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    Cochlear implants: Insertion assessment by computed tomography.
    Am J Otolaryngol 2018 Apr 14. Epub 2018 Apr 14.
    Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista (FMB-UNESP), Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Background And Objectives: Imaging exams play a key role in cochlear implants with regard to both planning implantation before surgery and quality control after surgery. The ability to visualize the three-dimensional location of implanted electrodes is useful in clinical routines for assessing patient outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate linear and angular insertion depth measurements of cochlear implants based on conventional computed tomography. Read More

    Cryopreserved limbal lamellar keratoplasty for peripheral corneal and limbal reconstruction.
    Int J Ophthalmol 2018 18;11(4):699-702. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China.
    This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes and described the recovery process of cryopreserved limbal lamellar keratoplasty (CLLK) for peripheral corneal and limbal diseases. Thirteen eyes of 12 patients with a mean age of 41±23.9y were included. Read More

    Short and Long-Term Outcomes of Titanium Clip Ossiculoplasty.
    Otol Neurotol 2018 Apr 16. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The Bill Wilkerson Center for Otolaryngology & Communication Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee.
    Objective: To report short (∼4 mo) and long-term (>12 mo) audiometric outcomes following ossiculoplasty using a titanium clip partial ossicular reconstruction prosthesis.

    Methods: Case series at a single tertiary referral center reviewing 130 pediatric and adult patients with conductive hearing loss (CHL) secondary to chronic otitis media (n = 121, 93%) or traumatic ossicular disruption (n = 9, 7%) who underwent partial ossiculoplasty from January 2005 to December 2015 with the CliP prosthesis.

    Results: At both short and long-term follow-up, postoperative air-bone gap (ABG) was significantly improved (18 dB HL, IQ range 13-26, p < 0. Read More

    Modified 2-Stage Method for Auricular Reconstruction.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    From the Department of Plastic Surgery, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Zhengzhou, China.
    Background: Auricular reconstruction is one of the most challenging procedures in the field of plastic surgery. The aims of this study were to apply the modified 2-stage method to perform auricular reconstruction and to summarize the clinical experience in the past 10 years.

    Methods: Auricular reconstruction was performed in 243 patients (total 254 ears) of congenital microtia using autologous costal cartilage. Read More

    Perfusion-decellularization of human ear grafts enables ECM-based scaffolds for auricular vascularized composite tissue engineering.
    Acta Biomater 2018 Apr 11. Epub 2018 Apr 11.
    Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherche Expérimentale et Clinique (IREC), Université catholique de Louvain ; Avenue Hippocrate 55/B1.55.04, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium.; Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, avenue Hippocrate 10, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium.. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Human ear reconstruction is recognized as the emblematic enterprise in tissue engineering. Up to now, it has failed to reach human applications requiring appropriate tissue complexity along with an accessible vascular tree. We hereby propose a new method to process human auricles in order to provide a poorly immunogenic, complex and vascularized ear graft scaffold. Read More

    Rehabilitation of an Auricular Defect Using Surgical Stent.
    World J Plast Surg 2018 Jan;7(1):113-117
    School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Reconstruction of a facial defect is a complex modality either surgically or prosthetically, depending on the site, size, etiology, severity, age, and the patient's expectation. The loss of an auricle, in the presence of an auditory canal, affects hearing, because the auricle gathers sound and directs it into the canal. The auricle acts as a resonator to slightly amplify lower frequency sounds and helps to localize sounds, especially in conjunction with the other ear. Read More

    Tracing Actin Filament Bundles in Three-Dimensional Electron Tomography Density Maps of Hair Cell Stereocilia.
    Molecules 2018 Apr 11;23(4). Epub 2018 Apr 11.
    Department of Computer Science, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA.
    Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) is a powerful method of visualizing the three-dimensional organization of supramolecular complexes, such as the cytoskeleton, in their native cell and tissue contexts. Due to its minimal electron dose and reconstruction artifacts arising from the missing wedge during data collection, cryo-ET typically results in noisy density maps that display anisotropic XY versus Z resolution. Molecular crowding further exacerbates the challenge of automatically detecting supramolecular complexes, such as the actin bundle in hair cell stereocilia. Read More

