598 results match your criteria Early Symptomatic HIV Infection

Clinical presentation of COVID-19 at the time of testing and factors associated with pre-symptomatic cases in Cameroon.

IJID Reg 2022 Sep 29;4:33-41. Epub 2022 May 29.

Public Health Emergency Operations Coordination Centre, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Objectives: To describe the clinical features at time of testing and explore factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and pre-symptomatic cases in Cameroon.

Methods: Data was collected on people in Cameroon who participated in COVID-19 testing by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction between 1 March and 5 October 2020. After descriptive analysis, multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and pre-symptomatic cases. Read More

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September 2022

Patient perspectives on delays in cervical cancer screening and follow-up care in Botswana: a mixed methods study.

BMC Womens Health 2022 05 28;22(1):195. Epub 2022 May 28.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Delays in screening and timely diagnosis contribute significantly to global disparities in cervical cancer mortality in Botswana and other low- and middle-income countries, particularly those with high rates of HIV. Little is known about the modifiable factors shaping these delays from the perspectives of women themselves and how these perspectives may differ between those living with and without HIV.

Methods: From March-May 2019, we conducted a concurrent, mixed methods study of women receiving treatment for cervical cancer at a multidisciplinary oncology clinic in Botswana. Read More

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Modeling the Impact of HIV-1 Nucleic Acid Testing among Symptomatic Adult Outpatients in Kenya.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2022 May 4. Epub 2022 May 4.

Departments of Medicine, Global Health, and Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.

Background: Up to 69% of adults who acquire HIV in Kenya seek care before seroconversion, providing an important opportunity for early diagnosis and treatment. The Tambua Mapema Plus (TMP) trial tested a combined HIV-1 nucleic acid testing, linkage, treatment, and partner notification intervention for adults aged 18-39 with symptoms of acute HIV infection presenting to health facilities in coastal Kenya. We estimated the potential impact of TMP on the Kenyan HIV epidemic. Read More

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Reflections on a specialist HIV menopause service: Experiences of managing menopause in women living with HIV: Experiences of managing menopause in women living with HIV.

HIV Med 2022 04;23(4):426-433

Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Objectives: We describe here characteristics and clinical outcomes of women living with HIV attending an HIV menopause service.

Methods: This was a retrospective case note review of women attending the monthly HIV menopause clinic from January 2015 to July 2018.

Results: In all, 55 women attended the service. Read More

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Performance of the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG serological assay in South African 2 patients.

PLoS One 2022 4;17(2):e0262442. Epub 2022 Feb 4.

Department of Immunology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

In late December 2019, pneumonia cases of unknown origin were reported in Wuhan, China. This virus was named SARS-CoV2 and the clinical syndrome was named coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). South Africa, despite strict and early lockdown has the highest infection rate in Africa. Read More

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February 2022

AIDS Related Kaposi's Sarcoma: A 20-Year Experience in a Clinic from the South-East of Romania.

J Clin Med 2021 Nov 17;10(22). Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Clinical Medical Department, Medicine and Pharmacy Faculty, Dunarea de Jos University of Galati, 800008 Galati, Romania.

Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) was peculiarly described in the first notified cases of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome as an opportunistic condition. However, the medical progress and the development of active antiretroviral therapy allowed the control of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, although the features of KS have changed throughout the past decades. The purpose of our study is to assess the epidemiological and clinical features of AIDS related KS in Romanian patients. Read More

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November 2021

Optimal treatment strategies to control acute HIV infection.

Infect Dis Model 2021 14;6:1202-1219. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Mathematics, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, 1000, Bangladesh.

Various antiretroviral therapies (ART) are administered to symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals to improve their health. The treatment effectiveness may depend on suppressing development of drug resistance, reduce evolution of new viral strains, minimize serious side effects and the costs of drugs. This paper deals with some results concerning optimal drug administration scheme successful in improving patients' health especially in poorly resourced settings. Read More

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October 2021

A randomized prospective study to assess health-related quality-of-life outcomes of antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus-positive adults.

Indian J Sex Transm Dis AIDS 2021 Jan-Jun;42(1):50-56. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Medicine, Government Medical College, Amritsar, Punjab, India.

Introduction: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals is substantially challenged due to disease, opportunistic infections, lifelong commitment, and tolerability to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and various social, physical, and psychological domains.

Aim: This study was conducted to assess the magnitude of the impact on HRQOL in HIV-positive people from early access to ART.

