1,443,249 results match your criteria Drugs: Education Prevention and Policy [Journal]


Worsening of disability caused by relapses in multiple sclerosis: A different approach.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2019 Apr 15;32:1-8. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry, Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Neurology, Danish Multiple Sclerosis Center Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: In multiple sclerosis (MS) the quantitative role of relapses in Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) worsening beyond the recovery phase is not well known. Most studies have examined the predictive role of early relapses in more distant endpoints. Relapses and worsening may be associated because they could be independent effects of the same underlying disease characteristics without causal relationship. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2019.04.017DOI Listing

Current status of small molecule drug development for Ebola virus and other filoviruses.

Curr Opin Virol 2019 Apr 16;35:42-56. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Georgia State University, United States. Electronic address:

The filovirus family includes some of the deadliest viruses known, including Ebola virus and Marburg virus. These viruses cause periodic outbreaks of severe disease that can be spread from person to person, making the filoviruses important public health threats. There remains a need for approved drugs that target all or most members of this virus family. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coviro.2019.03.001DOI Listing

'We are still obsessed by this idea of abstinence': A critical analysis of UK news media representations of proposals to introduce drug consumption rooms in Glasgow, UK.

Int J Drug Policy 2019 Apr 16;68:62-74. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Liverpool John Moores University, Public Health Institute, Exchange Station, Tithebarn Street, Liverpool. L2 2QP.

Background: Drug consumptions rooms (DCRs) are a well-established and evidence-based harm reduction response to drug use. Recently, a consortium led by health services in Glasgow, United Kingdom (UK), proposed piloting a DCR. In this article, we examine how the proposals were represented in news media reporting, and the possible effects of such reporting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2019.03.010DOI Listing

Personalizing therapy for older adults with acute myeloid leukemia: Role of geriatric assessment and genetic profiling.

Authors:
Vijaya Raj Bhatt

Cancer Treat Rev 2019 Apr 11;75:52-61. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, United States; Fred and Pamela Buffett Cancer Center, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, United States. Electronic address:

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) presents therapeutic challenges in older adults because of high-risk leukemia biology conferring chemoresistance, and poor functional status resulting in increased therapy-related toxicities. Recent FDA approval of 8 new drugs for AML has increased therapeutic armamentarium and also provides effective low-intensity treatment options. Rational therapy selection strategies that consider individual's risk of therapy-related toxicities and probability of disease control can maximize benefits of available treatments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctrv.2019.04.001DOI Listing

Evaluation of contingency management as a strategy to improve HCV linkage to care and treatment in persons attending needle and syringe programs: A pilot study.

Int J Drug Policy 2019 Apr 16;69:1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Division of General Internal Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, United States. Electronic address:

Background: A greater proportion of HCV-infected people who inject drugs (PWID) need to be linked to care for HCV antiviral treatment. This study sets out to evaluate the efficacy of contingency management (CM) for improving HCV linkage to care, treatment initiation, adherence, and cure for PWID recruited from a needle and syringe program.

Methods: Between March 2015 and April 2016, 20 participants were enrolled into the CM arm, and then subsequently enrolled 20 participants in the enhanced standard of care (eSOC) arm. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09553959193006
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2019.02.009DOI Listing
April 2019
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Influence of salbutamol on the anticonvulsant potency of the antiepileptic drugs in the maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice.

Pharmacol Rep 2019 Feb 8;71(3):466-472. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University, Lublin, Poland.

Background: β-Adrenergic receptor agonists are widely used agents in the treatment of asthma or preterm labor. Since prevalence of asthma was shown to be higher in patients with epilepsy and modulation of noradrenergic system activity may modify epilepsy course, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of salbutamol (SALB), one of the most commonly used β-adrenergic receptor agonist on the anticonvulsant potency of four classical antiepileptic drugs (AEDs): valproate (VPA), carbamazepine (CBZ), phenytoin (DPH) and phenobarbital (PB) in mice subjected to the maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures.

