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    Hormone replacement therapy in pre-menopausal women undergoing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for benign disease: A review of practice.
    Post Reprod Health 2017 Jan 1:2053369117709205. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    Royal Derby Hospital, Derby, UK.
    Introduction The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline on the diagnosis and management of the menopause states that women who are likely to go through the menopause as a result of surgical treatment should be offered information about the menopause and the importance of starting hormonal replacement therapy before they have their treatment. Objectives To determine compliance with NICE guidelines at the Royal Derby Hospital. Study design We undertook a retrospective review of all pre-menopausal women undergoing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for benign pathology between 1 January 2016 and 30 June 2016. Read More

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Mixed Mullerian Tumour: Report of Two Cases.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Mar 1;11(3):TD03-TD05. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Chief Resident, Department of Radio Diagnosis, Dr. D.Y. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
    Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumours (MMMTs) or carcinosarcomas of uterus are rare aggressive tumours of mesenchymal origin. It is associated with high incidence of lymphatic, pulmonary and peritoneal metastasis. We hereby present two cases of mixed mullerian tumour. Read More

    Acquired uterine arteriovenous fistula following dilatation and curettage: an uncommon cause of vaginal bleeding.
    Radiol Case Rep 2017 Jun 21;12(2):287-291. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    College of Osteopathic Medicine, Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences, Kansas City, MO, USA.
    Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is a common presentation of women in the emergency department. We describe the case of a 33-year-old female who presented with intermittent spotting due to an acquired uterine AVF. The patient underwent a transvaginal pelvic ultrasound as well as a CT angiogram. Read More

    Cervical Ectropion May Be a Cause of Desquamative Inflammatory Vaginitis.
    Sex Med 2017 Apr 28. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    The Centers for Vulvovaginal Disorders, Washington, DC, and New York, NY, USA; George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USA.
    Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis is a poorly understood chronic vaginitis with an unknown etiology. Symptoms of desquamative inflammatory vaginitis include copious yellowish discharge, vulvovaginal discomfort, and dyspareunia. Cervical ectropion, the presence of glandular columnar cells on the ectocervix, has not been reported as a cause of desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. Read More

    A survey on abnormal uterine bleeding among radiographers with frequent MRI exposure using intrauterine contraceptive devices.
    Magn Reson Med 2017 Apr 25. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, the Netherlands.
    Purpose: Based on a previous case report of menometrorrhagia (prolonged/excessive uterine bleeding, occurring at irregular and/or frequent intervals) in MRI workers with intrauterine devices (IUDs), it was evaluated whether this association could be confirmed.

    Methods: A survey was performed among 381 female radiographers registered with their national association. Logistic regression was used to analyze associations of abnormal uterine bleeding with the frequency of working with MRI scanners, presence near the scanner/in the scanner room during image acquisition, and with scanner strength or type. Read More

    Contribution of Hormonal Cytology in Girls and Adolescents to Reproductive Health: A Traditional Technique Monitoring Recent Problems.
    Acta Cytol 2017 13;61(2):125-132. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Institute of Pathology, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and Faculty General Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Objective: To study the contribution of hormonal cytology in contemporary disturbances of fertility.

    Design: Over a 10-year period (2006-2015), 6,688 vaginal fornix cytologies of 2,350 patients were investigated. For a more detailed analysis, a 3-year period from 2013 to 2015 was chosen. Read More

    An abdominal ectopic pregnancy following a frozen-thawed ART cycle: a case report and review of the literature.
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2017 Apr 7;17(1):108. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Yanaihara Women's Clinic, 1-26-29 Ofuna, Kamakura, Kanagawa, Zip247-0056, Japan.
    Background: Ectopic pregnancy (EP) occurs in 1% of pregnancies and is reported to be more common in in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) pregnancies. An abdominal ectopic pregnancy (AEP) is a rare form of EP, and there are few reports of an AEP after IVF/ICSI. In this case report, a rare case of AEP after frozen-thawed cycle of ICSI is presented. Read More

    Sirolimus on Gorham-Stout disease. Case report.
    Colomb Med (Cali) 2016 Dec 30;47(4):213-216. Epub 2016 Dec 30.
    Departamento de Medicina Interna. Hospital Clínico Universitario de Salamanca. Salamanca. España.
    Background: Gorham-Stout disease (GSD) is a rare disease of unknown etiology characterized by vascular proliferation that produces destruction of bone matrix.

