 2018 03 19;14(3):e1006943. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

Central Virology Laboratory, Public Health Service Laboratories Israel Ministry of Health at Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel.

Deep sequencing was used to determine complete nucleotide sequences of echovirus 11 (EV11) strains isolated from a chronically infected patient with CVID as well as from cases of acute enterovirus infection. Phylogenetic analysis showed that EV11 strains that circulated in Israel in 1980-90s could be divided into four clades. EV11 strains isolated from a chronically infected individual belonged to one of the four clades and over a period of 4 years accumulated mutations at a relatively constant rate. Read More

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March 2018
13 Reads

Murine model of acute myocarditis and cerebral cortical neuron edema induced by coxsackievirus B4.

Zool Res 2018 Jan;39(1):52-57

Key Laboratory of Etiology and Epidemiology of Emerging Infectious Diseases in Universities of Shandong, Taishan Medical University, Taian Shandong 271000, China.

Globally, coxsackievirus B4 (CV-B4) has been continuously isolated and evidence suggests an association with the development of pancreatitis and type I diabetes. In addition, CV-B4 is also associated with myocarditis and severe central nervous system (CNS) complications, which remain poorly studied and understood. In the present study, we established an Institute for Cancer Research (ICR) mouse model of CV-B4 infection and examined whether CV-B4 infection resulted in a predisposition to myocarditis and CNS infection. Read More

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January 2018
2 Reads

Sex Hormone Contributes to Sexually Dimorphic Susceptibility in CVB3-Induced Viral Myocarditis via Modulating IFN-γ NK Cell Production.

Can J Cardiol 2018 04 6;34(4):492-501. Epub 2018 Jan 6.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity, Institutes of Biology and Medical Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Background: Viral myocarditis is a widespread cardiac disease associated with inflammation and myocardial injury and is predominantly caused by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection in humans as well as in mice. CVB3-induced myocarditis shows sexually dimorphic sensitivity and is more prevalent in male mice. Our previous studies showed that natural killer (NK) cells played an indispensable role in CVB3-induced myocarditis, and female mice exhibited less pathological cardiac interferon gamma (IFN-γ) NK cell infiltration than did male mice. Read More

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April 2018
1 Read

N-Terminomics TAILS Identifies Host Cell Substrates of Poliovirus and Coxsackievirus B3 3C Proteinases That Modulate Virus Infection.

J Virol 2018 04 28;92(8). Epub 2018 Mar 28.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Enteroviruses encode proteinases that are essential for processing of the translated viral polyprotein. In addition, viral proteinases also target host proteins to manipulate cellular processes and evade innate antiviral responses to promote replication and infection. Although some host protein substrates of enterovirus proteinases have been identified, the full repertoire of targets remains unknown. Read More

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April 2018
13 Reads

Inhibition of coxsackievirus infection in cardiomyocytes by small dsRNA targeting its cognate coxsackievirus adenovirus receptor.

Indian J Med Res 2017 10;146(4):520-527

Department of Virology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India.

Background & Objectives: Coxsackievirus B (CVB), a member of human Enterovirus group, is the most common cause of viral myocarditis. Coxsackievirus adenovirus receptor (CAR) is identified as a key determinant for the entry of CVB in the target cells. Thus, blockade of receptor by RNA interference (RNAi) may inhibit the entry and pathogenesis of CVB in cardiac cells. Read More

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October 2017
1 Read

New Coxsackievirus 2A and 3C protease antibodies for virus detection and discovery of pathogenic mechanisms.

J Virol Methods 2018 05 6;255:29-37. Epub 2018 Feb 6.

The Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine HS, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, 141 86, Sweden; Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, 33520, Finland. Electronic address:

Enteroviruses (EVs), such as the Coxsackie B-viruses (CVBs), are common human pathogens, which can cause severe diseases including meningitis, myocarditis and neonatal sepsis. EVs encode two proteases (2A and 3C), which perform the proteolytic cleavage of the CVB polyprotein and also cleave host cell proteins to facilitate viral replication. The 2A cause direct damage to the infected heart and tools to investigate 2A and 3C expression may contribute new knowledge on virus-induced pathologies. Read More

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May 2018
7 Reads

Cerebrospinal fluid features in adults with enteroviral nervous system infection.

