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    1 OF 29

    A multi-method analysis of distress tolerance in body dysmorphic disorder.
    Body Image 2017 Aug 18;23:50-60. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA. Electronic address:
    Distress tolerance (DT) is a transdiagnostic construct linked to multiple psychiatric disorders. We conducted three studies using different methods to investigate the relationship between DT and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Study 1 found a significant relationship between low DT and more severe BDD symptoms in an adult community sample (N=81). Read More

    The role of feared possible selves in obsessive-compulsive and related disorders: A comparative analysis of a core cognitive self-construct in clinical samples.
    Clin Psychol Psychother 2017 Aug 9. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
    Increasingly, cognitive-behavioural models have been considering the role of beliefs about the self in the development and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), including sensitive domains of self-concept and feared self-perceptions. This has led to the development of the Fear of Self Questionnaire (FSQ; Aardema et al., ), which has shown strong internal consistency, divergent and convergent validity, and found to be a major predictor of unwanted thoughts and impulses (i. Read More

    ['Barbie Doll Syndrome'. A case report of body dysmorphic disorder].
    Neuropsychiatr 2017 Aug 8. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Abteilung für Sozialpsychiatrie, Universitätsklinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Medizinische Universität Wien, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090, Wien, Österreich.
    Background: This case report aims to present a 37-year-old women striving to shape her body like a Barbie doll of which she has been fascinated since childhood. She could hardly tolerate any deviation from this beauty ideal. She has been admitted to the psychosomatic ward due to an eating disorder. Read More

    Are Burnt-out Doctors Prone to Seek Cosmetic Surgery? A Cross-Sectional Study.
    Aesthetic Plast Surg 2017 Aug 4. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Laboratory of Hygiene, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Panepistimioupoli, 54124, Thessaloníki, Greece.
    Introduction: Studies have so far examined several psychosocial factors associated with an interest in aesthetic plastic surgery. Among them, gender, teasing history, marital status, education, social networks and body dysmorphic disorders are all predictors of interest in cosmetic surgery. Given the fact that professional status can influence health-related attitudes, our objective was firstly to identify if medical professionals are more likely to express interest in plastic surgery compared to non-medical professionals. Read More

    Body Image and Eating Disorders are Common among Professional and Amateur Athletes Using Performance and Image Enhancing Drugs: A Cross-Sectional Study.
    J Psychoactive Drugs 2017 Aug 4:1-12. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    a Professor, NESMOS (Neuroscience, Mental Health, and Sensory Organs) Department , Sapienza-University of Rome , Rome , Italy.
    The use of performance and image enhancing drugs (PIEDs) is not uncommon in athletes and appears to be associated with several psychopathological disorders of unclear prevalence. In this multicenter, cross-sectional study, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of body image disorders (BIDs) and eating disorders (EDs) in PIED-using athletes vs. PIED nonusers. Read More

    [The Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Plastic Surgery - A Systematic Review of Screening Methods].
    Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir 2017 Aug 1. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Berufsgenossenschaftliches Klinikum Bergmannstrost Halle, Klinik für Plastische und Handchirurgie, Brand-verletztenzentrum.
    Background The body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is considered to be a sub-form of somatoform disorders. BDD can express itself in a delirious experience, an excessive evaluation and employment of the external appearance, in particular the face. Preliminary results suggest that individuals with BDD do not benefit from plastic surgery, so that aesthetic surgery often results in aggravation of their symptoms. Read More

    Recent advances in understanding and managing body dysmorphic disorder.
    Evid Based Ment Health 2017 Jul 20. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.
    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common and disabling psychiatric disorder characterised by excessive and persistent preoccupation with perceived defects or flaws in one's appearance, which are unnoticeable to others, and associated repetitive behaviours (eg, mirror checking). The disorder generally starts in adolescence, but often goes unnoticed and is severely underdiagnosed. Left untreated, BDD typically persists and causes marked functional impairment in multiple domains. Read More

