580 results match your criteria Early Symptomatic HIV Infection

Self-reported motivators for HIV testing in the treat-all era among HIV positive patients in Johannesburg, South Africa.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(15):e25286

Health Economics and Epidemiology Research Office, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand.

Abstract: To explore associations between self-reported ill-health as a primary motivator for HIV-testing and socio-demographic factors.Four local primary healthcare clinics in Johannesburg, South Africa.A total of 529 newly HIV diagnosed adults (≥18 years) enrolled from October 2017 to August 2018, participated in the survey on the same day of diagnosis. Read More

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Speed and strength of an epidemic intervention.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 03 24;288(1947):20201556. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA.

An epidemic can be characterized by its strength (i.e., the reproductive number [Formula: see text]) and speed (i. Read More

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Early antiviral treatment in outpatients with COVID-19 (FLARE): a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Mar 8;22(1):193. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

UCL Institute of Immunity and Transplantation, Royal Free Hospital, Pond Street, London, NW3 2QG, UK.

Objectives: The objective of this trial is to assess whether early antiviral therapy in outpatients with COVID-19 with either favipiravir plus lopinavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir alone, or favipiravir alone, is associated with a decrease in viral load of SARS-CoV-2 compared with placebo.

Trial Design: FLARE is a phase IIA randomised, double-blind, 2x2 factorial placebo-controlled, interventional trial.

Participants: This trial is being conducted in the United Kingdom, with Royal Free Hospital, London as the lead site. Read More

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Single-dose administration and the influence of the timing of the booster dose on immunogenicity and efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine: a pooled analysis of four randomised trials.

Lancet 2021 03 19;397(10277):881-891. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Infection, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK; MRC Clinical Trials Unit, University College London, London, UK.

Background: The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine has been approved for emergency use by the UK regulatory authority, Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, with a regimen of two standard doses given with an interval of 4-12 weeks. The planned roll-out in the UK will involve vaccinating people in high-risk categories with their first dose immediately, and delivering the second dose 12 weeks later. Here, we provide both a further prespecified pooled analysis of trials of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and exploratory analyses of the impact on immunogenicity and efficacy of extending the interval between priming and booster doses. Read More

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Internet of medical things (IoMT)-integrated biosensors for point-of-care testing of infectious diseases.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 May 6;179:113074. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, 70112, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL, 33174, USA. Electronic address:

On global scale, the current situation of pandemic is symptomatic of increased incidences of contagious diseases caused by pathogens. The faster spread of these diseases, in a moderately short timeframe, is threatening the overall population wellbeing and conceivably the economy. The inadequacy of conventional diagnostic tools in terms of time consuming and complex laboratory-based diagnosis process is a major challenge to medical care. Read More

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Hepatitis A vaccine immunogenicity 25 years after vaccination in Alaska.

J Med Virol 2021 06 25;93(6):3991-3994. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Liver Disease and Hepatitis Program, Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage, Alaska.

The hepatitis A vaccine is recommended for all children greater than or equal to 1 year of age, however, the duration of vaccine protection is unknown and protection through adulthood is crucial to prevent symptomatic hepatitis later in life. We report on 25 years of follow-up of a cohort of Alaska Native individuals who were vaccinated in early childhood. We assessed the duration of vaccine protection by calculating the geometric mean concentration and proportion of participants with protective levels of IgG antibody to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) (≥20 mIU/mL) every 2 to 3 years. Read More

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High-sensitivity C-reactive protein in HIV care: Tuberculosis diagnosis and short-term mortality in a cohort of Kenyan HIV patients in the DREAM programme.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Mar 10;104:329-334. Epub 2021 Jan 10.

LUMSA, Rome, Italy.

Objective: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death in HIV-positive people. In Kenya, 140 000 new TB cases occurred in 2019, and 13 000 HIV-positive patients died due to TB. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HS-CRP) in TB diagnosis and the prediction of mortality in HIV-positive patients. Read More

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Early symptomatic neurosyphilis and ocular syphilis: A comparative study between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients.

Infect Dis Now 2021 Jun 22;51(4):351-356. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

AP-HP, Hôpital la Pitié Salpêtrière, Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, 47-83, boulevard de l'Hôpital, 75013 Paris, France; Sorbonne Université, AP-HP, Hôpitaux Universitaires Pitié-Salpêtrière Charles Foix, Service de Maladies infectieuses et Tropicales, 75013 Paris, France; Sorbonne Université, INSERM, Institut Pierre Louis d'Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique (IPLESP), Paris, France.

