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    [Study on the mechanism of Bushen Culuan Chongji treating "kidney deficiency and blood stasis" in ovulatory dysfunctional infertility].
    Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2017 Dec;42(23):4445-4450
    China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China.
    Kidney deficiency and blood stasis is the main cause of ovulatory dysfunctional infertility. Kidney deficiency is the main pathological mechanism. Blood stasis is the main pathological manifestation, and it is an important factor throughout. Read More

    When an Unexpected Diagnosis Occurs: a Vaginal Premenopausal Sarcoma.
    Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet 2018 Jan 16;40(1):47-52. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Serviço de Radiologia, Instituto Português Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, Porto, Portugal.
    Vaginal cancer is a rare entity. The evidence on its management resides mostly in clinical cases or small case series. Of the histological types, the most frequent is the squamous cell carcinoma, followed by adenocarcinoma. Read More

    Severe bleeding complications and multiple kidney transplants in a patient with tuberous sclerosis complex caused by a novel TSC2 missense variant.
    Croat Med J 2017 Dec;58(6):416-423
    Zlatko Trobonjača, Department of Physiology and Immunology, University of Rijeka School of Medicine, Braće Branchetta 20, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia,
    We presented an extremely severe case of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) in a female patient with recurring, life-threatening bleeding complications related to renal angiomyolipomas. Massive intratumoral hemorrhage required surgical removal of both angiomyolipomatous kidneys and kidney transplantation. During the follow-up period, the patient developed severe metrorrhagia that eventually led to hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy. Read More

    A Review and Reconsideration of Nonneoplastic Myometrial Pathology.
    Int J Surg Pathol 2017 Dec 1:1066896917748194. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    2 Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA.
    From 1861 to 1962, clinicopathologic research tried to explain the association of abnormal uterine bleeding with uterine enlargement. The etiology was theorized as metropathy, suggesting that myometrial dysfunction may predispose to abnormal uterine bleeding. Research reached a nadir in 1962, when a major review dismissed myometrial hypertrophy as a plausible explanation after prior rejections of the theories of chronic myometritis, fibrosis uteri, and subinvolution as causes of bleeding. Read More

    Bipolar vessel-sealing devices in laparoscopic hysterectomies: a multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial.
    Arch Gynecol Obstet 2018 Feb 8;297(2):409-414. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Freiburg Medical School, University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106, Freiburg, Germany.
    Objective: To compare operating time and blood loss in patients undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomies (TLH) for benign conditions with either the Marseal™ IQ 5 mm (MS) or the Ligasure™ 5 mm (LS) vessel-sealing device.

    Design And Setting: A randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) in two German gynecology departments.

    Patients: 74 patients scheduled to undergo TLH for a symptomatic fibroid uterus, adenomyosis or severe meno-metrorrhagia. Read More

    Long-term "real-life" safety of omalizumab in patients with severe uncontrolled asthma: A nine-year study.
    Respir Med 2017 Sep 19;130:55-60. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    School and Chair of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Italy.
    Background: Randomized Controlled Trials showed that omalizumab exhibited a good safety and tolerability profile in patients with moderate-to-severe asthma. However, safety data of long-term treatment with omalizumab are scarce. Our aim was to assess the safety of omalizumab in patients under long-term treatment in a real-life setting. Read More

    Uterine Smooth Muscle Tumor of Uncertain Malignant Potential: Clinicopathologic-Sonographic Characteristics, Follow-Up and Recurrence.
    World J Oncol 2017 Jun 9;8(3):76-80. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic, Istanbul Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Background: Uterine smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) is rare tumor, and regarded as sub-classification in uterine smooth muscle tumors between benign and malignant criteria. In this study, we evaluated characteristics of cases with STUMP diagnosis in a 10-year period.

