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    Relationship between Optic Nerve Head Drusen Volume and Structural and Functional Optic Nerve Damage.
    J Glaucoma 2017 Oct 17. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    *Moise and Chella Safra Advanced Ocular Imaging Laboratory, Einhorn Clinical Research Center, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, New York, NY †Goldschleger Eye Institute, Sheba Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel ‡Department of Ophthalmology, Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital, New York, NY §Department of Ophthalmology, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, Hempstead, NY ∥Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY ¶Bernard and Shirlee Brown Glaucoma Research Laboratory, Harkness Eye Institute, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY.
    Purpose: To assess the relationships between optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) volume, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and visual field (VF) loss.

    Methods: Patients with ONHD and no other ocular or systemic conditions that can affect RNFL or VF were enrolled. Serial enhanced depth imaging (EDI) optical coherence tomography (OCT) B-scans of the optic nerve head (interval between scans, ~30 μm) were obtained from each participant. Read More

    Tissue Expansion Using Hyaluronic Acid Filler for Single-Stage Ear Reconstruction: A Novel Concept for Difficult Areas.
    Aesthet Surg J 2017 Jul 20. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Private plastic, Malvern, Victoria, Australia. Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA. Private practice, Malvern, Victoria, Australia.
    Background: Auricular reconstruction is one of the most challenging procedures in plastic surgery. An adequate skin envelope is essential for cartilage framework coverage, yet few good options exist without additional surgery. We propose a novel method for minimally invasive tissue expansion, using hyaluronic acid (HA) filler to allow for single-stage ear reconstruction. Read More

    The Temporal Artery Island Flap: A Good Reconstructive Option for Small to Medium-Sized Facial Defects.
    J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017 Sep 19. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Professor and Department Head, Department of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey.
    Purpose: The reconstruction of facial defects is esthetically vital because of the unique skin color and texture of the face. The aim of this study was to show the utility of different temporal artery island flap designs for the reconstruction of upper and middle facial defects without contrast to the color and texture of the face.

    Materials And Methods: This study is retrospective case series conducted from November 2004 through May 2015. Read More

    Aesthetic Refinements in Forehead Flap Reconstruction of the Asian Nose.
    Plast Surg (Oakv) 2017 May 30;25(2):71-77. Epub 2017 May 30.
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Background: Traditional paramedian forehead flap reconstruction exploits the aesthetic subunit principle. Refinements and outcomes of forehead flap nasal reconstruction largely reflect Western experience. Differences in ethnic Asian anatomy and wound healing may foster suboptimal outcomes. Read More

    [Long-term Follow up and patient satisfaction after tympanoplasty with Titanium Clip-Prothesis].
    Laryngorhinootologie 2017 Oct 10;96(10):698-703. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    HNO, Klinikum der Stadt Ludwigshafen gGmbH, Ludwigshafen.
    Aim of the present study is to evaluate the long term results of ossiculoplasty using titanium clip prosthesis. A retrospective analysis with prospective follow-up has been done including for all patients who had a Clip-PORP implanted between the years 2002-2013. Following this, audiometric hearing results were measured with clinical examination including otoscopy and quality of life evaluation using Glasgow benefit inventory. Read More

    Middle Ear Prosthesis with Bactericidal Efficacy-In Vitro Investigation.
    Molecules 2017 Oct 10;22(10). Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    University of Gdansk, Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology UG-GUMed, Department of Biotechnology, Laboratory of Biologically Active Compounds, Gdansk 80-307, Poland.
    Materials used in ossicular replacement prostheses must possess appropriate biological properties, such as biocompatibility, stability, no cytotoxicity. Due to the risk of infection (otitis media and chronic otitis media), it is desirable to use an antibacterial agent for illness prevention during the ossicular reconstruction. The goal of this work was to observe biological properties of a new composite prosthesis made of ABS containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs 45T). Read More

    Evidence against the mucosal traction theory in cholesteatoma.
    Laryngoscope 2017 Oct 8. Epub 2017 Oct 8.
    Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
    Objectives: To investigate the distribution of ciliated epithelium in the human middle ear and its potential role in the formation of cholesteatoma.