    [Muscle Dysmorphia and Use of Ergogenics Substances. A Systematic Review].
    Rev Colomb Psiquiatr 2017 Jul - Sep;46(3):168-177. Epub 2016 Aug 3.
    Facultad de Estudios Profesionales Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México.
    The use of ergogenic substances (UES) is not restricted to achieving a better athletic performance, but also it is a behavior for body changing through muscle development; however, little is known about the relationship between muscle dysmorphia (MD) and UES. Therefore, it was conducted a systematic review of those empirical papers that have studied this relationship over the last decade (2004-2014). First it is highlighted that of the 22 articles analyzed, only 13 explicitly aimed this interest. Read More

    Insight in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) relative to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and psychotic disorders: Revisiting this issue in light of DSM-5.
    Compr Psychiatry 2017 Aug 8;77:100-108. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Centre for Mental Health, Swinburne University, Australia; Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre, Alfred Hospital and Monash University School of Psychology and Psychiatry, Australia; Departments of Psychological Sciences and Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Australia; Department of Psychiatry, St. Vincent's Mental Health, Australia.
    Introduction: In DSM-5, body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) was reclassified under the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs), but little is known about the nature of BDD beliefs. This study aimed to compare level of insight in BDD and consider related implications for DSM-5 classification.

    Method: Participants were 27 BDD, 19 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 20 psychosis (SZ) participants as well as 42 non-clinical controls (NC), who completed the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale (BABS) and Peters Delusions Inventory (PDI). Read More

    Sex Differences in the Presentation of Body Dysmorphic Disorder in a Community Sample of Adolescents.
    J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2017 May 25:1-13. Epub 2017 May 25.
    a Department of Psychology , Macquarie University.
    The current study sought to explore sex differences in the presentation of probable full-syndrome and subthreshold body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in adolescents from an Australian community sample. Specifically, it examined sex differences in the types of BDD symptoms endorsed, body areas of concern, and the association with elevated symptoms of comorbid disorders. In male participants, it also compared the presenting features of those with and without muscle dysmorphia. Read More

    Somatic symptom disorder in dermatology.
    Clin Dermatol 2017 May - Jun;35(3):246-251. Epub 2017 Jan 22.
    Department of Dermatology, Oregon Health & Science University School of Medicine, Portland, Oregon.
    Somatic symptom disorder (SSD) is defined by the prominence of somatic symptoms associated with abnormal thoughts, feelings, and behaviors related to the symptoms, resulting in significant distress and impairment. Individuals with these disorders are more commonly encountered in primary care and other medical settings, including dermatology practice, than in psychiatric and other mental health settings. What defines the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors as abnormal is that they are excessive, that is, out of proportion to other patients with similar somatic symptoms, and that they result in significant distress and impairment. Read More

    Attentiveness of Dermatologists in the Middle East to Psychocutaneous Medicine.
    Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2017 Apr 27;19(2). Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, College of Medicine, Central Michigan University, Saginaw, Michigan, USA.
    Objective: Patients with skin diseases often have psychological problems and complications that require assessment and treatment. The main objective of this study was to explore attentiveness of dermatologists to psychiatric symptoms in their patients.

    Methods: A previously validated online questionnaire was used to explore the attitude and experience of dermatologists practicing in the Middle East toward the assessment of the psychiatric needs of their patients. Read More

    Are unwanted mental intrusions a transdiagnostic variable?
    Psicothema 2017 May;29(2):166-171
    Universidad de Valencia.
    Introduction: Unwanted mental intrusions (UMI) constitute the normal variants of obsessions in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), preoccupations about defects in Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD), images about illness in Hypochondriasis (HYP), and thoughts about eating in Eating Disorders (EDs). We sought to investigate the relationships between frequency and discomfort associated with the experience of the four UMI contents, adopting a within-subject perspective.