    Methods: We retrospectively evaluated medical records of patients with histopathological STUMP diagnosis in Istanbul Training and Research Hospital, a tertiary center. Read More

    [Differential diagnosis and management of abnormal uterine bleeding in adolescence].
    Minerva Ginecol 2017 Dec;69(6):618-630
    Unit of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Human Pathology in Adulthood and Childhood "G. Barresi", University of Messina, Messina, Italy.
    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is defined as any atypical genital bleeding originating from the uterine cavity, without the characteristics of normal menstrual period. AUB is an important symptom both for adolescents and their parents, and it usually leads to a state of anxiety. Although about 95% of AUB could be considered as a dysfunctional disorder, AUB requires well-defined diagnostic procedures in order to detect a physical cause, ruling out complex or systemic diseases, including oncological ones. Read More

    A Population-Based Study of the Prevalence of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding and its Related Factors among Iranian Reproductive-Age Women: An Updated Data.
    Arch Iran Med 2017 Sep;20(9):558-563
    Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is one of the most common gynecologic complaints among reproductive-age women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of AUB and its related factors among reproductive age Iranian women.

    Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 1393 women aged 15 - 45 years who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study in 2009 - 2012. Read More

    Hemostasis and uterine contraction promoting effect of the extract from drugs in the Zi-Yin-Tiao-Jing granule, a traditional Chinese compound preparation.
    J Ethnopharmacol 2018 Jan 28;211:278-284. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    College of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Chinese Medicine, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of New Drug Screening from Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chongqing 400715, China; Pharmacology of Chinese Materia Medica, The Key Discipline Constructed by the State Administrative of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chongqing 400715, China. Electronic address:
    Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Zi-Yin-Tiao-Jing granule (ZG) is a traditional Chinese medicine compound preparation for perimenopausal dysfunctional uterine bleeding. It is made from 9 Chinese crude drugs based on a modified traditional Chinese prescription recorded in Fu Qingzhu Nvke as Guben Zhibeng Tang.

    Aim Of The Study: This study aimed to investigate the hemostasis and uterine contraction promoting effect of quality controlled ZG extract on animals as a preclinical study. Read More

    Abnormal uterine bleeding.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Sep;123(1):103-114
    MRC Centre for Reproductive Health, University of Edinburgh.
    Introduction: It is not uncommon for a woman to suffer from abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) or heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) at some point during her lifetime. Once pathology is excluded, in practice, management needs to be individualised, taking into account the improvement of the woman's symptoms and quality of life.

    Sources Of Data: Peer-reviewed journals, governmental and professional society publications. Read More

    Fly Thru imaging: Feasibility study and comparison with outpatient hysteroscopy.
    Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2017 Dec 30;57(6):659-664. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Women's Health and Neonatology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia.
    Background: In the investigation of abnormal uterine bleeding, hysteroscopy with endometrial biopsy is considered the gold standard. Fly Thru™ imaging is a new application used to generate virtual hysteroscopy clips.

    Aims: We aimed to investigate the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of sonohysterogram with virtual hysteroscopy as an alternative to outpatient diagnostic hysteroscopy. Read More

    The utilization of traditional Chinese medicine in patients with dysfunctional uterine bleeding in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based study.
    BMC Complement Altern Med 2017 Aug 29;17(1):427. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Graduate Institute of Chinese Medicine, School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh-Shih Rd. North District, Taichung, 404, Taiwan.
    Background: Many patients with gynecological disorders seek traditional medicine consultations in Asian countries. This study intended to investigate the utilization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in patients with dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) in Taiwan.

    Methods: We analyzed a cohort of one million individuals randomly selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Read More

    Hypnoanalgesia for Dilatation and Curettage Pain Control.
    Anesth Pain Med 2017 Apr 29;7(2):e44628. Epub 2017 Jan 29.
    Anesthesiologist, Hajar Hospital, Tehran, Iran.
    There are many acceptable approaches ranging from light to moderate intravenous sedation or analgesic drugs that are used to provide pain control in dilatation and curettage. We report the use of hypnosis as a nonpharmacologic approach to control pain in this manner. Read More