Methods: Seizures were caused by a current delivered through ear-clip electrodes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharep.2019.02.003DOI Listing
February 2019

Evidence for antinociceptive effects of combined administration of vitamin E and celecoxib in tail-flick and formalin test in male rats.

Pharmacol Rep 2019 Feb 12;71(3):457-464. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Neuroscience Research Center, Neuropharmacology Institute, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin E co-administration with celecoxib in thermal and inflammatory pain in two model of pain assessment including thermal tail flick test of acute pain and formalin induced inflammatory model in adult male rats.

Methods: Seventy two male Wistar rats were divided into a vehicle received intraperitoneally olive oil, indomethacin (20 mg/kg), vitamin E (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg), celecoxib (3, 10, 30 and 60 mg/kg) groups, and combination groups received the combination of vitamin E (100 and 200 mg/kg) and celecoxib (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg). All drugs were dissolved in olive oil. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharep.2019.02.005DOI Listing
February 2019

Stability and toxicity studies for duloxetine and econazole on Spirodela polyrhiza using chiral capillary electrophoresis.

J Hazard Mater 2019 Apr 5;374:203-210. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Departamento de Química Analítica, Química Física e Ingeniería Química, Universidad de Alcalá, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona Km. 33.600, 28871, Alcalá de Henares (Madrid), Spain; Instituto de Investigación Química Andrés M. del Río, Universidad de Alcalá, Ctra, Madrid-Barcelona Km. 33.600, 28871, Alcalá de Henares (Madrid), Spain. Electronic address:

Stability and toxicity studies for duloxetine and econazole were achieved using individual solutions and their mixtures. Stability of drugs racemates and enantiomers was investigated under abiotic and biotic conditions. Toxicity was evaluated for the first time on Spirodela polyrhiza. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.04.027DOI Listing

Distribution characteristics of microplastics in the seawater and sediment: A case study in Jiaozhou Bay, China.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Apr 3;674:27-35. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Marine Ecology Research Center, First Institute of Oceanology, Ministry of Natural Resources, Qingdao 266061, China; Laboratory of Marine Drugs and Bioproducts, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071, China. Electronic address:

As a newly identified form of pollutant in the ocean, microplastics are receiving more and more attention from researchers. In order to evaluate the potential impact of microplastics, it is important to have comprehensive knowledge of the current microplastic situation. This study analyzed the abundance, polymer type, size, shape and color of microplastics in the seawater and sediments of Jiaozhou Bay, China, a semi-enclosed bay highly affected by surrounding human activities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.008DOI Listing
April 2019
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Cisplatin: The first metal based anticancer drug.

Authors:
Sumit Ghosh

Bioorg Chem 2019 Apr 11;88:102925. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016, India. Electronic address:

Cisplatin or (SP-4-2)-diamminedichloridoplatinum(II) is one of the most potential and widely used drugs for the treatment of various solid cancers such as testicular, ovarian, head and neck, bladder, lung, cervical cancer, melanoma, lymphomas and several others. Cisplatin exerts anticancer activity via multiple mechanisms but its most acceptable mechanism involves generation of DNA lesions by interacting with purine bases on DNA followed by activation of several signal transduction pathways which finally lead to apoptosis. However, side effects and drug resistance are the two inherent challenges of cisplatin which limit its application and effectiveness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2019.102925DOI Listing
April 2019
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Removal of 5-fluorouracil by solar-driven photoelectrocatalytic oxidation using Ti/TiO(NT) photoelectrodes.

Water Res 2019 Apr 9;157:610-620. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Environmental Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, 80-308, Gdansk, Poland. Electronic address:

The efficient and safe degradation of drugs present in wastewater requires the design of a new material possessing high activity for that process. In addition to other methods, photoelectrocatalysis (PEC) merges the strengths of both photocatalytic and electrochemical methods, and the efficiency could be enhanced by the type of photoelectrode material. To address this challenge, three Ti/TiO nanotube-based photoelectrodes, differing in their tube morphology, were prepared by anodic oxidation and employed for the degradation of the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) drug by the PEC process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2019.04.010DOI Listing

Heme prevents highly amyloidogenic human calcitonin (hCT) aggregation: A potential new strategy for the clinical reuse of hCT.