    Inner ear structure of miniature pigs measured by multi-planar reconstruction techniques.
    Am J Transl Res 2018 15;10(3):709-717. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    Department of Otolayngology, Head & Neck Surgery, Institute of Otolaryngology of PLA, Chinese PLA General HospitalBeijing 100853, P. R. China.
    To study the structures of the scala vestibuli and tympani of miniature pigs in order to evaluate the feasibility of using miniature pigs as the animal model for cochlear implant. The temporal bones of three miniature pigs with normal hearing were scanned by micro-CT. With the aid of the Mimics software, we reconstructed the 3D structure of inner ear basing on the serial images of the miniature pig, and obtained dimensions of the scala vestibuli and tympani with multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) technique. Read More

    Tragus formation during concha-type microtia repair using a chondrocutaneous island flap.
    Arch Craniofac Surg 2018 Mar 20;19(1):79-82. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
    Cirurgia Plástica Transplante Capilar, Pará de Minas, Brasil.
    Formation of an ideally-shaped tragus remains one of the most challenging issues during staged tragus reconstruction in microtia patients. The authors describe a new method used to treat a unique case of concha-type microtia in which the 10-year-old male patient had only a portion of pre-existing cartilage at the tragus site. An anomalous skin lump was also present. Read More

    Transcanal approach for type 2 tympanoplasty with incus interposition ossiculoplasty: our experience on 134 patients.
    Clin Otolaryngol 2018 Apr 2. Epub 2018 Apr 2.
    Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Bigadic State Hospital, 10440, Balikesir, Turkey.
    According to our clinical experience, the gold standard for ossicular chain reconstruction is the incus interposition, which has shown a very low percentage of extrusion in long-term follow-up with excellent audiological outcomes (except tympanosclerosis) in our patients. There is no study using transcanal approach for type 2 tympanoplasty with incus interposition. In order to achieve success in audiological outcomes after incus interposition, the incus needs to be lightened. Read More

    Auricular reconstruction from rib to 3D printing.
    J 3D Print Med 2018 Jan 15;2(1):35-41. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, Pediatric Division, University of Michigan Health Systems, CS Mott Children's Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    The human ear imparts critical form and function and remains one of the most challenging facial features to reconstruct. Over the past century, surgeons have developed numerous techniques and materials for total auricular reconstruction. Refined costal cartilage techniques have remained the gold standard for the past half-century. Read More

    Management of complex pediatric laryngotracheal stenosis with skin graft reconstruction.
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2018 May 15;108:46-48. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:
    Objectives: For pediatric patients with laryngotracheal stenosis, the ultimate goal is creation of a safe, functional airway. Unfortunately, wound healing in a hollow structure can complicate repair attempts, leading to restenosis. Herein, we present our experience using skin-grafting techniques in two complex pediatric laryngotracheal stenosis cases, leading to successful decannulation or speech production. Read More

    Predictors for Unfavorable Projection of the Constructed Auricle following Ear Elevation Surgery in Microtia Reconstruction.
    Plast Reconstr Surg 2018 Apr;141(4):993-1001
    Seoul, Republic of Korea From the Department of Plastic Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine.
    Background: Nagata's two-stage technique for microtia reconstruction using autologous costal cartilage consists of the implantation of a fabricated cartilage framework and the elevation of the constructed auricle. Achieving long-lasting, sufficient projection of the auricle is a goal of second-stage surgery; however, unfavorable outcomes have been seen in some patients, with suboptimal long-term elevation. The present study aimed to investigate prognostic factors that might contribute to adverse outcomes following the ear elevation operation. Read More

    A new method for selecting auricle positions in skull base reconstruction for temporal bone cancer.
    Laryngoscope 2018 Mar 25. Epub 2018 Mar 25.
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Objective: In advanced temporal bone carcinoma cases, we attempted to preserve as much of the auricle as possible from a cosmetic and functional perspective. Difficulties are associated with selecting an adequate position for reconstructed auricles intraoperatively. We improved the surgical procedure to achieve a good postoperative auricle position. Read More

    Ear Scaffold Reconstruction Using Ultrasonic Aspirator for Cauliflower Ear.
    Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2018 Apr 14;55(4):619-621. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    3 Department of Otolaryngology, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Untreated auricular hematomas from ear trauma can result in an ear deformation known as cauliflower ear, secondary to fibrosis and new cartilage overgrowth. Cauliflower ear reconstruction has traditionally utilized tools such as a drill or a scalpel in order to improve auricular cosmesis. We present a case report utilizing an ultrasonic aspirator to recontour the fibrosed cartilage of a cauliflower ear. Read More

