63,179 results match your criteria Dysphagia [Journal]
Arch Oral Biol 2018 Nov 28;98:238-242. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare, 288 Matsushima, Kurashiki, Okayama 701-0193, Japan. Electronic address:
Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether anterior tongue muscle strengthening exercises can affect the strength of posterior tongue muscles.
Design: Eleven healthy subjects (20.6 ± 1. Read More
Acta Med Port 2018 Nov 30;31(11):691-693. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Serviço de Medicina Interna. Hospital Sousa Martins. Guarda. Portugal.
Botulism is a serious illness caused by exposure to botulinum toxin. It is manifested by flaccid, paralysis, symmetric and in descending pattern affecting cranial and peripheral nerves. Given the frequent need for invasive mechanical ventilation, these patients should be approached in an intensive care setting. Read More
J Vet Intern Med 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Equine Diagnostic Solutions LLC, Lexington, Kentucky.
Background: Streptococcus equi subspecies equi infection elicits M protein antibody titers in equids. Interpretation of titers is not generally accepted.
Hypothesis: The magnitude of S. Read More
Cureus 2018 Sep 28;10(9):e3381. Epub 2018 Sep 28.
Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Teodoro Maldonado Carbo / Universidad Catolica De Santiago De Guayaquil, Guayaquil, ECU.
Chordomas are rare, slow-growing, and locally aggressive malignant neoplasms derived from primitive notochord remnants. The chondroid variety represents 14% of all chordomas mainly developing in the spheno-occipital region and presenting between the third and fifth decades of life. When developing intracranially, symptoms can range from headaches and neck pain to cranial nerve neuropathies and facial numbness. Read More
Cancers (Basel) 2018 Dec 4;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 4.
Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
Background: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) are more common in the minor salivary glands (MiSGs) than the major salivary glands, and are characterized by slow tumor progression and frequently local recurrence. The main treatment option is surgery followed by combined radiotherapy.
Methods: A retrospective analysis contained 67 patients with ACC of MiSGs in the oral cavity who underwent surgery followed by radiotherapy. Read More
Eur Spine J 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Department of Orthopedics, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, GongTiNanLu 8#, Chao-Yang District, Beijing, 100020, China.
Purpose: To conduct a high-level systematic review of the literature to evaluate intravenous and local steroid use in the management of dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery.
Methods: We searched the database PubMed, EMBASE, Clinical key, the Cochrane library and Wiley Online Library without time restriction using the terms 'dysphagia' or 'odynophagia' or 'swallowing disorder,' 'steroid,' 'anterior cervical spine surgery.' Randomized controlled trails (RCTs) were selected, and effects of intravenous and local steroids were investigated from these studies. Read More
eNeurologicalSci 2018 Dec 19;13:31-32. Epub 2018 Nov 19.
Hospital Medicine Section, Rocky Mountain Regional VA Medical Center, Aurora, CO 80045, United States.
J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2018 Nov 7. Epub 2018 Nov 7.
Professor, University of Florida College of Medicine-Jacksonville, Jacksonville, FL.
Purpose: There is clear overuse of computed tomography (CT) in the emergency setting, which is associated with a long-term potential for malignancy. This study aimed to determine the rate of overuse of CT for odontogenic infection workup and the correlation of history and physical examination (H&P) findings to diagnose moderate- to high-risk infections.
Materials And Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was implemented to determine the rate of overuse of CT for odontogenic infections. Read More
Codas 2018 Nov 29;30(6):e20180027. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
Departamento de Fonoaudiologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina - UFSC - Florianópolis (SC), Brasil.
Purpose: To verify the perception of patients with neurodegenerative diseases regarding swallowing changes and to know the perceptions of swallowing sensations that can promote the early identification of dysphagia.
Methods: It is a cross-sectional study with 44 patients with neurodegenerative diseases. All of them answered a questionnaire to know the sensation perceived during swallowing and its intensity. Read More
Neurol Sci 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
Neuromuscular Omnicentre (NEMO)-Fondazione Serena Onlus, Piazza Ospedale Maggiore, 3, 20162, Milan, Italy.
