1,917 results match your criteria Dysmorphophobia


Childhood maltreatment and trauma is common and severe in body dysmorphic disorder.

Compr Psychiatry 2021 Jun 15;109:152256. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Centre for Mental Health, Faculty of Health, Arts & Design, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia; Department of Mental Health, St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Childhood maltreatment and trauma may be risk factors for the development of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). However, the limited research to date on these topics has been constrained by either the absence of a matched healthy control group or non-comprehensive assessments.

Methods: This study assessed the prevalence and severity of childhood maltreatment and other traumatic events in 52 BDD participants (56% female) and 57 matched controls (51% female) with no history of mental illness, using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and a checklist assessing broader traumatic events. Read More

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Empirically Defining Treatment Response and Remission in Body Dysmorphic Disorder Using a Short Self-Report Instrument.

Behav Ther 2021 07 24;52(4):821-829. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet and CAP Research Centre, Stockholm Health Care Services.

Determining response or remission status in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) usually requires a lengthy interview with a trained clinician. This study sought to establish empirically derived cutoffs to define treatment response and remission in BDD using a brief self-report instrument, the Appearance Anxiety Inventory (AAI). Results from three clinical trials of BDD were pooled to create a sample of 123 individuals who had received cognitive-behavioral therapy for BDD, delivered via the Internet. Read More

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Case Report: Adolescent With Autism and Gender Dysphoria.

Front Psychiatry 2021 26;12:671448. Epub 2021 May 26.

Center for Mental Health, University Psychiatric Clinic Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

There is increasing clinical evidence of an association between gender variability, gender dysphoria (GD), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This seems to be a two-way relationship, a person with GD is more likely to be diagnosed with ASD and vice versa. In youth, it is important to distinguish whether the presented symptoms are a manifestation of ASD focus on special interests or symptoms of co-occurring GD. Read More

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Body Dysmorphic Disorder Insights in an Inpatient Psychiatric Setting.

Case Rep Psychiatry 2021 19;2021:6636124. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Behavioral Medicine and Psychiatry, West Virginia University, USA.

Body dysmorphic disorder is a chronic disorder involving imagined or partial appearance defects that lead to significant impairment in everyday life. It is quite prevalent but remains a clinically underdiagnosed psychiatric condition especially in the inpatient psychiatric setting. Onset of body dysmorphic disorder typically begins in adolescence with subclinical symptoms. Read More

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Prevalence of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and associated features in Swiss military recruits: a self-report survey.

BMC Psychiatry 2021 06 7;21(1):294. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Psychology, Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy Research, University of Zurich, Binzmuehlestrasse 14, 8050, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), defined as the obsessive idea that some aspect of one's own body or appearance is severely flawed/deformed, is relatively common in the general population and has been shown to have strong associations with mood and anxiety disorders and substance abuse disorders. Furthermore, a previous study on symptoms of BDD among people in the military showed that muscles are an important area of preoccupation. Hence, this study aimed to 1. Read More

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Drive for muscularity and tendencies of muscle dysmorphia among Pakistani bodybuilders: A prevalence study.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 May;71(5):1350-1352

Institute of Clinical Psychology, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.

Objective: To assess the relationship between drive for muscularity and muscle dysmorphic tendencies in Pakistani bodybuilders.

Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in Lahore, Pakistan, from June to September 2017, and comprised male bodybuilders in their early and middle adulthood. Data was collected using an indigenous Drive for Muscularity Inventory and the Body Dysmorphic Disorder factors of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Read More

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Cosmetic Presentations and Challenges of Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Its Collaborative Management.

J Cutan Aesthet Surg 2021 Jan-Mar;14(1):20-25

Beautiful Mind Healthcare, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

In recent times, there has been a huge surge in the demand for cosmetology. However, not every patient is an ideal candidate for cosmetic interventions, and this needs to be carefully evaluated at outpatient visit. Various patients have underlying undetected psychiatric co-morbidities which prompt them to seek cosmetic care. Read More

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Role of microbiota-gut-brain axis dysfunctions induced by infections in the onset of anorexia nervosa.

Nutr Rev 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

M. Galmiche, N. Achamrah, P. Déchelotte, and J. Breton are with Nutrition Department, CHU Rouen, F-76000 Rouen, France. N. Achamrah, P. Déchelotte, D. Ribet, and J. Breton are with the UNIROUEN, INSERM UMR 1073, Nutrition, Gut and Brain Laboratory, Rouen, France. N. Achamrah, P. Déchelotte, D. Ribet, and J. Breton are with the UNIROUEN, Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine, Normandie University, Rouen, France.