    "Split to save": Accessing mandibular lesions using sagittal split osteotomy with virtual surgical planning.
    Ear Nose Throat J 2018 Mar;97(3):91-96
    Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Stanford University, 801 Welch Rd., Stanford, CA 94304.
    Large, benign intramandibular lesions are frequently removed by resection followed by extensive free tissue transfer or delayed bone grafting. We outline a protocol to remove benign mandibular lesions using sagittal split osteotomy (SSO) with virtual surgical planning (VSP) to mitigate risks involved with this effective, tissue-saving approach. Patients with benign mandibular lesions accessed by SSO with VSP during 2014 were included in this study. Read More

    A new technique for transcutaneous fixation of the costal cartilage block utilized in reconstructed ear elevation for microtia.
    J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2018 Apr 2;46(4):709-714. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Department of Plastic Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Purpose: With the aim of implementing good projection of the three-dimensional frame (auriculo-cephalic angle) and maintaining projection, a significant issue during the stage of auricular elevation for avoiding the potential for dislodging the cartilage blocks remains. Herein we present an innovative and technically simple method of transcutaneous fixation of the costal cartilage block during the stage of auricular elevation.

    Materials And Methods: After elevation of ear frame from the basement, two suspension stitches on the surface of the elevated ear were used to fix the embedding cartilage block into the auriculo-cephalic sulcus at the upper (bifurcation point of the anti-helix where the inferior and superior crus meet to form the triangular fossa) and lower (projection point of the concha wall, parallel to the level of the tragus) ones. Read More

    La Ferrassie 1: New perspectives on a "classic" Neandertal.
    J Hum Evol 2018 Apr 21;117:13-32. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Équipe de Paléontologie Humaine, UMR 7194, CNRS, Département Homme et Environnement, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Musée de l'Homme, 17, Place du Trocadéro, 75016 Paris, France; Department of African Zoology, Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium.
    The La Ferrassie 1 (LF1) skeleton, discovered over a century ago, is one of the most important Neandertal individuals both for its completeness and due to the role it has played historically in the interpretation of Neandertal anatomy and lifeways. Here we present new skeletal remains from this individual, which include a complete right middle ear ossicular chain (malleus, incus, and stapes), three vertebral fragments, and two costal remains. Additionally, the study of the skeleton has allowed us to identify new pathological lesions, including a congenital variant in the atlas, a greenstick fracture of the left clavicle, and a lesion in a mid-thoracic rib of unknown etiology. Read More

    Treatment for Lentigo Maligna of the Head and Neck: Survey of Practices in Ontario, Canada.
    Dermatol Surg 2018 Mar 13. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Division of Dermatology, Women's College Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Background: Lentigo maligna is an in situ form of cutaneous melanoma that commonly arises on the head and neck. Various surgical and nonsurgical treatment options are available but no randomized trials exist to guide practice.

    Objective: To determine the current treatment practices for lentigo maligna of the head and neck in Ontario, Canada. Read More

    Postoperative monitoring of the free jejunal flap: use of colour duplex and systematic review of available techniques.
    Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2018 Mar 15:1-6. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Barts Health NHS Trust, Royal London Hospital , London , UK.
    Introduction The free jejunal flap represents the gold standard for circumferential defects in upper digestive tract reconstruction. It is a technically demanding procedure with significant failure rates. Unrecognised failure leads to flap necrosis and potentially fatal sequelae, including sepsis and carotid artery bleed. Read More

    Bioglass reconstruction of posterior meatal wall after canal wall down mastoidectomy.
    Am J Otolaryngol 2018 Mar 6. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt. Electronic address:
    Background: Canal wall down (CWD) mastoidectomy has many drawbacks including chronic otorrhea, granulations, dizziness on exposure to cold or hot water and tendency of debris accumulation in the mastoid cavity demanding periodic cleaning. Many of these problems can be solved by reconstruction of the posterior meatal wall (PMW).

