14,461 results match your criteria Echinoderm Envenomation


Nervous system characterization during the development of a basal echinoderm, the feather star Antedon mediterranea.

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Environmental Science and Policy, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy.

Neural development of echinoderms has always been difficult to interpret, as larval neurons degenerate at metamorphosis and a tripartite nervous system differentiates in the adult. Despite their key phylogenetic position as basal echinoderms, crinoids have been scarcely studied in developmental research. However, since they are the only extant echinoderms retaining the ancestral body plan of the group, crinoids are extremely valuable models to clarify neural evolution in deuterostomes. Read More

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December 2018
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The first complete mitochondrial genome of the Mariana Trench (Asteroidea: Brisingida: Brisingidae) allows insights into the deep-sea adaptive evolution of Brisingida.

Ecol Evol 2018 Nov 31;8(22):10673-10686. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Institute of Deep-Sea Science and Engineering Chinese Academy of Sciences Sanya China.

Starfish (phylum Echinodermata) are ecologically important and diverse members of marine ecosystems in all of the world's oceans, from the shallow water to the hadal zone. The deep sea is recognized as an extremely harsh environment on earth. In this study, we present the mitochondrial genome sequence of Mariana Trench starfish , and this study is the first to explore in detail the mitochondrial genome of a deep-sea member of the order Brisingida. Read More

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November 2018

Putative chemosensory receptors are differentially expressed in the sensory organs of male and female crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci.

BMC Genomics 2018 Nov 29;19(1):853. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Genecology Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC, QLD, 4558, Australia.

Background: Chemosensation is a critical signalling process for all organisms and is achieved through the interaction between chemosensory receptors and their ligands. The Crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci species complex (COTS), is a predator of coral polyps and Acanthaster cf. solaris is currently considered to be one of the main drivers of coral loss on the Great Barrier Reef in Queensland, Australia. Read More

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November 2018

Species delimitation in the presence of strong incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization: Lessons from Ophioderma (Ophiuroidea: Echinodermata).

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2018 Nov 20;131:138-148. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Aix Marseille Univ, Avignon Université, CNRS, IRD, IMBE, Marseille, France.

Accurate species delimitation is essential to properly assess biodiversity, but also for management and conservation purposes. Yet, it is not always trivial to accurately define species boundaries in closely related species due to incomplete lineage sorting. Additional difficulties may be caused by hybridization, now evidenced as a frequent phenomenon. Read More

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November 2018
8 Reads

Non-holostane aglycones of sea cucumber triterpene glycosides. Structure, biosynthesis, evolution.

Steroids 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. 100-letya Vladivostoka 159, 690022 Vladivostok, Russia.

Triterpene glycosides are known as characteristic metabolites of sea cucumbers (class Holothuroidea, phylum Echinodermata). The most of them have lanostane aglycones containing 18(20)-lactone, i.e. Read More

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November 2018

The Antarctic Circumpolar Current isolates and connects: Structured circumpolarity in the sea star .

Ecol Evol 2018 Nov 12;8(21):10621-10633. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Scripps Institution of Oceanography UCSD La Jolla California.

Aim: The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) connects benthic populations by transporting larvae around the continent, but also isolates faunas north and south of the Antarctic Convergence. We test circumpolar panmixia and dispersal across the Antarctic Convergence barrier in the benthic sea star .

Location: The Southern Ocean and south Atlantic Ocean, with comprehensive sampling including the Magellanic region, Scotia Arc, Antarctic Peninsula, Ross Sea, and East Antarctica. Read More

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November 2018

The function of the ophiuroid nerve ring: how a decentralized nervous system controls coordinated locomotion.

J Exp Biol 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-Ward, Sendai 980-8577, Japan.