Int J Infect Dis 2018 Mar 2;68:94-101. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

Clinical Neuroimmunology and Neurochemistry, Department of Neurology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and laboratory features of adults with nervous system infections caused by enteroviruses, with special emphasis on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

Methods: The data of 46 patients who were PCR-positive for enteroviruses in the CSF between 2002 and 2017 were evaluated.

Results: Meningitis was the most common clinical manifestation (89%), followed by encephalitis (7%) and isolated cranial nerve involvement (4%). Read More

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March 2018
1 Read

Ulinastatin Protects against CVB3-Induced Acute Viral Myocarditis through Nrf2 Activation.

Inflammation 2018 Jun;41(3):803-810

Department of Urology, Tengzhou Central People's Hospital, Tengzhou, Shandong Province, 277500, China.

Inflammation and oxidative stress are implicated in the pathogenesis of acute viral myocarditis (AVM). Ulinastantin (UTI), an inhibitor of serine protease widely used in treatment of pancreatitis and various inflammatory disorders, displays cardioprotective properties in experimental animals. Although the specific mechanism through which UTI regulates cardiac function is not well explored, evidence suggests that UTI might activate nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

Cathepsin B aggravates coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis through activating the inflammasome and promoting pyroptosis.

PLoS Pathog 2018 01 23;14(1):e1006872. Epub 2018 Jan 23.

Department of Cardiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Cardiovascular Key Lab of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Cathepsin B (CatB) is a cysteine proteolytic enzyme widely expressed in various cells and mainly located in the lysosomes. It contributes to the pathogenesis and development of many diseases. However, the role of CatB in viral myocarditis (VMC) has never been elucidated. Read More

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January 2018
7 Reads

Quinoxaline derivatives as new inhibitors of coxsackievirus B5.

Eur J Med Chem 2018 Feb 27;145:559-569. Epub 2017 Dec 27.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato, Cagliari, Italy.

Enteroviruses are among the most common and important human pathogens for which there are no specific antiviral agents approved by the US Food and Drug Administration so far. Particularly, coxsackievirus infections have a worldwide distribution and can cause many important diseases. We here report the synthesis of new 14 quinoxaline derivatives and the evaluation of their cytotoxicity and antiviral activity against representatives of ssRNA, dsRNA and dsDNA viruses. Read More

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February 2018
9 Reads

Serological survey of neutralizing antibodies to eight major enteroviruses among healthy population.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2018 Jan 10;7(1). Epub 2018 Jan 10.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, School of Life Sciences, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361102, China.

Human enteroviruses (EVs) are the most common causative agents infecting human, causing many harmful diseases, such as hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), herpangina (HA), myocarditis, encephalitis, and aseptic meningitis. EV-related diseases pose a serious worldwide threat to public health. To gain comprehensive insight into the seroepidemiology of major prevalent EVs in humans, we firstly performed a serological survey for neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), Coxsackie virus A16 (CV-A16), Coxsackie virus A6 (CV-A6), Coxsackie virus A10 (CV-A10), Coxsackie virus B3 (CV-B3), Coxsackie virus B5 (CV-B5), Echovirus 25 (ECHO25), and Echovirus 30 (ECHO30) among the healthy population in Xiamen City in 2016, using micro-neutralization assay. Read More

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January 2018
10 Reads

A novel rat CVB1-VP1 monoclonal antibody 3A6 detects a broad range of enteroviruses.

Sci Rep 2018 01 8;8(1):33. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.

Enteroviruses (EVs) are common RNA viruses that cause diseases ranging from rash to paralytic poliomyelitis. For example, EV-A and EV-C viruses cause hand-foot and mouth disease and EV-B viruses cause encephalitis and myocarditis, which can result in severe morbidity and mortality. While new vaccines and treatments for EVs are under development, methods for studying and diagnosing EV infections are still limited and therefore new diagnostic tools are required. Read More

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January 2018
3 Reads

Large-Scale Survey of Human Enteroviruses in Wastewater Treatment Plants of a Metropolitan Area of Southern Italy.

Food Environ Virol 2018 06 16;10(2):187-192. Epub 2017 Dec 16.

Department of Public Health, University of Naples "Federico II", Via Sergio Pansini No 5, 80131, Naples, Italy.