    Objectives: To assess the results of PMW reconstruction after CWD mastoidectomy for cholesteatoma using bioactive glass (BAG) that is fabricated and built up intraoperatively. Read More

    Canal wall-down procedure with soft posterior meatal wall reconstruction in acquired cholesteatoma: focus on postoperative middle ear status.
    Acta Otolaryngol 2018 Mar 8:1-6. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    b Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery , Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences , Okayama City , Okayama , Japan.
    Objectives: We reviewed surgical results of canal wall-down tympanoplasty (CWDT) with soft posterior meatal wall reconstruction (SWR) for acquired cholesteatoma (AC), and identified factors associated with surgical outcomes.

    Methods: Results from 119 ears with AC (pars flaccida, n = 99; pars tensa, n = 20) that underwent CWDT with SWR were retrospectively reviewed. We defined postoperative balloon-like retraction (PBR) with web formation, which needed reoperation to clean accumulated cerumen, as postoperative deep retraction pocket (PDRP). Read More

    Endoscopic transcanal modified canal-wall-down mastoidectomy for cholesteatoma.
    World J Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2017 Sep 3;3(3):153-159. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology-HNS, USA.
    Attic cholesteatoma with antral extension in tight sclerotic mastoid cavities is a common presentation that creates difficult decision-making intraoperatively. Drilling through a sclerotic and small mastoid cavity, keeping the canal wall intactis often difficult and increases the risk of serious injury. Consequently, a canal-wall-down mastoidectomy is often performed. Read More

    Audiological results of endoscopic surgical repair of the long process of incus.
    World J Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2017 Sep 10;3(3):148-152. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, La Timone University Hospital, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France.
    Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate our experience with endoscopic repair of ossicular discontinuity at the incudostapedial joint, with or without an intact stapes suprastructure, and present our hearing results. We classify results based on the causative pathology, the type of ossiculoplasty, and type of lesion. We demonstrate the ability to endoscopically place a total ossicular replacement prosthesis (TORP), measuring 4. Read More

    Blowout fractures - clinic, imaging and applied anatomy of the orbit.
    Dan Med J 2018 Mar;65(3)
    Isolated fractures of the orbital floor or medial wall are often referred to as blowout fractures (BOFs). Debilitating double vision and aesthetic deformity may affect the patients' quality of life and daily living skills, for instance, working or driving a car. The management of blowout fractures is, however, challenging, since not all fractures demand surgery. Read More

    Auricular Retentive Prosthetic Conformer Post Brent's Stage III Surgery in Microtia Repair: A Clinical Report.
    J Prosthodont 2018 Mar 6. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Government Royapettah Hospital, Chennai, India.
    Auricular reconstruction is an interdisciplinary approach where multiple specialties play a vital role in the treatment provided to the patient. This article provides a comprehensive interpretation of the process carried out for the fabrication of a custom-made prosthetic conformer for the management of postoperative contraction of a skin graft after ear reconstruction surgery-Brent stage III. The prosthesis is used as a precautionary measure and is simple, effective, and economical. Read More

    Ossicular Chain Reconstruction in a Developing Country.
    Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2018 May 5;127(5):306-311. Epub 2018 Mar 5.
    1 University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences System, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
    Objectives: In Ethiopia, 2-stage operations with middle ear prostheses are economically unfavorable. We hypothesized that single-stage autologous ossiculoplasty results in acceptable tympanic membrane (TM) and hearing improvements in a setting of limited resources.

    Methods: One hundred eighty-eight patients (197 ears) who underwent 1-stage autologous ossiculoplasty for ossicular dysfunction are presented. Read More

    Bilateral congenital cholesteatoma: A case report and review of the literature.
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Apr 20;107:25-30. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, United States. Electronic address:
    Objectives: Congenital cholesteatoma (CC) occurs less commonly than acquired cholesteatoma (AC), and bilateral CC (BCC) is even more rare with only 38 such cases having been reported in the past 42 years. Because of the rarity of this condition, providers confronted with cases of BCC may find it difficult to treat while balancing complete removal of disease, optimal hearing outcomes, and minimized surgical burden in the pediatric patient. This review alerts physicians that BCC occurs, highlights past presentations and management strategies, describes the considerations in treatment and offers an algorithm helpful in the management of BCC. Read More