    The Mast Cell, Contact, and Coagulation System Connection in Anaphylaxis.
    Front Immunol 2017 26;8:846. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Allergy Section, Internal Medicine Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.
    Anaphylaxis is the most severe form of allergic reaction, resulting from the effect of mediators and chemotactic substances released by activated cells. Mast cells and basophils are considered key players in IgE-mediated human anaphylaxis. Beyond IgE-mediated activation of mast cells/basophils, further mechanisms are involved in the occurrence of anaphylaxis. Read More

    Abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopause.
    Climacteric 2017 Oct 7;20(5):414-420. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    b Professor of Medical Education and Gynaecology, Lead for Reproductive and Maternal Medicine, School of Medicine , University of Glasgow , Glasgow , UK.
    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest presenting complaints encountered in a gynecologist's office or primary-care setting. The wider availability of diagnostic tools has allowed prompt diagnosis and treatment of an increasing number of menstrual disorders in an office setting. This White Paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of transvaginal ultrasound, blind endometrial sampling and diagnostic hysteroscopy. Read More

    Long-term use of dienogest in the treatment of painful symptoms in adenomyosis.
    J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2017 Sep 24;43(9):1441-1448. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Clinical Development Department, Mochida Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan.
    Aim: We aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of dienogest (DNG), a progestational 19-norsteroid, administered for 52 weeks in patients with symptomatic adenomyosis.

    Methods: A total of 130 patients with adenomyosis received 2 mg of DNG orally each day for 52 weeks. In cases of complicated anemia, patients were treated for anemia prior to receiving the medication. Read More

    Ethnomedicobotanical study of indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants used for the treatment of reproductive problems in Nalbari district, Assam, India.
    J Ethnopharmacol 2018 Jan 19;210:386-407. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Department of Botany, Birjhora Mahavidyalaya, Bongaigaon 783380, Assam, India.
    Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Reproductive problems are becoming the most predominant health care problems in many countries. World Health Organization (WHO), in 2012, also exemplified maternal illnesses, for instance, birth asphyxia and post birth difficulties are rising at an alarming rate. In addition, not all abnormalities of the human reproductive system have the same origin; the effects of reproductive problems would likely been affected by both male and female. Read More

    Adenomyosis: Back to the future?
    Facts Views Vis Obgyn 2017 Mar;9(1):15-20
    Serviço de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia, Centro Hospitalar Tondela-Viseu EPE, Viseu, Av. Rei D. Duarte, 3504-509, Portugal.
    Adenomyosis is a benign invasion of endometrium into the myometrium. It produces a diffusely enlarged uterus and predominantly affects women in the late reproductive age. It has recently been associated with a negative impact on female fertility. Read More

    Mature teratoma of the uterine corpus: A case report.
    Cesk Patol 2017 ;53(2):97-99
    We report a case of a 37-year old female with a mature teratoma of the uterine corpus presented by metrorrhagia. Grossly, the tumor was polypoid without apparent invasion into the myometrium. Microscopically, the tumor consisted of disorganized mature neural tissue intermingled with nodular foci of cartilaginous tissue, groups of seromucionous glands and ciliated columnar respiratory epithelium. Read More

    Hormone replacement therapy in pre-menopausal women undergoing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for benign disease: A review of practice.
    Post Reprod Health 2017 Jun 22;23(2):63-70. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Royal Derby Hospital, Derby, UK.
    Introduction The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline on the diagnosis and management of the menopause states that women who are likely to go through the menopause as a result of surgical treatment should be offered information about the menopause and the importance of starting hormonal replacement therapy before they have their treatment. Objectives To determine compliance with NICE guidelines at the Royal Derby Hospital. Study design We undertook a retrospective review of all pre-menopausal women undergoing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for benign pathology between 1 January 2016 and 30 June 2016. Read More

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Mixed Mullerian Tumour: Report of Two Cases.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Mar 1;11(3):TD03-TD05. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Chief Resident, Department of Radio Diagnosis, Dr. D.Y. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
    Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumours (MMMTs) or carcinosarcomas of uterus are rare aggressive tumours of mesenchymal origin. It is associated with high incidence of lymphatic, pulmonary and peritoneal metastasis. We hereby present two cases of mixed mullerian tumour. Read More

