5,309 results match your criteria EEG in Status Epilepticus


Status epilepticus: review on diagnosis, monitoring and treatment.

Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2022 May;80(5 Suppl 1):193-203

Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina, Hospital das Clínicas, Departamento de Neurologia, São Paulo SP, Brazil.

Status epilepticus (SE) is a frequent neurological emergency associated with high morbidity and mortality. According to the new ILAE 2015 definition, SE results either from the failure of the mechanisms responsible for seizure termination or initiation, leading to abnormally prolonged seizures. The definition has different time points for convulsive, focal and absence SE. Read More

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Cefepime-Induced Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus in a Pediatric Patient with Normal Renal Function.

Child Neurol Open 2022 Jan-Dec;9:2329048X221119575. Epub 2022 Aug 7.

Department of Pediatrics and Neurology, Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA.

Cefepime, a fourth-generation cephalosporin, is known to risk the induction of neurotoxic impairment from confusion to nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). Neurotoxic effects of cefepime are most commonly evident in the setting of impaired renal function in adults; however, are rarely present in those with normal renal excretion function or in the pediatric population. We present a case of a 16-year-old female with a complicated past medical history but no accounts of impaired renal function yet, after starting cefepime, presented with encephalopathy, intermittent stimulus-induced posturing, and was found to have NCSE. Read More

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Refractory Seizures Secondary to Vitamin B6 Deficiency in Parkinson Disease: The Role of Carbidopa-Levodopa.

Case Rep Neurol 2022 May-Aug;14(2):291-295. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Department of Neurology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Carbidopa-levodopa has been used for more than 50 years in the treatment of Parkinson disease (PD) and other movement disorders. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), an active form of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), is involved in the decarboxylation of levodopa to dopamine; carbidopa, which is combined with levodopa to reduce peripheral levodopa conversion and minimize peripheral dopamine side effects, binds irreversibly with PLP. As a result, carbidopa-levodopa may cause vitamin B6 deficiency and associated sequelae, including seizures, especially in high doses. Read More

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Benzodiazepine Use for Pediatric Patients With Suspected Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus With or Without Simplified Electroencephalogram: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2022 Aug 9. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

Department of Data Science, Clinical Research Center, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.

Objectives: In the present study, we aimed to determine the changes in the administration rate of benzodiazepines for pediatric patients with suspected nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) before and after the introduction of simplified electroencephalography (sEEG) in the emergency department.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included patients who were younger than 18 years and were admitted to the emergency department from August 1, 2009, to July 31, 2017, with altered level of consciousness and nonpurposeful movement of eyes or extremities after the cessation of convulsive status epilepticus. Patients with apparent persistent convulsions, those who were fully conscious on arrival, and those who were transferred from another hospital were excluded. Read More

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Cholesterol 24-hydroxylase is a novel pharmacological target for anti-ictogenic and disease modification effects in epilepsy.

Neurobiol Dis 2022 Aug 3:105835. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

Department of Neuroscience, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, 20156 Milano, Italy. Electronic address:

Therapies for epilepsy mainly provide symptomatic control of seizures since most of the available drugs do not target disease mechanisms. Moreover, about one-third of patients fail to achieve seizure control. To address the clinical need for disease-modifying therapies, research should focus on targets which permit interventions finely balanced between optimal efficacy and safety. Read More

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Status Epilepticus in Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: A Case Report of an Unusual Presentation.

Cureus 2022 Jun 30;14(6):e26470. Epub 2022 Jun 30.

Neurology, University of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine, Tampa, USA.

Although non-prion neurodegenerative illnesses are the main causes of rapidly progressive dementia (RPD), a case of RPD should be evaluated for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), a kind of prion disease. We describe a 71-year-old man who first displayed a lack of coordination before developing focal seizures accompanied by myoclonic jerks as well as left hemibody weakness and incoordination. As part of the additional diagnostic workup, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analyses, 72 hours of prolonged electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring, and additional brain imaging were obtained. Read More

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Management Of Refractory Status Epilepticus: An International COhort stuDy (MORSE CODe) Analysis of Patients Managed in the ICU.

Neurology 2022 Aug 2. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

Neurological Institute, Columbia University, NY Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA

Background And Objectives: Status epilepticus that continues after the initial benzodiazepine and a second anticonvulsant medication is known as refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Management is highly variable as adequately powered clinical trials are missing. We aimed to determine if propofol and midazolam were equally effective in controlling RSE in the intensive care unit, focusing on management in resource limited settings. Read More

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Cefepime-Induced Neurotoxicity in the Setting of Acute Kidney Injury: A Case Series and Discussion of Preventive Measures.