    Study Design: Comparative human temporal bone study.

    Methods: We selected temporal bones from 14 donors with a diagnosis of cholesteatoma, 15 with chronic otitis media without retraction pockets, 14 with chronic otitis media with retraction pockets, 14 with cystic fibrosis (CF), and 16 controls. Read More

    Awake serial intralesional steroid injections without surgery as a novel targeted treatment for idiopathic subglottic stenosis.
    Laryngoscope 2017 Oct 8. Epub 2017 Oct 8.
    Monash Health and Alfred Health, Victoria, Melbourne, Australia.
    Objectives/hypothesis: The fibrotic/erythematous appearance of the subglottis in idiopathic subglottic stenosis (iSGS) hints that it might respond to repeated intralesional steroid treatment similar to keloids.

    Study Design: Retrospective cohort study.

    Methods: Thirteen iSGS subjects (six treated in-office with serial intralesional steroid injections [SILSI] versus seven treated endoscopically in the operating room [OR] followed by awake SILSI) between October 2011 and April 2017. Read More

    Otology at the Academy of Gondishapur 200-600 CE.
    Otol Neurotol 2017 Oct 4. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Departments of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York.
    Objective: To investigate the way in which otology was practiced at the Academy of Gondishapur in ancient Persia from 200 to 600 CE.

    Method: The pertinent literature, using German and English translations of Latin, Greek, Arabic, and Sanskrit documents, was identified and reviewed through the indices of available books and through a PDF search for the following topics: auricle, deaf, deafness, dizziness, ear, hearing, medicine, otitis, pinna, punishment-ear, speech, surgery, vertigo, and voice.

    Results: The medical school at the Academy of Gondishapur followed the medical and surgical practices of Greece and Rome and, in the 6th century, incorporated those from India as detailed in the Shutra Samhita. Read More

    Osseointegrated Prosthetic Ear Reconstruction in Cases of Skin Malignancy: Technique, Outcomes, and Patient Satisfaction.
    Ann Plast Surg 2017 Oct 3. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    From the *Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT; †Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Stanford Hospital and Clinics, Stanford, CA; ‡Huntsman Cancer Institute; and §Division of General Surgery, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.
    Background: Ear reconstruction with osseointegrated prosthetic implants is a well-established method of reconstruction after resection of skin malignancies on the external ear. There is limited literature reporting technique, outcomes, and patient satisfaction.

    Methods: We evaluated our outcomes over a 5-year period looking at osseointegrated prosthetic reconstruction after auriculectomy for external ear skin malignancies. Read More

    Reconstruction of a near total ear amputation with a neurosensorial radial forearm free flap prelaminated with porous polyethylene implant and delay procedure.
    Microsurgery 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Maxillo-Facial Surgery, and Burn Unity, Centro Hospitalar de São João, University of Porto, Portugal.
    When an auricular defect is caused by high-energy trauma that causes damage to the surrounding tissues, the patient may be not a candidate for reconstruction with local flaps and free tissue transfer may be necessary. Here we present a case of total auricular reconstruction in a 27 year-old man who had total loss of the left ear and traumatized temporal skin and fascia. A radial forearm flap prelaminated by a porous polyethylene implant was employed. Read More

    Segmental deficiency of cervical tracheal rings masquerading as complete tracheal rings: A case report and literature review.
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2017 Oct 8;101:246-248. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    University of Cincinnati School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA. Electronic address:
    Congenital deficiency of distal tracheal rings is a rare anomaly and has been previously reported in the literature. Here we report the first case deficient tracheal rings confined to the cervical trachea. Patient was transferred to our institution for management of what was initial thought to be complete tracheal rings. Read More

    Early Familial Experiences With Microtia: Psychosocial Implications for Pediatric Providers.
    Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2017 Sep 1:9922817734358. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    2 Aesthetic Ear Reconstruction, Torrance, CA, USA.
    This study focuses on early experiences of families with a child with microtia to better inform their ongoing care by pediatric providers. Parents and children (n = 62; mean age of 6.9 ± 3. Read More