J Inorg Biochem 2019 Apr 1;196:110686. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Bioinorganic Chemistry and Materia Medica, School of chemistry and chemical Engineering, Huazhong university of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Irreversible aggregation can extremely limit the bioavailability and therapeutic activity of peptide-based drugs. Thus, peptide fibrillation is an excellent challenge for biotechnological drug development. Human calcitonin (hCT) is such a peptide hormone known for its hypocalcaemic effect but has limited pharmaceutical potential due to a high tendency to aggregate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2019.03.026DOI Listing

A comparison of potential psychiatric drug interactions from six drug interaction database programs.

Psychiatry Res 2019 Mar 25;275:366-372. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

ChronoRecord Association, Fullerton, CA, USA.

Harmful drug-drug interactions (DDI) frequently include psychiatric drugs. Drug interaction database programs are viewed as a primary tool to alert physicians of potential DDI, but may provide different results as there is no standard to define DDI. This study compared the category of potential DDI provided by 6 commercial drug interaction database programs (3 subscription, 3 open access) for 100 drug interaction pairs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2019.03.041DOI Listing

Corrigendum to <'Synthesis and biological evaluation of 2,6-disubstituted-9H-purine, 2,4-disubstitued-thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine and -7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d] pyrimidine analogues as novel CHK1 inhibitors' [Eur. J. Med. Chem. 151 (2018) 836-848].

Eur J Med Chem 2019 Apr 16;173:184. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100191, China; State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Peking University, Beijing, 100191, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2019.04.011DOI Listing
April 2019
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Effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on markers of bone loss.

Psychiatry Res 2019 Apr 3;276:39-44. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Pharmaceutical Medicine, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062, India; Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062, India. Electronic address:

Several preclinical and clinical studies show that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's) are associated with bone loss and an increase in fracture risk, not many reports on their effect on bone turnover markers. This cross-sectional study evaluated the effect of SSRIs treatment on bone turnover markers in Indian population for the first time. Inclusion criteria were subjects of either sex and age 18-45 years undergoing treatment with an SSRI for at least 3 months, regardless of the indication. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2019.04.006DOI Listing

Honokiol for cancer therapeutics: A traditional medicine that can modulate multiple oncogenic targets.

Pharmacol Res 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Cancer Biology Laboratory and DBT-AIST International Laboratory for Advanced Biomedicine (DAILAB) Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam, 781039, India. Electronic address:

In spite of billions of dollars expended on cancer research every year, the incidence rate and the mortality rate due to this widespread disease has increased drastically over the last few decades. Recent reports from the World Health Organization advocate that overall global cancer burden and deaths due to cancer are expected to double by the next decade. Synthetic drugs developed as chemotherapeutics have repeatedly shown adverse side effects and development of chemoresistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2019.04.004DOI Listing
April 2019
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Long-term storage of PEGylated liposomal oxaliplatin with improved stability and long circulation times in vivo.

Int J Pharm 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University, 1-78-1, Sho-machi, Tokushima 770-8505, Japan. Electronic address:

Liposomal anticancer drugs have been developed with improved clinical effects and reduced side effects. We have developed a PEGylated liposomal formulation of oxaliplatin that has anticancer effects in animal models of colorectal cancer with a favorable toxicity profile. To move this formulation into clinical development, a formulation that is stable during long term storage is needed, which has similar pharmacokinetics and therapeutic activity against solid tumors to the original formulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.04.042DOI Listing

CD30 Aptamer-functionalized PEG-PLGA nanoparticles for the superior delivery of doxorubicin to anaplastic large cell lymphoma cells.

Int J Pharm 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

School of Biological Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China; Wenzhou Institute of Biomaterials and Engineering, CNITECH, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, 325001, PR China. Electronic address:

Nanoparticles (NPs) conjugated with aptamers have been extensively in recent years, which can efficiently target cancer cells that improve the therapeutic effect. Aptamers (Apt) are small oligonucleotide molecule ligands have specific high-affinity. In this work, we developed a PEG-PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulated with doxorubicin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.04.013DOI Listing

Multilayer nanoscale functionalisation to treat disorders and enhance regeneration of bone tissue.