Settings And Design: This was a randomized, prospective, open-label study, conducted at the ART center attached to the Government Medical College, Amritsar. Read More

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The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on sexually transmitted infections services - experience from Bialystok, Poland.

Przegl Epidemiol 2021 ;75(2):151-158

Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland.

Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic had a big impact on the health services organisation, including that of sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Aim: To analyse and evaluate the influence of COVID-19 epidemic on the detection of STIs and healthcare services in a group of these patients on the base of the experience of the Department of Dermatology and Venereology and University Outpatient Clinic in Bialystok, Poland.

Material And Methods: Analysis of the number of consultations for suspicion of STIs, number of newly diagnosed cases of syphilis, gonorrhoea, Chlamydia trachomatis infections and genital herpes in two periods: January 2019 - February 2020 (before the epidemic state was introduced) and March 2020 - April 2021 (during pandemic). Read More

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October 2021

Symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection is associated with advanced presentation and perioperative mortality in patients undergoing surgery for peripheral arterial disease.

J Vasc Surg 2022 04 8;75(4):1403-1412.e2. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pa. Electronic address:

Objective: Prior studies have demonstrated an increased risk of developing cardiovascular and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, the effect of chronic HIV infection in patients with preexisting PAD and requiring vascular intervention is unclear. In the present study, we assessed the differences in clinical presentation and perioperative outcomes for patients with PAD who had undergone revascularization or amputation with and without HIV infection. Read More

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Gaps in the tuberculosis preventive therapy care cascade in children in contact with TB.

Paediatr Int Child Health 2021 11 17;41(4):237-246. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Family Medicine and Population Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: Young children (<5 years) and children living with HIV in contact with an adult with tuberculosis (TB) should receive TB preventive therapy (TPT), but uptake is low.

Aims: To determine gaps in the uptake of and adherence to TPT in child TB contacts under routine primary care clinic conditions.

Methods: A cohort of child TB contacts (age <5 years or living with HIV <15 years) was followed at a primary care clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. Read More

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November 2021

Derivation and external validation of a risk score for predicting HIV-associated tuberculosis to support case finding and preventive therapy scale-up: A cohort study.

PLoS Med 2021 09 7;18(9):e1003739. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

TB Centre, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Among people living with HIV (PLHIV), more flexible and sensitive tuberculosis (TB) screening tools capable of detecting both symptomatic and subclinical active TB are needed to (1) reduce morbidity and mortality from undiagnosed TB; (2) facilitate scale-up of tuberculosis preventive therapy (TPT) while reducing inappropriate prescription of TPT to PLHIV with subclinical active TB; and (3) allow for differentiated HIV-TB care.

Methods And Findings: We used Botswana XPRES trial data for adult HIV clinic enrollees collected during 2012 to 2015 to develop a parsimonious multivariable prognostic model for active prevalent TB using both logistic regression and random forest machine learning approaches. A clinical score was derived by rescaling final model coefficients. Read More

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September 2021

Antiviral and immunomodulatory interferon-beta in high-risk COVID-19 patients: a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Sep 3;22(1):584. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Institute of Translational Pharmacology, National Research Council, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133, Rome, Italy.

Objectives: The primary objective of the study is to demonstrate the efficacy of low-dose IFN-β in reducing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 recently infected elderly patients to progress towards severe COVID-19 versus control group within 28 days. Secondary objectives are: 1) To assess the reduction in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission in patients treated with IFN-β versus control group within 28 days of randomization 2) To assess the reduction in number of deaths in IFN- β compared to control group (day 28) 3) To evaluate the increase in proportion of participants returning to negative SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR in IFN-β -treated versus control group at Day 14 and Day 28 4) To assess the increase in SARS-CoV-2-specific binding antibody titers in IFN-β compared to control group (day 28) 5) To assess the safety of IFN-β -treated patients versus control group TRIAL DESIGN: Randomized, Open-Label, Controlled, Superiority Phase II Study. Patients, who satisfy all inclusion criteria and no exclusion criteria, will be randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups in a ratio 2:1 (IFN-treated versus control patients). Read More

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September 2021

Sexual health service adaptations to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Australia: a nationwide online survey.

Aust N Z J Public Health 2021 Dec 2;45(6):622-627. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria.

Objective: Examine the changes in service delivery Australian public sexual health clinics made to remain open during lockdown.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey designed and delivered on Qualtrics was emailed to 21 directors of public sexual health clinics across Australia from July-August 2020 and asked about a variety of changes to service delivery. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Read More

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December 2021

Menopausal hormone therapy for women living with HIV.