    Acquired uterine arteriovenous fistula following dilatation and curettage: an uncommon cause of vaginal bleeding.
    Radiol Case Rep 2017 Jun 21;12(2):287-291. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    College of Osteopathic Medicine, Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences, Kansas City, MO, USA.
    Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is a common presentation of women in the emergency department. We describe the case of a 33-year-old female who presented with intermittent spotting due to an acquired uterine AVF. The patient underwent a transvaginal pelvic ultrasound as well as a CT angiogram. Read More

    Cervical Ectropion May Be a Cause of Desquamative Inflammatory Vaginitis.
    Sex Med 2017 Sep 28;5(3):e212-e214. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    The Centers for Vulvovaginal Disorders, Washington, DC, and New York, NY, USA; George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USA.
    Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis is a poorly understood chronic vaginitis with an unknown etiology. Symptoms of desquamative inflammatory vaginitis include copious yellowish discharge, vulvovaginal discomfort, and dyspareunia. Cervical ectropion, the presence of glandular columnar cells on the ectocervix, has not been reported as a cause of desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. Read More

    A survey on abnormal uterine bleeding among radiographers with frequent MRI exposure using intrauterine contraceptive devices.
    Magn Reson Med 2018 Feb 25;79(2):1083-1089. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, the Netherlands.
    Purpose: Based on a previous case report of menometrorrhagia (prolonged/excessive uterine bleeding, occurring at irregular and/or frequent intervals) in MRI workers with intrauterine devices (IUDs), it was evaluated whether this association could be confirmed.

    Methods: A survey was performed among 381 female radiographers registered with their national association. Logistic regression was used to analyze associations of abnormal uterine bleeding with the frequency of working with MRI scanners, presence near the scanner/in the scanner room during image acquisition, and with scanner strength or type. Read More

    Hysteroscopic Management of Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation.
    JSLS 2017 Apr-Jun;21(2)
    Department of Biomedical, Experimental and Clinical Sciences, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Florence, Italy.
    Background And Objectives: Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is characterized by shunts between the myometrial arteries and veins. Treatment is based on the severity of uterine bleeding and ranges from conservative medical approaches to embolization of affected arteries. The aim of study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of hysteroscopy for management of uterine AVM. Read More

    Contribution of Hormonal Cytology in Girls and Adolescents to Reproductive Health: A Traditional Technique Monitoring Recent Problems.
    Acta Cytol 2017 13;61(2):125-132. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Institute of Pathology, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and Faculty General Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Objective: To study the contribution of hormonal cytology in contemporary disturbances of fertility.

    Design: Over a 10-year period (2006-2015), 6,688 vaginal fornix cytologies of 2,350 patients were investigated. For a more detailed analysis, a 3-year period from 2013 to 2015 was chosen. Read More

    Twelve month follow-up of a contraceptive implant outreach service in rural Papua New Guinea.
    Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2017 Apr;57(2):213-218
    Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Neonatology, Central Clinical School, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia.
    Background: Poor access to contraception contributes to persistently high maternal mortality rates in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Since 2012 contraceptive implants have been provided to women in rural areas of PNG through outreach services but follow-up data in these communities on continuation and acceptability is lacking.

    Objective: To gain insight into women's experience with contraceptive implants by assessing the acceptability, satisfaction, 12 month continuation rates and efficacy of contraceptive implants among women in rural PNG. Read More

    An abdominal ectopic pregnancy following a frozen-thawed ART cycle: a case report and review of the literature.
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2017 04 7;17(1):108. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Yanaihara Women's Clinic, 1-26-29 Ofuna, Kamakura, Kanagawa, Zip247-0056, Japan.
    Background: Ectopic pregnancy (EP) occurs in 1% of pregnancies and is reported to be more common in in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) pregnancies. An abdominal ectopic pregnancy (AEP) is a rare form of EP, and there are few reports of an AEP after IVF/ICSI. In this case report, a rare case of AEP after frozen-thawed cycle of ICSI is presented. Read More

    Sirolimus on Gorham-Stout disease. Case report.
    Colomb Med (Cali) 2016 Dec 30;47(4):213-216. Epub 2016 Dec 30.
    Departamento de Medicina Interna. Hospital Clínico Universitario de Salamanca. Salamanca. España.
    Background: Gorham-Stout disease (GSD) is a rare disease of unknown etiology characterized by vascular proliferation that produces destruction of bone matrix.

