1,082 results match your criteria Eastern Equine Encephalitis

Fatal Human Infection with Evidence of Intrahost Variation of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus, Alabama, USA, 2019.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 Jul;27(7):1886-1892

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is an arbovirus in the family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, found in North America and associated with freshwater/hardwood swamps in the Atlantic, Gulf Coast, and Great Lakes regions. EEEV disease in humans is rare but causes substantial illness and death. To investigate the molecular epidemiology and microevolution of EEEV from a fatal case in Alabama, USA, in 2019, we used next-generation sequencing of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Read More

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Evaluation of a Methoprene Aerial Application for the Control of Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae) in Wetland Larval Habitats.

J Med Entomol 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is an arbovirus endemic to the eastern United States. Human cases are rare but can be serious. The primary enzootic vector is Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) (Diptera: Culicidae), an ornithophagic mosquito. Read More

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The utilization of advance telemetry to investigate critical physiological parameters including electroencephalography in cynomolgus macaques following aerosol challenge with eastern equine encephalitis virus.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jun 17;15(6):e0009424. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America.

Most alphaviruses are mosquito-borne and can cause severe disease in humans and domesticated animals. In North America, eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is an important human pathogen with case fatality rates of 30-90%. Currently, there are no therapeutics or vaccines to treat and/or prevent human infection. Read More

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PERK Is Critical for Alphavirus Nonstructural Protein Translation.

Viruses 2021 May 12;13(5). Epub 2021 May 12.

National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, Manassas, VA 20110, USA.

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an alphavirus that causes encephalitis. Previous work indicated that VEEV infection induced early growth response 1 (EGR1) expression, leading to cell death via the protein kinase R (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) arm of the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway. Loss of PERK prevented EGR1 induction and decreased VEEV-induced death. Read More

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Serological evidence of equine infectious anaemia, West Nile fever, surra and equine piroplasmosis in a herd of horses in northern Argentina.

Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2021 Apr 2;24:100566. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Laboratorio de Diagnóstico, Clinica Equina SRL, Alem 1698 - Capitan Sarmiento, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Northern Argentina hosts equine populations living under preserved natural areas and extensive breeding conditions, with limited access to veterinary care. Horses can be in contact with i) wildlife considered to be a potential reservoir of horse pathogens (e.g. Read More

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Review of antiviral peptides for use against zoonotic and selected non-zoonotic viruses.

Peptides 2021 May 14;142:170570. Epub 2021 May 14.

Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional de Hurlingham, Av. Vergara 2222, Villa Tesei, Hurlingham, B1688GEZ, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

Viruses remain one of the leading causes of animal and human disease. Some animal viral infections spread sporadically to human populations, posing a serious health risk. Particularly the emerging viral zoonotic diseases such as the novel, zoonotic coronavirus represent an actual challenge for the scientific and medical community. Read More

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Deadly Neuroinvasive Mosquito-Borne Virus: A Case of Eastern Equine Encephalitis.

Perm J 2021 May;25

Department of Medicine, AtlantiCare Regional Medical Center, Atlantic City, NJ.

None: Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare and potentially fatal neuroinvasive disease with a high mortality rate of > 30%. It is an uncommon vector-borne illness, with an average of 8 cases reported in the United States annually. Alarmingly, in 2019 alone, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed 38 cases of EEE virus in the United States, reported from 10 states. Read More

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Homoseongomycin, a compound isolated from marine actinomycete bacteria K3-1, is a potent inhibitor of encephalitic alphaviruses.

Antiviral Res 2021 Jul 7;191:105087. Epub 2021 May 7.

National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, George Mason University, Manassas, VA, 20110, USA; Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, USA; Center for Zoonotic and Arthropod-borne Pathogens, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, USA. Electronic address:

Marine microorganisms have been a resource for novel therapeutic drugs for decades. In addition to anticancer drugs, the drug acyclovir, derived from a marine sponge, is FDA-approved for the treatment of human herpes simplex virus-1 infections. Most alphaviruses that are infectious to terrestrial animals and humans, such as Venezuelan and eastern equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV and EEEV), lack efficient antiviral drugs and it is imperative to develop these remedies. Read More

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Field Analysis of Biological Factors Associated With Sites at High and Low to Moderate Risk for Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Winter Activity in Florida.

J Med Entomol 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Center for Global Health Infectious Disease Research, University of South Florida, 3720 Spectrum Blvd, Suite 304, Tampa, FL 33612, USA.