Lancet HIV 2021 09 9;8(9):e591-e598. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Women's Health Research Institute, British Columbia Women's Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Oak Tree Clinic, British Columbia Women's Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

People living with HIV are ageing, and a growing number of women living with HIV are entering menopause. Women living with HIV commonly have bothersome vasomotor symptoms and onset of menopause at earlier ages; both factors go on to affect quality of life and systemic health. Vasomotor symptoms and early menopause are both indications for menopausal hormone therapy; however, current evidence suggests that this therapy is seldom offered to women living with HIV. Read More

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September 2021

Self-reported motivators for HIV testing in the treat-all era among HIV positive patients in Johannesburg, South Africa.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(15):e25286

Health Economics and Epidemiology Research Office, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand.

Abstract: To explore associations between self-reported ill-health as a primary motivator for HIV-testing and socio-demographic factors.Four local primary healthcare clinics in Johannesburg, South Africa.A total of 529 newly HIV diagnosed adults (≥18 years) enrolled from October 2017 to August 2018, participated in the survey on the same day of diagnosis. Read More

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Clinical efficacy and tolerability of 1.5 g/day oral amoxicillin therapy without probenecid for the treatment of syphilis.

Sex Transm Infect 2022 05 29;98(3):173-177. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital, Bunkyo-ku, Japan.

Objectives: Intramuscular benzathine penicillin G is not available in certain countries. In a previous report, 3 g/day amoxicillin with probenecid was shown to be effective in treating syphilis in patients with HIV; however, 7.3% of patients changed their therapy owing to adverse events. Read More

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Speed and strength of an epidemic intervention.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 03 24;288(1947):20201556. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA.

An epidemic can be characterized by its strength (i.e., the reproductive number [Formula: see text]) and speed (i. Read More

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Long-Term SARS-CoV-2-Specific Immune and Inflammatory Responses Across a Clinically Diverse Cohort of Individuals Recovering from COVID-19.

medRxiv 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Monogram Biosciences, Inc., South San Francisco, USA.

A detailed understanding of long-term SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses and their relationship to humoral immunity and markers of inflammation in diverse groups of individuals representing the spectrum of COVID-19 illness and recovery is urgently needed. Data are also lacking as to whether and how adaptive immune and inflammatory responses differ in individuals that experience persistent symptomatic sequelae months following acute infection compared to those with complete, rapid recovery. We measured SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses, soluble markers of inflammation, and antibody levels and neutralization capacity longitudinally up to 9 months following infection in a diverse group of 70 individuals with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Read More

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Early antiviral treatment in outpatients with COVID-19 (FLARE): a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Mar 8;22(1):193. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

UCL Institute of Immunity and Transplantation, Royal Free Hospital, Pond Street, London, NW3 2QG, UK.

Objectives: The objective of this trial is to assess whether early antiviral therapy in outpatients with COVID-19 with either favipiravir plus lopinavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir alone, or favipiravir alone, is associated with a decrease in viral load of SARS-CoV-2 compared with placebo.

Trial Design: FLARE is a phase IIA randomised, double-blind, 2x2 factorial placebo-controlled, interventional trial.

Participants: This trial is being conducted in the United Kingdom, with Royal Free Hospital, London as the lead site. Read More

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Single-dose administration and the influence of the timing of the booster dose on immunogenicity and efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine: a pooled analysis of four randomised trials.

Lancet 2021 03 19;397(10277):881-891. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Infection, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK; MRC Clinical Trials Unit, University College London, London, UK.

Background: The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine has been approved for emergency use by the UK regulatory authority, Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, with a regimen of two standard doses given with an interval of 4-12 weeks. The planned roll-out in the UK will involve vaccinating people in high-risk categories with their first dose immediately, and delivering the second dose 12 weeks later. Here, we provide both a further prespecified pooled analysis of trials of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and exploratory analyses of the impact on immunogenicity and efficacy of extending the interval between priming and booster doses. Read More

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Internet of medical things (IoMT)-integrated biosensors for point-of-care testing of infectious diseases.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 May 6;179:113074. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, 70112, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL, 33174, USA. Electronic address:

On global scale, the current situation of pandemic is symptomatic of increased incidences of contagious diseases caused by pathogens. The faster spread of these diseases, in a moderately short timeframe, is threatening the overall population wellbeing and conceivably the economy. The inadequacy of conventional diagnostic tools in terms of time consuming and complex laboratory-based diagnosis process is a major challenge to medical care. Read More

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Hepatitis A vaccine immunogenicity 25 years after vaccination in Alaska.