The primary aim of the study is to evaluate possible taste changes in a cohort of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (pALS) with dysphagia, focusing on eventual psychological and quality of life (QoL) implications. The second aim is to evaluate the changes of QoL following the use of a specific device that provides food flavour. Thirty-two ALS patients were recruited and divided into two groups: subjects feeding only through enteral tube (ET) and subjects still eating by oral way (OW). Read More
Dysphagia 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
Radiation Oncology Department, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Metro South Hospital & Health Service, Brisbane, QLD, 4102, Australia.
Research advocates for the use of intensive, prophylactic swallowing therapy to help reduce the severity of dysphagia in patients receiving (chemo)radiotherapy ([C]RT) for head/neck cancer (HNC). Unfortunately, the intensity of this therapy, coupled with growing patient numbers and limited clinical resources, provides challenges to many international cancer facilities. Telepractice has been proposed as a potential method to provide patients with greater support in home-practice, whilst minimising burden to the health service. Read More
J Med Case Rep 2018 Dec 5;12(1):359. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Pharmaceutical Care Department, Alansar Hospital, Al Madinah, Al Munawarah, Saudi Arabia.
Background: Ace inhibitor-induced angioedema, characterized by sudden-onset swelling of the mucous membrane, skin, or both, is a rare occurrence in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Because of its safety and efficacy, perindopril is a commonly prescribed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. Here we describe the clinical manifestations, management, and outcome of perindopril-induced angioedema of the lips and tongue in a 65-year-old Saudi man. Read More
Prog Transplant 2018 Dec 4:1526924818817035. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
1 Division of Cardiac Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Introduction:: Postoperative dysphagia leads to aspiration pneumonia, prolonged hospital stay, and is associated with increased mortality. We have demonstrated the validity of a bedside targeted swallow evaluation following cardiac surgery. Since dysphagia following liver transplantation is not well examined, we evaluated the efficacy of this swallow screen method in postoperative liver transplant patients. Read More
Rev Prat 2016 Dec;66(10):1121-1126
Service de médecine interne gériatrique.
Swallowing disorders in the elderly. Swallowing disorders are a common problem in the elderly with severe consequences in multiple cases. At the current time these disorders are poorly understood and under-diagnosed. Read More
Chin Med J (Engl) 2018 Dec;131(23):2868-2870
Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou 550004, China.
Case Rep Hematol 2018 28;2018:9615834. Epub 2018 Oct 28.
Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
A 70-year-old female presented with a three-year history of evolving macroglossia causing dysphagia and dysarthria, with proximal muscle weakness. Given the classic physical finding of macroglossia, the patient underwent extensive evaluation for amyloidosis which proved to be negative apart from a bone marrow biopsy which stained positive for transthyretin without amino acid sequence abnormality, thus giving wild-type transthyretin amyloidosis. Since the wild-type transthyretin amyloidosis could not entirely explain her clinical presentation and evaluation, further studies were conducted in a sequential manner, thus leading to a diagnosis of Pompe disease explaining her presenting signs and symptoms including her macroglossia. Read More
Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Nov;97(48):e13413
The Comprehensive Cancer Centre of Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University & Clinical Cancer Institute of Nanjing University, Nanjing.
Rationale: Follicular dendritic cell (FDC) sarcoma is a rare tumor with FDC differentiation that typically arises within lymph nodes but can also occur extranodally. To date, the primary esophageal FDC sarcoma has not been reported in the English literature.
Patient Concerns: We described a 67-year-old female who foremostly presented with dysphagia, and the patient was readmitted due to a dry cough and pain of his right shoulder 2 years after initial treatment. Read More
J Neurol 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
French Reference Center of Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndrome, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Neurologique, Lyon, France.
Objective: To present clinical, radiological, and pathological features of a cohort of patients with motor neuron involvement in association with anti-Ma2 antibodies (Ma2-Ab).
Methods: Retrospective case-series of patients with definite paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS) and Ma2-Ab, and cases identified from a review of the literature.
