722 results match your criteria Dystonia Tardive

[Late-Onset Dyskinesia Occurring During Antipsychotic Treatment for Schizophrenia: Treatments for Tardive Dyskinesia].

Masahiro Nomoto

Brain Nerve 2022 May;74(5):565-570

Department of Neurology, Saiseikai Imabari Hospital.

Tardive dyskinesia is recognized as buccolingual dyskinesia, but also includes various involuntary movements, such as chorea, dystonia, myoclonus, and tremor. Tardive dyskinesia can be treated depending on the type of movement disorder present. Antipsychotics causing tardive dyskinesia should be reduced in dosage or should be discontinued. Read More

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Drug-induced tremor, clinical features, diagnostic approach and management.

J Neurol Sci 2022 04 19;435:120192. Epub 2022 Feb 19.

Movement Disorders Program, Parkinson's Foundation Center of Excellence, Department of Neurology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA. Electronic address:

Tremor is the most common movement disorder and there are numerous causes of tremor. In many individuals, tremor can be due to drugs. The most common drugs associated with tremor include amiodarone, selective serotonin (and norepinephrine) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs/SNRIs), amitriptyline, lithium, valproate, β-adrenoceptor agonists, dopamine receptor antagonists, VMAT2 inhibitors, or drugs of abuse: ethanol, cocaine, etc. Read More

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Long-term effects of pallidal deep brain stimulation in tardive dystonia: a follow-up of 5-14 years.

J Neurol 2022 Jul 27;269(7):3563-3568. Epub 2022 Jan 27.

Movement Disorder and Neuromodulation Unit, Department of Neurology, Charité, University Medicine Berlin, Campus Mitte, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany.

Introduction: Pallidal DBS is an established treatment for severe isolated dystonia. However, its use in disabling and treatment-refractory tardive syndromes (TS) including tardive dyskinesia and tardive dystonia (TD) is less well investigated and long-term data remain sparse. This observational study evaluates long-term effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) in patients with medically refractory TS. Read More

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An Experimental Study to Assess the Professional and Social Consequences of Tardive Dyskinesia.

Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci 2022 Feb;20(1):154-166

Teva Pharmaceuticals, West Chester, PA, USA.

Objective: Antipsychotic medications may cause tardive dyskinesia (TD), an often-irreversible movement disorder characterized by involuntary movements that are typically stereotypic, choreiform, or dystonic and may impair quality of life. This study evaluated others' perceptions of abnormal TD movements in professional and social situations.

Methods: This was an experimental, randomized, blinded, digital survey in a general population sample. Read More

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February 2022

Is Generalized and Segmental Dystonia Accompanied by Impairments in the Dopaminergic System?

Front Neurol 2021 18;12:751434. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Department of Neurology, Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

The pathogenesis of dystonia is remarkably diverse. Some types of dystonia, such as DYT5 (DYT-) and tardive dystonia, are related to dysfunction of the dopaminergic system. Furthermore, on pathological examination, cell loss in the substantia nigra (SN) of patients with dystonia has been reported, suggesting that impaired dopamine production may be involved in DYT5 and in other types of dystonia. Read More

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November 2021

Chronic form of Pisa syndrome after prolonged exposure to low-dose amisulpride treatment.

Ideggyogy Sz 2021 Sep;74(9-10):356-360

Akdeniz University, Department of Neurology, Antalya, Turkey.

Pisa syndrome is a movement problem defined by tonic, sustained lateral flexion with a slight posterior rotation of the trunk. It seems to be a side effect of antipsychotic medicine in most cases. The clinical duration of Pisa syndrome can be acute, chronic, or recurrent. Read More

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September 2021

Clozapine-Associated Pisa Syndrome: A Case Report of an Acute Reaction in a Bipolar Patient.

Clin Neuropharmacol 2021 Nov-Dec 01;44(6):222-224

Hospital Júlio de Matos, Centro Hospitalar Psiquiátrico de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.