    Case Description: This case is about 43 year old woman who begins with pain in sternum, dyspnea, abdominal mass and, serous-hematic pleural effusion. Imaging tests were performed showing lesions on 6(th) and 10(th) left ribs archs. Read More

    Successful medical treatment of a hepatic pregnancy: a case report.
    J Med Case Rep 2017 Mar 15;11(1):70. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    Gynaecology and Obstetrics Unit, Douala Gynaeco-Obstetric and Paediatric Hospital, Douala, Cameroon.
    Background: Hepatic pregnancy is a rare form of abdominal pregnancy, often documented only as case reports.

    Case Presentation: We report here the case of a 24-year-old African woman, gravida 4 para 3, presenting with right upper quadrant pains and metrorrhagia after amenorrhea of 8 weeks 5 days. Elements in favor of the diagnosis of hepatic pregnancy were her clinical presentation, the kinetics of β-human chorionic gonadotropin titers, and the presence of a sub-hepatic mass on ultrasound. Read More

    Intracavitary ethanol ablation for the management of uterine hemorrhage refractory to uterine artery embolization.
    Clin Imaging 2017 May - Jun;43:83-87. Epub 2017 Jan 30.
    Department of Radiology, Louisiana State University Health Shreveport, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71130, United States. Electronic address:
    A 57-year-old postmenopausal woman with end-stage liver disease secondary to alcoholic cirrhosis, esophageal varices, severe alcoholic cardiomyopathy, and metrorrhagia causing persistent anemia despite multiple transfusions presented with heavy vaginal bleeding. The patient underwent two uterine artery embolizations with proximal coils instead of directed particles due to difficult anatomy but the bleeding continued despite these interventions. Since she was a poor surgical candidate for hysterectomy, the decision was made to attempt achievement of hemostasis via ethanol injection into the uterine cavity. Read More

    Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Is Associated With Increased BMP7 Expression in Human Endometrium.
    Reprod Sci 2017 May 7;24(5):671-681. Epub 2016 Oct 7.
    1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), a common health concern of women, is a heterogeneous clinical entity that is traditionally categorized into organic and nonorganic causes. Despite varied pharmacologic treatments, few offer sustained efficacy, as most are empiric, unfocused, and do not directly address underlying dysregulated molecular mechanisms. Characterization of such molecular derangements affords the opportunity to develop and use novel, more successful treatments for AUB. Read More

    Ovarian Leydig cells (OLC): A histomorphological and immunohistochemical study.
    Histol Histopathol 2017 Jan 27:11876. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medicine Section, University of La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.
    Testicular Leydig cells (LC) regulate the proper development of male individuals, both during fetal life (fetal LC) and puberty (adult LC). In the ovaries of adult women, there are cells that are very similar to Leydig cells, the ovarian hilus cells (OHC), which also produce testosterone. The origin of these cells, in both sexes, remains unknown and is still a matter of debate. Read More

    Heavy Menstrual Bleeding in Adolescents.
    J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2017 Jun 17;30(3):335-340. Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas. Electronic address:
    Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is a very common gynecological condition in female adolescents and a frequent presenting complaint of those with bleeding disorders. Recommendations have been established to screen for bleeding disorders in this age group where appropriate. The purpose of this document is to impart clinical recommendations regarding HMB in adolescents. Read More

    Sphincter-saving resection by cluneal arched skin incision for a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of the lower rectum: a case report.
    Surg Case Rep 2017 Dec 5;3(1). Epub 2017 Jan 5.
    Department of Surgery, Chugoku Rosai Hospital, 1-5-1, Tagaya, Hiro, Kure City, Hiroshima, 737-0193, Japan.
    Background: Planning the surgical strategy for a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) at the posterior wall of the lower rectum is difficult, as the procedures for the lower rectum are hampered by poor visualization and may cause anal dysfunction or discomfort. We report a novel procedure to resect a submucosal tumor of the rectum.