Results: Among 33 Ma2-Ab patients referred between 2002 and 2016, we retrospectively identified three patients (9. Read More
J Nutr Health Aging 2018 ;22(10):1246-1252
Viviënne A.L. Huppertz, MSc. Maastricht University: Department of Pulmonology, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands, Email:
Objectives: Nursing home residents often suffer from multi-morbidities and geriatric syndromes leading to lower quality of life or mortality. Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) and malnutrition are profound conditions in this complex profile of multi-morbidities and are associated with deprived mental -and physical health status, e.g. Read More
Biomed Res Int 2018 25;2018:6416378. Epub 2018 Oct 25.
University of Debrecen, Faculty of Medicine, Division of Clinical Immunology, Móricz Zs. krt. 22, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary.
The aim of this study was to determine the clinical, serological, and genetic features of anti-Jo-1 positive antisynthetase patients followed by a Hungarian single centre to identify prognostic markers, which can predict disease phenotypes and disease progression. It was a retrospective study using clinical database of 49 anti-Jo-1 positive patients. 100% of patients exhibited myositis, 73% interstitial lung disease, 88% arthritis, 65% Raynaud's phenomenon, 43% fever, 33% mechanic's hand, and 12% dysphagia. Read More
Am J Otolaryngol 2018 Nov 5. Epub 2018 Nov 5.
Department of Neurology, Tianjin Union Medical Center, Tianjin 300121, China.
Background: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease. Dysarthria, dysphagia, and difficulty swallowing as exclusive initial and primary complaints in MG (laryngeal MG) are rare and seldom reported.
Methods: Here we review and analyze the largest series of laryngeal MG patients. Read More
BMC Cancer 2018 Nov 29;18(1):1184. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Background: Oesophageal carcinoma is one of the leading cancers in Sri Lanka. Recent advances in treatment modalities have drastically improved the survival of these patients. However, the quality of life (QoL) among the survivors needs to be reviewed in order to recognise the need for advocating more focussed rehabilitation for oesophageal carcinoma in Sri Lanka. Read More
J Neurosurg 2018 Oct 1:1-7. Epub 2018 Oct 1.
OBJECTIVEHemifacial spasm (HFS) is characterized by involuntary tonic and/or clonic contractions of facial nerve muscles. Fully endoscopic microvascular decompression (E-MVD) for HFS has not been widely adopted. This paper aims to illustrate the safety and efficacy of the fully endoscopic technique for HFS treatment. Read More
Med Phys J 1808 Mar;19(109):248-256
Member of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, &c.
Med Phys J 1800 Dec;4(22):477-479
Stoke Ferry, Norfolk.
Med Phys J 1802 Jul;8(41):35-41
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.
Institute for Onco-Physics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA; Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10461, USA; Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. Electronic address:
Purpose: Developing a quantitative decision-support strategy estimating the impact of normal tissue complications from definitive radiation therapy (RT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). We developed this strategy to identify oropharyngeal HNC patients that may benefit most from receiving proton RT.
Methods And Materials: Recent normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models for dysphagia, esophagitis, hypothyroidism, xerostomia and oral mucositis were used to estimate NTCP for 33 oropharyngeal HNC patients previously treated with photon IMRT. Read More
Physiol Behav 2018 Nov 26;199:273-281. Epub 2018 Nov 26.
Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA; Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.
Down syndrome (DS) in humans is associated with differences of the central nervous system and oromotor development. DS also increases risks for pediatric feeding challenges, which sometimes involve the use of altered food consistencies. Therefore, experimental food consistency paradigms are of interest to oromotor investigations in mouse models of Down syndrome (DS). Read More
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Jan;22(1):25-29
Department of Neurology, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany.
Purpose Of Review: The review summarizes current knowledge and recent findings about how to practically apply medication in patients with dysphagia and how swallowing function may be positively or negatively affected by drugs.
Recent Findings: Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a major health problem in older persons and was recently classified as a geriatric syndrome. Although the knowledge about an effective diagnostic approach increased during the last years, comparatively little is known about how to effectively manage and treat dysphagia and hardly anything is implemented in clinical routine. Read More
Muscle Nerve 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
Department of Neuromuscular Disease, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 139# Ziqiang Road, Shijiazhuang City, Hebei Province, 050051, P. R. China.
Introduction: Valosin-containing protein (VCP) variants that affect muscle, bone, and the nervous system are termed multisystem proteinopathy. VCP myopathy is manifested as limb-girdle weakness, distal weakness and scapuloperoneal weakness.
