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    Effect of Chemical Ratios of a Microbial-Based Feeding Attractant on Trap Catch of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).
    Environ Entomol 2017 May 22. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Oregon Department of Agriculture, Salem, OR 97301
    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, spotted wing drosophila, can be trapped with a feeding attractant based on wine and vinegar volatiles and consisting of acetic acid, ethanol, acetoin, and methionol. Using that four-component blend, we found that the catch of spotted wing drosophila increased with increases in the release rate of acetoin (from 0.5 mg/d to 34 mg/d) from polyethylene sachet dispensers, and with increases in the concentrations of acetic acid (from 0. Read More

    Epidemiology of adulthood drowning deaths in Bangladesh: Findings from a nationwide health and injury survey.
    F1000Res 2017 27;6:589. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Centre for Injury Prevention and Research, Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Background: Annual global death due to drowning accounts for 372,000 lives, 90% of which occur in low and middle income countries. Life in Bangladesh exposes adults and children to may water bodies for daily household needs, and as a result drowning is common. In Bangladesh, due to lack of systemic data collection, drowning among adults is unknown; most research is focused on childhood drowning. Read More

    Unintentional drowning: Role of medicinal drugs and alcohol.
    BMC Public Health 2017 May 19;17(1):388. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Department of Biomedicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Background: Alcohol is a well-known risk factor in unintentional drownings. Whereas psychotropic drugs, like alcohol, may cause psychomotor impairment and affect cognition, no detailed studies have focused on their association with drowning. Finland provides extensive post-mortem toxicological data for studies on drowning because of its high medico-legal autopsy rates. Read More

    Gender-based Assessment of Survival in Trauma-hemorrhagic Shock: A Retrospective Analysis of Indian Population.
    Indian J Crit Care Med 2017 Apr;21(4):218-223
    Department of Emergency Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    Introduction: Trauma-hemorrhagic shock (THS) is a leading cause of death. Female rats and women experience better outcomes in terms of survival after major trauma as compared to males. There are limited data in Indian population. Read More

    The involvement of alcohol in hospital-treated self-harm and associated factors: findings from two national registries.
    J Public Health (Oxf) 2017 May 12:1-7. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College Cork, Cork, T12 XF62, Ireland.
    Background: Alcohol is often involved in hospital-treated self-harm. Therefore it is important to establish the role of alcohol in self-harm as well as to identify associated factors, in order to best inform service provision.

    Methods: Data on self-harm presentations to hospital emergency departments in Ireland and Northern Ireland from April 2012 to December 2013 were analysed. Read More

    Caregiver Supervision Practices and Risk of Childhood Unintentional Injury Mortality in Bangladesh.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017 May 11;14(5). Epub 2017 May 11.
    Centre for Injury Prevention and Research, Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka 1206, Bangladesh.
    Unintentional injury-related mortality rate, including drowning among children under five, is disproportionately higher in low- and middle-income countries. The evidence links lapse of supervision with childhood unintentional injury deaths. We determined the relationship between caregiver supervision and unintentional injury mortality among children under five in rural Bangladesh. Read More

    Pediatric Drowning: A Standard Operating Procedure to Aid the Prehospital Management of Pediatric Cardiac Arrest Resulting From Submersion.
    Pediatr Emerg Care 2017 May 8. Epub 2017 May 8.
    From the *Cardiff University School of Medicine; †Institute of Medicine Education, Cardiff, Wales; ‡St Anne's College, University of Oxford, Oxford, England; §Department of Cardiology, St George's Hospital, Tooting, London; and ∥Emergency Medical Retrieval and Transfer Service, Llanelli, Wales, United Kingdom.
    Objectives: Drowning is one of the leading causes of death in children. Resuscitating a child following submersion is a high-pressure situation, and standard operating procedures can reduce error. Currently, the Resuscitation Council UK guidance does not include a standard operating procedure on pediatric drowning. Read More

    Drowning fatalities in childhood: the role of pre-existing medical conditions.
    Arch Dis Child 2017 May 8. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Royal Life Saving Society - Australia, Broadway, New South Wales, Australia.
    Objectives: This study is an analysis of the contribution of pre-existing medical conditions to unintentional fatal child (0-14 years) drowning and a of critique prevention stratagems, with an exploration of issues of equity in recreation.

