11,211 results match your criteria Dysbarism

Tension pneumoperitoneum following colonic perforation due to barotrauma.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Jun 24;15(6). Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Surgery, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education, Puducherry, Tamil Nadu, India

Barotrauma of the colorectum is an uncommon entity that usually occurs after colonoscopy. Perforation of the colon by non-iatrogenic barotrauma of the colon, with tension pneumoperitoneum, is very rare. We present a case of a male patient in his 20s with colon barotrauma caused by industrial compressed air, causing perforation of the transverse colon, with multiple serosal tears throughout the colon. Read More

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Sports Imaging of COVID-19: A Multi-Organ System Review of Indications and Imaging Findings.

Sports Health 2022 Jun 23:19417381221106448. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Radiology, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, New York.

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Although coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) affects every population group, the sports community and athletes require special consideration of the effects on cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, neurologic, and respiratory systems. A comprehensive understanding of imaging indications, findings, and features of COVID-19 supports appropriate imaging utilization and effective patient management and treatment. Read More

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Airway Pressure Release Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure Due to Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Intensive Care Med 2022 Jun 22:8850666221109779. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Alhayat Clinic, Edku, el-Beheira, Egypt.

Objective: To explore the evidence surrounding the use of Airway Pressure Release Ventilation (APRV) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A Systematic electronic search of PUBMED, EMBASE, and the WHO COVID-19 database. We also searched the grey literature via Google and preprint servers (medRxive and research square). Read More

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Perspective on ultrasound bioeffects and possible implications for continuous post-dive monitoring safety.

Diving Hyperb Med 2022 Jun;52(2):136-148

Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and North Carolina State University, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Ultrasound monitoring, both in the form of Doppler and 2D echocardiography, has been used post-dive to detect decompression bubbles circulating in the bloodstream. With large variability in both bubble time course and loads, it has been hypothesised that shorter periods between imaging, or even continuous imaging, could provide more accurate post-dive assessments. However, while considering applications of ultrasound imaging post-decompression, it may also be prudent to consider the possibility of ultrasound-induced bioeffects. Read More

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Blood pressure in rats selectively bred for their resistance to decompression sickness.

Diving Hyperb Med 2022 Jun;52(2):119-125

Univ Brest, ORPHY EA4324, IBSAM, 6 avenue Le Gorgeu, 29200 Brest, France.

Introduction: Susceptibility to decompression sickness (DCS) is characterised by a wide inter-individual variability whose origins are still poorly understood. This hampers reliable prediction of DCS by decompression algorithms. We previously selectively bred rats with a 3-fold greater resistance to DCS than standard rats. Read More

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The effect of pressure changes during simulated diving on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

Diving Hyperb Med 2022 Jun;52(2):97-102

Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, M.G.V.'s K.B.H. Dental College and Hospital, Nashik, India.

Introduction: This study investigated the effect of pressure variations to which divers are subjected on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to teeth with resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) or composite resin.

Methods: Eighty extracted premolars were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1: orthodontic brackets were bonded with RMGIC. Read More

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A prospective single-blind randomised clinical trial comparing two treatment tables for the initial management of mild decompression sickness.

Diving Hyperb Med 2022 Jun;52(2)

Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, Fiona Stanley Hospital, Murdoch WA, Australia.

Introduction: Limited evidence suggests that shorter recompression schedules may be as efficacious as the US Navy Treatment Table 6 (USN TT6) for treatment of milder presentations of decompression sickness (DCS). This study aimed to determine if divers with mild DCS could be effectively treated with a shorter chamber treatment table.

Methods: All patients presenting to the Fremantle Hospital Hyperbaric Medicine Unit with suspected DCS were assessed for inclusion. Read More

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Decompression illness in Finnish technical divers: a follow-up study on incidence and self-treatment.

Diving Hyperb Med 2022 Jun;52(2):78-84

Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland.

Introduction: Technical diving is increasing in popularity in Finland, and therefore the number of decompression illness (DCI) cases is also increasing among technical divers. Although hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) remains the standard of care, there are anecdotal reports of technical divers treating mild DCI symptoms themselves and not seeking a medical evaluation and possible recompression therapy. This study aimed to make an epidemiologic inventory of technical diving-related DCI symptoms, to establish the incidence of self-treatment and to determine the apparent effectiveness of different treatment methods. Read More

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High-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation for Refractory Hypoxemia in Severe COVID-19 Pneumonia: A Small Case Series.

