196 results match your criteria Dynamic Reanimation for Facial Paralysis


Age-related outcome of facial reanimation surgery using cross face nerve graft and gracilis free functional muscle transfer-A retrospective cohort study.

Microsurgery 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University of Freiburg Medical Center, Medical Faculty of the University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Background: Free functional muscle transfer has become the criterion standard for the treatment of long-standing flaccid facial paralysis. Clinical experience suggests that a two-stage approach using a cross-face nerve graft (CFNG) as a donor nerve for free functional muscle transfers (FFMT) is less successful in older patients when compared to the pediatric population. However, clear data and scientific evidence are still rare. Read More

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Eye Sphincter Reanimation in Facial Paralysis: Evaluation, Indications, Techniques, and Outcomes.

Ann Plast Surg 2022 Apr 2. Epub 2022 Apr 2.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN.

Abstract: Facial nerve paralysis (FNP) sequela includes dysregulation of the ocular surface protective mechanism, nasolacrimal system pump failure and punctal eversion causing chronic epiphora, foreign body sensation, corneal injury, and, in the most severe cases, visual loss, particularly in the presence of comorbid corneal hypesthesia. Concerns over the ocular surface protection in FNP patients have led to the development of numerous static and dynamic procedures. While initial assessment of the FNP patients is complex and requires a comprehensive understanding of the blink reflex physiology, clinical evaluation and the use of additional work should be directed toward potential eye sphincter reanimation using a multidisciplinary approach. Read More

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A Historical Perspective on the Management of Facial Paralysis: From Ancient Civilizations to the Modern Era.

Ann Plast Surg 2022 05;88(5):473-478

Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN.

Abstract: Documented evidence of facial nerve paralysis (FNP) and its treatment have been discovered in many early civilizations dating back centuries. Early records are present in art and scripts across ancient civilizations and have laid the groundwork for the implementation of many managements used in modern practice. Although the current management of FNP is still evolving, it includes a complex and multimodal spectrum of options ranging from pharmacologic therapy to facial physical therapy and neuromuscular training, and surgical facial reanimation interventions via static and dynamic procedures. Read More

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Multiple Model Evaluation of the Masseteric-to-Facial Nerve Transfer for Reanimation of the Paralyzed Face and Quick Prognostic Prediction.

Front Surg 2022 15;9:735231. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Facial paralysis is negatively associated with functional, aesthetic, and psychosocial consequences. The masseteric-to-facial nerve transfer (MFNT) has many advantages in facial reanimation. The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of our MFNT technique and define the potential factors predictive of outcome. Read More

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Masseteric-to-facial nerve transfer combined with static suspension: Evaluation and validation of facial symmetry in patients with different levels of asymmetry.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2022 Feb 20. Epub 2022 Feb 20.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

One-stage combined dynamic reanimation with static suspension has obvious advantages of improving facial symmetry. In clinical observation, patients with different levels of oral commissure drooping achieve different symmetry outcomes, despite undergoing the same surgical procedure. Patients with slight asymmetry obtain better outcomes than those with severe asymmetry. Read More

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February 2022

[Stabilization and reanimation of the lower lip in facial palsy. Retrospective study about 66 patients and literature review. Proposition of a decision algorithm].

Ann Chir Plast Esthet 2022 Feb 2;67(1):20-25. Epub 2022 Feb 2.

Service de chirurgie plastique et reconstructive, Hopital Roger-Salengro, CHRU de Lille, Lille, France.

Several techniques for the stabilization and the reanimation of the paralyzed lower lip have been proposed, sometimes combined but the authors are rather vague. Thanks to our cases and a literature review, we suggest an algorithm. Sixty-six patients haven been reviewed. Read More

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February 2022

Sternocleidomastoid Muscle Transfer for Treatment of Longstanding Facial Paralysis: Long-term Outcomes and Complications.

In Vivo 2022 Jan-Feb;36(1):501-509

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, P.R. China;

Background/aim: The use of sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) flap for facial reanimation was established in the 1980s by the senior author of this paper. We aimed to analyze long-term outcome and complications of this procedure.

Patients And Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients undergoing SCM reanimation for longstanding facial palsy between January 2009 and December 2015. Read More

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January 2022

Dynamic Facial Reanimation in an Overweight Patient and with Significant Comorbidities: An Objective Analysis of Labbè Technique.