Human enteroviruses (HEVs) occur in high concentrations in wastewater and can contaminate receiving environmental waters, constituting a major cause of acute waterborne disease worldwide. In this study, we investigated the relative abundance, occurrence, and seasonal distribution of polio and other enteroviruses at three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Naples, Southern Italy, from January 2010 to December 2014. Influent and effluent samples from the three WWTPs were collected monthly. Read More

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June 2018
12 Reads

Cleavage of osmosensitive transcriptional factor NFAT5 by Coxsackieviral protease 2A promotes viral replication.

PLoS Pathog 2017 Dec 8;13(12):e1006744. Epub 2017 Dec 8.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5)/Tonicity enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) is a transcription factor induced by hypertonic stress in the kidney. However, the function of NFAT5 in other organs has rarely been studied, even though it is ubiquitously expressed. Indeed, although NFAT5 was reported to be critical for heart development and function, its role in infectious heart diseases has remained obscure. Read More

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December 2017
14 Reads

A multiplex reverse transcription PCR and automated electronic microarray assay for detection and differentiation of seven viruses affecting swine.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Apr 30;65(2):e272-e283. Epub 2017 Nov 30.

Lethbridge Laboratory, National Centres for Animal Disease, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Lethbridge, AB, Canada.

Microarray technology can be useful for pathogen detection as it allows simultaneous interrogation of the presence or absence of a large number of genetic signatures. However, most microarray assays are labour-intensive and time-consuming to perform. This study describes the development and initial evaluation of a multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and novel accompanying automated electronic microarray assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of seven important viruses that affect swine (foot-and-mouth disease virus [FMDV], swine vesicular disease virus [SVDV], vesicular exanthema of swine virus [VESV], African swine fever virus [ASFV], classical swine fever virus [CSFV], porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus [PRRSV] and porcine circovirus type 2 [PCV2]). Read More

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April 2018
5 Reads

Evaluation of the suitability of a plant virus, pepper mild mottle virus, as a surrogate of human enteric viruses for assessment of the efficacy of coagulation-rapid sand filtration to remove those viruses.

Water Res 2018 02 21;129:460-469. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

Division of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13W8, Sapporo 060-8628 Japan.

Here, we evaluated the removal of three representative human enteric viruses - adenovirus (AdV) type 40, coxsackievirus (CV) B5, and hepatitis A virus (HAV) IB - and one surrogate of human caliciviruses - murine norovirus (MNV) type 1 - by coagulation-rapid sand filtration, using water samples from eight water sources for drinking water treatment plants in Japan. The removal ratios of a plant virus (pepper mild mottle virus; PMMoV) and two bacteriophages (MS2 and φX174) were compared with the removal ratios of human enteric viruses to assess the suitability of PMMoV, MS2, and φX174 as surrogates for human enteric viruses. The removal ratios of AdV, CV, HAV, and MNV, evaluated via the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, were 0. Read More

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February 2018
2 Reads

Adult-Onset Still's Disease: Is This Truly a Diagnosis of Exclusion?

Hawaii J Med Public Health 2017 11;76(11 Suppl 2):3-6

Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859.

Adult-onset Still's Disease is a rare, idiopathic, inflammatory disorder characterized by arthralgia, evanescent, salmon-colored rash, and daily fevers as well as lymphadenopathy, pharyngitis, splenomegaly, myalgias, and serositis. The inciting etiology of this syndrome is unknown, though it has been hypothesized that infection triggers an autoimmune response. The Yamaguchi Criteria, the most sensitive and widely used diagnostic criteria, requires both a minimum set of criteria to be met as well other potential etiologies to be excluded. Read More

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November 2017
10 Reads

Pathogenic Role of the Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns S100A8 and S100A9 in Coxsackievirus B3-Induced Myocarditis.