Nanomedicine 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

School of Engineering, Newcastle University, Claremont Road, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The coatings application onto medical devices has experienced a continuous growth in the last few years. Medical device coating market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 5.16% to reach USD 10 million by 2023 due to the increasing geriatric population and the growing demand for continuous innovation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nano.2019.03.009DOI Listing

AGE-RELATED DEFICIT ACCUMULATION AND THE DISEASES OF AGEING.

Mech Ageing Dev 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada.

With ageing, the potency of individual risk factors traditionally associated with common illnesses declines. Instead, it is becoming clear that the impact of a wide range of age-related deficits not traditionally considered as risk factors for these illnesses increases. These age-related deficits chiefly confer risk as a group, not individually. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mad.2019.04.005DOI Listing

XPro1595 ameliorates bone cancer pain in rats via inhibiting p38-mediated glial cell activation and neuroinflammation in the spinal dorsal horn.

Brain Res Bull 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Human Anatomy, Histology and Embryology & K.K. Leung Brain Research Centre, Preclinical School of Medicine, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, PR China. Electronic address:

Bone cancer pain (BCP) profoundly compromises the life quality of patients with bone metastases. Severe side effects of the drugs which were widely used and effective in the various stages of this condition results in a huge challenge for BCP treatment. Here, we investigated the antinociceptive effects of XPro1595, a soluble tumor necrosis factor (solTNF) inhibitor with considerable immunoregulatory efficacy, on BCP, as well as the underlying mechanisms within the spinal dorsal horn (SDH). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2019.04.009DOI Listing

REPLY to MS#JAAD-D-19-0054 "Bullous pemphigoid and neuropsychiatric medications: An influence of drugs or of underlying conditions?"

J Am Acad Dermatol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

PEDEGO Research Unit, University of Oulu; Department of Dermatology and Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2019.04.025DOI Listing

Tissue engineered models of healthy and malignant human bone marrow.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Columbia University, New York, USA. Electronic address:

Tissue engineering is becoming increasingly successful in providing in vitro models of human tissues that can be used for ex vivo recapitulation of functional tissues as well as predictive testing of drug efficacy and safety. From simple tissue models to microphysiological platforms comprising multiple tissue types connected by vascular perfusion, these "tissues on a chip" are emerging as a fast track application for tissue engineering, with great potential for modeling diseases and supporting the development of new drugs and therapeutic targets. We focus here on tissue engineering of the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell compartment and the malignancies that develop in the human bone and bone marrow. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addr.2019.04.003DOI Listing

The orexin-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 reduces motivation, but not inhibitory control, in a rat stop signal task.

Brain Res 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Brain Health Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, USA.

There is considerable clinical interest in the neuropeptide orexin/hypocretin for its ability to regulate motivation and reward as well as arousal and wakefulness. For instance, antagonists for the orexin-1 receptor (OxR1) are thought to hold great promise for treating drug addiction and disorders associated with overeating, as these compounds repeatedly have been found to suppress seeking of various drugs of abuse as well as highly palatable foods in preclinical models. Given the hypothesized role of OxR1 signaling in cue-driven motivation, an outstanding question is whether pharmacologically blocking this receptor affects cognitive functioning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.04.017DOI Listing

Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of pilocarpine after eyelid skin application to rats.

J Pharm Sci 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences; Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai University, Saitama, Japan. Electronic address:

Extending the delivery of drugs into the eyes while reducing systemic bioavailability is of utmost importance in the management of chronic ocular diseases. Topical application onto the lower eyelid skin, as an alternative to eye drops, is seen to be a valuable strategy in the treatment of chronic eye diseases. To elucidate the critical value of delivering drugs in solution onto the eyeball through the eyelid skin, pharmacokinetic studies of pilocarpine were conducted, and the results were verified using a direct pharmacodynamic study in rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xphs.2019.04.012DOI Listing

Antileishmanial activity of H1-antihistamine drugs and cellular alterations in Leishmania (L.) infantum.