Echinoderms lack a centralized nervous control system yet each extant echinoderm class has evolved unique and effective strategies for locomotion. Brittle stars (Ophiuroidea) stride swiftly over the seafloor by coordinating motions of their five muscular arms. Their arms consist of many repeating segments, requiring them to use a complex control system to coordinate motions among segments and between arms. Read More

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November 2018

Early development of the feeding larva of the sea urchin Heliocidaris tuberculata: role of the small micromeres.

Dev Genes Evol 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

School of Medical Sciences F13 and School of Life and Environmental Sciences A11, University of Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia.

The two modes of development in sea urchins are direct development, in which the adult develops directly from the gastrula to the adult and does not feed, and indirect development, in which the adult develops indirectly through a feeding larva. In this account of the indirect, feeding larva of Heliocidaris tuberculata, the question raised is whether an evolutionary difference of unequal cell divisions contributes to the development of feeding structures in the indirect larva. In indirect development, the cell divisions at the fourth and fifth cell cycles of the zygote are unequal, with four small micromeres formed at the vegetal pole at the fifth cell division. Read More

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November 2018

The crowns have eyes: multiple opsins found in the eyes of the crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci.

BMC Evol Biol 2018 Nov 12;18(1):168. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Biology and Evolution of Marine Organisms, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa comunale, 80122, Naples, Italy.

Background: Opsins are G protein-coupled receptors used for both visual and non-visual photoreception, and these proteins evolutionarily date back to the base of the bilaterians. In the current sequencing age, phylogenomic analysis has proven to be a powerful tool, facilitating the increase in knowledge about diversity within the opsin subclasses and, so far, at least nine types of opsins have been identified. Within echinoderms, opsins have been studied in Echinoidea and Ophiuroidea, which do not possess proper image forming eyes, but rather widely dispersed dermal photoreceptors. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Neuropeptidergic Systems in Pluteus Larvae of the Sea Urchin : Neurochemical Complexity in a "Simple" Nervous System.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018 25;9:628. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Centre for Life's Origins and Evolution, Research Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

The nervous system of the free-living planktonic larvae of sea urchins is relatively "simple," but sufficiently complex to enable sensing of the environment and control of swimming and feeding behaviors. At the pluteus stage of development, the nervous system comprises a central ganglion of serotonergic neurons located in the apical organ and sensory and motor neurons associated with the ciliary band and the gut. Neuropeptides are key mediators of neuronal signaling in nervous systems but currently little is known about neuropeptidergic systems in sea urchin larvae. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Differences in Small Molecule Neurotransmitter Profiles From the Crown-of-Thorns Seastar Radial Nerve Revealed Between Sexes and Following Food-Deprivation.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018 15;9:551. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Genecology Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, DC, Australia.

Neurotransmitters serve as chemical mediators of cell communication, and are known to have important roles in regulating numerous physiological and metabolic events in eumetazoans. The Crown-of-Thorns Seastar (COTS) is an asteroid echinoderm that has been the focus of numerous ecological studies due to its negative impact on coral reefs when in large numbers. Research devoted to its neural signaling, from basic anatomy to the key small neurotransmitters, would expand our current understanding of neural-driven biological processes, such as growth and reproduction, and offers a new approach to exploring the propensity for COTS population explosions and subsequent collapse. Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads

Integrating morphology and in vivo skeletal mobility with digital models to infer function in brittle star arms.

J Anat 2018 Dec 23;233(6):696-714. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.

Brittle stars (Phylum Echinodermata, Class Ophiuroidea) have evolved rapid locomotion employing muscle and skeletal elements within their (usually) five arms to apply forces in a manner analogous to that of vertebrates. Inferring the inner workings of the arm has been difficult as the skeleton is internal and many of the ossicles are sub-millimeter in size. Advances in 3D visualization and technology have made the study of movement in ophiuroids possible. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Physiological and Behavioral Plasticity of the Sea Cucumber (Echinodermata, Holothuroidea) to Acidified Seawater.

Front Physiol 2018 25;9:1339. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Marine Biology and Ecology Research Centre, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, United Kingdom.