    Case Presentation: A 75-year-old woman presented with metrorrhagia. Read More

    Hysteroscopy in Abnormal Uterine Bleeding vs Ultrasonography and Histopathology Report in Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women.
    JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc 2016 Jul-Sep;55(203):26-28
    Department of General Practice and Emergency Medicine, TUTH, MMC, Institute of Medicine, TU, Nepal.
    Introduction: Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the most common morbidity landing women to attend medical attention in gynecology outpatient department. This study aims to evaluate the hysteroscopy finding in diagnosis of AUB and its correlation with ultrasonography finding and histopathological reports.

    Methods: This was a prospective comparative study in which ultrasonography was performed in fifty patients with abnormal uterine bleeding attending OPD then hysteroscopy was performed. Read More

    Practical aspects of the two FIGO systems for management of abnormal uterine bleeding in the reproductive years.
    Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2017 Apr 1;40:3-22. Epub 2016 Oct 1.
    Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles and Kaiser Permanente, Los Angeles Medical Center, USA. Electronic address:
    The FIGO systems defining the nomenclature and symptoms of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) in the reproductive years (System 1) and the PALM-COEIN classification of causes of AUB (System 2) are designed to facilitate research, education, and the provision of optimum clinical care for affected women. Development of these systems has been the result of a collaborative effort of experts in bench and translational and clinical research from six continents aided by a spectrum of representatives from relevant medical societies, journals, and regulatory bodies. Integral to this development has been a decision to cease the use of poorly defined and inconsistently used terms such as menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, and dysfunctional uterine bleeding, to name a few, and replace them with a set of terms and definitions that are relatively easily understood and translated into the spectrum of languages used by medical providers and patients globally. Read More

    [The contribution of ultrasonography in the exploration of postmenopausal metrorrhagias].
    Pan Afr Med J 2016 30;24:175. Epub 2016 Jun 30.
    Service de Gynécologie Obstétrique «A», Centre de Maternité et de Néonatologie de Tunis, Tunisie.
    Post-menopausal metrorrhagias represent a frequent reason for consultation in gynecology. Our study aims to evaluate the contribution of pelvic ultrasonography in the exploration of endocavitary lesions in people experiencing this symptom and to compare the results found with those of hysteroscopy and histology. This was an analytic retrospective study of 33 cases referred for evaluation of postmenopausal metrorrhagias at the department of gynecology and obstetrics «A» in the Center of Maternity and Neonatology of Tunis in 2012. Read More

    Sonographic Evaluation for Endometrial Polyps: The Interrupted Mucosa Sign.
    J Ultrasound Med 2016 Nov 14;35(11):2381-2387. Epub 2016 Sep 14.
    Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan USA.
    Objectives: To evaluate the interrupted mucosa sign for identification of endometrial polyps, using pathologic confirmation as the reference standard, compared to other accepted sonographic findings.

    Methods: We reviewed 195 patients referred for pelvic sonographic evaluations for suspected endometrial polyps in this retrospective Institutional Review Board-approved study. Of these, 82 had tissue sampling of the endometrium and constituted the final study group. Read More

    Dysfunctional uterine bleeding as an early sign of polycystic ovary syndrome during adolescence: an update.
    Minerva Ginecol 2017 Feb 27;69(1):68-74. Epub 2016 Oct 27.
    Division of Pediatric-Adolescent Gynecology and Reconstructive Surgery, Second Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, Aretaieion Hospital, Athens, Greece.
    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a frequent reason for concern between adolescents. The most common cause of AUB in these girls, when other pathologies have been excluded, is dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB). The aim of this review is to assess the role of DUB as an early symptom of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) diagnosis later in life. Read More

    Transcatheter arterial embolization with ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx) for the treatment of hemorrhage due to uterine arteriovenous malformations.
    Diagn Interv Imaging 2017 May 21;98(5):415-421. Epub 2016 Oct 21.
    Department of radiology, hôpital de la Timone, 264, rue Saint-Pierre, 13385 Marseille cedex 05, France.
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx) as a single embolic agent for percutaneous arterial treatment of hemorrhage due to uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).