Cureus 2022 Jun 28;14(6):e26392. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Division of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Basel, Basel, CHE.

Neurotoxicity is a well-described adverse effect of cefepime. Clinical presentation includes mild neurological deficits, aphasia, impairment of consciousness, and even nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Impaired kidney function is considered the most important risk factor for cefepime-induced neurotoxicity (CIN) and frequently occurs during the course of critical diseases with concomitant acute kidney injury (AKI). Read More

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Electrical Status Epilepticus in Sleep (ESES) in an Elderly Adult: A Case Report.

Cureus 2022 Jun 27;14(6):e26372. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Neurology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, USA.

Electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) is a pattern of continuous spikes seen in electroencephalography (EEG) and may be associated with neuropsychological deficits in children. This EEG pattern has not previously been reported in older adults. In this case report, a 66-year-old woman with post-traumatic epilepsy presented to the emergency department following a breakthrough seizure. Read More

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What Is Different about Teratoma-Associated Anti-LGI1 Encephalitis? A Long-Term Clinical and Neuroimaging Case Series.

Eur Neurol 2022 Jul 27:1-9. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Department of Neurology and Radiology & Biomedical Imaging, Epilepsy Center, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.

Introduction: Anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) encephalitis is clinically heterogeneous, especially at presentation, and though it is sometimes found in association with tumor, this is by no means the rule.

Methods: Clinical data for 10 patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis were collected including one case with teratoma and nine cases without and compared for clinical characteristics. Microscopic pathological examination and immunohistochemical assay of the LGI1 antibody were performed on teratoma tissue obtained by laparoscopic oophorocystectomy. Read More

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Status epilepticus due to COVID-19; a cases series and literature review.

Am J Neurodegener Dis 2022 20;11(2):34-45. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences Isfahan, Iran.

Complications are increasingly recognized with SARS-CoV-2, the causative pathogen for COVID-19. Various mechanisms have been proposed to justify the cause of seizures in Covid-19 patients. To our knowledge, 13 cases of status epilepticus (SE) associated with COVID-19 have been reported so far. Read More

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Clinical Characteristics and Short-Term Prognosis of Children With Antibody-Mediated Autoimmune Encephalitis: A Single-Center Cohort Study.

Front Pediatr 2022 8;10:880693. Epub 2022 Jul 8.

Department of Neurology, Hunan Children's Hospital, Changsha, China.

Background: The incidence and prevalence of autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is gradually increasing in pediatric patients (between the ages of 3 months and 16 years). The aim of this retrospective observational study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and short-term prognosis of children with antibody-mediated AE at Hunan Children's Hospital.

Methods: Antibody analysis of blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid was performed in suspected AE patients admitted to the Department of Neurology, Hunan Children's Hospital from June 2014 to June 2021. Read More

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Quantitative Analysis of Diffusion-Restricted Lesions in a Differential Diagnosis of Status Epilepticus and Acute Ischemic Stroke.

Front Neurol 2022 7;13:926381. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

Department of Neuroradiology, Christian Doppler University Hospital, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria.

Background And Purpose: Distinction between acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and status epilepticus (SE) on MRI can be challenging as restricted diffusion may occur in both conditions. In this study, we aimed to test a tool, which could help in differentiating AIS from SE when restricted diffusion was present on MRI.

Materials And Methods: In diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) with a b-value of 1,000 and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, we compared the ratios of intensities of gray values of diffusion-restricted lesions to the healthy mirror side in patients with AIS and SE. Read More

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Machine-learning validation through decision-tree analysis of the Epidemiology-based Mortality Score in Status Epilepticus.

Epilepsia 2022 Jul 23. Epub 2022 Jul 23.

Azienda Ospedaliera-Universitaria di Modena, Neurology Department, Modena, Italy.

Objective: To validate the accuracy of the Epidemiology-based Mortality Score in Status Epilepticus (EMSE) in predicting the risk of death at 30 days in a large cohort of patients with status epilepticus (SE) using a machine-learning system.

Methods: We included consecutive patients with SE admitted from 2013 to 2021 at Modena Academic Hospital. A decision tree analysis was performed using the 30-day mortality as a dependent variable and the EMSE predictors as input variables. Read More

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Non-lesional late-onset epilepsy in the elderly Japanese patients: Presenting characteristics and seizure outcomes with regard to comorbid dementia.

J Clin Neurosci 2022 Jul 19;103:100-106. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Women's Medical University Adachi Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan.