    MRA of the skin: mapping for advanced breast reconstructive surgery.
    Clin Radiol 2018 Feb 27. Epub 2018 Feb 27.
    Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University, NY, USA; Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical Center, NY, USA.
    Autologous breast reconstruction using muscle-sparing free flaps are becoming increasingly popular, although microvascular free flap reconstruction has been utilised for autologous breast reconstructions for >20 years. This innovative microsurgical technique involves meticulous dissection of artery-vein bundle (perforators) responsible for perfusion of the subcutaneous fat and skin of the flap; however, due to unpredictable anatomical variations, preoperative imaging of the donor site to select appropriate perforators has become routine. Preoperative imaging also reduces operating time and enhances the surgeon's confidence in choosing the appropriate donor site for harvesting flaps. Read More

    Anomalous Extratemporal Facial Nerve in Oculoauriculovertebral Spectrum.
    Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2018 May 28;55(5):769-772. Epub 2018 Feb 28.
    1 Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    Facial nerve dysfunction is common in oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS). However, the course of the nerve has rarely been described. A 23-year-old woman with OAVS underwent excision of microtic ear remnants in preparation for an osseointegrated prosthesis and suffered iatrogenic transection of the facial nerve-the pes anserinus was within the subcutaneous tissue 15 mm posterior and 15 mm cephalad to the external acoustic meatus. Read More

    Osseointegrated implants for auricular prostheses: An alternative to autologous repair.
    Laryngoscope 2018 Feb 26. Epub 2018 Feb 26.
    Division of Head and Neck Surgery and Communication Sciences, Department of Surgery, Duke University Hospital, Durham, North Carolina, U.S.A.
    Objectives/hypothesis: This study compares the hospital cost of osseointegrated implants for retention of an auricular prosthesis to autologous ear reconstruction.

    Study Design: Retrospective review.

    Methods: This study includes patients who underwent reconstruction for either congenital or acquired ear defects at Duke University Medical Center during 2009 to 2015. Read More

    Mrmc Neo Surgical Ventilating Port and Neo Attic Malleo-Incudal Complex in Endoscopic Management of Limited Attico-Antral Cholesteatoma.
    Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2018 Mar 11;70(1):33-37. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Department of ENT, MRMC, Gulbarga, Karnataka India.
    To study functional outcome of the endoscopic management of limited attico-antral cholesteatoma in terms of visualization of sac, cholesteatoma disease clearance, ABG closure improvement, preservation of residual anatomy and recurrence of disease. It is a prospective study done during Feb 2016 to March 2017 done on 20 pts with limited attico-antral cholesteatoma with CT confirmation. Endoscopic management of limited attico-antral cholesteatoma with complete removal of sac, infected discharge and granulations along with creation of MRMC Neo surgical ventilating port (joining Anterior & posterior isthmuses) done in cases where residual attic anatomy was present to establish physiological attic ventilation and drainage. Read More

    To Evaluate and Compare the Result of Ossiculoplasty Using Different Types of Graft Materials and Prosthesis in Cases of Ossicular Discontinuity in Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media Cases.
    Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2018 Mar 7;70(1):15-21. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan India.
    Chronic suppurative otitis media, with and without cholesteatoma, frequently results in disruption of the ossicular chain. The present study was designed to compare the outcome using autologous ossicle and titanium prosthesis in two groups of suitable patients presenting with chronic suppurative otitis media for middle ear reconstructive surgeries. A prospective study done from July 2012 to December 2013, at Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Sitapura, Jaipur (Rajasthan). Read More

    Auditory effects of autologous fat graft for TORP stabilization in the middle ear: a cadaveric study.
    J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2018 Feb 17;47(1):17. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Division Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Nova Scotia Health Authority, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada.
    Background: Total ossicular replacement prostheses (TORP) are often used to re-establish ossicular coupling of sound in an ear lacking a stapes supra-structure. The use of TORPs, however, is associated with a 2/3 five year failure rate due to their anatomic instability over time in the middle ear. The use of autologous fat to try and stabilize TORPs may improve long-term results with this challenging ossicular reconstruction technique. Read More

    Clival meningocele causing bilateral hearing loss in a child due to superficial siderosis of the central nervous system: case report.
    J Neurosurg Pediatr 2018 Feb 16:1-6. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Departments of 1 Neurological Surgery and.
    Superficial siderosis (SS) of the CNS is a rare and often unrecognized condition. Caused by hemosiderin deposition from chronic, repetitive hemorrhage in the subarachnoid space, it results in parenchymal damage in the subpial layers of the brain and spinal cord. T2-weighted MRI shows the characteristic hypointensity of hemosiderin deposition, classically occurring around the cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord. Read More