    Materials And Methods: Twelve women (mean age, 33 years) with metrorrhagia due to uterine AVMs who were treated by percutaneous arterial embolization using Onyx as a single embolic agent were retrospectively included. The diagnosis of uterine AVM was suggested by pelvic ultrasound and/or magnetic resonance imaging findings and further confirmed by angiography. Read More

    Von Willebrand disease in sub-Saharan Africa: a first severe case reported in Cameroon.
    Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2016 Oct;27(7):835-837
    aFaculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé IbHematology and Blood Transfusion Unit, University Teaching Hospital of Yaoundé, Yaoundé, CamerooncDivision of Angiology and Hemostasis, Geneva University Hospitals, Switzerland.
    In Cameroon, the Yaoundé Hemophilia Treatment Center (HTC) has so far recorded 121 cases of hemophilia and only 10 cases of von Willebrand disease (VWD). We report the case of a 16-year-old girl, living in the north of Cameroon. She presented with severe meno-metrorrhagia, which had increased drastically within the past 3 months, associated more recently by gum bleeding and epistaxis. Read More

    Indications and Route of Hysterectomy for Benign Diseases. Guideline of the DGGG, OEGGG and SGGG (S3 Level, AWMF Registry No. 015/070, April 2015)
    Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 2016 04;76(4):350-364
    Universitäts-Frauenklinik Graz.
    Background: Official guideline "indications and methods of hysterectomy" to assign indications for the different methods published and coordinated by the German Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG), the Austrian Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (OEGGG) and the Swiss Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (SGGG). Besides vaginal and abdominal hysterectomy, three additional techniques have been implemented due to the introduction of laparoscopy. Organ-sparing alternatives were also integrated. Read More

    [A clinical analysis of gynecological diseases in 147 children].
    Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2016 Sep;18(9):846-850
    Department of Gynecology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, China.
    Objective: To study the clinical features of gynecological diseases in hospitalized children.

    Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 147 children with gynecological diseases who were hospitalized and treated in the department of gynecology.

    Results: Among the 147 children, ovarian tumors were most common (53 cases, 36. Read More

    Rapid screening and identification of the differences between metabolites of Cistanche deserticola and C. tubulosa water extract in rats by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS combined pattern recognition analysis.
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 2016 Nov 14;131:364-372. Epub 2016 Sep 14.
    School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China. Electronic address:
    Cistanches Herba is a famous traditional Chinese medicine that has been in use for treating kidney deficiency, impotence, female infertility, morbid leucorrhea, profuse metrorrhagia, and senile constipation. With the exception of studies available for a few single active ingredients such as echinacoside, acteoside, and poliumoside, comprehensive and systematic studies on in vivo metabolism of Cistanches Herba are lacking despite its widespread clinical application. There is no comparative study yet on the metabolites resulting from the traditional usage of Cistanche deserticola and C. Read More

    Evaluation of the Hemostatic Disorders in Adolescent Girls with Menorrhagia: Experiences from a Tertiary Referral Hospital.
    Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2016 Sep 22;32(3):356-61. Epub 2015 Aug 22.
    Department of Pediatric Hematology, Yuzuncu Yil University, 65100 Van, Turkey.
    Bleeding disorders are a common cause of menorrhagia in the adolescent age group. We aimed to evaluate the incidence of hemostatic disorders, using clinical and laboratory findings of bleeding disorders in adolescent girls with menorrhagia. A retrospective chart review used to evaluate adolescent girls with menorrhagia who were referred to Yuzuncu Yil University Pediatric Hematology clinic between January 2010 and December 2014. Read More

    Combined oral contraceptive treatment for bleeding complaints with the etonogestrel contraceptive implant: a randomised controlled trial.
    Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 2016 Oct 15;21(5):361-6. Epub 2016 Jul 15.
    a Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology , University of California, Davis , Sacramento , CA , USA ;
    Objective: Estimate symptom improvement rate of women with bleeding complaints using the etonogestrel contraceptive implant when started on continuous combined oral contraceptives (COC).