    Method: A group of 438 university students and community participants (Mage= 29. Read More

    Psychocutaneous disease: Clinical perspectives.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2017 May;76(5):779-791
    Department of Dermatology, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island; Department of Dermatology, Medical School of Jundiaí, São Paulo, Brazil; GK Dermatology, PC, South Weymouth, Massachusetts. Electronic address:
    Psychocutaneous disease, defined in this review as primary psychiatric disease with skin manifestations, is commonly encountered in dermatology. Dermatologists can play an important role in the management of psychocutaneous disease because patients visit dermatology for treatment of their skin problems but often refuse psychiatric intervention. This review describes common psychocutaneous syndromes, including delusional, factitious, obsessive-compulsive and related, and eating disorders, as well as psychogenic pruritus, cutaneous sensory (pain) syndromes, posttraumatic stress disorder, and sleep-wake disorders. Read More

    Self-report of temporomandibular joint clicking and psychological factors: is there an association?
    J Oral Rehabil 2017 Jul 10;44(7):511-516. Epub 2017 May 10.
    Department of Oral Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    The objectives of this study were to test the hypothesis that self-reported TMJ clicking sounds in adolescents are positively associated with non-specific somatic symptoms, self-perception of body image and care-seeking behaviour. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 353 young adolescents (48·4% females) recruited from community (N = 272) and orthodontic clinic (N = 81) settings. Assessments included self-reported TMJ clicking, non-specific physical symptoms, body image concerns and for the clinic sample only, the source of motivation for treatment. Read More

    [Validation of the Physical Appearance Comparison Scale (PACS) in a German Sample: Psychometric Properties and Association with Eating Behavior, Body Image and Self-Esteem].
    Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol 2017 Feb 13;67(2):91-97. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Abt. für Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie, Medizinische Universitätsklinik Tübingen.
    The Physical Appearance Comparison Scale (PACS [14]) is the most commonly used validated measure of body-related social comparison habits. Here we investigate reliability and construct validity of the PACS in a German sample. Participants (n=75 men, n=75 women and n=25 women with a confirmed diagnosis of anorexia nervosa) completed the PACS along with measures of eating disorder pathology, body image and self-esteem. Read More

    The Menstrual Cycle-Response and Developmental Affective-Risk Model: A multilevel and integrative model of influence.
    Psychol Rev 2017 Mar;124(2):215-244
    Universita Degli Studi di Padova.
    An integrative developmental model is presented in which menstrual cycle-related symptoms are hypothesized to result in a cascade of developmental challenges that contribute to increased affective symptoms among adolescent girls, and to long-term developmental sequelae. To provide the basis for this model a broad foundation is developed considering (a) psychological symptoms and disorders associated with reproductive events across the life span, and (b) the many and complicated effects that female reproductive steroids (estrogen & progesterone) have which trigger a variety of physical and psychological changes that are commonly associated with the menstrual cycle. The Menstrual Cycle-Response and Developmental Affective-Risk Model is driven by 3 central concepts: (a) individual differences in response to steroids are very large and thus require analysis of individual response, rather than group-level tendencies; (b) the menstrual cycle itself represents an important and complex set of biological, physical, psychological, behavioral, and social changes, and should not be studied exclusively as changing steroid levels; and (c) the effects of the menstrual cycle during adolescence and early adulthood may have long-term developmental consequences. Read More

    Obesity in Children and the 'Myth of Psychological Maladjustment': Self-Esteem in the Spotlight.
    Curr Obes Rep 2017 Mar;6(1):63-70
    Academic Unit of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences Institute of Health Sciences, University of Leeds School of Medicine, Level 10, Worsley Building, Clarendon Way, Leeds, LS2 9NL, UK.
    Purpose Of Review: There are contrasting views regarding the psychological well-being of children with obesity. Responding to limitations of existing evidence, Jane Wardle in 2005 argued for a 'myth of psychological maladjustment'. This review looks again at self-esteem. Read More

    Body dysmorphic disorder: history and curiosities.
    Wien Med Wochenschr 2017 Feb 20. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Department of Nuclear Physics, Sub-nuclear and Radiation, G. Marconi University, Rome, Italy.
    Body dysmorphic disorder is a chronic psychiatric disorder characterized by excessive preoccupation with an absent or minimal physical deformity. It causes severe distress and impairs normal functioning. In the last centuries, this disorder has been mentioned in the medical literature by important mental health practitioners by different names, such as "dysmorphophobia" or "dermatologic hypochondriasis". Read More