    Design: This study is a total population, cross-sectional audit of all demographic, forensic and on-site situational details surrounding unintentional fatal drowning of children 0-14 years in Australia for the period of 1 July 2002 to 30 June 2012. Data were sourced from the National (Australia) Coronial Information System. Read More

    Losartan, a selective antagonist of AT1 receptor, attenuates seawater inhalation induced lung injury via modulating JAK2/STATs and apoptosis in rat.
    Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2017 May 5. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Department of Respiration, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, 710038, PR China. Electronic address:
    Losartan is a selective antagonist of AngⅠ type (AT1) receptor of Angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ), which is widely used as a clinical medicine for the hypertension. Recent studies have shown that losartan was shown to protect from acute lung injury (ALI). However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Read More

    The epidemiology of drowning in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.
    BMC Public Health 2017 May 8;17(1):413. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Boston Medical Center, Boston, USA.
    Background: According to the World Health Organization, drowning is the 3rd leading cause of unintentional injury-related deaths worldwide, accounting for 370,000 annual deaths and 7% of all injury-related deaths. Low- and middle-income countries are the most affected, accounting for 91% of unintentional drowning deaths.

    Methods: The authors performed a systematic review of literature indexed in EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Traumatology journals formerly indexed in PubMed in January 2014 and again in September 2016. Read More

    High ratio plasma resuscitation does not improve survival in pediatric trauma patients.
    J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2017 May 6. Epub 2017 May 6.
    1Division of Traumatology, Surgical Critical Care & Emergency Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 2David Grant Medical Center, Travis Air Force Base, CA 3Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 4Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 5Department of Pediatrics, San Antonio Military Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, TX 6Department of Pediatric Surgery, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Emory University, Atlanta, GA.
    Background: Damage control resuscitation (DCR) including balanced resuscitation with high ratios of plasma (PLAS) and platelets (PLT) to packed red blood cells (PRBC) improves survival in adult patients. We sought to evaluate the effect of a high ratio PLAS to PRBC resuscitation strategy in massively transfused pediatric patients with combat injuries.

    Methods: The Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DoDTR) was queried from 2001-2013 for pediatric trauma patients (<18 years). Read More

    The Most Effective Methods for Delivering Severe Weather Early Warnings to Fishermen on Lake Victoria.
    PLoS Curr 2017 Feb 22;9. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Department of Physics, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
    Introduction: It is estimated that five thousand people die on Lake Victoria every year by drowning which is triggered by severe weather hazards like lightning. Objectives:  In order to improve predictability of severe weather conditions on Lake Victoria, there is need to deliver timely and effective Severe Weather Early Warning Systems (SWEWS) to those at risk. On Lake Victoria, previous SWEW service trials ceased with the end of the funding grants. Read More

    Epidemiology of Drowning in Bangladesh: An Update.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017 May 5;14(5). Epub 2017 May 5.
    Johns Hopkins International Injury Research Unit, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.
    Over one-quarter of deaths among 1-4 year-olds in Bangladesh were due to drowning in 2003, and the proportion increased to 42% in 2011. This study describes the current burden and risk factors for drowning across all demographics in rural Bangladesh. A household survey was carried out in 51 union parishads of rural Bangladesh between June and November 2013, covering 1. Read More

    Forensic Case Reports Presenting Immersion Pulmonary Edema as a Differential Diagnosis in Fatal Diving Accidents.
    J Forensic Sci 2017 May 2. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Hyperbaric Medicine Centre, Department of Anesthesiology and Surgery, Head and Orthopedic Centre, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Immersion Pulmonary Edema (IPE) reduces the transport of gases over the respiratory membrane due to edema in the interstitium and respiratory zones. IPE has previously been described in both swimmers and divers, with a few known fatal cases. We have reviewed 42 SCUBA and snorkeling-related drowning deaths, and through a thorough analysis of each case, including both diving physiology and forensic pathology, we present IPE as a differential diagnosis to drowning in four cases. Read More