Circ Heart Fail 2017 Nov;10(11)

From the Department of Cardiology and Pneumology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Germany (I.M., K.P., K.M., B.P., U.K., S.V.L., C.T., K.S.); Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies, Charité, University Medicine Berlin, Campus Virchow, Germany (I.M., K.P., K.M., K.S., S.V.L., C.T.); DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Berlin (I.M., K.P., B.P., S.V.L., C.T.); Department of Immunology, University of Münster, Germany (T.V.); Inherited Cardiovascular Diseases Unit, Barts Health NHS Trust, Barts Heart Centre, London, United Kingdom (K.S.); William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University London, United Kingdom (K.S.); Department of Internal Medicine III, Center for Molecular and Translational Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, Germany (D.R., P.M.); DZHK, (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Heidelberg/Mannheim, Germany (P.M.); Institut Kardiale Diagnostik und Therapie (IKDT), Berlin, Germany (D.L.); and Department of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin (DHZB), Germany (B.P.).

Background: The alarmins S100A8 and S100A9 are damage-associated molecular patterns, which play a pivotal role in cardiovascular diseases, inflammation, and viral infections. We aimed to investigate their role in Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis.

Methods And Results: S100A8 and S100A9 mRNA expression was 13. Read More

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November 2017
9 Reads

A Coxsackievirus B vaccine protects against virus-induced diabetes in an experimental mouse model of type 1 diabetes.

Diabetologia 2018 02 18;61(2):476-481. Epub 2017 Nov 18.

The Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, F59, SE-141 86, Stockholm, Sweden.

Aims/hypothesis: Epidemiological studies suggest a role for Coxsackievirus B (CVB) serotypes in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, but their actual contribution remains elusive. In the present study, we have produced a CVB1 vaccine to test whether vaccination against CVBs can prevent virus-induced diabetes in an experimental model.

Methods: NOD and SOCS1-tg mice were vaccinated three times with either a formalin-fixed non-adjuvanted CVB1 vaccine or a buffer control. Read More

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February 2018
1 Read

Recombination analysis of coxsackievirus B5 genogroup C.

Authors:
Hongxing Shen

Arch Virol 2018 Feb 13;163(2):539-544. Epub 2017 Nov 13.

Medical College, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, 212013, Zhenjiang, People's Republic of China.

Coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5) is a member of the species Enterovirus B of the genus Enterovirus, family Picornaviridae. Based on its VP1 sequence, CVB5 is divided into four genogroups: A, B, C, and D. From 2002 to 2012, CVB5 serotype genogroup C caused an outbreak of aseptic meningitis in China. Read More

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February 2018
2 Reads

Chronic meningoencephalitis caused by Echo virus 6 in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency : Successful treatment with pleconaril.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2018 Jan 7;130(1-2):70-72. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

School of Medicine, University Hospital for Infectious Diseases "Dr. Fran Mihaljević", Department of Intensive Care Medicine and Neuroinfectology, University of Zagreb, Mirogojska cesta 8, Zagreb, Croatia.

Chronic enteroviral meningoencephalitis, most commonly caused by echoviruses, can particularly be seen in agammaglobulinemic patients. In spite of the fact that no specific treatment for enteroviral infections exists, pleconaril is an antiviral drug reported to be efficient against enteroviral infections in infants and adults. We present a case of a 42-year-old male, previously diagnosed with common variable immunodeficiency, who presented with severe chronic meningoencephalitis caused by Echo virus 6 and was successfully treated with pleconaril. Read More

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January 2018
9 Reads

Overexpression of microRNA-133b reduces myocardial injuries in children with viral myocarditis by targeting Rab27B gene.

Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2017 Oct 31;63(10):80-86. Epub 2017 Oct 31.

Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan 442000, P.R. China.

The present study is to measure the expression of microRNA (miRNA or miR)-133b in circulating blood of children with viral myocarditis before and after drug treatment, and to investigate its relationship with the severity of myocardial lesions. A total of 36 children patients with viral myocarditis who received treatments at our hospital between June 2014 and June 2016 were enrolled in the present study, including 21 boys and 15 girls (age range, 9 months - 16 years).Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the expression of miR-133b in peripheral blood of patients and cardiomyocytes infected with CVB3. Read More

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October 2017
5 Reads

Intra- and inter-serotypic recombinations in the 5΄ UTR-VP4 region of Echovirus 30 strains.

Arch Virol 2018 Feb 30;163(2):365-375. Epub 2017 Oct 30.

Microbiology-Virology Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Biopolis, 41500, Larissa, Greece.