    Case Description: This case is about 43 year old woman who begins with pain in sternum, dyspnea, abdominal mass and, serous-hematic pleural effusion. Imaging tests were performed showing lesions on 6and 10left ribs archs. Read More

    Successful medical treatment of a hepatic pregnancy: a case report.
    J Med Case Rep 2017 Mar 15;11(1):70. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    Gynaecology and Obstetrics Unit, Douala Gynaeco-Obstetric and Paediatric Hospital, Douala, Cameroon.
    Background: Hepatic pregnancy is a rare form of abdominal pregnancy, often documented only as case reports.

    Case Presentation: We report here the case of a 24-year-old African woman, gravida 4 para 3, presenting with right upper quadrant pains and metrorrhagia after amenorrhea of 8 weeks 5 days. Elements in favor of the diagnosis of hepatic pregnancy were her clinical presentation, the kinetics of β-human chorionic gonadotropin titers, and the presence of a sub-hepatic mass on ultrasound. Read More

    Intracavitary ethanol ablation for the management of uterine hemorrhage refractory to uterine artery embolization.
    Clin Imaging 2017 May - Jun;43:83-87. Epub 2017 Jan 30.
    Department of Radiology, Louisiana State University Health Shreveport, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71130, United States. Electronic address:
    A 57-year-old postmenopausal woman with end-stage liver disease secondary to alcoholic cirrhosis, esophageal varices, severe alcoholic cardiomyopathy, and metrorrhagia causing persistent anemia despite multiple transfusions presented with heavy vaginal bleeding. The patient underwent two uterine artery embolizations with proximal coils instead of directed particles due to difficult anatomy but the bleeding continued despite these interventions. Since she was a poor surgical candidate for hysterectomy, the decision was made to attempt achievement of hemostasis via ethanol injection into the uterine cavity. Read More

    Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Is Associated With Increased BMP7 Expression in Human Endometrium.
    Reprod Sci 2017 05 7;24(5):671-681. Epub 2016 Oct 7.
    1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), a common health concern of women, is a heterogeneous clinical entity that is traditionally categorized into organic and nonorganic causes. Despite varied pharmacologic treatments, few offer sustained efficacy, as most are empiric, unfocused, and do not directly address underlying dysregulated molecular mechanisms. Characterization of such molecular derangements affords the opportunity to develop and use novel, more successful treatments for AUB. Read More

    Ovarian Leydig cells (OLC): A histomorphological and immunohistochemical study.
    Histol Histopathol 2017 Oct 27;32(10):1089-1097. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medicine Section, University of La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.
    Testicular Leydig cells (LC) regulate the proper development of male individuals, both during fetal life (fetal LC) and puberty (adult LC). In the ovaries of adult women, there are cells that are very similar to Leydig cells, the ovarian hilus cells (OHC), which also produce testosterone. The origin of these cells, in both sexes, remains unknown and is still a matter of debate. Read More

    Heavy Menstrual Bleeding in Adolescents.
    J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2017 Jun 17;30(3):335-340. Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas. Electronic address:
    Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is a very common gynecological condition in female adolescents and a frequent presenting complaint of those with bleeding disorders. Recommendations have been established to screen for bleeding disorders in this age group where appropriate. The purpose of this document is to impart clinical recommendations regarding HMB in adolescents. Read More

    Sphincter-saving resection by cluneal arched skin incision for a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of the lower rectum: a case report.
    Surg Case Rep 2017 Dec 5;3(1). Epub 2017 Jan 5.
    Department of Surgery, Chugoku Rosai Hospital, 1-5-1, Tagaya, Hiro, Kure City, Hiroshima, 737-0193, Japan.
    Background: Planning the surgical strategy for a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) at the posterior wall of the lower rectum is difficult, as the procedures for the lower rectum are hampered by poor visualization and may cause anal dysfunction or discomfort. We report a novel procedure to resect a submucosal tumor of the rectum.