Acta Trop 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Center for Parasitology and Mycology, Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Leishmaniases are infectious diseases caused by protozoan parasites Leishmania and transmitted by sand flies. Drug repurposing is a therapeutic approach that has shown satisfactory results in their treatment. Analyses of antihistaminic drugs have revealed their in vitro and in vivo activity against trypanosomatids. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.04.017DOI Listing

Biophysical characterization of mycobacterial model membranes and their interaction with rifabutin: Towards lipid-guided drug screening in tuberculosis.

Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400076, India. Electronic address:

Lipid structure critically dictates the molecular interactions of drugs with membranes influencing passive diffusion, drug partitioning and accumulation, thereby underpinning a lipid-composition specific interplay. Spurring selective passive drug diffusion and uptake through membranes is an obvious solution to combat growing antibiotic resistance with minimized toxicities. However, the spectrum of complex mycobacterial lipids and lack thereof of suitable membrane platforms limits the understanding of mechanisms underlying drug-membrane interactions in tuberculosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamem.2019.04.004DOI Listing

Genetic silencing of striatal CaV1.3 prevents and ameliorates levodopa dyskinesia.

Mov Disord 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Translational Science & Molecular Medicine, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI, USA.

Background: Levodopa-induced dyskinesias are an often debilitating side effect of levodopa therapy in Parkinson's disease. Although up to 90% of individuals with PD develop this side effect, uniformly effective and well-tolerated antidyskinetic treatment remains a significant unmet need. The pathognomonic loss of striatal dopamine in PD results in dysregulation and disinhibition of striatal CaV1. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/mds.27695
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.27695DOI Listing
April 2019
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Structure and mechanism of TagA, a novel membrane-associated glycosyltransferase that produces wall teichoic acids in pathogenic bacteria.

PLoS Pathog 2019 Apr 19;15(4):e1007723. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, United States of America.

Staphylococcus aureus and other bacterial pathogens affix wall teichoic acids (WTAs) to their surface. These highly abundant anionic glycopolymers have critical functions in bacterial physiology and their susceptibility to β-lactam antibiotics. The membrane-associated TagA glycosyltransferase (GT) catalyzes the first-committed step in WTA biosynthesis and is a founding member of the WecB/TagA/CpsF GT family, more than 6,000 enzymes that synthesize a range of extracellular polysaccharides through a poorly understood mechanism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007723DOI Listing

Epidemiology of tuberculous lymphadenitis in Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0215647. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Introduction: Tuberculous lymphadenitis is the most frequent form of extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) and accounts for a considerable proportion of all EPTB cases. We conducted a systematic review of articles that described the epidemiological features of TBLN in Africa.

Methods: Any article that characterized TBLN cases with respect to demographic, exposure and clinical features were included. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215647PLOS

Aniracetam does not improve working memory in neurologically healthy pigeons.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0215612. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand.

Understanding the effects of cognitive enhancing drugs is an important area of research. Much of the research, however, has focused on restoring memory following some sort of disruption to the brain, such as damage or injections of scopolamine. Aniracetam is a positive AMPA-receptor modulator that has shown promise for improving memory under conditions when the brain has been damaged, but its effectiveness in improving memory in neurologically healthy subjects is unclear. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215612PLOS

Pleurotus ostreatus and Laetiporus sulphureus (Agaricomycetes): Possible Agents against Alzheimer and Parkinson Diseases.

Int J Med Mushrooms 2019 ;21(3):275-289

Institute of Botany and Botanical Garden "Jevremovac", Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, Takovska 43, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.

Previous studies showed that some mushrooms are highly efficient in inhibiting acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase, the increased activity of which can trigger the development of Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. Starting from the fact that free radicals at high concentrations could cause neurodegenerative disorders as well as great interest in new, natural antineurodegenerative drugs, the goal of this study was to determine the in vitro antioxidative and neuroprotective potentials of various Pleurotus ostreatus and Laetiporus sulphureus extracts. L. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2019030136DOI Listing
January 2019

Alternatives to (antipsychotic) medication in people with dementia.