    The Rolling Earlobe Flap for Dilated Ear Holes Following Ear Gauging: A Novel Approach to Aesthetically Preserving Earlobe Soft Tissue Volume.
    Arch Plast Surg 2017 Sep 15;44(5):453-456. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery Section, Department of General Surgery, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore.
    Patients are increasingly seeking repair of their earlobes following ear gauging. Research has shown that current repair techniques either excessively reduce the lobular volume or leave an obvious scar along the free edge of the earlobe. In our case series, we describe the use of a novel technique for repairing earlobes following ear gauging using a rolling earlobe flap that preserves the lobular volume and avoids leaving a scar on the free edge of the lobule. Read More

    Effects of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on the Survival of Rabbit Ear Composite Grafts.
    Arch Plast Surg 2017 Sep 15;44(5):370-377. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Institute for Human Tissue Restoration, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Background: Composite grafts are frequently used for facial reconstruction. However, the unpredictability of the results and difficulties with large defects are disadvantages. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) express several cytokines, and increase the survival of random flaps and fat grafts owing to their angiogenic potential. Read More

    Comparative study of new autologous material, bone-cartilage composite graft, for ossiculoplasty with Polycel(®) and Titanium.
    Clin Otolaryngol 2017 Sep 25. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.
    Objective: Ossiculoplasty is a surgical procedure that recreates sound transmission of the middle ear in conductive hearing loss. Various materials have been used for ossicular reconstruction, but the most ideal material for ossiculoplasty remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to introduce a novel method of autologous ossiculoplasty, bone-cartilage composite graft (BCCG) and to compare its surgical results with different types of ossiculoplastic prostheses. Read More

    Modification of fasciocutaneous radial forearm free flap to achieve two-layer closure during reconstruction of circumferential hypopharyngeal defects.
    Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Ear Nose and Throat, Manchester Head and Neck Cancer Centre, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Circumferential defects of the hypopharynx are a reconstructive challenge. Various local, regional and free flaps have been described with each having advantages and disadvantages in terms of functional outcomes. The fasciocutaneous radial forearm free flap (RFFF) is one of the most common free flaps used for reconstructing circumferential hypopharyngeal defects. Read More

    A Novel 3-Step Method for Correction of Type 1 Stahl Ear.
    J Craniofac Surg 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    *King's College London, The Strand, London †Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore.
    Background: Stahl ear, a rare congenital auricular anomaly, occurs when a third crus crosses the scaphoid fossa. Optimal elimination of the third crus and reconstruction the superior crus in type 1 Stahl ear remain undercharacterized. We present a novel 3-step technique to reliably correct a type 1 Stahl ear as a case report. Read More

    Splinting After Ear Reconstruction: A Stepwise and Inexpensive Workflow Protocol.
    Ann Plast Surg 2017 Sep 19. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    From the *Department of Plastic Surgery and †Maxillofacial and Dental Department, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Great Ormond Street, London, United Kingdom.
    Background: Long-term postoperative splinting plays a role in the prevention of contracture of the grafted skin after a second-stage ear reconstruction. The scar retraction could lead to an unfavorable aesthetic outcome. Splinting could play a role to overcome or prevent the loss of projection and the obliteration of the sulcus. Read More

    [Comparative evaluation of vertigo in patients after stapedotomy and stapedectomy].
    Orv Hetil 2017 Sep;158(38):1503-1511
    Klinikai Központ, Fül-Orr-Gégészeti és Fej-Nyaksebészeti Klinika, Pécsi Tudományegyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar Pécs, Munkácsy Mihály u. 2., 7621.
    Introduction And Aim: The reason of gradually developing conductive hearing loss in otosclerotic patients is the ossification of the stapes footplate to the surrounding bony structures and the therapy of stapes fixation is mainly surgical. In stapedotomy the footplate of the stapes is fenestrated with laser and microdrill in a diameter of 0.8 mm, whereas in stapedectomy there is complete removal of the footplate followed by the reconstruction of the ossicular chain. Read More