Objectives: The aims of the study were to describe the case of a 73-year-old woman with bipolar disorder who developed Pisa syndrome (PS) after starting clozapine and to present a review of this particular type of dystonia.

Methods: After a brief introduction to the PS, we conduct a detailed description of the case and review, after a search on the PubMed database, the known risk factors, drugs associated with the onset of this syndrome, and the management of PS.

Results: Pisa syndrome is a rare type of dystonia first described in 1972 as an adverse effect of neuroleptic agents. Read More

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November 2021

Late-Onset Dystonia With Low-Dose Olanzapine in an Older Person: A Case Report.

Sr Care Pharm 2021 Oct;36(10):493-500

3Director of Inpatient Geriatric Medicine Clinical Services, Brookdale Dept. of Geriatrics and Palliative Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

Drug-induced dystonias are rare but can occur with second-generation antipsychotics. They are usually dose-related and occur soon after dose initiation. This case describes the development of dystonia after two years of olanzapine 5 mg daily in an older person with Alzheimer's dementia. Read More

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October 2021

Improvement of Tardive Dyskinesia during Mindfulness Meditation.

Neurol Int 2021 Aug 30;13(3):439-444. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Psychiatry, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, DMU Neuroscience, Sorbonne University, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), 75651 Paris, France.

Background: We report the case of a patient presenting with orofacial tardive dyskinesia (TD), following administration of a first-generation antipsychotic (Loxapine).

Intervention: Four weeks of repeated sessions of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) protocols were administered, with TD hetero-quantified before and during each session via the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS).

Results: The dyskinesia ameliorated quantitatively and qualitatively (1) during each session, and (2) at resting conditions in the long term. Read More

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Gastrointestinal disorders in hyperkinetic movement disorders and ataxia.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2021 09 14;90:125-133. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Neurology, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, McGovern Medical School, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders have been thoroughly investigated in hypokinetic disorders such as Parkinson's disease, but much less is known about GI disorders in hyperkinetic movement disorders and ataxia. The aim of this review is to draw attention to the GI disorders that are associated with these movement disorders.

Methods: References for this systematic review were identified by searches of PubMed through May 2020. Read More

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September 2021

Mood and emotional disorders associated with parkinsonism, Huntington disease, and other movement disorders.

Handb Clin Neurol 2021 ;183:175-196

Department of Psychology, Queens College of the City University of New York, Flushing, NY, United States. Electronic address:

This chapter provides a review of mood, emotional disorders, and emotion processing deficits associated with diseases that cause movement disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Lewy body dementia, multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism, Huntington's disease, essential tremor, dystonia, and tardive dyskinesia. For each disorder, a clinical description of the common signs and symptoms, disease progression, and epidemiology is provided. Then the mood and emotional disorders associated with each of these diseases are described and discussed in terms of clinical presentation, incidence, prevalence, and alterations in quality of life. Read More

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Kazumichi Yamada

No Shinkei Geka 2021 Jul;49(4):770-781

Division of Speech-Language-Hearing Therapy, Department of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Science, Kumamoto Health Science University.

Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements or postures. Currently, dystonia is defined as a network disorder involving the basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and sensorimotor cortex. Considering that it is refractory to medical therapy, functional neurosurgery is indispensable in the treatment strategy for dystonia. Read More

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Akathisia as an Extrapyramidal Side Effect of Fluoxetine.

Cureus 2021 Jun 21;13(6):e15797. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics, Dell Children's Medical Center, Austin, USA.

Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) that is commonly prescribed for major depressive disorder (MDD). Akathisia is one of the well-recognized extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) of antipsychotics and antiemetics, but also a rare manifestation of antidepressants. There are various documentations of EPS of antidepressants including acute dystonia, Parkinsonism, and tardive dyskinesia. Read More

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Beyond tics: movement disorders in patients with Tourette syndrome.