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by low food intake, severe body weight loss, intense fear of gaining weight, and dysmorphophobia. This chronic disease is associated with both psychiatric and somatic comorbidities. Over the years, clinical studies have accumulated evidence that viral or bacterial infections may promote the onset of eating disorders such as AN. Read More

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[Mental disorders in the dental practice. Patients with body dysmorphic disorder].

Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd 2021 May;128(5):263-268

Oral healthcare professionals are frequently consulted by patients who are dissatisfied with their teeth and/or facial looks. Sometimes, this dissatisfaction takes a pathological form. When someone is preoccupied with a (supposed) abnormality barely or not visible to others, performs certain actions in response to the concerns about their appearance and experiences significant suffering, this may be a case of body dysmorphic disorder. Read More

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Pathogenic variants in , a chromatin remodeler, cause a range of syndromic neurodevelopmental features.

Sci Adv 2021 May 12;7(20). Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Genetics and Metabolism, Phoenix Children's Hospital, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Intellectual disability encompasses a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders, with many linked genetic loci. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for more than 50% of the patients remains elusive. We describe pathogenic variants in , encoding the ATPase motor of the ISWI chromatin remodeler, as a cause of a previously unidentified neurodevelopmental disorder, identifying 12 individuals with de novo or dominantly segregating rare heterozygous variants. Read More

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[Body dysmorphic disorder: One Hundred Years of Solitude].

Psychiatr Hung 2021 ;36(2):143-161

Debreceni Egyetem, Human Tudomanyok Doktori Iskola, Pszichologiai Program, Debrecen, Hungary, E-mail:

Body dysmorphic disorder is a common psychiatric disease; its respective prevalence is 2% in the general population, 3.3% in tertiary students, 7.4% among adolescent and adult psychiatric in-patients, and above 10% in patients of cosmetic surgery or dermatology. Read More

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[The relationship of muscle dysmorphia to the body image and early maladaptive schemata created by parental behaviours].

Psychiatr Hung 2021 ;36(2):113-123

Debreceni Egyetem Nepegeszsegugyi Kar Magatartastudomanyi Intezet Debrecen, Hungary, E-mail:

Introduction: the purpose of our study was to investigate the link between specific traits that determine muscle dysmorphia in bodybuilders and the parental behaviours which play a role in developing these schemata, as well as the eating-disorder-specific traits which differentiate bodybuilders from the normal population.

Aim: conceptualising the similarities of personality traits in case of muscle dysmorphia and eating disorders, as well as their etiology based on the schema theory.

Method: to measure muscle dysmorphia was used the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale. Read More

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Association between obsessive-compulsive and related disorders and experiential avoidance: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Jun 3;138:228-239. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Norfolk & Suffolk NHS Foundation Trust, UK.

The associations between the distinct types of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders and experiential avoidance have received mixed evidence. We, thus, undertook this meta-analysis to i) re-examine the association between obsessive-compulsive disorder and experiential avoidance, ii) extend this association to hoarding disorder, trichotillomania, and body dysmorphic disorder, and iii) identify potential variables affecting these associations. Five databases, including Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Web of Science and CINAHL, were searched until March 15th, 2021. Read More

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Psychiatric Assessment and Management of Clients Undergoing Cosmetic Surgery: Overview and Need for an Integrated Approach.

Indian J Plast Surg 2021 Jan 22;54(1):8-19. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Psychiatry, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Puducherry, India.

 Psychiatric disorders are more common among people undergoing cosmetic procedures than the general population and evaluating mental health can be cumbersome for plastic surgeons. We aim to summarize the available literature in this regard and propose an integrated approach to psychiatric assessment and management of mental health issues among this group.  Electronic search of MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and PsycINFO databases was done to identify relevant peer-reviewed English language articles from inception till April 2020. Read More

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January 2021

The place of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders in the compulsive-impulsive spectrum: a cluster-analytic study.

CNS Spectr 2021 Apr 12:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Southampton; and Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, UK.

Background: The extent to which obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs) are impulsive, compulsive, or both requires further investigation. We investigated the existence of different clusters in an online nonclinical sample and in which groups DSM-5 OCRDs and other related psychopathological symptoms are best placed.