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is the most pathogenic arbovirus endemic to the United States. Studies have demonstrated Florida's role as a regional reservoir for the virus and its ability to support year-round transmission. Previous research has developed risk index models for mapping locations most at risk for EEEV transmission. Read More

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Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated eastern equine encephalitis virus vaccine.

Vaccine 2021 05 19;39(20):2780-2790. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 733 N Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205, United States.

Background: Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito borne alphavirus spread primarily in Atlantic and Gulf Coast regions of the United States. EEEV is the causative agent of a devastating meningoencephalitis syndrome, with approximately 30% mortality and significant morbidity. There is no licensed human vaccine against EEEV. Read More

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Designing multivalent immunogens for alphavirus vaccine optimization.

Virology 2021 Feb 5. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX, 77555, USA; Institute for Human Infections and Immunity (IHII), University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX, 77555, USA. Electronic address:

There is a pressing need for vaccines against mosquito-borne alphaviruses such as Venezualen and eastern equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV, EEEV). We demonstrate an approach to vaccine development based on physicochemical properties (PCP) of amino acids to design a PCP-consensus sequence of the epitope-rich B domain of the VEEV major antigenic E2 protein. The consensus "spike" domain was incorporated into a live-attenuated VEEV vaccine candidate (ZPC/IRESv1). Read More

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February 2021

Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus in Visibly Affected Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus) in Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, USA.

J Wildl Dis 2021 04;57(2):453-456

Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Wildlife Health Program, 5463C West Broadway, St. Paul, Minnesota 55025, USA.

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) infects many avian species but has rarely been described in Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus). Between September and December 2019, 40 Ruffed Grouse, most in poor physical condition, were submitted to the Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota (US) Departments of Natural Resources; eight were positive for EEEV. Read More

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Mosquito Identification From Bulk Samples Using DNA Metabarcoding: a Protocol to Support Mosquito-Borne Disease Surveillance in Canada.

J Med Entomol 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Public Health Risk Sciences Division, National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Saint-Hyacinthe, Québec, Canada.

Approximately 80 species of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) have been documented in Canada. Exotic species such as Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) are becoming established. Recently occurring endemic mosquito-borne diseases (MBD) in Canada including West-Nile virus (WNV) and Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) are having significant public health impacts. Read More

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Proteomic Discovery of VEEV E2-Host Partner Interactions Identifies GRP78 Inhibitor HA15 as a Potential Therapeutic for Alphavirus Infections.

Pathogens 2021 Mar 2;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 2.

National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, Manassas, VA 20110, USA.

Alphaviruses are a genus of the family and are widely distributed across the globe. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), cause encephalitis and neurological sequelae while chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Sindbis virus (SINV) cause arthralgia. There are currently no approved therapeutics or vaccines available for alphaviruses. Read More

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Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus in Mexican Wolf Pups at Zoo, Michigan, USA.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 ;27(4):1173-1176

During the 2019 Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) outbreak in Michigan, two 2-month old Mexican wolf pups experienced neurologic signs, lymphohistiocytic neutrophilic meningoencephalitis with neuronal necrosis and neuronophagia, and acute death. We identified EEEV by reverse transcription real-time PCR and in situ hybridization. Vector mosquitoes were trapped at the zoo. Read More

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January 2021

Occupations at risk of contracting zoonoses of public health significance in Québec.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2021 Jan 29;47(1):47-58. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Biological Risks and Occupational Health Division, Institut national de santé publique du Québec, Québec, QC.

Introduction: Climate change plays an important role in the geographic spread of zoonotic diseases. Knowing which populations are at risk of contracting these diseases is critical to informing public health policies and practices. In Québec, 14 zoonoses have been identified as important for public health to guide the climate change adaptation efforts of decision-makers and researchers. Read More

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January 2021

The Alphaviral Capsid Protein Inhibits IRAK1-Dependent TLR Signaling.

Viruses 2021 02 27;13(3). Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA.

Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne RNA viruses which can cause either mild to severe febrile arthritis which may persist for months, or encephalitis which can lead to death or lifelong cognitive impairments. The non-assembly molecular role(s), functions, and protein-protein interactions of the alphavirus capsid proteins have been largely overlooked. Here we detail the use of a BioID2 biotin ligase system to identify the protein-protein interactions of the Sindbis virus capsid protein. Read More

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February 2021

A Tale of 20 Alphaviruses; Inter-species Diversity and Conserved Interactions Between Viral Non-structural Protein 3 and Stress Granule Proteins.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 11;9:625711. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Laboratory of Virology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Alphaviruses infect a diverse range of host organisms including mosquitoes, mammals, and birds. The enigmatic alphavirus non-structural protein 3 (nsP3) has an intrinsically disordered, C-terminal hypervariable domain (HVD) that can interact with a variety of host proteins associated with stress granules (SGs). The HVD displays the highest variability across the more than 30 known alphaviruses, yet it also contains several motifs that are conserved amongst different subgroups of alphaviruses. Read More

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February 2021

Host interactions of Aedes albopictus, an invasive vector of arboviruses, in Virginia, USA.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 02 18;15(2):e0009173. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Center for Vector Biology & Zoonotic Diseases and Northeast Regional Center for Excellence in Vector-borne Diseases, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.

Background: As an invasive mosquito species in the United States, Aedes albopictus is a potential vector of arboviruses including dengue, chikungunya, and Zika, and may also be involved in occasional transmission of other arboviruses such as West Nile, Saint Louis encephalitis, eastern equine encephalitis, and La Crosse viruses. Aedes albopictus feeds on a wide variety of vertebrate hosts, wild and domestic, as well as humans.

Methodology/principal Findings: In order to investigate blood feeding patterns of Ae. Read More

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February 2021

A Monovalent and Trivalent MVA-Based Vaccine Completely Protects Mice Against Lethal Venezuelan, Western, and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Aerosol Challenge.

Front Immunol 2020 19;11:598847. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Bavarian Nordic GmbH, Martinsried, Germany.

Venezuelan, eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses (EEV) can cause severe disease of the central nervous system in humans, potentially leading to permanent damage or death. Yet, no licensed vaccine for human use is available to protect against these mosquito-borne pathogens, which can be aerosolized and therefore pose a bioterror threat in addition to the risk of natural outbreaks. Using the mouse aerosol challenge model, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of EEV vaccines that are based on the modified vaccinia Ankara-Bavarian Nordic (MVA-BN) vaccine platform: three monovalent vaccines expressing the envelope polyproteins E3-E2-6K-E1 of the respective EEV virus, a mixture of these three monovalent EEV vaccines (Triple-Mix) as a first approach to generate a multivalent vaccine, and a true multivalent alphavirus vaccine (MVA-WEV, Trivalent) encoding the polyproteins of all three EEVs in a single non-replicating MVA viral vector. Read More

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January 2021

Individual, household and environmental factors associated with arboviruses in rural human populations, Brazil.

Zoonoses Public Health 2021 May 4;68(3):203-212. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Section of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute- Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, Brazil.

Landscape change is one of the foremost drivers of the emergence of infectious diseases. Exploring demographic, household and environmental conditions under which infectious diseases occur may inform strategies to prevent disease emergence in human populations. We collected blood samples from 523 humans and explore factors for arbovirus emergence in Bahia, Brazil. Read More

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Physiological and immunological changes in the brain associated with lethal eastern equine encephalitis virus in macaques.

PLoS Pathog 2021 02 3;17(2):e1009308. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Center for Vaccine Research, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Aerosol exposure to eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) can trigger a lethal viral encephalitis in cynomolgus macaques which resembles severe human disease. Biomarkers indicative of central nervous system (CNS) infection by the virus and lethal outcome of disease would be useful in evaluating potential medical countermeasures, especially for therapeutic compounds. To meet requirements of the Animal Rule, a better understanding of the pathophysiology of EEEV-mediated disease in cynomolgus macaques is needed. Read More

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February 2021

Arbovirus serosurvey (Orthobunyavirus, Flavivirus, and Alphavirus) in a draft horse population from Santa Fe, Argentina (2013-2016).

Arch Virol 2021 Mar 12;166(3):881-884. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Instituto de Virología "Dr. JM Vanella", Argentina, Enfermera Gordillo S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, X5000HUA, Córdoba, Argentina.

In the present study, we serosurveyed the exposure of 222 draft horses to different arboviruses in the city of Santa Fe, Argentina. Plaque reduction neutralization tests confirmed exposure to Fort Sherman virus (FSV), Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), West Nile virus (WNV), and Río Negro virus (RNV). Apparently, Western and Eastern equine encephalitis viruses did not circulate in the population tested. Read More

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Serologic Survey of Mosquito-Borne Viruses in Hunter-Harvested White-Tailed Deer (), New York State.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Dec 21. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Albany School of Public Health, Albany, New York.