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2021 08 23;128(8):1177-1183. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Neurology, Parkinson's Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Tics are the hallmark of Tourette syndrome (TS). However, TS patients may have a particular vulnerability to develop other movement disorders (MDs), such as dystonia, chorea, stereotypy, and other hyperkinetic disorders that may be wrongly attributed to tics.

Materials And Methods: We studied a cohort of 201 patients with motor and phonic tics associated with TS to determine if they have additional, co-existent, MDs. Read More

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A Brief Review on the Role of Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Inhibitors in Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders.

Ali Nikkhah

Iran J Child Neurol 2021 ;15(3):29-33

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Research Center, Research Institute for Children's Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Hyperkinetic movement disorders are a common group of movement abnormalities in children, characterized with repetitive unintended involuntary movements. Major hyperkinetic movements include tremor, tic, dystonia, myoclonus, and chorea. Although a number of drugs have been proven to be beneficial for these abnormalities, some patients may become resistant to conventional treatments. Read More

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January 2021

Tardive laryngeal dystonia with risperidone - A case report.

Indian J Psychiatry 2021 May-Jun;63(3):306-307. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Psychiatry Unit 1, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail:

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Globus Pallidus Internus Deep Brain Stimulation for Dystonic Opisthotonus in Adult-Onset Dystonia: A Personalized Approach.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 10;15:683545. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, King's College Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Introduction: Dystonic opisthotonus is defined as a backward arching of the neck and trunk, which ranges in severity from mild backward jerks to life-threatening prolonged severe muscular spasms. It can be associated with generalized dystonic syndromes or, rarely, present as a form of axial truncal dystonia. The etiologies vary from idiopathic, genetic, tardive, hereditary-degenerative, or associated with parkinsonism. Read More

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Long-Term Follow-Up of 12 Patients Treated with Bilateral Pallidal Stimulation for Tardive Dystonia.

Life (Basel) 2021 May 24;11(6). Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University, Tokushima 770-8503, Japan.

Tardive dystonia (TD) is a side effect of prolonged dopamine receptor antagonist intake. TD can be a chronic disabling movement disorder despite medical treatment. We previously demonstrated successful outcomes in six patients with TD using deep brain stimulation (DBS); however, more patients are needed to better understand the efficacy of DBS for treating TD. Read More

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Electroconvulsive Therapy as a Treatment for Tardive Dyskinesia.

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2021 05 6;23(3). Epub 2021 May 6.

Waltham Forest Older Adults Mental Health Team, North East London Foundation Trust, Red Oak Lodge, London, England.

Objective: To review the published literature over the last 10 years for the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in tardive dyskinesia (TD), focusing on the efficacy of this treatment.

Data Sources: A comprehensive evidence search of the published literature in the last 10 years (2010-2020) was conducted using the search terms electroconvulsive therapy, electroshock therapy, ECT, tardive dyskinesia, and tardive dystonia. The review was limited to articles published in the English language. Read More

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Prevalence and incidence of oromandibular dystonia: an oral and maxillofacial surgery service-based study.

Kazuya Yoshida

Clin Oral Investig 2021 Oct 6;25(10):5755-5764. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, National Hospital Organization, Kyoto Medical Center, 1-1 Mukaihata-cho, Fukakusa, Fushimi-ku, Kyoto, 612-8555, Japan.

Objectives: Oromandibular dystonia is a focal dystonia characterized by sustained or intermittent contractions of the masticatory and/or tongue muscles. This epidemiological study aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of oromandibular dystonia in Kyoto (population: 1,465,701).

Materials And Methods: The population sample was citizens of Kyoto who visited our department between 2015 and 2019 and were differentially diagnosed by an oromandibular dystonia specialist having idiopathic (primary) and acquired (secondary) oromandibular dystonia. Read More

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October 2021

A Low Clozapine Dose Improved Refractory Tardive Dystonia without Exacerbating Psychiatric Symptoms: A Case Report.