Objectives: Since the 2000s, there has been an increase in prevalence of neurosyphilis (NS) and ocular syphilis (OS). As data about symptomatic NS/OS is limited, this study aims to assess the characteristics of symptomatic NS/OS, according to HIV status.

Methods: We compared the clinical and biological presentation of early symptomatic NS/OS and its outcome in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. Read More

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Early cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Uganda: epidemiology and lessons learned from risk-based testing approaches - March-April 2020.

Global Health 2020 11 25;16(1):114. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Uganda Public Health Fellowship Program, Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: On March 13, 2020, Uganda instituted COVID-19 symptom screening at its international airport, isolation and SARS-CoV-2 testing for symptomatic persons, and mandatory 14-day quarantine and testing of persons traveling through or from high-risk countries. On March 21, 2020, Uganda reported its first SARS-CoV-2 infection in a symptomatic traveler from Dubai. By April 12, 2020, 54 cases and 1257 contacts were identified. Read More

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November 2020

Chest imaging findings of chronic respiratory disease in HIV-infected adolescents on combined anti retro viral therapy.

Paediatr Respir Rev 2020 Sep 26. Epub 2020 Sep 26.

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross Children's Hospital and SA-Medical Research Council Unit on Child & Adolescent Health, USA.

Early treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has improved survival of children perinatally infected with HIV into adolescence. This population is at risk of long term complications related to HIV infection, particularly chronic respiratory disease. Limited data on chest imaging findings in HIV-infected adolescents, suggest that the predominant disease is of small and large airways: predominantly bronchiolitis obliterans or bronchiectasis. Read More

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September 2020

Correlates of diabetic polyneuropathy of the elderly in Sub-Saharan Africa.

PLoS One 2020 29;15(10):e0240602. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

CHU de Guadeloupe, Equipe LAMIA, Université des Antilles, Fouillole, Guadeloupe.

Background: Diabetic polyneuropathy is associated with significant physical disability among older adults. However, their frequency and correlates are not well known in the older adults in Sub-Saharan-Africa. The objectives were to evaluate the hospital-based prevalence of diabetic polyneuropathy and identify its correlates in older adults. Read More

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December 2020

Lymphogranuloma venereum genovariants in men having sex with men in Italy.

Sex Transm Infect 2020 Oct 26. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Microbiology, DIMES, University of Bologna, Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Italy.

Objectives: Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is an STI caused by serovars L1-L3. In Europe, the current epidemic is caused mainly by L2b genovariant, although increasing cases associated with other L2 variants have been reported. Here, we assessed the distribution of rectal LGV genovariants among men having sex with men (MSM) in Italy. Read More

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October 2020

Prevalence and Predictors of Distal Symmetric Polyneuropathy in Patients with HIV/AIDS not on Highly Active Anti Retroviral Therapy (HAART).

J Assoc Physicians India 2020 Sep;68(9):23-26

Professor, Dept. of Neurology, PGIMER, ABVIMS, and Dr. RML Hospital, New Delhi.

Introduction: HIV/AIDS is a chronic multisystem disease and about 70% develop neurologic complications (including distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSPN) any time during their life. DSPN is also a very common toxicity of drugs used to treat HIV infection. Little is known about the impact of HIV per se or other factors (apart from drugs) on the occurrence of DSPN in these patients. Read More

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September 2020

Low mortality rates at two years in HIV-infected individuals undergoing systematic tuberculosis testing with rapid assays at initiation of antiretroviral treatment in Mozambique.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Oct 10;99:386-392. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

LUMSA University, Rome, Italy.

Background: Few studies have evaluated the mortality rate in individuals with HIV initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), undergoing screening with combined or repeated rapid tests for tuberculosis (TB).

Methods: All individuals with HIV starting ART, irrespective of the presence of TB-related symptoms, received two consecutive Xpert tests plus a rapid test for the detection of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan in urine (LAM). Mortality was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis using the log-rank test in univariate analyses and Cox regression models with time-dependent covariates in multivariate analyses. Read More

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October 2020

Symptomatic CSF HIV Escape in Patients on Anti Retroviral Therapy - A Case Series from India.