Research into the effects of reduced pH caused by rising CO on echinoderms has been strongly biased toward those groups which rely heavily on calcification, such as sea urchins. There is very limited information available for groups that are less reliant on calcification, such as sea cucumbers. Moreover, plasticity in physiology and behavior in holothurians, which is considered to be critical to cope with ocean acidification, remains even less understood. Read More

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September 2018
7 Reads

Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances in marine echinoderms: Results of laboratory-scale experiments with Holothuria tubulosa Gmelin, 1791.

Chemosphere 2019 Jan 8;215:261-271. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Research Group of Analytical Chemistry and Life Sciences, Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Granada, Campus of Fuentenueva, E-18071, Granada, Spain. Electronic address:

Bioaccumulation of six perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) was assessed using the marine echinoderm Holothuria tubulosa Gmelin, 1791. Batch experiments were conducted to establish the relationship between concentrations in water, sediment and biota over 197 days. The sample treatment for the determination of compounds involves steps of lyophilization, solvent extraction and clean-up of the extracts with dispersive sorbents. Read More

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January 2019
5 Reads

Conservation of mitochondrial genome arrangements in brittle stars (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea).

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2019 Jan 11;130:115-120. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Biological Sciences, Auburn University, Molette Biology Laboratory for Environmental and Climate Change Studies, 101 Rouse Life Science Building, Auburn, AL 36849, USA. Electronic address:

Brittle stars are conspicuous members of benthic ecosystems, fill many ecological niches and are the most speciose of all classes of echinoderms. With high levels of biodiversity, elucidating the evolutionary history of this group is important. Understanding of higher-level relationships within Ophiuroidea has been aided by multilocus nuclear data and DNA barcoding. Read More

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January 2019
9 Reads

Dendrochirotid holothurians (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea: Dendrochirotida) including four new species, from off Misaki, Japan.

Zootaxa 2018 Aug 3;4455(3):429-453. Epub 2018 Aug 3.

Wakayama Prefectural Museum of Natural History, Funo 370-1, Kainan, Wakayama 642-0001, Japan..

Four new dendrochirotid sea cucumbers, Neocucumis misakiensis sp. nov., Pseudocolochirus misakiensis sp. Read More

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Synchrotron micro-CT scanning leads to the discovery of a new genus of morphologically conserved echinoid (Echinodermata: Cassiduloida).

Zootaxa 2018 Aug 7;4457(1):70-92. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

University of California Museum of Paleontology and Department of Integrative Biology, 1101 Valley Life Science Building, University of California, Berkeley-CA, U.S.A., 94720 Department of Invertebrate Zoology and Geology, California Academy of Sciences, 55 Music Concourse Drive, San Francisco-CA, U.S.A., 94118.

Here we use synchrotron radiation-based micro-computed tomography (SRµCT) images of type specimens to confidently place Cassidulus malayanus in a new genus (Kassandrina gen. nov.) that would not have been discovered with traditional techniques, and to describe a new species of Cassidulus (Cassidulus briareus sp. Read More

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August 2018
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Benthodytes marianensis, a new species of abyssal elasipodid sea cucumbers (Elasipodida: Psychropotidae) from the Mariana Trench area.

Zootaxa 2018 Aug 28;4462(3):443-450. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

Institute of Deep-sea Science and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Sanya 572000, China. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China..

Benthodytes marianensis sp. nov., is described from the Mariana Trench at the depth of 5567 m. Read More

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August 2018
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New records of Synallactes  virgulasolida Massin Hendrickx, 2010 (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from the eastern Pacific.

Zootaxa 2018 Jul 11;4444(4):491-500. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Postgrado en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, P.O. Box 811, Mazatlán Sinaloa, 82000, México.