Methods: Seven hundred and seventy-four adult participants completed online questionnaires including the Cambridge-Chicago Compulsivity Trait Scale (CHI-T), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15), and a series of DSM-5 OCRDs symptom severity and other psychopathological measures. Read More

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Haploinsufficiency of the Sin3/HDAC corepressor complex member SIN3B causes a syndromic intellectual disability/autism spectrum disorder.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 05 2;108(5):929-941. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Etablissement Français du Sang, 44000 Nantes, France; CRCINA, INSERM, CNRS, Université d'Angers, Université de Nantes, 44000 Nantes, France; LabEx IGO, Nantes 44000, France.

Proteins involved in transcriptional regulation harbor a demonstrated enrichment of mutations in neurodevelopmental disorders. The Sin3 (Swi-independent 3)/histone deacetylase (HDAC) complex plays a central role in histone deacetylation and transcriptional repression. Among the two vertebrate paralogs encoding the Sin3 complex, SIN3A variants cause syndromic intellectual disability, but the clinical consequences of SIN3B haploinsufficiency in humans are uncharacterized. Read More

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Social Media Use and Body Image Disorders: Association between Frequency of Comparing One's Own Physical Appearance to That of People Being Followed on Social Media and Body Dissatisfaction and Drive for Thinness.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 11;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Addictology and Liaison Psychiatry Department, Nantes University Hospital, 44000 Nantes, France.

(1) Summary: Many studies have evaluated the association between traditional media exposure and the presence of body dissatisfaction and body image disorders. The last decade has borne witness to the rise of social media, predominantly used by teenagers and young adults. This study's main objective was to investigate the association between how often one compares their physical appearance to that of the people they follow on social media, and one's body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness. Read More

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Family accommodation in pediatric body dysmorphic disorder: A qualitative study.

Bull Menninger Clin 2020 ;84(4):319-336

National Specialist Clinic for Young People with OCD, BDD and related disorders, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London.

Family accommodation (FA) is significant in a range of disorders, yet it has never been explored in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Interviews were conducted with five young people with BDD, five parents, and five clinicians to explore the types, impact, and purpose of FA in BDD. Every participant reported significant FA of BDD, and the types reported were broadly similar to those found in other disorders. Read More

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January 2020

Exercise and Use of Enhancement Drugs at the Time of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Multicultural Study on Coping Strategies During Self-Isolation and Related Risks.

Front Psychiatry 2021 10;12:648501. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Clinical, Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences, School of Life and Medical Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, United Kingdom.

Little is known about the impact of restrictive measures during the COVID-19 pandemic on self-image and engagement in exercise and other coping strategies alongside the use of image and performance-enhancing drugs (IPEDs) to boost performance and appearance. To assess the role of anxiety about appearance and self-compassion on the practice of physical exercise and use of IPEDs during lockdown. An international online questionnaire was carried out using the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI), the Appearance Anxiety Inventory (AAI), and the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) in addition to questions on the use of IPEDs. Read More

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Predictors and moderators of symptom change during cognitive-behavioral therapy or supportive psychotherapy for body dysmorphic disorder.

J Affect Disord 2021 05 11;287:34-40. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Massachusetts General Hospital; Harvard Medical School.

Background: Research on predictors of treatment outcome in body dysmorphic disorder, a common and severe disorder, is very limited, and no prior studies have examined moderators of outcome. Because treatment is often but not always efficacious, it is important to identify who is more likely to benefit. We examined predictors and moderators of improvement with therapist-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy versus supportive psychotherapy in the only study of these treatments for body dysmorphic disorder. Read More

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Dysmorphophobia: When Should the Plastic Surgeon Say No?

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Unit, Campus Bio-Medico University of Rome, Via Alvaro del Portillo 200, Rome, Italy.

Dysmorphophobia is the phobia that arises from the distorted view that one has of one's external appearance, caused by the excessive concern for one's body image, in most cases not justified. The role of the plastic surgeon is to recognize the dysmorphophobic patient, make him aware of the non-existence of the defect and direct him towards a path that can help him. The body is a living organism that has its own characteristics and with its own uniqueness. Read More

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[Classification of obsessivecompulsive disorder: evolution in the DSM-V].

Rev Prat 2020 Sep;70(7):774-776

Institut du Cerveau, et Sorbonne Université, Paris, France.