    The Versatility of Cheek Rotation Flaps.
    Arch Craniofac Surg 2016 Dec 23;17(4):190-197. Epub 2016 Dec 23.
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea.
    Background: The cheek rotation flap has sufficient blood flow and large flap size and it is also flexible and easy to manipulate. It has been used for reconstruction of defects on cheek, lower eyelid, or medial and lateral canthus. For the large defects on central nose, paramedian forehead flap has been used, but patients were reluctant despite the remaining same skin tone on damaged area because of remaining scars on forehead. Read More

    Osteogenesis for postoperative temporal bone defects using human ear adipose-derived stromal cells and tissue engineering: An animal model study.
    J Biomed Mater Res A 2017 Sep 5. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Department of Otolaryngology, Ajou University School of Medicine, San 5 Woncheon-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, 443-721, Republic of Korea.
    Mastoidectomy, the removal of infected mastoid bones, is a common surgical procedure for the treatment of chronic otitis media. Persistent and recurrent otorrhea and accumulation of keratin debris following open cavity mastoidectomy are still bothersome issues for both patients and otologists. In this study, we used human ear adipose-derived stromal cells (hEASCs) in combination with polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds and osteogenic differentiation medium (ODM) to regenerate temporal bone defects. Read More

    Erosion of the long process of the incus with incomplete ossicular discontinuity in simple chronic otitis media: Should we reconstruct or leave it be?
    Clin Otolaryngol 2017 Sep 5. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Bosucesso General Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Objective: To determine whether patients with simple chronic otitis media and incomplete ossicular discontinuity should undergo ossicular reconstruction.

    Design: Prospective, randomised surgical trial comparing no intervention with incus interposition over a 5-year period.

    Setting: Tertiary referral hospital. Read More

    Effects of cavity reconstruction on morbidity and quality of life after canal wall down tympanomastoidectomy.
    Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2017 Aug 19. Epub 2017 Aug 19.
    Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Izmir, Turkey.
    Introduction: Canal wall down (CWD) tympanomastoidectomy is commonly used to treat advanced chronic otitis media or cholesteatoma. The advantages of CWD mastoidectomy are excellent exposure for disease eradication and postoperative control of residual disease; its disadvantages include the accumulation of debris requiring life-long otological maintenance and cleaning, continuous ear drainage, fungal cavity infections, and the occurrence of dizziness and vertigo by changing temperature or pressure.

    Objective: To evaluate whether cavity-induced problems can be eliminated and patient comfort can be increased with mastoid cavity reconstruction. Read More

    Relative Location of Fundus Meatus Acustici Interni Via Porus Acusticus Internus in Facial Nerve Decompression.
    J Craniofac Surg 2017 Sep;28(6):1586-1588
    *Department of Anatomy, College of Basic Medicine, Bethune Medicine Institute, Jilin University †Department of Radiology, China Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.
    Facial neural edema is the pathophysiological base of Bell's palsy. The middle cranial fossa approach is used to relieve the oppression of facial nerve at its most narrow course in the facial canal. In this research, the authors mainly discussed the internal auditory canal segment of facial nerve, completely in the shadow of the bony structure, which is inconvenient for transmastoid decompression. Read More

    Risk factors for thirty-day readmission following flap reconstruction of oncologic defects of the head and neck.
    Laryngoscope 2017 Aug 29. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Department of Medicine, Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Infectious Disease Service, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts.
    Objectives: Unplanned 30-day readmission rate following hospital discharge is an important metric of healthcare quality. This study sought to characterize the rate, risk factors, and common causes of readmission in head and neck cancer patients following free or pedicled flap reconstruction.

    Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Read More

    Costal and Auricular Cartilage Grafts for Nasal Reconstruction: An Anatomic Analysis.
    Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2017 Oct 26;126(10):706-711. Epub 2017 Aug 26.
    1 Department of Otolaryngology, University of Kansas Health System, Kansas City, Kansas, USA.
    Objectives: The aim of this study was to measure the length, width, and surface area of costal and auricular cartilage harvested for grafting in rhinoplasty and nasal reconstruction. We also compared the sizes of ear cartilage grafts harvested from the anterior and posterior approaches.