Surg J (N Y) 2021 Oct 15;7(4):e342-e346. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

FMUP - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, INEB - Instituto Nacional de Engenharia Biomédica, i3S - Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Porto, Portugal.

Gracilis free muscle transfer is considered the gold standard technique for facial reanimation in cases of facial palsy. However, it is limited by its long operative and recovery times, the need for a second surgical site, and its outcomes that can sometimes show midfacial bulk and oral commissure malposition. Facial reanimation with lengthening temporalis myoplasty (LTM)-Labbé technique- carries the advantage of having a shorter surgical time, a faster recovery, and being a less invasive surgery. Read More

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October 2021

End-to-Trunk Masseteric to Facial Nerve Transfer With Selective Neurectomy for Facial Reanimation.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Nov-Dec 01;32(8):2864-2866

The Center for Advanced Facial Plastic Surgery.

Objective: To examine functional outcomes following end-to-trunk masseteric to facial nerve transfer in patients with chronic flaccid facial paralysis.

Design: Retrospective chart review.

Setting: Tertiary-care private practice setting. Read More

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November 2021

Parametric Multi-Scale Modeling of the Zygomaticus Major and Minor: Implications for Facial Reanimation.

J Craniofac Surg 2022 Mar-Apr 01;33(2):701-706

Department of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract: Facial paralysis can severely impact functionality and mental health. Facial reanimation surgery can improve facial symmetry and movement. Zygomaticus minor (Zmin) and zygomaticus major (Zmaj) are 2 important perioral muscles, that function to elevate the upper lip, contributing to the formation of a smile. Read More

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Facial nerve paralysis: A review on the evolution of implantable prosthesis in restoring dynamic eye closure.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2022 Jan 20;75(1):248-257. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia; Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The Chris O'Brien Lifehouse, 119-143 Missenden Road, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia; Sydney Facial Nerve Service, The Chris O'Brien Lifehouse, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia; Central Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia.

Facial nerve paralysis (FNP) is a debilitating condition that leaves those affected with disfigurement and loss of function. The most important function of the facial nerve is protecting the eye through eye closure and blinking. A series of reanimation techniques have been reported to restore dynamic function in FNP, but the lack of a universally accepted method that is reliable and reproducible with immediate effect has led to the introduction of several implantable devices. Read More

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January 2022

Smile Outcomes of an Externally Scarless, Intraoral Orthodromic Temporalis Tendon Transfer.

Facial Plast Surg Aesthet Med 2022 Mar-Apr;24(2):83-88. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Division of Facial Plastics and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Temporalis tendon transfer (TTT often relies on external incisions in the nasolabial fold, temporal region, or both. Herein, we studied smile outcomes of a TTT technique via a single intraoral incision without external skin incisions. To measure the difference in static perioral positions before and after intraoral TTT. Read More

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An anatomical appraisal of dynamic muscle transfer of the orbicularis oculi muscle.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2022 Jan 13;75(1):258-264. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Consultant Head Neck and Facial Plastic Surgeon, Department of Plastic Surgery, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 4LPAssociate lecturer University of Queensland Medical School, Queensland, Australia.

Facial nerve palsy can cause significant distress for patients. We investigated the innervation of the orbicularis oculi muscle (OOM) and assessed the viability of unipedicle contralateral muscle transfer to restore symmetrical and spontaneous blinking. Cadaveric dissection and measurements were performed on lite fixed cadavers (n = 15). Read More

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January 2022

The Role of Gold Weight Implants in the Management of Paralytic Lagophthalmos.

Turk J Med Sci 2021 Jun 27. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Background/aim: The study aims to evaluate the usage of gold weight implants and monitor complaints and comfort of patients.

Methods: A hundred and ninety-one implantations performed between January 2009 and January 2019 were analyzed. Patient satisfaction was measured through telephone surveys. Read More

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Artificial Intelligence-Driven Video Analysis for Novel Outcome Measures After Smile Reanimation Surgery.

Facial Plast Surg Aesthet Med 2022 Mar-Apr;24(2):117-123. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University of Freiburg Medical Center, Medical Faculty of the University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Since facial paralysis is a dynamic condition, the analysis of still photographs is not sufficient for measurement of facial reanimation outcomes. This study aimed at evaluating an artificial intelligence (AI)-driven software as a novel video assessment tool for smile reanimation surgery and at comparing it with the Terzis score. Patients with facial paralysis undergoing smile reanimation surgery between January 2008 and April 2020 were eligible for this retrospective study. Read More

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Maximizing the Smile Symmetry in Facial Paralysis Reconstruction: An Algorithm Based on Twenty Years' Experience.