Classification of obsessive-compulsive disorder : evolution in the DSM V. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) criteria were first described in the third edition of Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM), in the 1980's. OCD was then classified as an anxious disorder. Read More

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September 2020

EIF3F-related neurodevelopmental disorder: refining the phenotypic and expanding the molecular spectrum.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 03 18;16(1):136. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Sackler School of Medicine at Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: An identical homozygous missense variant in EIF3F, identified through a large-scale genome-wide sequencing approach, was reported as causative in nine individuals with a neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by variable intellectual disability, epilepsy, behavioral problems and sensorineural hearing-loss. To refine the phenotypic and molecular spectrum of EIF3F-related neurodevelopmental disorder, we examined independent patients.

Results: 21 patients were homozygous and one compound heterozygous for c. Read More

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Prevalence of muscle dysmorphia in adolescents: findings from the study.

Psychol Med 2021 Mar 16:1-8. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: We sought to provide the first point prevalence estimates of muscle dysmorphia (MD), a form of body dysmorphic disorder characterized by a preoccupation with perceived insufficient muscularity, in adolescents.

Methods: Data were taken from a survey of 3618 Australian adolescents (11.172-19. Read More

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Dermatillomania: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Cureus 2021 Jan 27;13(1):e12932. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Pediatrics, Pediatric Group of Acadiana, Lafayette, USA.

Skin picking disorder, also termed dermatillomania is a condition that leads to repetitive picking of their skin ending up in skin and soft tissue damage. It is classified in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder Fifth edition under the "obsessive compulsive and related disorders" section. Often associated with other psychiatric conditions like autism, alcohol abuse, obsessive compulsive, body dysmorphic, mood, anxiety and borderline personality disorders, it is a disorder that is quite often underreported. Read More

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January 2021

Changes in body dysmorphic disorder, eating disorder, and exercise addiction symptomology during the COVID-19 pandemic: A longitudinal study of 319 health club users.

Psychiatry Res 2021 04 23;298:113831. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Cambridge Centre for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Compass House, Cambridge, CB1 1PT, England.

The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the effect of COVID-19 quarantines on morbid exercise, eating, and body image behaviours pre vs post COVID-19 lockdown. Participants (n=319; mean age 36.77 SD=11. Read More

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Identification of Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Patients Seeking Corrective Procedures From Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Jan 12. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

*Dermatology and Plastic Surgery Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH †Harvard Combined Plastic Surgery Residency Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA ‡Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH §Yeshiva University Ferkauf Graduate School of Psychology, Bronx, NY.

Introduction: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is an obsessive-compulsive related disorder characterized by an individual's preoccupation with the appearance of at least 1 perceived physical flaw. The bodily concerns held by individuals with BDD are largely unnoticeable, if at all, to other individuals. Those living with BDD are compelled to engage in repetitive behaviors or cognitive acts that interfere with daily function and activities. Read More

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January 2021

The comorbidity structure of fear, distress and compulsive disorders in an acute psychiatric sample.

J Anxiety Disord 2021 04 16;79:102370. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Psychiatry, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, United States; Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), collectively referred to as compulsive disorders, have typically not been included in structural research on the internalizing spectrum due to low prevalence in community samples. The current study examined the higher-order structure of anxiety, depressive and compulsive disorders among patients in a psychiatric partial hospital program (N = 2,178). We applied confirmatory factor analysis to diagnostic data obtained at admission and compared several competing models of the comorbidity structure. Read More

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The application of the Chinese version of the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Feb;100(7):e24849

Department of Nursing, Affiliated Hospital 2 of Nantong University.

Abstract: This study aimed to translate the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire (BIDQ) into Chinese and evaluate its reliability and validity in a sample of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).Following the translation and revision of the Chinese version of the BIDQ, 169 patients with SLE were chosen as respondents to test the questionnaire's reliability and validity. We tested the content's validity through expert group evaluation. Read More

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February 2021

Is poor global processing a transdiagnostic feature of Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Anorexia Nervosa? A meta-analysis.

Body Image 2021 Jun 12;37:94-105. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

National & Specialist OCD, BDD and Related Disorder Clinic, South London & Maudsley NHS Trust, UK; King's College London (KCL), Social Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, UK.

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and anorexia nervosa (AN) are characterised by body image disturbance. It has been suggested that poor global integration in visual processing may underlie distorted body image, but empirical studies have yielded mixed results. The current study involved two meta-analyses aimed at examining the extent to which poor global processing is evident in BDD and AN. Read More

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