The objective of the present retrospective study was analysis of clinical, radiological, and electrophysiological characteristics of the non-lesional late-onset epilepsy (NLLOE) in the elderly Japanese patients, and comparison of the seizure outcomes in this population with regard to presence of comorbid dementia. The study cohort comprised 89 consecutive patients with NLLOE aged ≥ 65 years. In 49 cases (55%), NLLOE manifested with a single type of seizure. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 infection and seizures: the perfect storm.

J Integr Neurosci 2022 Jun;21(4):115

Department of Neurology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7025, USA.

Seizures have been increasingly identified as a neurologic manifestation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. They may be symptomatic due to systemic infections, as a result of direct central nervous system (CNS) invasion, or occur in response to inflammatory reactions to the virus. It is possible that proinflammatory molecules released in response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can lead to hyperexcitability and epileptogenesis, similar to infections caused by other neurotrophic viruses. Read More

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Nonconvulsive status epilepticus due to pneumocephalus after suprasellar arachnoid cyst fenestration with transsphenoidal surgery: illustrative case.

J Neurosurg Case Lessons 2022 Jul 4;4(1):CASE22167. Epub 2022 Jul 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Chuo, Yamanashi, Japan.

Background: Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) requires prompt diagnosis and treatment, particularly after neurosurgical procedures for cerebral damage. Here, the authors reported an extremely rare case of suprasellar arachnoid cyst presenting with NCSE after cyst fenestration with transsphenoidal surgery, which was associated with pneumocephalus.

Observations: A 61-year-old man presented with visual impairment and was diagnosed with a suprasellar arachnoid cyst on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Read More

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Rapidly evolving Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in COVID-19: from early status epilepticus to fatal outcome.

Acta Neurol Belg 2022 Jul 19. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Neurology Unit, Department of Medical, Surgical and Health Sciences, Cattinara University Hospital , University of Trieste , Trieste, Italy.

We report the case of a 70-year-old man coming to our attention for new onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) in a rapidly evolving CJD during SARS-CoV-2 co-infection. Our case report describes a fulminant CJD evolution associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, which led to patient death after 15 days from admission. First EEG presented continuous diffuse spikes, sharp waves and sharp-and-slow wave complexes, pattern consistent with a non-convulsive status epilepticus (NORSE). Read More

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Comparing Seizures Captured by Rapid Response EEG and Conventional EEG Recordings in a Multicenter Clinical Study.

Front Neurol 2022 29;13:915385. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, United States.

Objective: A recent multicenter prospective study (DECIDE trial) examined the use of Ceribell Rapid Response EEG () in the emergent evaluation and management of critically ill patients suspected to have non-convulsive seizures. We present a detailed, patient-level examination of seizures detected either on initial or subsequent conventional EEG within 24 h to investigate whether seizures were missed on due to the exclusion of midline/parasagittal coverage.

Methods: We identified from 164 patients studied in the DECIDE trial those who had seizures detected on but not conventional EEG ( = 6), conventional EEG but not ( = 4), or both and conventional EEG ( = 9). Read More

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Risk factors for Drug-resistant Epilepsy (DRE) and a nomogram model to predict DRE development in post-traumatic epilepsy patients.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2022 Jul 12. Epub 2022 Jul 12.

Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objectives: To identify factors affecting the development of drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE), and establish a reliable nomogram to predict DRE development in post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) patients.

Methods: This study conducted a retrospective clinical analysis in patients with PTE who visited the Epilepsy Center, Beijing Tiantan Hospital from January 2013 to December 2018. All participants were followed up for at least 3 years, and the development of DRE was assessed. Read More

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Continuous Spikes and Waves During Sleep (CSWS), Severe Epileptic Encephalopathy, and Choreoathetosis due to Mutations in .

Clin EEG Neurosci 2022 Jul 11:15500594221112508. Epub 2022 Jul 11.

Genetic and Metabolic Department, King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, KSA.

Biallelic pathogenic variants in the gene are now known to cause developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-37 (DEE37). It can also be associated with chorea and continuous spikes and waves during sleep (CSWS). CSWS is a rare age-related epileptic encephalopathy syndrome of childhood that is characterized by seizures, neurocognitive regression and electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES) on electroencephalogram (EEG) that evolves in four stages. Read More

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Seeking the Light in Intensive Care Unit Sedation: The Optimal Sedation Strategy for Critically Ill Patients.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 24;9:901343. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Science and Public Health, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.

The clinical approach to sedation in critically ill patients has changed dramatically over the last two decades, moving to a regimen of light or non-sedation associated with adequate analgesia to guarantee the patient's comfort, active interaction with the environment and family, and early mobilization and assessment of delirium. Although deep sedation (DS) may still be necessary for certain clinical scenarios, it should be limited to strict indications, such as mechanically ventilated patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), status epilepticus, intracranial hypertension, or those requiring target temperature management. DS, if not indicated, is associated with prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay, and increased mortality. Read More

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Dogs as a Natural Animal Model of Epilepsy.