J Assoc Physicians India 2020 Aug;68(8):47-51

Department of Pathology, Army College of Medical Sciences and Base Hospital, Delhi Cantt., New Delhi.

The central nervous system is believed to be a safe sanctuary site which is established very early in the course of HIV infection where the virus can escape antiretroviral therapy. HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is seen to occur even in patients on successful systemic ART. HIV RNA can be at higher levels in CSF than plasma termed as CSF / plasma discordance or CSF escape. Read More

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Early Extended Neonatal Screening for Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection: A Quality Improvement Initiative.

Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 2020 09 7;46(9):516-523. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

Background: Identification of congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection in neonates is important for early diagnosis of sensorineural hearing loss. Therefore, a quality improvement project was designed with an aim to improve newborn CMV screening by 25% from a baseline rate of 22%.

Methods: This project was conducted across two hospital sites at one medical center with two tertiary care newborn nurseries and neonatal intensive care units. Read More

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September 2020

Clinicopathological features of isolated pulmonary cryptococcosis in HIV-negative patients.

J Int Med Res 2020 Jun;48(6):300060520927877

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Dongyang Hospital Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University, Dongyang, Zhejiang Province, China.

Objective: To analyse the clinicopathological features of isolated pulmonary cryptococcosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients.

Methods: This retrospective study analysed the following data from HIV-negative patients diagnosed with pulmonary cryptococcosis: demographics, underlying diseases, clinical manifestations on admission, laboratory tests, imaging data, results of histopathology, treatment options and outcomes. Sputum samples from all patients were collected and assessed for the presence of yeast or fungi. Read More

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Risk factors for symptomatic HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in adults aged 50 and over attending a HIV clinic in Tanzania.

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2020 10 20;35(10):1198-1208. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Old Age Psychiatry, Northumberland Tyne and Wear NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Objectives: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), although prevalent, remains a poorly researched cause of morbidity particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We aimed to explore the risk factors for HAND in people aged 50 and over under regular follow-up at a government HIV clinic in Tanzania.

Methods: HIV-positive adults aged 50 years and over were approached for recruitment at a routine HIV clinic appointment over a 4-month period. Read More

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October 2020

Incidence of SCID in Germany from 2014 to 2015 an ESPED* Survey on Behalf of the API*** Erhebungseinheit für Seltene Pädiatrische Erkrankungen in Deutschland (German Paediatric Surveillance Unit) ** Arbeitsgemeinschaft Pädiatrische Immunologie.

J Clin Immunol 2020 07 26;40(5):708-717. Epub 2020 May 26.

Institute of Social Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID) are a heterogeneous group of fatal genetic disorders, in which the immune response is severely impaired. SCID can be cured if diagnosed early. We aim to determine the incidence of clinically defined SCID cases, acquire data of reported cases and evaluate their possible prediction by newborn screening, before introduction of a general screening program in Germany. Read More

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Molecular epidemiological analysis of shows low prevalence of azithromycin resistance and a well-established epidemic in South Africa.

Sex Transm Infect 2021 03 10;97(2):152-156. Epub 2020 May 10.

Department of Medical Microbiology, CAPHRI School for Public Health & Primary Care, Maastricht Universitair Medisch Centrum+, Maastricht, Limburg, The Netherlands

Objectives: Macrolide resistance in is emerging globally. There is paucity of data from sub-Saharan Africa where syndromic management is used to treat sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted a molecular epidemiological study to determine the prevalence of azithromycin resistance and epidemic diversity of infections in South Africa. Read More

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Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia and follicular bronchiolitis in children: A registry-based case series.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2020 04 10;55(4):909-917. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Hauner Children's Hospital and KUBUS Research Center, University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Objectives: Pediatric lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) and follicular bronchiolitis (FB) are poorly characterized lymphoproliferative disorders. We present and quantify demographics, radiological and histopathologic patterns, treatments and their responses, and outcomes in non-HIV-infected children with LIP and FB.

Methods: This structured registry-based study included a retrospective chart review, blinded analysis of imaging studies and lung biopsies, genetic testing, and evaluation of treatments and outcomes. Read More

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Satisfaction with high-resolution anoscopy for anal cancer screening among men who have sex with men: a cross-sectional survey in Abuja, Nigeria.