    Optimising the decellularization of human elastic cartilage with trypsin for future use in ear reconstruction.
    Sci Rep 2018 Feb 15;8(1):3097. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London (UCL), London, United Kingdom.
    Decellularized scaffolds can induce chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells. This study compares different methods to optimise the decellularization of auricular cartilage. The process consisted of an initial 12 hour dry freeze thaw which froze the cartilage specimens in an empty tube at -20 °C. Read More

    Lower energy radial shock wave therapy improves characteristics of hypertrophic scar in a rabbit ear model.
    Exp Ther Med 2018 Jan 6;15(1):933-939. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Burns and Plastic Reconstruction Unit, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021, P.R. China.
    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT) on scar characteristics and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/Smad signaling in order to explore a potential modality for the treatment of hypertrophic scars (HS). The HS model was generated in rabbit ears, then rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups: Lower (L)-ESWT [treated with rESWT with lower energy flux density (EFD) of 0.1 mJ/mm], higher (H)-ESWT (treated with a higher EFD of 0. Read More

    Reconstruction of Tragus and External Auditory Meatus using Remnant Auricle during Microtia Reconstruction.
    Facial Plast Surg 2018 Apr 12;34(2):227-229. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Department of Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery, Hunan Provincial People's Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan Province, P.R. China.
    This article investigates an effective method with which to reconstruct the tragus and external auditory meatus for microtia reconstruction. The external ear was reconstructed using a delayed postauricular skin flap in patients with congenital microtia. After the first stage of delaying the postauricular skin flap and the second stage of otoplasty with ear framework fabricated from autogenous rib cartilage draping with the delayed skin flap, the third stage involved tragus and external auditory meatus canaloplasty. Read More

    The gray scale value of ear tissues undergoing volume-rendering high-resolution cone-beam computed tomography.
    Auris Nasus Larynx 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Otolaryngology, Kochi University, Medical School, Nankoku, Kochi, Japan.
    Objective: When the thresholds for VR reconstruction from multi-slice CT images are changed, problems develop when assessing pathologies in the absence of standardized thresholds. The advantages of CBCT include lower radiation exposure compared with other techniques and better visualization of small ear structures. However, a disadvantage is that the scanner provides unstandardized gray scale values, thus not CT numbers (Hounsfield units, HU). Read More

    Refinements in Elevation of the Reconstructed Auricle: The "Zigzag Incision".
    J Craniofac Surg 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Plastic Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School.
    Objective: Auricular elevation with superficial temporal fascia and skin graft is widely used in microtia reconstruction using costal cartilage. However, in some patients, there has been occurrence of contraction of skin graft, which led to insufficient projection of the elevated auricle and diminished auriculocephalic angle with unfavorable long-term results. In this article, the authors introduce their multiple triangular flaps with zigzag incision to maintain stable projection and natural retroauricular sulcus appearance in auricular reconstruction patients. Read More

    Audit of 117 otoplasties for prominent ear by one surgeon using a cartilage-cutting procedure.
    ANZ J Surg 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Auckland Regional Centre for Plastic Reconstructive and Hand Surgery, Middlemore Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Background: The plethora of surgical procedures for prominent ear correction reflects lack of satisfaction with outcomes achieved. This paper describes a cartilage-cutting otoplasty procedure and reports an audit of its outcomes.

    Methods: Discharge coding was used to retrospectively identify patients who had undergone the otoplasty of interest at Middlemore Hospital, Auckland, during the 5 years from March 2010 to the end of February 2015. Read More

    High Pregnancy and Calving Rates with a Limited Number of Transferred Handmade Cloned Bovine Embryos.
    Cell Reprogram 2018 Feb;20(1):4-8
    1 Animal Biotechnology Laboratory, Reproduction and Genetic Improvement, National University Toribio Rodriguez de Mendoza , Chachapoyas, Amazonas, Peru .
    A major obstacle of widespread commercial application of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer is the low overall efficiency, that is, healthy calf-late pregnancy per transferred embryo rate. In this study, we report a series of experiments with a limited number of embryos created with handmade cloning (HMC) and transferred without or after open pulled straw vitrification. Embryo reconstruction was performed by using in vitro matured oocytes and adult ear skin fibroblasts. Read More