J Med Virol 2021 06 25;93(6):3991-3994. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Liver Disease and Hepatitis Program, Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage, Alaska.

The hepatitis A vaccine is recommended for all children greater than or equal to 1 year of age, however, the duration of vaccine protection is unknown and protection through adulthood is crucial to prevent symptomatic hepatitis later in life. We report on 25 years of follow-up of a cohort of Alaska Native individuals who were vaccinated in early childhood. We assessed the duration of vaccine protection by calculating the geometric mean concentration and proportion of participants with protective levels of IgG antibody to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) (≥20 mIU/mL) every 2 to 3 years. Read More

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High-sensitivity C-reactive protein in HIV care: Tuberculosis diagnosis and short-term mortality in a cohort of Kenyan HIV patients in the DREAM programme.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Mar 10;104:329-334. Epub 2021 Jan 10.

LUMSA, Rome, Italy.

Objective: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death in HIV-positive people. In Kenya, 140 000 new TB cases occurred in 2019, and 13 000 HIV-positive patients died due to TB. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HS-CRP) in TB diagnosis and the prediction of mortality in HIV-positive patients. Read More

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Early symptomatic neurosyphilis and ocular syphilis: A comparative study between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients.

Infect Dis Now 2021 Jun 22;51(4):351-356. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

AP-HP, Hôpital la Pitié Salpêtrière, Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, 47-83, boulevard de l'Hôpital, 75013 Paris, France; Sorbonne Université, AP-HP, Hôpitaux Universitaires Pitié-Salpêtrière Charles Foix, Service de Maladies infectieuses et Tropicales, 75013 Paris, France; Sorbonne Université, INSERM, Institut Pierre Louis d'Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique (IPLESP), Paris, France.

Objectives: Since the 2000s, there has been an increase in prevalence of neurosyphilis (NS) and ocular syphilis (OS). As data about symptomatic NS/OS is limited, this study aims to assess the characteristics of symptomatic NS/OS, according to HIV status.

Methods: We compared the clinical and biological presentation of early symptomatic NS/OS and its outcome in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. Read More

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Early cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Uganda: epidemiology and lessons learned from risk-based testing approaches - March-April 2020.

Global Health 2020 11 25;16(1):114. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Uganda Public Health Fellowship Program, Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: On March 13, 2020, Uganda instituted COVID-19 symptom screening at its international airport, isolation and SARS-CoV-2 testing for symptomatic persons, and mandatory 14-day quarantine and testing of persons traveling through or from high-risk countries. On March 21, 2020, Uganda reported its first SARS-CoV-2 infection in a symptomatic traveler from Dubai. By April 12, 2020, 54 cases and 1257 contacts were identified. Read More

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November 2020

Chest imaging findings of chronic respiratory disease in HIV-infected adolescents on combined anti retro viral therapy.

Paediatr Respir Rev 2021 Jun 26;38:16-23. Epub 2020 Sep 26.

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross Children's Hospital and SA-Medical Research Council Unit on Child & Adolescent Health, USA.

Early treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has improved survival of children perinatally infected with HIV into adolescence. This population is at risk of long term complications related to HIV infection, particularly chronic respiratory disease. Limited data on chest imaging findings in HIV-infected adolescents, suggest that the predominant disease is of small and large airways: predominantly bronchiolitis obliterans or bronchiectasis. Read More

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Correlates of diabetic polyneuropathy of the elderly in Sub-Saharan Africa.

PLoS One 2020 29;15(10):e0240602. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

CHU de Guadeloupe, Equipe LAMIA, Université des Antilles, Fouillole, Guadeloupe.

Background: Diabetic polyneuropathy is associated with significant physical disability among older adults. However, their frequency and correlates are not well known in the older adults in Sub-Saharan-Africa. The objectives were to evaluate the hospital-based prevalence of diabetic polyneuropathy and identify its correlates in older adults. Read More

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December 2020

Lymphogranuloma venereum genovariants in men having sex with men in Italy.

Sex Transm Infect 2021 09 26;97(6):441-445. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Microbiology, DIMES, University of Bologna, Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Italy.

Objectives: Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is an STI caused by serovars L1-L3. In Europe, the current epidemic is caused mainly by L2b genovariant, although increasing cases associated with other L2 variants have been reported. Here, we assessed the distribution of rectal LGV genovariants among men having sex with men (MSM) in Italy. Read More

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September 2021