    Case Presentation: A 75-year-old woman presented with metrorrhagia. Read More

    Pooled analysis of two randomized, open-label studies comparing the effects of nomegestrol acetate/17β-estradiol and drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol on bleeding patterns in healthy women.
    Contraception 2017 Apr 20;95(4):390-397. Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    MSD Oss N.V., Oss, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Objectives: To obtain more precise and detailed information regarding the bleeding patterns of nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC)/17β-estradiol (E2) and drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol (DRSP/EE) and to identify whether baseline demographic characteristics were associated with unscheduled bleeding, absent scheduled bleeding, or amenorrhea.

    Study Design: This analysis pooled results from two pivotal open-label, randomized trials that compared bleeding patterns of NOMAC/E2 and DRSP/EE. In the two studies 4317 women aged 18-50 years from 24 countries across the Americas, Europe, and Asia underwent treatment. Read More

    Unscheduled vaginal bleeding with progestin-only contraceptive use.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 05 14;216(5):443-450. Epub 2016 Dec 14.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, St Louis, MO; Division of Clinical Research and Family Planning, Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, St Louis, MO.
    Nearly 20% of women using contraception are using progestin-only contraception, including progestin-only pills, depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate, subdermal etonogestrel implants, and levonorgestrel intrauterine devices. This number will continue to grow with the increased provision of long-acting reversible contraception. Although overall satisfaction among women using progestin-only contraception is high, dissatisfaction and discontinuation may be associated with unscheduled bleeding and spotting. Read More

    Hysteroscopy in Abnormal Uterine Bleeding vs Ultrasonography and Histopathology Report in Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women.
    JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc 2016 Jul-Sep;55(203):26-28
    Department of General Practice and Emergency Medicine, TUTH, MMC, Institute of Medicine, TU, Nepal.
    Introduction: Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the most common morbidity landing women to attend medical attention in gynecology outpatient department. This study aims to evaluate the hysteroscopy finding in diagnosis of AUB and its correlation with ultrasonography finding and histopathological reports.

    Methods: This was a prospective comparative study in which ultrasonography was performed in fifty patients with abnormal uterine bleeding attending OPD then hysteroscopy was performed. Read More

    A single-arm phase III study exploring the efficacy and safety of LNG-IUS 8, a low-dose levonorgestrel intrauterine contraceptive system (total content 13.5 mg), in an Asia-Pacific population.
    Contraception 2017 Apr 29;95(4):371-377. Epub 2016 Nov 29.
    Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Objective: The objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a low-dose levonorgestrel intrauterine system with total content 13.5 mg (average approximately 8 μg/24 h over the first year; LNG-IUS 8; Jaydess®) in an Asia-Pacific population.

    Study Design: An open-label, single-arm phase III study conducted at 25 centers in China, Australia and Korea assessed LNG-IUS 8 use over 3 years in nulliparous and parous women (N=1114) aged 18-40 years with regular menstrual cycles (21-35 days). Read More

    Practical aspects of the two FIGO systems for management of abnormal uterine bleeding in the reproductive years.
    Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2017 Apr 1;40:3-22. Epub 2016 Oct 1.
    Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles and Kaiser Permanente, Los Angeles Medical Center, USA. Electronic address:
    The FIGO systems defining the nomenclature and symptoms of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) in the reproductive years (System 1) and the PALM-COEIN classification of causes of AUB (System 2) are designed to facilitate research, education, and the provision of optimum clinical care for affected women. Development of these systems has been the result of a collaborative effort of experts in bench and translational and clinical research from six continents aided by a spectrum of representatives from relevant medical societies, journals, and regulatory bodies. Integral to this development has been a decision to cease the use of poorly defined and inconsistently used terms such as menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, and dysfunctional uterine bleeding, to name a few, and replace them with a set of terms and definitions that are relatively easily understood and translated into the spectrum of languages used by medical providers and patients globally. Read More