Facial Plast Surg 2021 Jun 1;37(3):360-369. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.

Over the last two decades, the senior author (B.H.) has had an extensive experience with facial paralysis reconstruction. Read More

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The sternohyoid muscle flap for new dynamic facial reanimation technique: Anatomical study and clinical results.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2021 Nov 20;74(11):3040-3047. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Otorhinolaryngology Service, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Spain.

Background: Long-term facial nerve palsy has a highly negative impact on patients' quality of life. In 2016, Alam reported one case of facial reanimation with the sternohyoid muscle after publishing a preclinical study in 2013. Despite the potentially ideal characteristics of this muscle for reanimation of facial palsy, this technique is still not widely used. Read More

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November 2021

[Masseter nerve-innervated free gracilis muscle transfer for smile reanimation in adults].

Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 May;56(5):465-470

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Beijing Aviation General Hospital, Beijing 100029, China.

To investigate the outcomes of masseter nerve-innervated free gracilis muscle transfer for smile reanimation in adults and to explore surgical indications. A retrospective chart review of 37 patients (11 males, 26 females, with (40.3±12. Read More

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Paediatric facial paralysis: An overview and insights into management.

J Paediatr Child Health 2021 06 13;57(6):786-790. Epub 2021 May 13.

The Welsh Centre of Burns and Plastic Surgery, Morriston Hospital, Swansea, United Kingdom.

The aim of this article is to provide an overview on paediatric facial paralysis, looking into aetiology, epidemiology, assessment and investigation and subsequent treatment options available. Facial paralysis describes the inability to activate the muscles of fascial expression. Overall, it affects 2. Read More

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The Chimeric Scapulodorsal Vascularized Latissimus Dorsi Nerve Flap for Immediate Reconstruction of Total Parotidectomy Defects With Facial Nerve Sacrifice: Building a New Program and Preliminary Results From 25 Cases.

Ann Plast Surg 2021 05;86(5S Suppl 3):S379-S383

Plastic Surgery Department, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France.

Background: Total parotidectomy with facial nerve sacrifice creates 2 challenging reconstructive problems: restoration of facial contour and facial nerve rehabilitation. Strong evidence suggesting that vascularized nerve grafts are superior to nonvascularized nerve grafts motivated our team to develop a chimeric scapulodorsal flap combining the usual harvestable local tissues with the vascularized latissimus dorsi motor nerve (SD-LDVxN). We present our experiences developing a new program at University of California, San Diego, highlighting our first case here, and present preliminary retrospective results focusing on the functional outcomes of facial nerve reanimation. Read More

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Lower Lip Reanimation: Experience Using the Anterior Belly of Digastric Muscle in 2-stage Procedure.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2021 Mar 15;9(3):e3461. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

St Andrew's Centre for Plastic Surgery & Burns, Broomfield Hospital, Chelmsford, United Kingdom.

Lower lip depression was historically regarded a neglected area of facial paralysis, but, with refinement of techniques, has gained increasing attention. We present the first detailed description and evaluation of a 2-stage technique, using first cross facial nerve graft and then the anterior belly of digastric muscle (ABDM), innervated by the cross facial nerve graft, to restore dynamic and spontaneous lower lip depression.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of 2-stage lower lip reanimations between 2010 and 2018 was performed. Read More

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Dynamic facial reanimation using active implantable prosthesis: Restoring blink.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2021 07 27;74(7):1633-1701. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia; Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The Chris O'Brien Lifehouse, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia; Sydney Facial Nerve Service, The Chris O'Brien Lifehouse, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia.

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Rehabilitation of facial palsy by the lengthening temporalis myoplastie: A case report.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2021 Feb 5;62:10-12. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Hassan II University of Casablanca, B.P 5696, Casablanca, Morocco.

Introduction: The lengthening temporalis myoplasty (LTM) is defined as a transfer of the entire temporal muscle from the coronoid process to the labial commissure reinserted into the orbicularis muscle.