Methods: We reviewed clinical, genetic, and muscle biopsy data from 6 members of a family with VCP myopathy. Read More
Dysphagia 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, James Madison University, 235 MLK Jr. Way, MSC 4304, Harrisonburg, VA, 22087, USA.
Previously, vibratory stimulation increased spontaneous swallowing rates in healthy volunteers indicating that sensory stimulation excited the neural control of swallowing. Here, we studied patients with severe chronic dysphagia following brain injury or radiation for head and neck cancer to determine if sensory stimulation could excite an impaired swallowing system. We examined (1) if laryngeal vibratory stimulation increased spontaneous swallowing rates over sham (no stimulation); (2) the optimal rate of vibration, device contact pressure, and vibratory mode for increasing swallowing rates; and (3) if vibration altered participants' urge to swallow, neck comfort, and swallow initiation latency. Read More
Clin Oral Investig 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Department of Ophthalmology, Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo - USP, Avenida Bandeirantes, 3900, Ribeirão Preto, SP, 14049-900, Brazil.
Objectives: To investigate whether chronic temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients showed any changes in swallowing compared to a control group. Moreover, it was examined whether swallowing variables and a valid clinic measure of orofacial myofunctional status were associated.
Material And Methods: Twenty-three patients with chronic TMD, diagnosed with disc displacement with reduction (DDR) and pain, according to the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD), and 27 healthy volunteers (control group) were compared. Read More
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2018 Nov 29;19(11):3099-3103. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
Department of Radiation Oncology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Porur, Chennai, India. Email: cvdivyambika@ sriramachandra.edu.in
Background: A troublesome and usually unavoidable consequence of Head and Neck chemo radiation is oral mucositis which decreases patients’ compliance and negatively influences the outcome of therapy by increasing overall treatment time. Currently, no single effective recommended treatment exists for this problem and a variety of supportive care measures have been practiced with limited benefits. This study was done to evaluate the therapeutic benefit of Placentrex in the management of oral mucositis seen in oral cancer patients undergoing treatment with concurrent chemoradiation. Read More
J Dig Dis 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Department of Gastroenterology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.
Objective: Endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) is still considered as the standard treatment for patients with anastomotic strictures after esophagectomy. However, repeated dilation sessions are often required to maintain the lumen patency. We therefore developed a novel method called circular incision and cutting (CIC) and compared the efficacy of CIC and EBD among patients with anastomotic strictures after esophagectomy. Read More
J Intellect Disabil Res 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Department of Internal Medicine, Metrowest Medical Center, Framingham, MA, USA.
Background: Life expectancy of individuals with Down syndrome (DS) has improved significantly over the past decades. However, there are sparse data documenting the co-morbidities and hospitalisation of adult patients with DS in the literature. The aim of this study was to characterise the co-morbidities and pattern of hospitalisation in adult patients with DS during a 10-year period at the community hospital as well as to compare hospitalisation parameters with the general adult population during the same years. Read More
JGH Open 2018 Apr 2;2(2):34-38. Epub 2018 Apr 2.
Department of Gastroenterology GB Pant Hospital New Delhi India.
Background And Aim: Esophageal involvement in tuberculosis (TB) is rare and is usually secondary. Data on esophageal TB are scarce. We aimed to analyze clinical and endoscopic features and outcomes of treatment in esophageal TB. Read More
Case Rep Gastroenterol 2018 Sep-Dec;12(3):640-645. Epub 2018 Nov 1.
Department of Gastroenterology, San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium, San Antonio, Texas, USA.
Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a rare connective tissue disorder with clinical features that overlap with systemic lupus erythematous, systemic sclerosis, and polymyositis. We report the case of a patient who presented with dysphagia, 25-lb weight loss, difficulty opening her mouth, and joint pain. Dysphagia workup showed a normal barium swallow and normal-appearing EGD but esophageal manometry consistent with severe dysmotility. Read More
Oncologist 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Division of Neuromuscular Medicine, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) initiate antitumor immunity by blocking the action of immune inhibitor-signaled cytotoxic proteins, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4, programmed cell death protein 1, and programmed cell death ligand 1. However, in rare cases (∼1%-12% of patients), ICI treatment causes neurologic immune-related adverse events (irAEs). These include, but are not limited to, headache, encephalitis, neuropathies, myasthenia gravis, and myositis. Read More
Acta Clin Belg 2018 Nov 27:1-5. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
c Antwerp University Hospital and University of Antwerp , Edegem.