Specimens of the sea cucumber Synallactes virgulasolida were obtained during sampling operations off western Mexico. Based on a total of 190 specimens and on additional records available in the Scripps Institution of Oceanography collections, new geographical (southern California to Chile) and bathymetric (712‒1300 m) distributions are provided. SEM photographs of ossicles are provided for the first time for this species. Read More

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Needle in a haystack-genetic evidence confirms the expansion of the alien echinoid Diadema setosum (Echinoidea: Diadematidae) to the Mediterranean coast of Israel.

Zootaxa 2018 Oct 11;4497(4):593-599. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Natural History Museum Vienna, Geological-Paleontological Department, 1010 Vienna, Austria..

Diadema setosum (Leske, 1778), a widespread tropical echinoid and key herbivore in shallow water environments is currently expanding in the Mediterranean Sea. It was introduced by unknown means and first observed in southern Turkey in 2006. From there it spread eastwards to Lebanon (2009) and westwards to the Aegean Sea (2014). Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

A new species of Petalobrissus Lambert 1916 (Echinoidea: Faujasiidae) from the Jandaíra Formation, Potiguar Basin (Brazil).

Zootaxa 2018 May 25;4422(4):581-590. Epub 2018 May 25.

Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Instituto de Biologia, LABIMAR - Laboratório de Invertebrados Marinhos - Crustacea, Cnidaria & Fauna associada, Ondina, Salvador, BA, CEP 40170-290, Brasil..

A new Late Cretaceous species of Petalobrissus, Petalobrissus lehugueurae sp. nov., is described from the Jandaíra Formation, Potiguar Basin, state of Rio Grande do Norte. Read More

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A new genus and species of Sclerodactylidae (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea: Sclerothyoninae) from the Pacific coast of Panama, and assignment of Neopentamera anexigua to Sclerothyoninae.

Zootaxa 2018 Jun 5;4429(1):157-164. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo-SP, 04263-000, Brazil.

Paulayellus gustavi, a new sclerodactylid genus and species, is described from the Pacific coast of Panama. The new genus and species is assigned to the subfamily Sclerothyoninae based on a suite of characters, which include the radial and interradial plates of the calcareous ring united at the base only. Paulayellus gen. Read More

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Lissothuria imbricata sp. nov., a new species of sea cucumber (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from the central-eastern Pacific Ocean.

Zootaxa 2018 Jun 21;4438(2):373-380. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Colección Nacional de Equinodermos "Dra. Ma. Elena Caso Muñoz", Laboratorio de Sistemática y Ecología de Equinodermos, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología (ICML), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Ciudad de México, C.P. 04510, México..

A new species of sea cucumbers of the genus Lissothuria Verrill, 1867 is described. Lissothuria imbricata sp. nov. Read More

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June 2018
8 Reads

An ovotestis event in the gonochoric sea urchin Loxechinus albus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).

Braz J Biol 2018 Oct 8. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Facultad de Ciencias del Mar - FACIMAR, Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa - UAS, CP 80000, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico.

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October 2018
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Plastic litter transfer from sediments towards marine trophic webs: A case study on holothurians.

Mar Pollut Bull 2018 Oct 19;135:376-385. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Department of Sciences for the Environment, University of Naples Parthenope, Via A. De Gasperi 5, 80133 Naples, Italy.

This study estimates for the very first time plastic litter levels in sea cucumbers (Echinodermata, Holothuroidea) sampled in situ and their intakes from sediments in three different rocky bottom habitats (slides, cliff, banks) settled in Salina Island (Aeolian Archipelago). Macroplastic were never recorded while meso- and microplastics were identified in all sediment (81-438 items/kg d.w. Read More

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October 2018

Maturation and fertilization of echinoderm eggs: Role of actin cytoskeleton dynamics.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 Nov 6;506(2):361-371. Epub 2018 Oct 6.

Department of Biology and Evolution of Marine Organisms, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121, Napoli, Italy.