    Seawater drowning-associated pneumonia: a 10-year descriptive cohort in intensive care unit.
    Ann Intensive Care 2017 Dec 26;7(1):45. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Service de Réanimation Médicale, Hôpital l'Archet 1, CHU de Nice, 151 Route Saint Antoine de Ginestière, CS 23079, 06202, Nice Cedex 3, France.
    Background: Pneumonia is one of the major complications of drowning, but the optimal empirical antibiotic treatment is not clearly defined. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria and fungi have been identified in a recent series of freshwater drowning-associated pneumonia. However, microbial data in seawater drowning are scarce. Read More

    Learning to swim: role of gender, age and practice in Latino children, ages 3-14.
    Inj Prev 2017 Apr 26. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
    Objective: We evaluate the effectiveness of a swim skill acquisition intervention among Latino youths, ages 3-14, a minority population at increased risk of drowning.

    Methods: Parents were recruited through community institutions to have their children participate in group swim lessons. Each child's swim ability was assessed at baseline, and they were then exposed to swim lessons over an 8-week period, taught by trained professionals. Read More

    [Near-Drowning with Good Outcome after ECMO-Therapy and Therapeutic Hypothermia Despite 20 Minutes of Anoxia and 16 Hours of Hypoxia].
    Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2017 Apr 21;142(8):596-600. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    Klinik für Kardiologie und Angiologie I, Universitäts-Herzzentrum Freiburg-Bad Krozingen.
    Introduction Drowning with submersion over 10 minutes is associated with a high mortality. Here, we present a case, in which a good neurological outcome was achieved after interdisciplinary, intensive care therapy despite submersion of 20 minutes followed by 16 hours of hypoxia. History A 19 year old man drowned in fresh-water. Read More

    Use of life jackets and other types of flotation for in-water recreation in designated swim areas in Washington State.
    Inj Prev 2017 Apr 19. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Community Benefit, Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, Washington, USA.
    Most fatal drownings worldwide occur in open water. Flotation devices may protect swimmers. Their use by those recreating in water has not been described. Read More

    Tool for decision-making regarding general evacuation during a rapid river flood.
    Public Health 2017 May 23;146:134-139. Epub 2017 Feb 23.
    Public Health Centre Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Objectives: To propose a simple and effective tool for decision-making regarding general evacuation during a rapid river flood.

    Study Design: Virtual testing of a tool in a real event.

    Method: A four-component tool was applied to build an alternative scenario of the catastrophic river flood in Obrenovac, Serbia, on May 2014. Read More

    Sudden Death Phenomenon While Bathing in Japan - Mortality Data.
    Circ J 2017 Apr 8. Epub 2017 Apr 8.
    Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine.
    Background: Bath-related sudden cardiac arrest frequently occurs in Japan, but the mortality data have not been sufficiently reported.Methods and Results:This prospective cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the Tokyo Metropolis, Saga Prefecture and Yamagata Prefecture between October 2012 and March 2013 (i.e. Read More

    Recovery of deceased scuba divers from within flooded subterranean caves.
    Forensic Sci Int 2017 Jun 27;275:167-170. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
    Dive Rite, High Springs, Florida, USA.
    Each year in the US three divers, on average, perish inside flooded caves and their remains require recovery. Recovery is a hazardous undertaking often performed by members of the International Underwater Cave Rescue and Recovery (IUCRR) team, in collaboration with local law enforcement and medical examiners/coroners. Since forming in 1999 the IUCRR have established standard recovery procedures for cave diving fatalities. Read More

    Bystander CPR is associated with improved neurologically favourable survival in cardiac arrest following drowning.
    Resuscitation 2017 Jun 4;115:39-43. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, 3401 Civic Center Blvd., Philadelphia, PA 19104-4399, United States.
    Background: Cardiac arrest associated with drowning is a major public health concern with limited research available on outcome. This investigation aims to define the population at risk, and identify factors associated with neurologically favourable survival.