Presentation Of Case: a 60-year-old man with grade III longstanding facial paralysis of the right hemi-face secondary to a right total parotidectomy. The surgery was performed for the rehabilitation of the right hemi-facial side by the lengthening temporalis myoplasty. Read More

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February 2021

Reliability Between In-Person and Still Photograph Assessment of Facial Function in Facial Paralysis Using the eFACE Facial Grading System.

Facial Plast Surg Aesthet Med 2021 09 16;23(5):344-349. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Assessing facial function using high-quality photographs would improve long-term and objective outcomes tracking in facial palsy, facilitate automated facial grading using artificial intelligence algorithms, and allow for remote follow up. To determine agreement between in-person and photographic electronic facial function scale (eFACE) assessments, and evaluate inter-rater reliability of photographic eFACE evaluation. Retrospective review of eFACE scores from in-person interviews and standardized photographs using the Massachusetts Eye and Ear (MEE) Standard Facial Palsy Dataset. Read More

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September 2021

A Novel Flap for Dynamic Reanimation of Facial Paralysis: Microvascular Sternohyoid Muscle Free Flap.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 04 29;79(4):925-931. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Associate professor and Head Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital "12 de Octubre", Madrid, Spain.

The main objectives of facial reanimation procedures include restoring facial symmetry at resting state and regaining facial mobility. Static procedures usually provide unsatisfactory results, especially in younger patients. For this reason, over the years, several different surgical alternatives based on autologous, locoregional, or muscle free flaps have been proposed. Read More

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Facial nerve management in patients with malignant skull base tumors.

J Neurooncol 2020 Dec 28;150(3):493-500. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Facial Paralysis Institute, Center for Advanced Facial Plastic Surgery, Beverly Hills, CA, USA.

Introduction: The course of the facial nerve through the cerebellopontine angle, temporal bone, and parotid gland puts the nerve at risk in cases of malignancy. In contrast to Bell's palsy, which presents with acute facial paralysis, malignancies cause gradual or fluctuating weakness.

Methods: We review malignancies affecting the facial nerve, including those involving the temporal bone, parotid gland, and cerebellopontine angle, in addition to metastatic disease. Read More

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December 2020

Evaluating Quality of Life After Facial Reanimation Using the Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale in a Series of Pediatric Patients.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 May;32(3):892-895

Division of Pediatric Plastic Surgery, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX.

Background: Facial palsy can have significant functional and psychological impact. Dynamic facial reanimation methods have provided means of restoration of smile. There remains a dearth of quality of life data in children. Read More

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Free Functional Gracilis Flaps for Facial Reanimation in Elderly Patients.

Facial Plast Surg Aesthet Med 2021 May-Jun;23(3):180-186. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

The free functional gracilis flap (FFGF) is a versatile procedure in reanimating the paralyzed face, yet its application in seniors is limited by perceptions of morbidity and inefficacy. The study objective was to compare the morbidity and effectiveness of FFGF reanimation among senior and younger patients. A retrospective chart review was performed on 20 consecutive patients aged 60 years and above (seniors) and 35 patients aged 40 years and below (juniors) who underwent FFGF for facial reanimation. Read More

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Age-dependent outcomes of Gillies and McLaughlin's dynamic muscle support in irreversible facial paralysis with up to 25-year follow-up.

J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2020 Sep 29;48(9):885-895. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Plastic and Aesthetic, Reconstructive and Hand Surgery at AGAPLESION Markus Hospital, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

The purpose of this study was to analyse the long-term outcomes of Gillies and McLaughlin's dynamic muscle support in patients with irreversible facial paralysis with regard to age-dependent outcomes of three different age groups. A retrospective single-centre study of 154 patients with surgical correction of irreversible facial paralysis that underwent either Gillies procedure or McLaughlin or a combination of both techniques between 1994-2018 was conducted. Gillies and McLaughlin's combination was performed in 69 cases and was the most commonly used procedure in middle-aged and older patients. Read More

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September 2020

Advances in facial nerve management in the head and neck cancer patient.

Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2020 Aug;28(4):235-240

Division of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to summarize best practices in facial nerve management for patients with head and neck cancer. In addition, we provide a review of recent literature on novel innovations and techniques in facial reanimation surgery.

Recent Findings: Although recommended when tumor ablation surgery requires facial nerve sacrifice, facial reanimation procedures are not always performed. Read More

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