Starfish and sea urchin are excellent models to study the mechanisms that regulate oocyte maturation and egg activation. Hormonal stimulation of starfish oocytes and their following interaction with spermatozoa induce rapid changes of F-actin and Ca increases which are prerequisites for normal fertilization and development. Fully grown oocytes isolated from the gonads of starfish contain a large nucleus (∼60-70 μm) (termed germinal vesicle, GV), which is arrested at the first prophase of meiosis. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Protocol to Improve Genotyping of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Diagnosed Using EBUS-TBNA.

South Med J 2018 Oct;111(10):601-606

From the Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, and the W.G. (Bill) Hefner Veterans Administration Medical Center, Salisbury, NC.

Objectives: Targeted therapies for non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) are based on the presence of driver mutations such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) translocation. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided-transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a first-line modality for diagnosing and staging NSCLC. A quality improvement protocol maximizing tissue acquisition for molecular analysis has not been previously described. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Characterization of NGFFYamide Signaling in Starfish Reveals Roles in Regulation of Feeding Behavior and Locomotory Systems.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018 19;9:507. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.

Neuropeptides in deuterostomian invertebrates that have an Asn-Gly motif (NG peptides) have been identified as orthologs of vertebrate neuropeptide-S (NPS)-type peptides and protostomian crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP)-type neuropeptides. To obtain new insights into the physiological roles of NG peptides in deuterostomian invertebrates, here we have characterized the NG peptide signaling system in an echinoderm-the starfish . The neuropeptide NGFFYamide was identified as the ligand for an NPS/CCAP-type receptor, providing further confirmation that NG peptides are orthologs of NPS/CCAP-type neuropeptides. Read More

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September 2018
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First record of Jaeger, 1833 (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from the coastal waters of the United Arab Emirates.

PeerJ 2018 28;6:e5555. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Scientific Research Department, Environment and Protected Areas Authority, Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

The presence of an endangered and economically valuable species of sea cucumber, () Jaeger, 1833, was investigated in the Alqurm Wa Lehhfaiiah Protected Area near the city of Kalba in the Emirate of Sharjah. Sea cucumber specimens were collected, and identification was first conducted using morphological keys. identification was confirmed through microscopic observation of ossicles. Read More

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September 2018
6 Reads

Macrobenthic fauna from an upwelling coastal area of Peru (Warm Temperate South-eastern Pacific province -Humboldtian ecoregion).

Biodivers Data J 2018 10(6):e28937. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Center for Conservation and Sustainability, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Washington, DC, United States of America Center for Conservation and Sustainability, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute Washington, DC United States of America.

Background: A total of 162 species and subspecies of marine macroinvertebrates were recorded in the submerged soft and hard substrates around the PERU LNG marine terminal and surrounding area, in the central coast of Peru, 167 km south of Lima, Peru. The collection of specimens was carried out from June 2011 to June 2015 as part of the research studies conducted by the Biodiversity Monitoring and Assessment Program (BMAP) around the marine terminal. The area is part of the Humboldt Current Large Marine Ecosystem, one of the most important upwelling systems in the world. Read More

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September 2018

From Genome to Anatomy: The Architecture and Evolution of the Skeletogenic Gene Regulatory Network of Sea Urchins and Other Echinoderms.

Genesis 2018 Sep 27. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Biological Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University.

The skeletogenic gene regulatory network (GRN) of sea urchins and other echinoderms is one of the most intensively studied transcriptional networks in any developing organism. As such, it serves as a pre-eminent model of GRN architecture and evolution. This review summarizes our current understanding of this developmental network. Read More

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September 2018

Identification of a highly lethal V3 TP53 subset in ALK lung adenocarcinoma.

Int J Cancer 2019 Jan 30;144(1):190-199. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC-H), Heidelberg, Germany, member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL).

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have improved prognosis in metastatic anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-driven lung adenocarcinoma, but patient outcomes vary widely. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical course of all cases with assessable baseline TP53 status and/or ALK fusion variant treated at our institutions (n = 102). TP53 mutations were present in 17/87 (20%) and the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK variant 3 (V3) in 41/92 (45%) patients. Read More

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January 2019
5 Reads

Functional links on coral reefs: Urchins and triggerfishes, a cautionary tale.