    Primary histiocytic sarcoma of the uterine cervix: an extremely rare entity.
    Rom J Intern Med 2017 Mar;55(1):53-56
    Objective: Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is an extraordinary rare tumor and it has an offensive clinical course. HS of the uterine cervix is a far uncommon tumor with just a few cases described so far. Here we presented a case of primary HS of the uterine cervix in a 62-year-old female initially misdiagnosed as large cell non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma. Read More

    [The contribution of ultrasonography in the exploration of postmenopausal metrorrhagias].
    Pan Afr Med J 2016 30;24:175. Epub 2016 Jun 30.
    Service de Gynécologie Obstétrique «A», Centre de Maternité et de Néonatologie de Tunis, Tunisie.
    Post-menopausal metrorrhagias represent a frequent reason for consultation in gynecology. Our study aims to evaluate the contribution of pelvic ultrasonography in the exploration of endocavitary lesions in people experiencing this symptom and to compare the results found with those of hysteroscopy and histology. This was an analytic retrospective study of 33 cases referred for evaluation of postmenopausal metrorrhagias at the department of gynecology and obstetrics «A» in the Center of Maternity and Neonatology of Tunis in 2012. Read More

    Hyperparathyroidism as a cause of recurrent acute pancreatitis: A case report.
    Vojnosanit Pregl 2016 Nov;73(11):1064-7
    Introduction: One of the more uncommon etiological factors responsible for the development of acute pancreatitis (AP) is hypercalcemia. Hyperparathyroidism (HPT), as a cause of hypercalcemia, is responsible for 1.5–13% of AP according to a number of studies. Read More

    Differential diagnosis and management of placental polyp and uterine arteriovenous malformation: Case reports and review of the literature.
    Womens Health (Lond) 2016 Nov 10;12(6):538-543. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Shimane University, Izumo, Japan.
    Postpartum uterine bleeding is not uncommon and is caused by a variety of obstetrical and gynecological disorders, such as retained placenta, dysfunctional bleeding, and endometrial polyps. Placental polyps and uterine arteriovenous malformation are disorders often encountered in cases of abnormal uterine bleeding in the late puerperal period. These patients may experience life-threatening bleeding and require prompt intervention based on the correct differential diagnosis. Read More

    Tamoxifen for the treatment of breakthrough bleeding with the etonogestrel implant: a randomized controlled trial.
    Contraception 2017 Feb 8;95(2):198-204. Epub 2016 Oct 8.
    Oregon Health & Science University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, UHN 50, Portland, OR 97239, USA.
    Objective: The etonogestrel (ENG) subdermal implant can cause frequent breakthrough bleeding in some users. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a short course of tamoxifen reduces bleeding/spotting days compared to placebo in ENG implant users.

    Study Design: In this double-blind trial, we randomized ENG implant users with frequent or prolonged bleeding or spotting to tamoxifen 10 mg or placebo twice daily for 7 days, to be started after 3 consecutive days of bleeding/spotting. Read More

    Sonographic Evaluation for Endometrial Polyps: The Interrupted Mucosa Sign.
    J Ultrasound Med 2016 Nov 14;35(11):2381-2387. Epub 2016 Sep 14.
    Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan USA.
    Objectives: To evaluate the interrupted mucosa sign for identification of endometrial polyps, using pathologic confirmation as the reference standard, compared to other accepted sonographic findings.

    Methods: We reviewed 195 patients referred for pelvic sonographic evaluations for suspected endometrial polyps in this retrospective Institutional Review Board-approved study. Of these, 82 had tissue sampling of the endometrium and constituted the final study group. Read More

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