Recombination has been recognized as a major mechanism of evolution in enteroviruses. The Echovirus 30 (E-30) strain Gior was sequenced and phylogenetically compared to all available E-30 sequences to detect recombination events between the 5΄UTR and VP1 genomic regions. The comparison of phylogenetic trees of the 5΄UTR and VP1 revealed incongruences concerning strains, lineages and sub-lineages. Read More

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February 2018
4 Reads

Infection of iPSC Lines with Miscarriage-Associated Coxsackievirus and Measles Virus and Teratogenic Rubella Virus as a Model for Viral Impairment of Early Human Embryogenesis.

ACS Infect Dis 2017 12 26;3(12):886-897. Epub 2017 Oct 26.

Institute of Virology, University of Leipzig , Johannisallee 30, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines are a promising model for the early phase of human embryonic development. Here, their contribution to the still incompletely understood pathogenesis of congenital virus infections was evaluated. The infection of iPSC lines with miscarriage-associated coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and measles virus (MV) was compared to the efficient teratogen rubella virus (RV). Read More

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December 2017
11 Reads

MCPIP1 inhibits coxsackievirus B3 replication by targeting viral RNA and negatively regulates virus-induced inflammation.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Feb 17;207(1):27-38. Epub 2017 Oct 17.

Institute of Biology and Medical Sciences, Soochow University, Building 703, 199 Ren-ai Road, Suzhou, 215123, China.

Monocyte chemotactic protein-induced protein 1(MCPIP1) is identified as an important inflammatory regulator during immune response. MCPIP1 possesses antiviral activities against several viruses, such as Japanese encephalitis. However, its role on Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection, a positive-stranded RNA virus, has not been addressed. Read More

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February 2018
18 Reads

CD80 Regulates Th17 Cell Differentiation in Coxsackie Virus B3-Induced Acute Myocarditis.

Inflammation 2018 Feb;41(1):232-239

Department of Cardiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, 6 Shuangyong Road, Nanning, 530021, People's Republic of China.

The cluster of differentiation protein complex, CD80/CD86, regulates Th1/Th2 differentiation in autoimmune disease. In order to establish the effects of CD80/CD86 on Th17 cell differentiation in acute viral myocarditis (VMC), we infected C57BL/6 mice with Coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3) and examined the effects of the treatment with anti-CD80/CD86 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) on Th17 cell differentiation in vivo. The effects of anti-CD80/CD86 mAbs on Th17 cell differentiation were further evaluated in vitro. Read More

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February 2018
4 Reads

Cholic Acid Attenuates ER Stress-Induced Cell Death in Coxsackievirus-B3 Infection.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jan;28(1):109-114

Department of Biomedical Science, Jungwon University, Goesan-gun 23026, Republic of Korea.

Coxsackievirus Type B3 (CVB3) is an enterovirus that belongs to the and causes various diseases such as myocarditis and hand-foot-mouth disease. However, an effective antiviral drug is still not developed. In this study, we looked for potential inhibitors of CVB3 replication by examining the survival of CVB3-infected HeLa cells. Read More

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January 2018
25 Reads

Modulation of proteolytic polyprotein processing by coxsackievirus mutants resistant to inhibitors targeting phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase IIIβ or oxysterol binding protein.

Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 9;147:86-90. Epub 2017 Oct 9.

Department of Infectious Diseases & Immunology, Virology Division, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Enteroviruses (e.g. poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and rhinovirus) require several host factors for genome replication. Read More

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November 2017
17 Reads

New class of early-stage enterovirus inhibitors with a novel mechanism of action.

Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 7;147:67-74. Epub 2017 Oct 7.

Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven, Belgium.

4-dimethylamino benzoic acid (compound 12, synonym: 4EDMAB) was identified as an in vitro inhibitor of Coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3) replication in CPE-based assays (EC of 9.1 ± 1.5 μM). Read More

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November 2017
4 Reads

Sphingosine 1-phosphate alleviates Coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis by increasing invariant natural killer T cells.

Exp Mol Pathol 2017 10 3;103(2):210-217. Epub 2017 Oct 3.

Key Laboratory of Viral Heart Diseases, Ministry of Public Health, Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China. Electronic address:

Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), via binding to its specific receptors of S1PR1, participates in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immunity. Recent reports have identified S1P as a messenger mediating inflammation. However, roles of S1P in Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis were largely unknown. Read More

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October 2017
12 Reads