    Methods: We conducted a double-blinded randomised controlled trial of women reporting troublesome bleeding related to their etonogestrel contraceptive implant and desiring intervention. Participants received continuous COCs or placebo for four weeks to evaluate self-reported bleeding improvement at four weeks. Read More

    Efficacy and safety of the contraceptive vaginal ring (NuvaRing) compared with a combined oral contraceptive in Chinese women: a 1-year randomised trial.
    Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 2016 Aug 24;21(4):303-9. Epub 2016 Jun 24.
    g Merck & Co., Inc. , Kenilworth , NJ , USA.
    Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of the monthly vaginal ring (NuvaRing; 15 μg ethinylestradiol [EE] and 120 μg etonogestrel per day) compared with a monophasic (21/7) combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing 30 μg EE and 3 mg drospirenone in healthy Chinese women aged 18-40 years.

    Methods: This was a phase III, open-label, randomised multicentre trial conducted in China. Participants received NuvaRing or COC for 13 cycles (3 weeks of ring/pill treatment followed by a 1-week ring-free/pill-free period). Read More

    Efficacy of combined hormonal vaginal ring in comparison to combined hormonal pills in heavy menstrual bleeding.
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2016 Aug 20;203:147-51. Epub 2016 May 20.
    Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, BPS Govt Medical College, Khanpur, Sonepat, Haryana, India.
    Objective: To compare the efficacy, acceptability and compliance of combined hormonal vaginal ring (CVR), with combined hormonal pills (CHP) in patients with heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB).

    Study Design: This prospective study was conducted in 50 women with HMB in age group of 25-40 years. Patients were divided in two groups of 25 each and followed for six treatment cycles. Read More

    Adolescent Gynecologic Emergencies.
    Adolesc Med State Art Rev 2015 Dec;26(3):473-83
    Adolescent females frequently present to the ED with complaints that may be caused by a gynecologic emergency. Differentiating and excluding some of the common and most serious gynecologic emergencies reviewed in this article are critical. Timely and effective treatment of these conditions, once diagnosed, can result in better health outcomes. Read More

    [Radiotherapy for endometrial cancer: experience of the national institute of oncology with 52 cases].
    Pan Afr Med J 2016 30;23:144. Epub 2016 Mar 30.
    Service de Radiothérapie, Institut National d'Oncologie, Université Mohammed V Souissi, Rabat, Maroc.
    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological cancer in the Western world. It affects mainly postmenopausal women. The aim of our study is to report the experience of the radiotherapy department of the National Oncology Institute (INO) in the treatment of endometrial cancer. Read More

    Endometrial study in patients with postmenopausal metrorrhagia.
    Arch Med Sci 2016 Jun 18;12(3):597-602. Epub 2016 May 18.
    Department of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, University Autonóma, Madrid, Spain.
    Introduction: The aim of the study was to devise a strategy to diagnose malign endometrial pathologies (adenocarcinoma or atypical hyperplasia) that minimizes the number of invasive tests done (hysteroscopy, aspiration biopsy or curettage) with no loss of its detection efficiency.

    Material And Methods: We retrospectively studied the clinical histories of 779 postmenopausal women at the University Hospital Complex of Albacete, for whom an endometrial study had been done (hysteroscopy, aspiration biopsy or curettage) with a 1-year follow-up between 1 March 2006 and 31 March 2008.

    Results: There were 77 cases of a malignant pathology (66 adenocarcinomas and 11 hyperplasias with atypia); 96. Read More

    Bleeding patterns of HIV-infected women using an etonogestrel-releasing contraceptive implant and efavirenz-based or lopinavir/ritonavir-based antiretroviral therapy.
    Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 2016 Aug 26;21(4):285-9. Epub 2016 May 26.
    a Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics , Medical School of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo , Ribeirão Preto , São Paulo , Brazil ;
    Objectives: The use of progestogen-only contraceptives may cause a change in bleeding pattern, which is a common cause of discontinuation of these methods. Co-administration with some antiretroviral therapies (ART) changes the bioavailability of the etonogestrel (ENG)-releasing contraceptive implant, possibly affecting the bleeding pattern. Bleeding patterns were evaluated in HIV-positive users of the ENG implant co-administered with two common ART regimens. Read More

    Effect on quality of life of switching to combined oral contraception based on natural estrogen: an observational, multicentre, prospective phase IV study (ZOCAL Study).
    Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 2016 Aug 25;21(4):276-84. Epub 2016 May 25.
    f DIATROS, Clínica de Atención a la Mujer , Barcelona , Spain.
    Objectives: This observational, multicentre, prospective phase IV study examined change in health-related quality of life (QOL) from baseline to 6 months in women initiating combined oral contraception (COC) based on natural estrogen.