Am J Case Rep 2022 Jun 22;23:e936651. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Lexington Medical Center, West Columbia, SC, USA.

BACKGROUND COVID-19 continues to place a tremendous burden on the healthcare system, with most deaths resulting from respiratory failure. Management strategies have varied, but the mortality rate for mechanically ventilated patients remains high. Conventional management with ARDSnet ventilation can improve outcomes but alternative and adjunct treatments continue to be explored. Read More

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Clinical Profile of Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection Developing Pulmonary Barotrauma on Mechanical Ventilation.

Indian J Crit Care Med 2022 May;26(5):613-618

Sir HN Medical Research Society, Sir HN Reliance Foundation Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Background: There is limited information on clinical profile and outcomes of patients on mechanical ventilation (MV) who developed pulmonary barotrauma (PBT) in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.

Patients And Methods: In a retrospective observational study, all SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia patients admitted from March 28, 2020, to August 31, 2020, at Sir HN Reliance Foundation Hospital and Research Center and Seven Hills Hospital (Reliance Facility), Mumbai, India, of 18 years and above on MV and developed PBT, were included.

Results: A total of 14 SARS-CoV-2 patients of 45 on MV (31. Read More

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Middle Ear Barotrauma among Licensed Para-pilots of a Metropolitan City: A Descriptive Cross-sectional Study.

JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc 2022 Jun 1;60(250):537-540. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Islington College, Kamalpokhari, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Introduction: Middle ear barotrauma is a tissue injury to the ear secondary to inadequate pressure equalisation between the middle ear and the external environment. Paragliding, though an exciting sport, has its own risks and hazards. Para-pilots experience a variety of ear-related symptoms due to pressure discrepancies between the middle ear and ambient air. Read More

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Decompression Illness Treated with the Hart-Kindwall Protocol in a Monoplace Chamber.

Am J Case Rep 2022 Jun 12;23:e935534. Epub 2022 Jun 12.

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Division, Department of Emergency Medicine, Kameda General Hospital, Kamogawa, Chiba, Japan.

BACKGROUND Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy in a multiplace chamber is the standard treatment for severe altitude decompression illness (DCI). However, some hospitals may only have a monoplace chamber. Herein, we present the case of a patient with severe altitude DCI caused by rapid decompression during an actual flight operation that was successfully treated through emergency HBO₂ therapy with the Hart-Kindwall protocol, a no-air-break tables with the minimal-pressure oxygen approach in a monoplace chamber due to unavailability of rapid access to a multiplace chamber. Read More

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Relationship between clinician documented blast exposure and pulmonary function: a retrospective chart review from a national specialty clinic.

Respir Res 2022 Jun 10;23(1):153. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Airborne Hazards and Burn Pits Center of Excellence, War Related Illness and Injury Study Center, VA New Jersey Health Care System, 385 Tremont Ave, East Orange, NJ, 07018, USA.

Background: Service member exposure to explosive blast overpressure waves is common with considerable attention to traumatic brain injury (TBI) and neuropsychological sequalae. Less is known about the impacts on the respiratory system, particularly long-term effects, despite vulnerability to overpressure. Using a national registry, we previously observed an independent relationship between self-reported blast exposure and respiratory symptoms; however, the impact on objective measures of pulmonary function is poorly understood. Read More

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The cause of acute lethality of mice exposed to a laser-induced shock wave to the brainstem.

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 8;12(1):9490. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Japan.

Air embolism is generally considered the most common cause of death within 1 h of a blast injury. Shock lung, respiratory arrest, and circulatory failure caused by vagal reflexes contribute to fatal injuries that lead to immediate death; however, informative mechanistic data are insufficient. Here we used a laser-induced shock wave (LISW) to determine the mechanism of acute fatalities associated with blast injuries. Read More

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Breath-Hold Diving-Related Decompression Sickness with Brain Involvement: From Neuroimaging to Pathophysiology.

Tomography 2022 04 19;8(3):1172-1183. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital Complex of Cartagena (Santa Lucia University Hospital-Santa María del Rosell University Hospital), 30202 Cartagena, Spain.

Central nervous system involvement related to decompression sickness (DCS) is a very rare complication of breath-hold diving. So far, it has been postulated that repeated dives with short surface intervals represent a key factor in the development of breath-holding-related DCS. We report the case of a breath-hold diver who, after repeated immersion, developed DCS with brain involvement. Read More

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Orofacial problems in scuba diving: prevalence and prevention-a large-scale survey among civilian divers in France.