Authors:
Aysha Mendes

Br J Nurs 2019 Apr;28(8):534

Freelance Journalist, specialising in healthcare, psychology and nursing.

, Freelance Journalist, specialising in healthcare, psychology and nursing, looks at ways of caring for people with dementia without the use of antipsychotic drugs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2019.28.8.534DOI Listing
April 2019
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Pediatric drug safety signal detection of non-chemotherapy drug-induced neutropenia and agranulocytosis using electronic healthcare records.

Expert Opin Drug Saf 2019 Apr 19:1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

a Clinical Research Center , National Center for Children's Health, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University , Beijing , China.

Objectives: This study aimed to develop a procedure to explore the adverse drug reaction signals of drug-induced neutropenia (DIN) or drug-induced agranulocytosis (DIA) in children using an electronic health records (EHRs) database.

Methods: A two-stage design was presented. First, the suspected drugs to induce DIN or DIA were selected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14740338.2019.1604682DOI Listing

Fuplatin: an Efficient and Low-toxic Dual-prodrug.

J Med Chem 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

As FDA-approved chemotherapeutic agents, cisplatin, oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil are widely used in clinic, but limited by severe side-effects. To ameliorate their respective defects, a series of "dual-prodrug" by linking oxoplatin and 5-FU, were designed and synthesized. The assembled compounds 10-17, named Fuplatin, exhibited much higher cytotoxicity against the tested cancer cells while lower toward the human normal lung cells than free drugs or their combinations. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b00128
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b00128DOI Listing
April 2019
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Diamondoid Frameworks via Supramolecular Coordination: Structural Characterization, Metallogel Formation, and Adsorption Study.

Inorg Chem 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Chemistry , University of Utah , Salt Lake City , Utah 84112 , United States.

Supramolecular coordination has been developed as an efficient tool to construct a variety of discrete metallacycles and metallacages with well-defined shapes and sizes. However, its application in framework construction has been barely exploited. In this paper, we report the direct synthesis of two diamondoid frameworks from a simple tetrahedral precursor, tetra(4-(4-pyridinyl)phenyl)methane, and two linear difunctional platinum(II) ligands via one-step supramolecular coordination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.9b00484DOI Listing

Managing costs and care for chronic idiopathic constipation.

Authors:
Dana McCormick

Am J Manag Care 2019 Mar;25(4 Suppl):S63-S69

Director of Pharmacy, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Texas, Richardson, TX. Email:

For decades, chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) has been one of the most common chronic functional gastrointestinal disorders encountered by clinicians. Common comorbidities include depression, diabetes, functional dyspepsia, hypothyroidism, overweight, obesity, and neurological disorders. CIC imposes a large economic burden on the American healthcare system with estimated costs of $1912 to $7522 in 2007 US dollars per patient per year. Read More

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March 2019
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Novel Measures of Benzodiazepine and Z-Drug Utilisation Trends in a Canadian Provincial Adult Population (2001-2016).

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2019 Jan 22;26(1):e22-e38. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

College of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba.

Purpose:  1) To evaluate trends for benzodiazepines (BZD) and Z-Drugs over 15-years in a general Canadian adult population measured by: a) consumption b) pharmacologic exposure c) dose intensity and d) prevalence of use. 2) To demonstrate the utility of Diazepam Milligram Equivalence (DME) based measurements when used in conjunction with traditional standard measurements of drug utilization such as the Defined Daily Dose (DDD) system.

Methods: Administrative data covering all prescriptions from April 2001-March 2016 for BZD and Z-Drugs for patients ≥18 years was used. Read More

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http://www.jptcp.com/index.php/jptcp/article/view/52
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.26.1.3DOI Listing
January 2019
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Clinically Significant Drug-Drug Interaction in a Large Antiretroviral Treatment Centre in Lagos, Nigeria.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2019 Jan 22;26(1):e1-e19. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

University of Lagos.