    Methods: Eligible women attending a baseline and 6-month gynaecology appointment belonged to one of three groups: group 1 used barrier contraception (condoms) and elected to continue this method; group 2 used condoms and elected to switch to COC based on natural estrogen; group 3 used COC based on ethinylestradiol and elected to switch to COC based on natural estrogen. The Spanish Society of Contraception (SEC)-QOL scale assessed health-related QOL. Read More

    Conservative Resectoscopic Surgery, Successful Delivery, and 60 Months of Follow-Up in a Patient with Endometrial Stromal Tumor with Sex-Cord-Like Differentiation.
    Case Rep Obstet Gynecol 2016 26;2016:5736865. Epub 2016 Apr 26.
    Department of Women, Child and General and Specialized Surgery, Second University of Naples, Largo Madonna delle Grazie 1, 80138 Napoli, Italy.
    Uterine tumors with sex-cord-like differentiation are extremely rare types of uterine stromal neoplasm. These tumors were classified into two groups with considerable practical relevance because clinical behaviour of uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor (UTROSCT) differs widely from its closely related endometrial stromal tumors with sex-cord-like elements (ESTSCLE). Treatment and prognosis of these tumors are unresolved issues because of the exiguous number of reported cases. Read More

    A Randomised Controlled Trial Comparing the Efficacy and Side-Effects of Intravaginal Ring (Nuvaring(®)) With Combined Oral Hormonal Preparation in Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2016 Mar 1;10(3):QC21-4. Epub 2016 Mar 1.
    Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital , Delhi, India .
    Introduction: Combined Oral Contraceptive (COC) pills are being used in patients of abnormal uterine bleeding, especially adolescents and reproductive age women considering their need for contraception. It decreases the blood loss due to haemostatic effect of estrogen and also regularizes the cycle. Intravaginal route has been found to be effective and acceptable; Gastrointestinal absorption and hepatic first-pass metabolism is avoided and steady, uniform blood concentration is achieved. Read More

    GIANT INTRALIGAMENTARY UTERINE LEIOMYOMA AND ITS COMPLICATIONS.
    Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi 2016 Jan-Mar;120(1):145-51
    Uterine leiomyomas are benign tumors arising from uterine smooth muscle. Although their pathogenesis remains unclear, they are the most common tumor of the female reproductive tract, occurring in as many as half of women older than 35 years. Uterine leiomyomas represent the most common benign tumors of the female reproductive tract. Read More

    Spironolactone and intermenstrual bleeding in polycystic ovary syndrome with normal BMI.
    J Endocrinol Invest 2016 Sep 12;39(9):1015-21. Epub 2016 Apr 12.
    Department of Medicine-Endocrinology, University of Padua, via Ospedale 105, 35128, Padua, Italy.
    Purpose: Spironolactone (SP) is an effective treatment for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but it is often associated with menstrual abnormalities whose mechanism is still under investigation. In this study, we investigated the serum sex steroids and endometrial thickness in 30 PCOS patients, before and after one-month 100 mg SP treatment.

    Methods: Serum FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone and endometrial thickness were evaluated at the 14th and 16th day of the menstrual cycle, before and during short-term SP treatment. Read More

    Herba Cistanche (Rou Cong-Rong): One of the Best Pharmaceutical Gifts of Traditional Chinese Medicine.
    Front Pharmacol 2016 1;7:41. Epub 2016 Mar 1.
    Translational Medicine Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Xiamen UniversityXiamen, China; Key Laboratory for Cancer T-Cell Theranostics and Clinical TranslationXiamen, China; INNOVA Clinics and TRANSLA Health GroupXiamen, China.
    Cistanche species, known as Rou Cong-Rong in Chinese, are an endangered wild species and are mainly distributed in the arid lands and warm deserts of northwestern China. Within Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Herba Cistanche is applied as a tonic and/or in a formula for chronic renal disease, impotence, female infertility, morbid leucorrhea, profuse metrorrhagia, and senile constipation. The chemical constituents of Herba Cistanche mainly consist of volatile oils, non-volatile phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs), iridoids, lignans, alditols, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. Read More