BMC Cancer 2020 Feb 5;20(1):98. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

University of Maryland Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV are at increased risk for anal cancer. We evaluated satisfaction with first-time anal cancer screening using high resolution anoscopy (HRA) as a cross sectional survey among men who have sex with men (MSM) attending a community-engaged clinic in Abuja, Nigeria.

Methods: Between March and August 2017, 342 MSM underwent screening and 307 (89%) completed a satisfaction survey that evaluated 8 domains related to expectations, convenience, staff interpersonal skills, physical surroundings, technical competence, pain/discomfort, general satisfaction, and intention to re-screen if symptomatic. Read More

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February 2020

Persons living with HIV continue to present late for care: A trend analysis from 2011 to 2015.

Indian J Sex Transm Dis AIDS 2019 Jul-Dec;40(2):133-138

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, ICMR National AIDS Research Institute, Bhosari, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Context: The clinical and prevention benefits of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) have led to the adoption of test and treat policy for HIV. Early diagnosis of HIV is crucial for maximal benefits from ART.

Aims: This study aims to assess trends in CD4 cell counts at diagnosis and determinants of late presentation. Read More

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January 2020

Clinical Course of Opportunistic Infections-Toxoplasmosis and Cytomegalovirus Infection in HIV-Infected Patients in Slovakia.

Pathogens 2019 Nov 4;8(4). Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Institute of Parasitology of Slovak Academy of Sciences, Hlinkova 3, 040 01 Košice, Slovakia.

The HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic has affected the health status of the population in many countries. Early symptomatic HIV infection includes persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL), which can be associated with opportunistic infections, e.g. Read More

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November 2019


Semin Neurol 2019 08 18;39(4):448-455. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington.

Neurosyphilis is caused by the bacterium subspecies (). The organism gains entry into the central nervous system (CNS) early (primary syphilis or chancre phase) in the course of infection. While most patients are able to mount an immune response that effectively clears CNS invasion without long-term complications, a minority go on to develop asymptomatic or symptomatic neurosyphilis. Read More

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Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate intravaginal ring for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in sexually active women: a phase 1, single-blind, randomised, controlled trial.

Lancet HIV 2019 08 15;6(8):e498-e508. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: An intravaginal ring that releases the tenofovir prodrug, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, provided 100% protection in macaques against simian HIV and was safe in a 14-day clinical trial in sexually abstinent women. We aimed to assess the safety and pharmacokinetics of this intravaginal ring over 90 days in sexually active women.

Methods: We did a phase 1, single-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial to assess safety, pharmacokinetics, and acceptability of a tenofovir disoproxil fumarate intravaginal ring used continuously with monthly ring changes for 3 months. Read More

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Yield of systematic household contact investigation for tuberculosis in a high-burden metropolitan district of South Africa.

BMC Public Health 2019 Jul 3;19(1):867. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

Centre for Health Systems Research & Development, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 399, Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa.

Background: Systematic household contact investigation (SHCI) is recommended as an active-case-finding (ACF) strategy to identify individuals at high risk of tuberculosis (TB) infection, in order to enable early detection and treatment. Reluctance to implement SHCI in sub-Saharan African and South African high-burden contexts may stem from uncertainty about the potential yield of this strategy when targeting specific categories of TB index cases. In order to inform and motivate scale-up, this pilot study investigated the effectiveness of SHCI when targeting the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommended categories of infectious index cases. Read More

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Geriatric Syndromes in Older Adults Living with HIV and Cognitive Impairment.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2019 09 26;67(9):1913-1916. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Division of Geriatrics, University of California, San Francisco, California.

Objectives: Nearly half of the population living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States is now older than 50 years with at least 6% over age 65. Between 35% and 50% live with mild to moderate cognitive impairment. Older persons living with HIV (PLWH) also have a substantial burden of HIV-associated non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome medical conditions and are at risk for frailty, geriatric syndromes, and early mortality compared with HIV-uninfected peers. Read More

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September 2019

Ocular Manifestations in Patients with HIV infection.

Cesk Slov Oftalmol 2019 ;74(6):234-239

Background And Aims: To evaluate the characteristics and incidence of ophthalmic manifestations in patients with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective evaluation of medical records of 147 patients with HIV infection (22 female, 125 male), the average age of 41 (range 22-79 years) examined by an ophthalmologist at the Clinic of Ophthalmology at the University Hospital Ostrava in years 1987 - 2015.

Results: Ophthalmic manifestations of HIV were observed in 16 patients (11. Read More

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