    Methods: Fifty-eight nasal reconstructive surgeries requiring rib or ear cartilage were performed by 2 facial plastic surgeons from February 2015 through January 2016. Read More

    Multicentred international review of orbital exenteration and reconstruction in oculoplastic and orbit practice.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Aug 26. Epub 2017 Aug 26.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.
    Background: Orbital exenteration is a disfiguring procedure reserved for life-threatening malignancies. This study examines the clinical course and outcomes of a large series of patients who underwent orbital exenteration for malignant periocular neoplasms.

    Methods: This is a retrospective review of patients who underwent orbital exenteration from 1 July 2005 to 30 June 2015 at four tertiary referral centres in the USA, Australia and Canada. Read More

    Surgical management of temporal bone osteoradionecrosis: Single surgeon experience of 47 cases.
    Am J Otolaryngol 2017 Jul 23. Epub 2017 Jul 23.
    Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, 923 Pennsylvania Ave, Fort Worth, TX 76104, United States. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To report the outcomes of 47 patients with temporal bone osteoradionecrosis treated primarily with surgical resection in order to analyze whether flap type and hyperbaric oxygen use affect wound breakdown.

    Materials And Methods: Between January 1998 and January 2016, 47 patients were treated for temporal bone osteoradionecrosis with surgery. Some patients were also treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Read More

    Single Stage Canal Wall Down Mastoidectomy with Reconstruction of the Canal Wall: 5 Years' Experience in Fayoum Province, Egypt.
    J Int Adv Otol 2017 Aug;13(2):181-185
    Department of Ear Nose and Throat, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt.
    Objective: Removing the posterior canal wall or canal wall down mastoidectomy (CWDM) for the management of cholesteatoma remains controversial. We advocate partial removal of the posterior canal wall for complete eradication, followed by canal wall defect reconstruction to restore the normal anatomy and avoid the complications of CWDM.

    Materials And Methods: Sixty-four patients with cholesteatoma (71 ears) were included. Read More

    Components of preoperative anxiety: A qualitative study.
    J Health Psychol 2017 May 1:1359105317709512. Epub 2017 May 1.
    1 The University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Limited research has explored preoperative anxiety through qualitative methodologies. This study aimed to identify specific factors that contribute to preoperative anxiety. A total of 17 patients awaiting general, plastic reconstructive and hand, orthopaedic, or ear, nose, and throat/otorhinolaryngology surgery were interviewed about their concerns in a public hospital. Read More

    Otoplasty for prominent ears - demographics and surgical timing in different populations.
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2017 Sep 16;100:52-56. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Introduction: Prominent ears are seen in approximately 5% of the population. This benign condition can be treated surgically to reduce or prevent psychological and social problems, most commonly in children before the start of school. Our aim was to examine the demographic characteristics of patients undergoing prominent ear surgery in Finland, and compare findings with international data. Read More

    Total Ear Reconstruction Using Porous Polyethylene.
    Semin Plast Surg 2017 Aug 9;31(3):161-172. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Craniofacial and Pediatric Plastic Surgery, Dell Children's Medical Center, Austin, Texas.
    Total ear reconstruction has been approached by several techniques involving autologous graft, prosthetic implant, and alloplastic implant options. Recent studies have shown the superiority of porous polyethylene (Medpor, Porex Surgical) reconstruction over autologous reconstruction based on improved aesthetic results, earlier age of intervention, shorter surgery times, fewer number of required procedures, and a simpler postoperative recovery process. A durable and permanent option for total ear reconstruction, like Medpor, can help alleviate the cosmetic concerns that patients with auricular deformities may be burdened with on a daily basis. Read More

    The Protruding Ear: Cosmetic and Reconstruction.
    Semin Plast Surg 2017 Aug 9;31(3):152-160. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Division of Plastic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.
    Ear prominence is a relatively common cosmetic deformity with no associated functional deficits, but with profound psychosocial impact, especially in young patients. Protruding ears in children have propagated surgical advances that incorporate reconstructive techniques. Here we outline a systematic framework to evaluate the protruding ear and present various reconstructive surgical options for correction. Read More