    Comparison of classic terminology with the FIGO PALM-COEIN system for classification of the underlying causes of abnormal uterine bleeding.
    Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2016 Jun 16;133(3):325-8. Epub 2016 Feb 16.
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Izmir Tepecik Teaching and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey.
    Objective: To compare classic terminology and the PALM-COEIN (polyp, adenomyosis, leiomyoma, malignancy and hyperplasia, coagulopathy, ovulatory disorders, endometrium, iatrogenic, and not classified) classification system among women who underwent surgery for abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), and to subclassify the components of the PALM group for future studies.

    Methods: In a retrospective study, data were obtained for nonpregnant women aged 18-55years who underwent hysterectomy, myomectomy, or polypectomy for AUB at a center in Turkey in 2014. The patients were retrospectively classified according to the PALM-COEIN system, and the two terminologies were compared. Read More

    Mood and anxiety disorders in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding.
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2016 Apr 28;199:192-7. Epub 2016 Feb 28.
    Department of Radiology, Konya Training and Research Hospital, Konya, Turkey. Electronic address:
    Objective: We aimed to investigate the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) and the relationship between mood and anxiety disorders and AUB.

    Method: 96 consecutive patients with not yet classified AUB based on the PALM-COEIN classification and 94 volunteers were included in the study. Mood and anxiety disorders were ascertained by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition/Clinical Version. Read More

    The use of micronised progesterone for menopausal hormone therapy, a clinical practice audit.
    Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2016 Jun 29;56(3):323-5. Epub 2016 Feb 29.
    Women's Health Research Program, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    A clinical practice audit was undertaken to share an Australian experience of the use of micronised progesterone (mP) 100 mg daily as part of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). Ninety-nine women attending a single practitioner were offered the option of mP as a component of MHT, under the Australian Authorised Prescriber Scheme, over 2.5 years. Read More

    Correlation between transvaginal ultrasound measured endometrial thickness and histopathological findings in Turkish women with abnormal uterine bleeding.
    J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2016 May 18;42(5):573-8. Epub 2016 Feb 18.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Afyon Kocatepe University Medical Faculty Hospital, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey.
    Aim: The present study aims to determine how transvaginal ultrasonography and histopathological examination findings are correlated in a cohort of premenopausal and postmenopausal Turkish women with abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Methods: This is a retrospective review of 350 Turkish women who underwent transvaginal ultrasonography and suction curettage as a result of abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Results: Sonographic appearance of the endometrium was normal in 244 patients (69. Read More

    Consecutive lynestrenol and cross-sex hormone treatment in biological female adolescents with gender dysphoria: a retrospective analysis.
    Biol Sex Differ 2016 16;7:14. Epub 2016 Feb 16.
    Department of Pediatrics and Genetics, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium ; Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium ; Princess Elisabeth Children's Hospital, Building 3K12D, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Background: Prior to the start of cross-sex hormone therapy (CSH), androgenic progestins are often used to induce amenorrhea in female to male (FtM) pubertal adolescents with gender dysphoria (GD). The aim of this single-center study is to report changes in anthropometry, side effects, safety parameters, and hormone levels in a relatively large cohort of FtM adolescents with a diagnosis of GD at Tanner stage B4 or further, who were treated with lynestrenol (Orgametril®) monotherapy and in combination with testosterone esters (Sustanon®).

    Methods: A retrospective analysis of clinical and biochemical data obtained during at least 6 months of hormonal treatment in FtM adolescents followed at our adolescent gender clinic since 2010 (n = 45) was conducted. Read More

    Clinco-Pathological Patterns in Women with Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding.
    Iran J Pathol 2016 ;11(1):20-6
    Dept. of Pathology,Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi, India.
    Background: The term dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) refers to any abnormal bleeding from the uterus, unassociated with tumour, inflammation and pregnancy. The histological diagnosis of DUB is very essential for adequate management especially in perimenopausal and postmenopausal females. The present study was undertaken with the aim of evaluating DUB in various age groups, carry out histopathological study of the endometrium and analyze its clinic-pathological patterns. Read More

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