    A review of penile elongation surgery.
    Transl Androl Urol 2017 Feb;6(1):69-78
    Division of Plastic Surgery, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
    Penile elongation surgery is less commonly performed in the public sector, but involves a collaborative approach between urology and plastic surgery. Congenital and acquired micropenis are the classic surgical indications for penile elongation surgery. The goal of intervention in these patients is to restore a functional penis size in order to allow normal standing micturition, enable satisfying sexual intercourse and improve patient quality of life. Read More

    The Development of Body Image and Weight Bias in Childhood.
    Adv Child Dev Behav 2017 9;52:269-298. Epub 2016 Dec 9.
    School of Psychology and Public Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Negative body image attitudes are related to the onset of disordered eating, poor self-esteem, general mental health problems, and obesity. In this chapter, we will review the nature of body image attitudes in girls and boys in early (approximately 3-7 years old) and later childhood (approximately 8-11 years old). The body image attitudes explored in this chapter include body image attitudes related to the self, with a focus on body dissatisfaction, and body image attitudes related to others, with a focus on weight bias. Read More

    Subthreshold body dysmorphic disorder in adolescents: Prevalence and impact.
    Psychiatry Res 2017 May 31;251:125-130. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Centre for Emotional Health, Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:
    The aim of the current study was to establish the prevalence of subthreshold body dysmorphic disorder (subthreshold-BDD) in a community sample of adolescents, and to compare disorder correlates in individuals with subthreshold-BDD to those with probable full-syndrome BDD (probable-BDD) and those without BDD (non-BDD). Self-report questionnaires assessing DSM-IV BDD criteria, past mental health service use, and symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder, anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders, were completed by 3149 Australian high school students (mean age =14.6 years, 63. Read More

    A systematic review of visual processing and associated treatments in body dysmorphic disorder.
    Acta Psychiatr Scand 2017 Jul 12;136(1):16-36. Epub 2017 Feb 12.
    Brain and Psychological Sciences Research Centre, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Vic., Australia.
    Objective: Recent advances in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) have explored abnormal visual processing, yet it is unclear how this relates to treatment. The aim of this study was to summarize our current understanding of visual processing in BDD and review associated treatments.

    Method: The literature was collected through PsycInfo and PubMed. Read More

    Clinical Practice Guideline: Improving Nasal Form and Function after Rhinoplasty Executive Summary.
    Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2017 Feb;156(2):205-219
    17 Department of Research and Quality, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation, Alexandria, Virginia, USA.
    Objective Rhinoplasty, a surgical procedure that alters the shape or appearance of the nose while preserving or enhancing the nasal airway, ranks among the most commonly performed cosmetic procedures in the United States, with >200,000 procedures reported in 2014. While it is difficult to calculate the exact economic burden incurred by rhinoplasty patients following surgery with or without complications, the average rhinoplasty procedure typically exceeds $4000. The costs incurred due to complications, infections, or revision surgery may include the cost of long-term antibiotics, hospitalization, or lost revenue from hours/days of missed work. Read More

    Clinical Practice Guideline: Improving Nasal Form and Function after Rhinoplasty.
    Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2017 Feb;156(2_suppl):S1-S30
    17 Department of Research and Quality, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation, Alexandria, Virginia, USA.
    Objective Rhinoplasty, a surgical procedure that alters the shape or appearance of the nose while preserving or enhancing the nasal airway, ranks among the most commonly performed cosmetic procedures in the United States, with >200,000 procedures reported in 2014. While it is difficult to calculate the exact economic burden incurred by rhinoplasty patients following surgery with or without complications, the average rhinoplasty procedure typically exceeds $4000. The costs incurred due to complications, infections, or revision surgery may include the cost of long-term antibiotics, hospitalization, or lost revenue from hours/days of missed work. Read More