    Autologous Ear Reconstruction.
    Semin Plast Surg 2017 Aug 9;31(3):146-151. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Division of Plastic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.
    Since the pioneering use of autologous rib cartilage for the reconstruction of microtia, there have been significant advances in surgical technique that have helped to ameliorate the psychological burden of microtia. To date, the use of rib cartilage for auricular reconstruction is one of the most enduring and ubiquitous techniques for microtia reconstruction as it provides excellent aesthetic results with lasting durability. In this review, the authors outline the most common methods of microtia reconstruction with a comparison of each technique and illustrative case examples. Read More

    Partial Ear Defects.
    Semin Plast Surg 2017 Aug 9;31(3):134-140. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Division of Plastic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.
    Reconstruction of partial ear defects represents one of the most challenging areas within reconstructive surgery of the head and neck. Each case of auricular reconstruction is unique and warrants a systematic approach that accounts for defect size and location, the quality of the surrounding skin, patient preference, and operator experience. In this article, the authors outline different reconstructive approaches for defects of the upper-, middle-, and lower-third of the auricle. Read More

    Otologic and Audiology Concerns of Microtia Repair.
    Semin Plast Surg 2017 Aug 9;31(3):127-133. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Department of Otolaryngology, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine.
    Microtia is a congenital auricular deformity that commonly presents with associated congenital aural atresia. The most acute concern in these patients is concomitant hearing loss at birth. A team-based approach by plastic surgeons and otologists is necessary to address both the otologic and audiologic concerns of microtia and atresia. Read More

    The First Reported Case of Primary Intestinal-type Adenocarcinoma of the Middle Ear and Review of the Literature.
    Otol Neurotol 2017 Oct;38(9):e364-e368
    *Department of Head and Neck Surgery †Department of Pathology ‡Department of Diagnostic Imaging §Department of Neurosurgery ||Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.
    Objective: Adenocarcinoma of the middle ear is a rare entity that must be distinguished from other adenomatous tumors of the temporal bone. We present the first patient of an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma originating from the middle ear.

    Patients: A 58-year-old woman presented with an 8-year history of left otorrhea. Read More

    Three-dimensional reconstruction of root cells and interdental cells in the rat inner ear by serial section scanning electron microscopy.
    Biomed Res 2017 ;38(4):239-248
    Division of Microscopic Anatomy, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences.
    In the cochlea, a high K(+) environment in the endolymph is essential for the maintenance of normal hearing function, and the transport of K(+) ions through gap junctions of the cochlear epithelium is thought to play an important role in endolymphatic homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the three-dimensional (3D) ultrastructure of spiral ligament root cells and interdental cells, which are located at both ends of the gap junction system of the cochlea epithelium. Serial semi-thin sections of plastic-embedded rat cochlea were mounted on glass slides, stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate, and observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using the backscattered electron (BSE) mode. Read More

    Assessing the Viability of Hadad Flap by Postoperative Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Jun 1;11(6):MC01-MC03. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Assistant Professor, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, Pondicherry, India.
    Introduction: The Expanded Endonasal Approaches (EEAs) have been widely used for various skull base lesions. The reconstruction of the skull base defects is of vital importance to prevent postoperative complications. The vascular pedicled-nasoseptal flap (Hadad-Bassagasteguy flap) is used as a workhorse in reconstruction of majority of the defects. Read More

    Auricular Tissue Engineering Using Osteogenic Differentiation of Adipose Stem Cells with Small Intestine Submucosa.
    Plast Reconstr Surg 2017 Aug;140(2):297-305
    Taipei, Taiwan From the Division of Plastic Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital; the Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University; and the Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology.
    Background: Ear reconstruction remains a challenge for plastic surgeons. A tissue-engineering approach could provide another route for obtaining shape maintenance in neoauricular tissue.