Objectives: Water and electrolytes disturbances often occur in renal transplant recipients. The objective is to describe the pathophysiology and the treatment of the most prevalent abnormalities.
Methods: We screened PubMed for the following words in various combination: kidney transplantation and (disturbances or abnormalities) of (electrolytes or sodium or potassium or phosphate or calcium or acid-base). Read More
GE Port J Gastroenterol 2018 Nov 13;25(6):331-332. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
Serviço de Gastrenterologia, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Ocidental, Lisbon, Portugal.
GE Port J Gastroenterol 2018 Nov 8;25(6):291-298. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
Gastroenterology Department, Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
Background/aims: Dysphagia due to benign pharyngoesophageal strictures (PES) often requires repeated dilations; however, a uniform definition for the therapeutic efficacy of this technique has not been yet established. We aimed to assess the overall efficacy of endoscopic dilation of pharyngoesophageal anastomotic or post-radiotherapy (post-RT) strictures.
Methods: The data of 48 patients with post-RT ( = 29) or anastomotic PES ( = 19) submitted to endoscopic dilation during a 3-year period were retrospectively assessed. Read More
J Contemp Brachytherapy 2018 Oct 15;10(5):425-430. Epub 2018 Oct 15.
Radiation Physics Department, Jupiter Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
Purpose: High-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy has an established role in head and neck malignancies and offers good survival rates; however, there is scant data on improved local control (LC) and treatment-related complications in recurrent cases. We present our results in patients with recurrent head and neck cancers treated with HDR interstitial brachytherapy.
Material And Methods: Twenty-five patients with recurrent head and neck cancers were treated with HDR interstitial brachytherapy using Iridium 192 between 2009 and 2016. Read More
Head Neck 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
Background: This systematic review qualitatively summarizes the current literature on diagnosis and treatment of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) after total laryngectomy (TLE).
Methods: Electronic databases PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were used. Two independent reviewers carried out the literature search and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies using a critical appraisal tool. Read More
Surg Endosc 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.
Division of General Surgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.
Background: Laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair via Toupet or Nissen fundoplication remains the most commonly performed procedures for management of large hiatal hernia. Few studies have compared the procedures' long-term effectiveness. This study sought to characterize the efficacy of laparoscopic Toupet versus Nissen fundoplication for types III and IV hiatal hernia. Read More
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.
Division of Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine and the Center for Human Nutrition; UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.
Context: Congenital generalized lipodystrophy, type 4 (CGL4) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by CAVIN1 mutations. Patients with CGL4 also have myopathy and cardiomyopathy with a predisposition for sudden death due to ventricular arrhythmias. However, underlying pathology for these morbidities remains unknown. Read More
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.
Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.
Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Dental Clinic, University of Brescia Brescia, Italy.
Neurogastroenterol Motil 2018 Nov 25:e13512. Epub 2018 Nov 25.
Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.
Background: Esophageal dysphagia is a common symptom in gastroenterology practice. Current rapid assessment tools are limited to oropharyngeal dysphagia and do not translate well to esophageal conditions. We aim to create a novel tool, the dysphagia stress test (DST), to evaluate swallowing in patients with esophageal disease characterized by dysphagia. Read More
Case Rep Otolaryngol 2018 24;2018:7340937. Epub 2018 Oct 24.
Otolaryngology Medical Specialist, Department of Otolaryngology Hospital Pedro Hispano, Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, EPE, Matosinhos, Portugal.
Nontraumatic haematoma of parapharyngeal space is very rare and may cause dysphagia and dyspnea. The authors present a case report of a 74-year-old woman with sudden nontraumatic neck swelling without dyspnea and with left pharyngeal bulging and endolaryngeal displacement. Parathyroid hormone elevation and imaging exams confirmed bleeding from a parathyroid adenoma. Read More