    Body Dysmorphic, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Social Anxiety Disorder Beliefs as Predictors of In Vivo Stressor Responding.
    J Nerv Ment Dis 2017 Jun;205(6):471-479
    Department of Psychology, Miami University, Oxford, OH.
    This study tested the potential transdiagnostic nature of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD) beliefs, in addition to testing the specificity of those beliefs, in predicting how individuals responded to symptom-specific stressors. Participants included 127 adults (75% women) with a broad range of symptom severity. Path analysis was used to evaluate whether specific maladaptive beliefs predicted distress in response to symptom-relevant stressors over and above other beliefs and baseline distress. Read More

    Cognitive-behavioural therapy and recovery of a delusional dysmorphophobia case.
    Psicothema 2017 Feb;29(1):23-28
    Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío.
    Background: We present the application of cognitive-behavioural therapy in a clinical case diagnosed with delusional dysmorphophobia.

    Method: The psychometric scales used for evaluation were the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia, Beck Anxiety and Depression inventories, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale along with the degree of conviction in the delusional belief and in alternative explanations, and social functioning measured by patient reporting. The therapy included cognitive and behavioural techniques: evidence analysis, search for alternative explanations, logical and functional analysis, reality testing, progressive relaxation techniques, in vivo and imaginal exposure therapy. Read More

    Cosmetic Professionals' Awareness of Body Dysmorphic Disorder.
    Plast Reconstr Surg 2017 Feb;139(2):336-342
    Groningen and Maastricht, The Netherlands From the Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Groningen; the Department of Clinical Psychological Science, Maastricht University; the Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Groningen and University Medical Centre Groningen.
    Background: Preoccupation with a perceived appearance flaw is the main feature of body dysmorphic disorder. The majority of these patients seek and often receive some sort of cosmetic procedure, although this condition is considered to be a contraindication. This study evaluates cosmetic professionals' recognition of body dysmorphic disorder and the way they act on this. Read More

    Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale for patients seeking esthetic surgery: cross-cultural validation study.
    Sao Paulo Med J 2016 Nov-Dec;134(6):480-490. Epub 2016 Jul 21.
    MD, PhD. Full Professor, Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Context And Objective:: Rhinoplasty is one of the most sought-after esthetic operations among individuals with body dysmorphic disorder. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale.

    Design And Setting:: Cross-cultural validation study conducted in a plastic surgery outpatient clinic of a public university hospital. Read More

    Psychological and Psychiatric Traits in Post-bariatric Patients Asking for Body-Contouring Surgery.
    Aesthetic Plast Surg 2017 Feb 28;41(1):90-97. Epub 2016 Dec 28.
    Department of Neurosciences, Clinic of Plastic Surgery, University of Padova, Via Giustiniani 2, 35100, Padova, Italy.
    Backgrounds: Obese patients, mainly females, feel uncomfortable and unsatisfied with their physical appearance; they have a wrong perception of their image and consequently diminish their self-esteem, sometimes showing difficulties in functional areas such as work, relationship, social activity. Beside health concerns, improving their appearance and body image are often common motives for weight loss in obese individuals and after weight loss about 30% of bariatric surgery patients undergo plastic surgical correction of excessive skin. The authors investigated psychological and psychiatric traits in post-bariatric patients undergoing body-contouring surgery to underline the strong correlation between psychiatry and obesity and avoid unsatisfactory results in post-bariatric patients. Read More

    Committee Opinion No. 686: Breast and Labial Surgery in Adolescents.
    • Authors:
    Obstet Gynecol 2017 01;129(1):e17-e19
    The obstetrician-gynecologist may receive requests from adolescents and their families for advice, surgery, or referral for conditions of the breast or vulva to improve appearance and function. Appropriate counseling and guidance of adolescents with these concerns require a comprehensive and thoughtful approach, special knowledge of normal physical and psychosocial growth and development, and assessment of the physical maturity and emotional readiness of the patient. Individuals should be screened for body dysmorphic disorder. Read More