    Methods: The authors designed a novel tissue-engineering auricular construct by culturing human adipose stem cells, which differentiated into osteocytes but not chondrocytes, in small intestine submucosa scaffolds. Read More

    Cost analysis of microtia treatment in the Netherlands.
    J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2017 Sep 28;70(9):1280-1284. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    Dutch Center for Ear Reconstruction, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, PO Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Introduction: Ear reconstruction for microtia is a challenging procedure. Although analyzing esthetic outcome is crucial, there is a paucity of information with regard to financial aspects of microtia reconstruction. This study was conducted to analyze the costs associated with ear reconstruction with costal cartilage in patients with microtia. Read More

    Costal Cartilage Assessment in Surgical Timing of Microtia Reconstruction.
    J Craniofac Surg 2017 Sep;28(6):1521-1525
    Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.
    Background: Rib cartilage growth is closely related to age and determines the feasibility and outcomes of auricular reconstruction. Ear reconstruction is performed as early as age 6 in efforts to treat children before school matriculation while allowing for sufficient rib growth. But there is controversy over the optimal timing of microtia reconstruction. Read More

    Nasal reconstruction: our experience.
    J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2017 Apr-Jun;31(2 Suppl 1):169-174
    Maxillofacial and Dental Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico di Milano, Milan, Italy.
    The nose is a critically important aesthetic and functional portion of the face. We can explore nasal defects following trauma or tumor resections. Reconstructive techniques based on primary closure, skin graft, local flap, regional flap and microvascular free tissue transfer provides an algorithmic framework applicable to any reconstructive problem. Read More

    [Autologous tissue reconstruction of tarsal plate combined with temporal flap in repairing full-thickness lower eyelid defect].
    Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2017 Jun;42(6):662-666
    Department of Medical Cosmetology, First Affiliated Hospital, University of South China, Hengyang Hunan 421001, China.
    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effect of combination of autologous tissue reconstruction of tarsal plate with temporal flap on repair of full-thickness lower eyelid defect. 
 Methods: Eleven patients (11 eyes) underwent hard palate mucosa or ear cartilage combined the emporal flap with the orbicularis oculi muscle to repair full-thickness defect of palpebra inferior. Of the 11 patients, 6 had more than 75% eyelid defect area, and 5 had more than 50% eyelid defect area. Read More

    Factors influencing hearing outcomes in pediatric patients undergoing ossicular chain reconstruction.
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2017 Aug 30;99:60-65. Epub 2017 May 30.
    Department of Otolaryngology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Eye and Ear Institute, Suite 519, 203 Lothrop St, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA; Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, 4401 Penn Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15224, USA. Electronic address:
    Objective: Ossicular chain disruption in children leads to conductive hearing loss. Few studies have focused on factors influencing successful results in pediatric ossicular chain reconstruction (OCR). We aim to determine whether demographic or surgical factors affect hearing outcomes in pediatric OCR. Read More

    Uncovering the pathogenesis of microtia using bioinformatics approach.
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2017 Aug 22;99:30-35. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Department of Auricular Reconstruction, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
    Objective: Bioinformatics is widely used in the field of cancer research, but in the research of pathogenesis of congenital malformations the situation is different. The aim of this study was to explore the underlying mechanism using bioinformatics approach.

    Methods: The data were available from Mouse Genome Informatics and Pubmed. Read More

    A retrospective study on facial nerve schwannomas: a disease with a high risk of misdiagnosis and hearing loss.
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2017 Jul 7. Epub 2017 Jul 7.
    Department of the Otology and Skull Base Surgery, Eye and Eye Ear Nose and Throat Hospital, Fudan University, 83 Fenyang Road, Shanghai, 200031, China.
    The objective is to increase awareness of facial nerve schwannomas (FNSs). Clinical data from 32 cases with FNSs who received surgical treatment from 2005 to 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. The clinical data included age, sex, presentations, duration, facial nerve function, temporal-bone high-resolution computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, surgical approaches, and postoperative histopathological examination. Read More

    Hydroxyapatite bone cement application for the reconstruction of retrosigmoid craniectomy in the treatment of cranial nerves disorders.
    Surg Neurol Int 2017 13;8:115. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Background: Retromastoid craniectomy (RSC) is a cardinal surgical approach used to access the posterior fossa. Hydroxyapetite bone cement (HBC) is frequently employed for cranioplasty in efforts to prevent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, whilst maintaining low complication rates and good cosmetic satisfaction. The authors aim to determine the safety and effectiveness of HBC for reconstruction RSC used for treatment of various cranial nerves disorders. Read More

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