Mar Environ Res 2018 Sep 12. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, 4811, Australia.

Urchins are ubiquitous components of coral reefs ecosystems, with significant roles in bioerosion and herbivory. By controlling urchin densities, triggerfishes have been identified as keystone predators. However, the functional linkages between urchins and triggerfishes, in terms of distributional patterns and concomitant effects on ecosystem processes, are not well understood, especially in relatively unexploited systems. Read More

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September 2018
9 Reads

DNA damages and offspring quality in sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus sperms exposed to ZnO nanoparticles.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Feb 19;651(Pt 1):756-765. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Enea CR Portici. P.le E. Fermi, 1, 80055 Portici, Naples, Italy. Electronic address:

The recent advances in nanotechnology lead to a potential increase of the release of nanoparticles (NPs) into marine environment through different routes, with possible toxic effects upon the living part of this ecosystem. One of the ways of NPs marine contamination gaining today increasing concern stems from the widespread use cosmetics containing ZnO NPs as UV-filter. Although the possible adverse effects on marine organisms have been already ascertained, the information about the possible genotoxicity of ZnO NPs is still scant. Read More

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February 2019
4 Reads

Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides from Isostichopus badionotus regulates lipid disorder in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.

Carbohydr Polym 2018 Dec 6;201:634-642. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Agro-Food Processing, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Fuli Institute of Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China. Electronic address:

Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) and its depolymerized derivative (DfCS), prepared from sea cucumbers, are well-known for their anticoagulant activity. However, their other functional activities are poorly understood. Recently, we obtained fCS oligosaccharides from Isostichopus Badionotus by a modified controllable Fenton-system, named as DfCS-Ib. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

De Novo assembly and comparative transcriptome analyses of purple and green morphs of Apostichopus japonicus during body wall pigmentation process.

Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics 2018 Dec 14;28:151-161. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071, China. Electronic address:

Pigmentation processes provide a traceable and relevant trait for understanding key issues in evolutionary biology such as adaptation, speciation and the maintenance of balanced polymorphisms. The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, which has nutritive and medical properties, is considered the most valuable commercial species in many parts of Asia. Compared with the green morph, the purple morph is rare and has great appeal to consumers. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Circular RNA F-circEA-2a derived from EML4-ALK fusion gene promotes cell migration and invasion in non-small cell lung cancer.

Mol Cancer 2018 Sep 20;17(1):138. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Key Laboratory of Bio-Resource and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences; Department of Thoracic Surgery, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, China.

Oncogenic fusion gene Echinoderm Microtubule-associated protein-Like 4-Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (EML4-ALK) contributes to tumorigenesis of a subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Recently, we demonstrated that F-circEA-4a, a tumor-promoting circular RNA (circRNA) generated from the back-splicing of EML4-ALK variant 3b (v3b), is a novel liquid biopsy biomarker for NSCLC. However, circRNAs produced from EML4-ALK gene and their roles in NSCLC are not well-characterized. Read More

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September 2018

Characteristics and Response to Crizotinib in ALK-Rearranged, Advanced Non-Adenocarcinoma, Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NA-NSCLC) Patients: a Retrospective Study and Literature Review.

Target Oncol 2018 Sep 14. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Department of Pulmonary, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Huaihai West Road No. 241, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Background: Oncogenic fusion genes consisting of echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) can be detected in 5-7% of lung adenocarcinoma cases. The prevalence of ALK rearrangement in non-adenocarcinoma, non-small cell lung cancers (NA-NSCLC) is currently unknown. In addition, the efficacy of crizotinib in these patients has not been well established. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

Investigation of antibiotics in sea cucumbers: occurrence, pollution characteristics, and human risk assessment.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Sep 14. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024, China.