    In Vitro Regeneration of Patient-specific Ear-shaped Cartilage and Its First Clinical Application for Auricular Reconstruction.
    EBioMedicine 2018 Feb 13;28:287-302. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Shanghai Tissue Engineering Research Key Laboratory, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, PR China; National Tissue Engineering Center of China, Shanghai, PR China; Auricular Center, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing, PR China. Electronic address:
    Microtia is a congenital external ear malformation that can seriously influence the psychological and physiological well-being of affected children. The successful regeneration of human ear-shaped cartilage using a tissue engineering approach in a nude mouse represents a promising approach for auricular reconstruction. However, owing to technical issues in cell source, shape control, mechanical strength, biosafety, and long-term stability of the regenerated cartilage, human tissue engineered ear-shaped cartilage is yet to be applied clinically. Read More

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy with low-energy flux density inhibits hypertrophic scar formation in an animal model.
    Int J Mol Med 2018 Apr 29;41(4):1931-1938. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    Burns and Plastic Reconstruction Unit, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021, P.R. China.
    Hypertrophic scar is characterized by excessive deposits of collagen during skin wound healing, which could become a challenge to clinicians. This study assessed the effects of the extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on hypertrophic scar formation and the underlying gene regu-lation. A rabbit ear hypertrophic scar model was generated and randomly divided into three groups: L-ESWT group to receive L-ESWT (energy flux density of 0. Read More

    Prosthetics in Facial Reconstruction.
    Craniomaxillofac Trauma Reconstr 2018 Mar 22;11(1):6-14. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas.
    Reconstruction of the head and neck can be a challenging undertaking owing to numerous considerations for successful rehabilitation. Although head and neck defects were once considered irretrievably morbid and associated with a poor quality of life, advances in surgical technique has immensely contributed to the well-being of these patients. However, all patients are not suitable surgical candidates and many have sought nonsurgical options for functional and cosmetic restoration. Read More

    Medial row perforators are associated with higher rates of fat necrosis in bilateral DIEP flap breast reconstruction.
    Plast Reconstr Surg 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai Hospital , Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery , Center for the Advancement of Breast Reconstruction, New York, New York Hackensack University Medical Center, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Hackensack, New Jersey.

    Modified Methods of Fabricating Helix and Antihelix in Total Auricular Reconstruction Based on Different Length of Eighth Costal Cartilage.
    J Craniofac Surg 2018 Mar;29(2):327-331
    Department of Auricular Reconstruction, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing.
    Background: Attaining an ideal appearance of the reconstructed ear depends primarily on the fabricated cartilaginous ear framework. Despite the role of eighth costal cartilage, the length of the eighth rib cartilage is difficult to anticipate, and growth of the eighth cartilage is variable. The authors discussed modified methods of fabricating helix and antihelix based on different length of eighth costal cartilage. Read More

    Olfactory and gustatory functions after free flap reconstruction and radiotherapy for oral and pharyngeal cancer: a prospective follow-up study.
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Apr 27;275(4):959-966. Epub 2018 Jan 27.
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, P.O. Box 263, FI-00029 HUS,, Helsinki, Finland.
    Background: The senses of smell and taste can be adversely affected by both tumour- and treatment-related factors amongst head and neck cancer patients. The consequences may negatively impact nutritional status as well as quality of life in this patient population.

    Patients And Methods: This prospective longitudinal follow-up study is consisted of 44 patients treated for oral cavity, oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer with tumour resection and microvascular free tissue transfer reconstruction at the Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. Read More

    Polyethylene Ear Reconstruction: A State-of-the-Art Surgical Journey.
    Plast Reconstr Surg 2018 Feb;141(2):461-470
    Los Angeles, Calif. From the Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California; and Craniofacial and Pediatric Plastic Surgery, Cedars Sinai Medical Center.
    Background: The use of a porous high-density polyethylene implant for ear reconstruction is gradually gaining acceptance because it allows for a pleasing ear reconstruction in young children before they enter school. In response to this growing interest, the authors decided to write an article clarifying in detail all the steps of this challenging procedure. In this article, the authors also answer all the common questions that surgeons have when they come to observe the operation, or when they go back to their respective practices and start performing this procedure. Read More

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