    Obsession with perfection: Body dysmorphia.
    Clin Dermatol 2016 Nov - Dec;34(6):788-791. Epub 2016 Apr 9.
    Department of Dermatology, Director, Boston University Center for Ethnic Skin, and Director of Research in Cosmetic and Laser Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA. Electronic address:
    The deeply rooted fascination with beauty penetrates society worldwide. The indulgence to look and feel beautiful pervades all ages, genders, and nationalities, with research conferring a remarkable tendency to agree on measures of attractiveness among these disparate groups. Research has found that beautiful people do, in fact, receive more desirable outcomes in life and job satisfaction, family formation, and overall happiness. Read More

    Truncating de novo mutations in the Krüppel-type zinc-finger gene ZNF148 in patients with corpus callosum defects, developmental delay, short stature, and dysmorphisms.
    Genome Med 2016 12 13;8(1):131. Epub 2016 Dec 13.
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC+), PO Box 5800, 6202, AZ, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Background: Krüppel-type zinc finger genes (ZNF) constitute a large yet relatively poorly characterized gene family. ZNF genes encode proteins that recognize specific DNA motifs in gene promotors. They act as transcriptional co-activators or -repressors via interaction with chromatin remodeling proteins and other transcription factors. Read More

    Mixed vascular nevus syndrome: a report of four new cases and a literature review.
    Quant Imaging Med Surg 2016 Oct;6(5):515-524
    Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies "G. F. Ingrassia", Section of Radiology, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Background: Mixed vascular nevus (or nevus vascularis mixtus) represents an admixture of cutaneous vascular malformations of the telangiectatic type and angiospastic spots of nevus anemicus. It can occur as an purely cutaneous trait or as a hallmark of a neurocutaneous phenotype (mixed vascular nevus syndrome) characterised by the combination of: (I) paired vascular (telangiectatic and anemic) twin nevi and brain abnormalities of the Dyke-Davidoff-Masson type (i.e. Read More

    Primary Carnitine Deficiency and Newborn Screening for Disorders of the Carnitine Cycle.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2016 9;68 Suppl 3:5-9. Epub 2016 Dec 9.
    Department of Pediatrics and Pathology, ARUP Laboratories, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.
    Carnitine is needed for transfer of long-chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane for subsequent β-oxidation. Carnitine can be synthesized by the body and is also obtained in the diet through consumption of meat and dairy products. Defects in carnitine transport such as those caused by defective activity of the OCTN2 transporter encoded by the SLC22A5 gene result in primary carnitine deficiency, and newborn screening programmes can identify patients at risk for this condition before irreversible damage. Read More

    Cognitive dysfunction in body dysmorphic disorder: new implications for nosological systems and neurobiological models.
    CNS Spectr 2017 Feb 30;22(1):51-60. Epub 2016 Nov 30.
    2Department of Psychology,School of Life and Medical Sciences,University of Hertfordshire,Hatfield,UK.
    Introduction Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a debilitating disorder, characterized by obsessions and compulsions relating specifically to perceived appearance, and which has been newly classified within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders grouping. Until now, little research has been conducted into the cognitive profile of this disorder.

    Methods: Participants with BDD (n=12) and participants without BDD (n=16) were tested using a computerized neurocognitive battery investigating attentional set-shifting (Intra/Extra Dimensional Set Shift Task), decision-making (Cambridge Gamble Task), motor response-inhibition (Stop-Signal Reaction Time Task), and affective processing (Affective Go-No Go Task). Read More

    Is body dissatisfaction changing across time? A cross-temporal meta-analysis.
    Psychol Bull 2017 Mar 28;143(3):293-320. Epub 2016 Nov 28.
    Department of Psychology, Ohio State University.
    It remains unclear whether body dissatisfaction, a widely recognized predictor of eating-related pathologies and depressive symptomatology, is consistent across cohorts and time. This question is important to investigate because dominant theories propose that sociocultural influences, which may fluctuate, play an important role in the development of body dissatisfaction. Previous efforts for tracking body dissatisfaction across cohorts and time are limited by relying on data from a single institution or using assessments that lack psychometric support across genders. Read More