Odontology 2022 May 30. Epub 2022 May 30.

Faculté de Chirurgie Dentaire, Université de Strasbourg, 8 Rue Ste Elisabeth, 67000, Strasbourg, France.

Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving is becoming widely democratized among hobbyist practitioners. It can cause orofacial problems, mostly linked to pressure changes. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of these problems and to analyze civilian divers' behavior about their dental prevention in France, via a cross-sectional study. Read More

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Decompression sickness in SCUBA divers.

Nursing 2022 Jun;52(6):32-34

Brittania Junes is an RN graduate from the California State University of Sacramento School of Nursing in May, where Christie Smart is an assistant professor and Bridget Parsh is a professor. Dr. Parsh is also a member of the Nursing2022 editorial board.

Abstract: There are approximately 2.8 million active self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) divers in the US who are at risk for decompression sickness. This article discusses the pathophysiology, common signs and symptoms, and treatments of this multisystem complication of SCUBA diving. Read More

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Study protocol for a single-centre randomised controlled trial to investigate the effect of lung recruitment in paediatric patients after cardiac surgery.

BMJ Open 2022 05 17;12(5):e063278. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Introduction: A number of published studies have revealed that lung recruitment can improve oxygenation, shorten the duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) and decrease mortality in adults with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure, especially patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, few articles have assessed lung recruitment in paediatric patients, especially after cardiac surgery. This clinical trial aimed to determine whether lung recruitment can reduce the duration of MV in paediatric patients with hypoxaemic respiratory failure after cardiac surgery. Read More

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Delayed recognition of Type II decompression sickness in a diver with chronic atrial fibrillation.

Undersea Hyperb Med 2022 Second Quarter;49(2):563-568

Duke University, Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology, Durham, North Carolina U.S.

Introduction: This case report describes an initially overlooked Type II decompression sickness (DCS) occurrence that was confused with a cerebral vascular accident in a patient with chronic atrial fibrillation (AF). The purpose of this case report is to reinforce the maxim that DCS needs to be suspected anytime a scuba diver experiences signs or symptoms compatible with DCS after completing a scuba dive.

Methods: A 71-year-old scuba diver with a history of AF and who was taking warfarin made four dives, all with maximum depths less than 60 fsw (20 msw) over a 10-hour interval. Read More

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Post-decompression bubble and inflammation interactions: a non-extensive dynamical system model.

Undersea Hyperb Med 2022 Second Quarter;49(2):207-226

Department of Physiology, Biosciences Institute, University of São Paulo.

Inert gas bubbles in tissues and in blood have been historically considered as the only triggering factors for DCS, but now many other factors are considered to affect the final outcome of a decompression profile for a certain individual. In this sense, inflammation seems to play a relevant role, not only due to the physical damage of tissues by the bubbles, but as a potentiator of the process as a whole. The present study aims to put forward a mathematical model of bubble formation associated with an inflammatory process related to decompression. Read More

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Pulmonary Barotrauma in a BUD/S Candidate Following Shallow Dives Using the MK 25 Rebreather.

Mil Med 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Critical Care, Naval Medical Center San Diego, San Diego, CA 92134, USA.

Pulmonary barotrauma of ascent is a well-recognized risk of compressed air diving in the civilian and military diving communities. Chest imaging is a beneficial adjunct to clinical evaluation in screening select individuals for fitness to dive, evaluating dive-related injuries, and safely returning individuals to diving duty. We present a case of a 26-year-old male U. Read More

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Mini Trampoline, a New and Promising Way of SCUBA Diving Preconditioning to Reduce Vascular Gas Emboli?

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 04 29;19(9). Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Environmental, Occupational, Aging (Integrative) Physiology Laboratory, Haute Ecole Bruxelles-Brabant (HE2B), 1180 Brussels, Belgium.

Despite evolution in decompression algorithms, decompression illness is still an issue nowadays. Reducing vascular gas emboli (VGE) production or preserving endothelial function by other means such as diving preconditioning is of great interest. Several methods have been tried, either mechanical, cardiovascular, desaturation aimed or biochemical, with encouraging results. Read More

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Barodontalgia and Dental Barotrauma Among Scuba Divers.


Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2022 May;93(5):539

Barometric pressure variation during dives may induce barodontalgia and barotrauma. Barodontalgia refers to oral pain resulting from a change in ambient pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of barodontalgia and dental barotrauma among French civilian scuba divers. Read More

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Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Awake Non-Intubated Patients With COVID-19 ARDS at High Risk for Barotrauma.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2022 Aug 17;36(8 Pt B):2975-2982. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

Division of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:

Objectives: To assess the efficacy of an awake venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) management strategy in preventing clinically relevant barotrauma in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) at high risk for pneumothorax (PNX)/pneumomediastinum (PMD), defined as the detection of the Macklin-like effect on chest computed tomography (CT) scan.

Design: A case series.

Setting: At the intensive care unit of a tertiary-care institution. Read More

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Post-COVID-19 pulmonary cavitation and tension pneumothorax in a non-ventilated patient.

J Family Med Prim Care 2022 Apr 18;11(4):1564-1567. Epub 2022 Mar 18.

Department of General Medicine, Patliputra Medical College and Hospital, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India.

Cavitation and pneumothorax are independently associated with high morbidity and mortality in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). While spontaneous (non-traumatic) pneumothorax formation has commonly been observed among mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients, there are few rare reports of COVID-19 associated pneumothorax without any history of barotrauma and other conventional risk factors. Here, we report a unique case of post-COVID-19 cavitation and tension pneumothorax which was further complicated by hydropneumothorax formation in a young patient who suffered severe COVID-19 pneumonia 4 weeks back. Read More

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Management of the Potential Lung Donor.

Thorac Surg Clin 2022 May;32(2):143-151

Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Neuromotorie, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

The use of donor management protocols has significantly improved recovery rates; however, the inherent instability of lungs after death results in low utilization rates of potential donor lungs. Donor lungs are susceptible to direct trauma, aspiration, neurogenic edema, ventilator-associated barotrauma, and ventilator-associated pneumonia. After irreversible brain injury and determination of futility of care, the goal of medical management of the donor shifts to maintaining hemodynamic stability and maximizing the likelihood of successful organ recovery. Read More

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Macklin effect on baseline chest CT scan accurately predicts barotrauma in COVID-19 patients.

Respir Med 2022 06 20;197:106853. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Department of Anesthesia e Critical Care Medicine, Cardiothoracic-Vascular Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Pisana, Italy.

Purpose: To validate the role of Macklin effect on chest CT imaging in predicting subsequent occurrence of pneumomediastinum/pneumothorax (PMD/PNX) in COVID-19 patients.

Materials And Methods: This is an observational, case-control study. Consecutive COVID-19 patients who underwent chest CT scan at hospital admission during the study time period (October 1st, 2020-April 31st, 2021) were identified. Read More

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Combat-Related Invasive Fungal Wound Infections.

Mil Med 2022 05;187(Suppl 2):34-41

Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Preventive Medicine & Biostatistics Department, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA.

Introduction: During Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan, an outbreak of combat-related invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) emerged among casualties with dismounted blast trauma and became a priority issue for the Military Health System.

Methods: In 2011, the Trauma Infectious Disease Outcomes Study (TIDOS) team led the Department of Defense IFI outbreak investigation to describe characteristics of IFIs among combat casualties and provide recommendations related to management of the disease. To support the outbreak investigation, existing IFI definitions and classifications utilized for immunocompromised patients were modified for use in epidemiologic research in a trauma population. Read More

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The Renin-Angiotensin System as a Component of Biotrauma in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

Front Physiol 2021 13;12:806062. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Department of Anesthesia, General Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a major concern in critical care medicine with a high mortality of over 30%. Injury to the lungs is caused not only by underlying pathological conditions such as pneumonia, sepsis, or trauma, but also by ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) resulting from high positive pressure levels and a high inspiratory oxygen fraction. Apart from mechanical factors that stress the lungs with a specific physical power and cause volutrauma and barotrauma, it is increasingly recognized that lung injury is further aggravated by biological mediators. Read More

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Imaging in paediatric blast injuries: musculoskeletal injuries in the Syrian Civil War.

Clin Radiol 2022 Jul 22;77(7):522-528. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Hatay Mustafa Kemal University, Antakya, Hatay Province, Turkey.

Aim: To examine the radiological images of children with musculoskeletal injuries and accompanying organ injuries caused by explosions to determine the differences and frequency of injury types and to emphasise the importance of radiology in war injuries.

Materials And Methods: Seventy-four children with injuries caused by bomb explosions were included in the study. The paediatric trauma scores evaluated in the emergency department on the first admission were recorded. Read More

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