Int Med Case Rep J 2021 16;14:237-239. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Occupational and Environmental Health Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, 8078555, Japan.

Clozapine is recommended for patients with schizophrenia and tardive dystonia (TD); however, the appropriate dose remains unclear. In this case, a low dose (150 mg/day) of clozapine improved refractory TD and further ameliorated psychiatric symptoms. Herein, we report on a 41-year-old female with schizophrenia and TD who was treated with a low clozapine dose. Read More

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ATP1A3-Related Disorders: An Ever-Expanding Clinical Spectrum.

Front Neurol 2021 1;12:637890. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Neurology and Center for Neurological Restoration, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States.

The Na+/K+ ATPases are Sodium-Potassium exchanging pumps, with a heteromeric α-β-γ protein complex. The α3 isoform is required as a rescue pump, after repeated action potentials, with a distribution predominantly in neurons of the central nervous system. This isoform is encoded by the ATP1A3 gene. Read More

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Experiences on The Administration of Botulinum Toxin in Movement Disorders.

J Transl Int Med 2021 Mar 5;9(1):52-56. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey.

Background And Objectives: Botulinum toxin injection has been used for many years for various indications such as cervical dystonia, blepharospasm, oromandibular dystonia, hemifacial spasm in neurology. Botulinum toxin injections have been made in our clinic for about ten years. We want to report our experiences about botulinum toxin treatment in neurologic disease. Read More

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Spastic quadriplegia following intradermal use of hydrogen peroxide in the tardive curettage procedure for the treatment of a giant congenital nevus.

G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2020 Dec;155(6):780-782

Department of Legal Medicine, IRCCS San Martino University Hospital, Genoa, Italy.

The possible transformation of a giant congenital melanocytic nevi (GCMN) in malignant melanoma estimated from 0.05% to 40% depend on the size of the lesions. Many are the surgical procedures proposed, including: full or partial-thickness excisions, dermabrasion, curettage in the first weeks of life and laser treatment. Read More

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December 2020

Spectrum of Truncal Dystonia and Response to Treatment: A Retrospective Analysis.

Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2020 Sep-Oct;23(5):644-648. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Neurology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Background: Presence of truncal dystonia usually points to a secondary cause of dystonia like exposure to dopamine receptor blockers or neurodegenerative illness. Rarely, it can occur as an idiopathic focal or segmental dystonia.

Methods: Retrospective review of medical records and videos of patients of truncal dystonia presenting in the Botulinum Toxin Clinic of Department of Neurology at Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh between May 2016 and February 2019. Read More

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October 2020

Extrapyramidal side effects in first-episode schizophrenia treated with flupenthixol decanoate.

S Afr J Psychiatr 2021 11;27:1568. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Concern for the development of extrapyramidal side effects (EPSEs) represents a barrier to the routine use of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic medication in patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES). Flupenthixol decanoate is a first-generation antipsychotic, which is readily available in the public healthcare system in South Africa.

Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the nature, occurrence and severity of EPSEs and their impact on patients with FES over 12 months of treatment with flupenthixol decanoate (fluanxol depot). Read More

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January 2021

Deep brain stimulation in Fragile X syndrome with tardive dystonia.

Neurol Sci 2021 Jul 12;42(7):2987-2989. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Neurosurgery Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

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Botulinum Toxin in Movement Disorders: An Update.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 Jan 8;13(1). Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Parkinson's Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic, Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Since its initial approval in 1989 by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of blepharospasm and other facial spasms, botulinum toxin (BoNT) has evolved into a therapeutic modality for a variety of neurological and non-neurological disorders. With respect to neurologic movement disorders, BoNT has been reported to be effective for the treatment of dystonia, bruxism, tremors, tics, myoclonus, restless legs syndrome, tardive dyskinesia, and a variety of symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease. More recently, research with BoNT has expanded beyond its use as a powerful muscle relaxant and a peripherally active drug to its potential central nervous system applications in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Read More

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January 2021