    [Nursing care of body image disorders].
    Soins Psychiatr 2016 Nov - Dec;37(307):44-46
    Unité des troubles du comportement alimentaire, Clinique des maladies mentales et de l'encéphale, centre hospitalier Sainte-Anne, 1, rue Cabanis, Paris 75014, France. Electronic address:
    Anorexia causes body image disorders. The re-appropriation and acceptance of the body and its changes require specific care. Mirrors, 'morphing' software, photography, videography and the trying on of clothes in a store are tools which can help the patient reconstruct themselves. Read More

    [Anorexia in males].
    Soins Psychiatr 2016 Nov - Dec;37(307):20-21
    Unité des troubles du comportement alimentaire, Clinique des maladies mentales et de l'encéphale, centre hospitalier Sainte-Anne, 1, rue Cabanis, Paris 75014, France. Electronic address:
    Anorexia nervosa is often considered as a women disease, whereas 10% of the cases are men. There are much more researches in this field for a couple of decades. "Bigorexia", which combines food control and need for muscles, seems to be more frequent above men. Read More

    The Desire for Amputation or Paralyzation: Evidence for Structural Brain Anomalies in Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID).
    PLoS One 2016 10;11(11):e0165789. Epub 2016 Nov 10.
    Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) is a condition in which individuals perceive a mismatch between their internal body scheme and physical body shape, resulting in an absolute desire to be either amputated or paralyzed. The condition is hypothesized to be of congenital nature, but evidence for a neuro-anatomical basis is sparse.

    Methods: We collected T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging scans on a 3T scanner in eight individuals with BIID and 24 matched healthy controls, and analyzed the data using voxel-based morphometry. Read More

    An interactive training programme to treat body image disturbance.
    Br J Health Psychol 2017 Feb 3;22(1):60-76. Epub 2016 Nov 3.
    School of Psychology, University of Lincoln, UK.
    Objectives: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a life-threatening mental health condition. A core feature is a disturbance of body image, such that sufferers see themselves as fatter than they actually are.

    Design: We tested the effectiveness of a novel training programme to recalibrate our participants' perception of body size. Read More

    Obsessive-compulsive skin disorders: a novel classification based on degree of insight.
    J Dermatolog Treat 2017 Jun 24;28(4):342-346. Epub 2016 Oct 24.
    b Department of Dermatology, Psoriasis and Skin Treatment Center , University of California San Francisco , San Francisco , CA , USA.
    Individuals with obsessive-compulsive features frequently visit dermatologists for complaints of the skin, hair or nails, and often progress towards a chronic relapsing course due to the challenge associated with accurate diagnosis and management of their psychiatric symptoms. The current DSM-5 formally recognizes body dysmorphic disorder, trichotillomania, neurotic excoriation and body focused repetitive behavior disorder as psychodermatological disorders belonging to the category of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders. However there is evidence that other relevant skin diseases such as delusions of parasitosis, dermatitis artefacta, contamination dermatitis, AIDS phobia, trichotemnomania and even lichen simplex chronicus possess prominent obsessive-compulsive characteristics that do not necessarily fit the full diagnostic criteria of the DSM-5. Read More

    Screening for Body Dysmorphic Disorder in a Dermatology Outpatient Setting at a Tertiary Care Centre.
    J Cutan Aesthet Surg 2016 Jul-Sep;9(3):188-191
    Department of Dermatology and STD, VM Medical College and Safdarjang Hospital, New Delhi, India.
    Context: A distressing pre-occupation with an imagined or slight defect in appearance with a marked negative effect on the patient's life is the core symptom of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD).

    Aim: To screen the patients attending a dermatology clinic at a tertiary care centre for BDD using the BDD-dermatology version (DV) questionnaire.

    Settings And Design: This cross-sectional study enrolled 245 consecutive patients from the dermatology outpatients clinic. Read More

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