Sera from white-tailed deer (WTD, ) hunter-harvested throughout New York State (NYS), 2007-2015, were tested by plaque reduction neutralization for antibodies against nine mosquito-borne viruses from the families Peribunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae. Overall, 76.1% (373/490) of sampled WTD were seropositive against at least one virus, and 38. Read More

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December 2020

Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus: A Scoping Review of the Global Evidence.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2021 May 17;21(5):305-320. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Public Health Risk Sciences Division, National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Guelph, Canada.

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus that is primarily found in North America and the Caribbean. Over the past decade there has been an increase in virus activity, including large outbreaks in human and horse populations. Predicted climate change is expected to affect the range of mosquitoes including vectors of EEEV, which may alter disease risk posing a public health concern. Read More

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Human Antibodies Protect against Aerosolized Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Infection.

Cell 2020 12 9;183(7):1884-1900.e23. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; The Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. Electronic address:

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is one of the most virulent viruses endemic to North America. No licensed vaccines or antiviral therapeutics are available to combat this infection, which has recently shown an increase in human cases. Here, we characterize human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) isolated from a survivor of natural EEEV infection with potent (<20 pM) inhibitory activity of EEEV. Read More

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December 2020

Treatment of Viral Encephalitis.

Allen J Aksamit

Neurol Clin 2021 02 7;39(1):197-207. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street Southwest, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address:

Viral encephalitis is difficult to treat. Herpes simplex encephalitis has been successfully treated with acyclovir, but is still a cause for significant morbidity even with that treatment. A rare form of autoimmune encephalitis related to NMDA receptor antibody after infection by herpes simplex can be treated with corticosteroid therapy. Read More

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February 2021

Encephalitis with coinfection by Jamestown canyon virus (JCV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV).

IDCases 2020 8;22:e00966. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Medicine, Western Michigan University Homer Stryker MD School of Medicine, Kalamazoo, MI USA.

We present the case of a 59-year-old Midwestern farmer who presented with altered mental status, dysarthria, urinary incontinence, and a right-sided L5 dermatomal rash; he had recently received a course of oral corticosteroids for treatment of radicular low back pain. Lumbar puncture revealed the presence of varicella zoster virus (VZV) and IgM antibodies against a California-group encephalitis virus, later confirmed as Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV). Unfortunately, the patient's health declined despite aggressive treatment, developing progressive subarachnoid hemorrhage. Read More

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October 2020

Eastern equine encephalitis and use of IV immunoglobulin therapy and high-dose steroids.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2021 01 10;8(1). Epub 2020 Nov 10.

From the Division of Neuroimmunology and Neuro-Infectious Diseases (D.R.W., S.I.C., F.J.M., S.S.M.), Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital; Department of Neurology (D.R.W.), Brigham and Women's Hospital; Department of Pathology (I.H.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital; and Department of Neurology (D.R.W., F.J.M., S.S.M.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Objective: To determine the clinical presentation and patient outcomes after treatment with IV immunoglobulin (IVIG), high-dose steroids, or standard of care alone in Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), a mosquito-borne viral infection with significant neurologic morbidity and mortality.

Methods: A retrospective observational study of patients admitted to 2 tertiary academic medical centers in Boston, Massachusetts, with EEE from 2005 to 2019.

Results: Of 17 patients (median [IQR] age, 63 [36-70] years; 10 (59%) male, and 16 (94%) White race), 17 patients had fever (100%), 15 had encephalopathy (88%), and 12 had headache (71%). Read More

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January 2021

Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Seroprevalence in Maine Cervids, 2012-2017.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 12 29;103(6):2438-2441. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Vector-Borne Disease Laboratory, Maine Medical Center Research Institute, Scarborough, Maine.

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) first emerged in Maine in the early 2000s and resulted in an epizootic outbreak in 2009. Since 2009, serum samples from cervids throughout Maine have been collected and assessed for the presence of neutralizing antibodies to EEEV to assess EEEV activity throughout the state. We tested 1,119 (white-tailed deer) and 982 (moose) serum samples collected at tagging stations during the hunting seasons from 2012 to 2017 throughout the state of Maine. Read More

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December 2020