Front Vet Sci 2022 22;9:928009. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Germany.

Epilepsy is a common neurological disease in both humans and domestic dogs, making dogs an ideal translational model of epilepsy. In both species, epilepsy is a complex brain disease characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate spontaneous recurrent epileptic seizures. Furthermore, as in humans, status epilepticus is one of the more common neurological emergencies in dogs with epilepsy. Read More

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Hyperperfusion Tmax mapping for nonconvulsive status epilepticus in the acute setting: A pilot case-control study.

Epilepsia 2022 Jul 6. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

IRCCS Istituto delle ScienzeNeurologiche di Bologna, Neurologia e Rete Stroke Metropolitana, OspedaleMaggiore, Bologna, Italy.

Objective: Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is misdiagnosed in >50% of cases in the emergency department. Computed tomographic perfusion (CTP) has been implemented in the hyperacute setting to detect seizure-induced hyperperfusion. However, the diagnostic value of CTP is limited by the lack of thresholds for hyperperfusion and high interrater variability. Read More

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Provoked seizures at the onset of progressive disease contribute to diagnosis delay - A tertiary center experience in a cohort of 22 children with CLN2.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2022 Jun 30;40:1-4. Epub 2022 Jun 30.

University of Belgrade, Faculty of Medicine, Serbia; Institute for Mother and Child Healthcare of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia.

Purpose: The evaluation of epilepsy features and factors with impact to diagnosis delay in children with CLN2.

Method: The study included children with CLN2 treated from 2000 to 2020. Diagnosis was confirmed by: TPP1 deficiency and/or TPP1 gene mutation or pathognomonic electron microscopy findings. Read More

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Sepsis modulates cortical excitability and alters the local and systemic hemodynamic response to seizures.

Sci Rep 2022 Jul 5;12(1):11336. Epub 2022 Jul 5.

Department of Neurology, Erasme Hospital, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Route de Lennik, 808, 1070, Brussels, Belgium.

Non-convulsive seizures and status epilepticus are frequent and associated with increased mortality in septic patients. However, the mechanism through which seizures impact outcome in these patients is unclear. As previous studies yielded an alteration of neurovascular coupling (NVC) during sepsis, we hypothesized that non-convulsive seizures, might further impair NVC, leading to brain tissue hypoxia. Read More

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Association Between Late-Onset Leukoencephalopathy With Vanishing White Matter and Compound Heterozygous EIF2B5 Gene Mutations: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Front Neurol 2022 16;13:813032. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

The Fourth Clinical Medical College of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Shenzhen, China.

Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (LVWM) is an autosomal recessive disease. Ovarioleukodystrophy is defined as LVWM in females showing signs or symptoms of gradual ovarian failure. We present a 38-year-old female with ovarioleukodystrophy who showed status epilepticus, gait instability, slurred speech, abdominal tendon hyperreflexia, and ovarian failure. Read More

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Non-convulsive status epilepticus in the setting of cannabidiol adjunctive therapy

Epileptic Disord 2022 08;24(4):713-718

Department of Neurology

Anti-seizure medications (ASMs) can cause non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), but account for less than 5% of all NCSE cases. We present a 63-year-old, right-handed male with a history of intractable focal epilepsy since age seven years old, whose bouts of NCSE were triggered by cannabidiol (CBD) adjunctive therapy. His most common seizure types included focal myoclonic or tonic seizures with vocalization, usually with awakening, which occurred on a monthly basis despite the combination of tiagabine, perampanel, levetiracetam, lacosamide and clonazepam. Read More

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Epilepsy with myoclonic absences: a case series highlighting clinical heterogeneity and surgical management.

Epileptic Disord 2022 Jun;24(3):541-547

Objective: Epilepsy with myoclonic absences is a rare epilepsy syndrome with distinct features and high rates of drug resistance. Identifying this syndrome may help guide treatment decisions. We highlight clinical heterogeneity in this case series and two cases in which corpus callosotomy was performed. Read More

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A Hybrid Expert System for Individualized Quantification of Electrical Status Epilepticus During Sleep Using Biogeography-Based Optimization.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2022 19;30:1920-1930. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES) is an epileptic encephalopathy in children with complex clinical manifestations. It is accompanied by specific electroencephalography (EEG) patterns of continuous spike and slow-waves. Quantifying such EEG patterns is critical to the diagnosis of ESES. Read More

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