   Background: An important cause of treatment failure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the potential interaction between the antiretroviral (ARV) drugs and co-prescribed drugs used concomitantly for the treatment of opportunistic infections and co-morbid ailments in HIV-infected patients. Objectives: The study evaluated potential clinically significant drug interactions (CSDIs) occurring between recommended ART regimens and their co-prescribed non-antiretroviral drugs (CPD) Method: This study was carried out in a large HIV treatment centre (APIN clinic) in a Nigerian teaching hospital, in Lagos Nigeria, caring for over 20,000 registered patients. Electronic Medical Records (EMR) of 500 patients  who received treatment between 2005 and 2015, were selected using systematic random sampling, reviewed retrospectively, and evaluated for potential CSDIs using Liverpool HIV Pharmacology Database and other similar databases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.26.1.1DOI Listing
January 2019

An Overview of Genomic Biomarker Use in Cardiovascular Disease Clinical Trials.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Office of Clinical Pharmacology, Office of Translational Sciences, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.

Clinical trial designs targeting patient subgroups with certain genetic characteristics may enhance the efficiency of developing drugs for cardiovascular disease (CVD). To evaluate the extent to which genetic knowledge translates to the CVD pipeline, we analyzed how genomic biomarkers are utilized in trials. Phase 2 and 3 trial protocols for investigational new drugs for CVD and risk factors were evaluated for prospective and exploratory genomic biomarker use; drug targets were evaluated for the presence of evidence that genetic variations can impact CVD risk or drug response. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/cpt.1473
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.1473DOI Listing
April 2019
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Effect of electrochemotherapy with betulinic acid or cisplatin on regulation of heat shock proteins in metastatic human carcinoma cells in vitro.

Oncol Rep 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy with Division of Laboratory Diagnostics, Wroclaw Medical University, 50‑556 Wroclaw, Poland.

Betulinic acid (BTA) is naturally occurring triterpene that has received interest as a novel therapeutic substance with cytotoxicity towards a number of cancer cell lines. Despite the wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological effects, its effect may be limited its lipophobic properties. Therefore, strategies to improve the access of BTA to the cells are required to enhance the anticancer effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2019.7103DOI Listing

Synergistic effect of arsenic trioxide, vismodegib and temozolomide on glioblastoma.

Oncol Rep 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Medical Joint Materials, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890‑8520, Japan.

The treatment of glioblastoma is a critical health issue, owing to its resistance to chemotherapy. The current standard of treatment is surgical resection, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy and temozolomide treatment. Long‑term local treatment of glioblastoma is rarely achieved and the majority of the patients undergo relapse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2019.7100DOI Listing

Methylation of the promoter region of the MTRR gene in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Oncol Rep 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Key Laboratory of Preclinical Study for New Drugs of Gansu Province, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730030, P.R. China.

Epigenetic analysis of the association between the methylation status of the promoter region of the MTRR (5‑methyltetrahydrofolate‑homocysteine methyltransferase reductase) gene and the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children plays an important role in the early diagnosis, assessment of the malignant degree, treatment and evaluation of the risk of relapse and prognosis of the disease. In the present study, RT‑qPCR was used to detect the mRNA levels of the MTRR and MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) genes in the bone marrow of 20 ALL patients and 20 age‑ and sex‑matched controls with normal bone marrow. The methylation pattern of the MTRR promoter region in eligible DNA samples was quantitatively analyzed using MALDI‑TOF MS. Read More

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http://www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/or.2019.7114
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2019.7114DOI Listing
April 2019
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Propofol may increase caspase and MAPK pathways, and suppress the Akt pathway to induce apoptosis in MA‑10 mouse Leydig tumor cells.

Oncol Rep 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, R.O.C.

In the western world, there is an increasing trend of occurrence in testicular cancer. Treatment of malignant testicular cancer is primarily combined surgery with various chemical drugs. Propofol has been frequently used as an anesthetic and sedative induction agent, which could modulate different γ‑aminobutyric acid receptors in the central nervous system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2019.7129DOI Listing

Is the Sum Greater than its Parts? Variations in Substance-Related Consequences by Conjoint Alcohol-Marijuana Use Patterns.