Occurrence and distribution of 24 antibiotics from 7 categories were screened in sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) collected from different coastal regions of China. The samples were simultaneously extracted and purified using accelerated solvent extraction with in-cell clean-up and analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A total of ten antibiotics were detected in the sea cucumbers with concentrations ranging from not detected to 32. Read More

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September 2018
5 Reads

A comprehensive review on Brigatinib - A wonder drug for targeted cancer therapy in non-small cell lung cancer.

Saudi Pharm J 2018 Sep 20;26(6):755-763. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062, India.

The mortality rate in patients suffering from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is quite high. This type of cancer mainly occurs due to rearrangements in the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene which leads to form an oncogene of fused gene NPM-ALK. Brigatinib is recently approved by FDA in April 2017 as a potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) for the NSCLC therapy. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Is molecular evolution faster in the tropics?

Heredity (Edinb) 2018 Sep 10. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Department of Integrative Biology & Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada.

The evolutionary speed hypothesis (ESH) suggests that molecular evolutionary rates are higher among species inhabiting warmer environments. Previously, the ESH has been investigated using small numbers of latitudinally-separated sister lineages; in animals, these studies typically focused on subsets of Chordata and yielded mixed support for the ESH. This study analyzed public DNA barcode sequences from the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene for six of the largest animal phyla (Arthropoda, Chordata, Mollusca, Annelida, Echinodermata, and Cnidaria) and paired latitudinally-separated taxa together informatically. Read More

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September 2018

The mesentery as the epicenter for intestinal regeneration.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2018 Sep 5. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Biology Department, University of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico. Electronic address:

The mesentery, a newly minted organ, plays various anatomical and physiological roles during animal development. In echinoderms, and particularly in members of the class Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers) the mesentery plays an additional unique role: it is crucial for the process of intestinal regeneration. In these organisms, a complete intestine can form from cells that originate in the mesentery. Read More

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September 2018

Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates from the sea cucumbers Holothuria tubulosa and Holothuria stellati.

Carbohydr Polym 2018 Nov 26;200:1-5. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prospect 47, Moscow, 119991, Russia. Electronic address:

Two polysaccharides HT and HS were isolated from the sea cucumbers Holothuria tubulosa and Holothuria stellati, respectively. Purification of the natural polymers was performed by consecutive ion-exchange and gel permeation chromatography. The molar ratio of the monosaccharides and sulfate GlcA:GalNAc:Fuc:SONa was determined as 12:14:17:57 for HT and 12:12:16:60 for HS indicating that both polysaccharides are fucosylated chondroitin sulfates. Read More

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November 2018

Carryover effects of short-term UV-B radiation on fitness related traits of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Nov 28;164:659-664. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

Key Laboratory of Mariculture & Stock Enhancement in North China's Sea, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian 116023, China. Electronic address:

Carryover effects of UV-B radiation are largely unknown in marine invertebrates, despite the ecological importance. For the first time, we investigated fitness related traits of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius 8 weeks after short-term (1 h) UV-B radiations (0, 10 and 20 µW cm). Short-term UV-B radiations had significant negative effects on survival, food consumption, test diameter, test height, test height:test diameter, gonad weight and crude protein of gonads of S. Read More

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November 2018

Cladolosides O, P, P-P and R, triterpene glycosides with two novel types of carbohydrate chains from the sea cucumberCladolabes schmeltzii. Inhibition of cancer cells colony formation and its synergy with radioactive irradiation.

Carbohydr Res 2018 Oct 9;468:73-79. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. 100-letya Vladivostoka 159, 690022, Vladivostok, Russian Federation. Electronic address:

The sea cucumber Cladolabes schmeltzii (Sclerodactylidae, Dendrochirotida) contains diverse glycosides, including several dozen individual compounds. Six new triterpene oligoglycosides, cladolosides O (1), P (2), P (3), P (4), P (5) and R (6), were isolated from this sea cucumber. Their structures were elucidated by 2D NMR spectroscopy and HR ESI mass spectrometry. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Anthraquinone and Butenolide Constituents from the Crinoid Capillaster multiradiatus.

Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2018 Nov 21;66(11):1023-1026. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Institute of Marine Biochemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST).

Seven anthraquinones including two new compounds namely capillasterquinones A and B (1 and 2) and one new butenolide namely capillasterolide (8) were isolated and structurally elucidated from the crinoid Capillaster multiradiatus. The inhibitory effect of compounds 1-8 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production as well as inhibition of 1 on expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) proteins in RAW264.7 cells were also evaluated. Read More

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November 2018

Influence of flow on locomotion, feeding behaviour and spatial distribution of a suspension-feeding sea cucumber.

J Exp Biol 2018 Oct 15;221(Pt 20). Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Department of Ocean Sciences, Memorial University, St John's, NL, Canada, A1C 5S7.

Although movement in response to environmental conditions represents a fundamental link between animal behaviour and population ecology, it is rarely investigated in suspension feeders because they are generally perceived as sessile. Here, the interplay between water flow and fine locomotor and feeding behaviours was experimentally investigated for the first time in a free-moving suspension-feeding sea cucumber (; Echinodermata, Holothuroidea) using time-lapse videography in a mesocosm setting. Individuals moved away from static conditions in the weakest flow treatment and fled the strongest flows (>40 cm s) in the more dynamic treatments. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Cladolosides C, D, D, M, M, M, N and Q, new triterpene glycosides with diverse carbohydrate chains from sea cucumber Cladolabes schmeltzii. An uncommon 20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27-okta-nor-lanostane aglycone. The synergism of inhibitory action of non-toxic dose of the glycosides and radioactive irradiation on colony formation of HT-29 cancer cells.

Carbohydr Res 2018 Oct 7;468:36-44. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. 100-letya Vladivostoka 159, 690022, Vladivostok, Russian Federation. Electronic address:

Eight new triterpene olygoglycosides, cladolosides C (1), D (2), D (3), M (4), M (5), M (6), N (7) and Q (8), were isolated from the tropical Indo-West Pacific sea cucumber Cladolabes schmeltzii (Sclerodactylidae, Dendrochirotida). Structures of these glycosides were elucidated by 2D NMR spectroscopy and HR ESI mass spectrometry. A novel hexasaccharide carbohydrate chain having xylose residues as the first, second and third sugars was found in the glycoside 7. Read More

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October 2018
7 Reads

Effects on skin of Stichopus japonicus viscera extracts detected with saponin including Holothurin A: Down-regulation of melanin synthesis and up-regulation of neocollagenesis mediated by ERK signaling pathway.

J Ethnopharmacol 2018 Nov 10;226:73-81. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology Research Center, International St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Kwandong University College of Medicine, Incheon, Republic of Korea; Department of Dermatology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Stichopus japonicus (sea cucumber), edible traditional food in Asia, and its extracts are renowned for their wound healing, pain relieving, and cosmetic effects in traditional medicine. Holothurins, toxins isolated from sea cucumber, are thought to be active components for their beneficial effects. However, researchers have yet to outline specific mechanisms thereof. Read More

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November 2018
16 Reads

Disassembly of Subplasmalemmal Actin Filaments Induces Cytosolic Ca2+ Increases in Astropecten aranciacus Eggs.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 10;48(5):2011-2034. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Department of Biology and Evolution of Marine Organisms, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Napoli, Italy.

Background/aims: Eggs of all animal species display intense cytoplasmic Ca2+ increases at fertilization. Previously, we reported that unfertilized eggs of Astropecten aranciacus exposed to an actin drug latrunculin A (LAT-A) exhibit similar Ca2+ waves and cortical flashes after 5-10 min time lag. Here, we have explored the molecular mechanisms underlying this unique phenomenon. Read More

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September 2018
4 Reads