J Psychoactive Drugs 2019 Apr 19:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

b Department of Psychology , Palo Alto University , Palo Alto , CA , USA.

Alcohol and marijuana are the most commonly used substances for college-attending young adults. This study evaluated differences in substance-specific consequence attribution by alcohol-marijuana use patterns (concurrent alcohol and marijuana [CAM; use of both substances, not at same time] and simultaneous [SAM; use of both, at same time]) as well as alcohol-only (AO). First-year college students with prior alcohol use (N = 610, 50. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2019.1599473DOI Listing

Association Between Secondary Prevention Medication Use and Outcomes in Frail Older Adults After Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2019 Apr;12(4):e004942

Division of Geriatrics, University of California, San Francisco and San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco (M.A.S., S.J.L.).

Background Secondary prevention medications are often not prescribed to frail, older adults following acute myocardial infarction, potentially because of the absence of data to support use, perceived lack of benefit, and concern over possible harms. We examined the effect of using more guideline-recommended medications after myocardial infarction on mortality, rehospitalization, and functional decline in the frailest and oldest segment of the US population-long-stay nursing home residents. Methods and Results We conducted a retrospective cohort study of nursing home residents aged ≥65 years using 2007 to 2010 national US Minimum Data Set clinical assessment data and Medicare claims. Read More

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https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.118.004
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.118.004942DOI Listing
April 2019
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Promising therapies for the treatment of frontotemporal dementia clinical phenotypes: from symptomatic to disease-modifying drugs.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2019 Apr 19:1-17. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

a Neurodegenerative Disease Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organs , University of Bari "Aldo Moro" , Bari , Italy.

Introduction: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a heterogeneous clinical entity that includes several disorders characterized by different cellular mechanisms. Distinctive clinical features in FTD include behavioral, affective, and cognitive symptoms. Unfortunately, little progress has been made over the past 20 years in terms of the development of effective disease-modifying drugs with the currently available symptomatic treatments having limited clinical utility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14656566.2019.1598377DOI Listing

[Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Heart Failure: Innovative Possibilities for Management of Prognosis].

Kardiologiia 2019 Apr 17;59(4):76-87. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Peoples Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University).

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has gone beyond the professional interests of one specialty. T2DM, cardiovascular (CV) diseases and chronic kidney disease, considered from the standpoint of a single cardio-reno-metabolic continuum, place a heavy economic burden on society. At the same time, the improvement of diagnostic methods and medical technologies led to distinct decrease in the frequency and mortality from a number of complications of T2DM, including myocardial infarction and stroke, but other states took their place. Read More

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https://lib.ossn.ru/jour/article/view/596
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18087/cardio.2019.4.10253DOI Listing
April 2019
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[Selection of Patients with Resistant Arterial Hypertension for the Catheter-Based Renal Sympathetic Denervation].

Kardiologiia 2019 Apr 16;59(4):21-25. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Samara State Medical University.

Purpose: elaboration of algorithm for selection of patients with resistant arterial hypertension (AH) for Catheter-Based Renal Sympathetic Denervation (CBRSD).

Materials And Methods: We examined 284 patients with resistant AH. On stage 1 we excluded most frequent causes of secondary AH. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18087/cardio.2019.4.10234DOI Listing

Dynamic expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 in the mouse spinal cord dorsal horn under pathological pain states.

Neurol Res 2019 Apr 19:1-11. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

a Department of Physiology, Laboratory of Pain Neurobiology, Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine , University of São Paulo , Ribeirão Preto , Brazil.

Objective: Animal models of chronic pain have demonstrated that glial cells are promising target for development of analgesic drugs. However, preclinical studies on glial response under chronic pain conditions vary depending on the cellular markers, the species used, the experimental design and model. Therefore, we investigate the expression profile of GFAP and Iba-1 during the behavioral manifestation of sensory disorder in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01616412.2019.1603804DOI Listing
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