    Methods: The Cardiac Arrest Registry for Enhanced Survival (CARES) database was queried for patients who had suffered cardiac arrest following drowning between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2015. Read More

    Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy Among Patients With Benign Childhood Epilepsy With Centrotemporal Spikes.
    JAMA Neurol 2017 Apr 3. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    Department of Neurology, New York University School of Medicine, New York.
    Importance: Children with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) have traditionally been considered to have a uniformly good prognosis. However, benign may be a misnomer because BECTS is linked to cognitive deficits, a more severe phenotype with intractable seizures, and the potential for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP).

    Objective: To determine if cases of BECTS are present in the North American SUDEP Registry (NASR). Read More

    Drowning in swimming pools: clinical features and safety recommendations based on a study of descriptive records by emergency medical services attending to 995 calls.
    Singapore Med J 2017 Apr 3. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    Medical Department, HQ Singapore Civil Defence Force, Singapore.
    Introduction: This study was a descriptive analysis of national ambulance case records, aimed at making practical safety recommendations in order to reduce the incidence of drowning in swimming pools.

    Methods: A search was performed on a national database of descriptive summaries by first responder paramedics of all 995 calls made to the Singapore Civil Defence Force between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2014. We included all cases of submersion in both public and private pools for which emergency medical services were activated. Read More

    SUDEP: The First Case Series in Turkey.
    Noro Psikiyatr Ars 2016 Mar 1;53(1):67-71. Epub 2016 Mar 1.
    Department of Neurology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.
    Introduction: Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is defined as the sudden, unexpected, witnessed or unwitnessed, non-traumatic, and non-drowning death of patients with epilepsy with or without evidence of a seizure, excluding documented status epilepticus, and in whom postmortem examinations do not reveal a toxicological or anatomic cause for death. In this study, data on patients who passed away under observation in the epilepsy clinic due to sudden, unexpected death have been compiled, and we also aim to emphasize the importance of SUDEP in Turkey.

    Methods: This study was performed with a total of nine cases. Read More

    Continuous chest compression versus interrupted chest compression for cardiopulmonary resuscitation of non-asphyxial out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 Mar 27;3:CD010134. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
    Cochrane China, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 37, Guo Xue Xiang, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, 610041.
    Background: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a major cause of death worldwide. Cardiac arrest can be subdivided into asphyxial and non asphyxial etiologies. An asphyxia arrest is caused by lack of oxygen in the blood and occurs in drowning and choking victims and in other circumstances. Read More

    Can Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Predict the Clinical Outcome in Drowned Children?
    Can Assoc Radiol J 2017 May 24;68(2):217-223. Epub 2017 Mar 24.
    Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Introduction: Pediatric cerebral hypoxic-ischemic injury frequently results in severe neurological outcome. Imaging with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWi) demonstrates that the acute cerebral injury and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) allow the assessment of the severity of brain damage. The main objective was to examine if spatial distribution of reductions in ADC values is associated with clinical outcome in drowned children. Read More

    Clinical Characteristics of Stroke Occurring while Bathing.
    J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2017 Mar 21. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
    Department of Neurology, Saiseikai Utsunomiya Hospital, Utsunomiya, Japan.
    Background: Stroke can occur during any human activity. Although cardiac arrests or drowning accidents while bathing have been studied extensively, there are few studies focusing on stroke occurring while bathing. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the clinical characteristics of stroke occurring while bathing and the association between stroke and drowning accidents. Read More

    Intramyocardial bronchogenic cyst: histological appearance and a review of the literature.
    Cardiovasc Pathol 2017 May - Jun;28:64-67. Epub 2017 Mar 12.
    Department of Pathology, Kouseiren Takaoka Hospital, Takaoka, Toyama, Japan.
    We report histological appearance of a bronchogenic cyst that was incidentally found in a 78-year-old man who died from drowning related to a traumatic accident. The cyst was found in the posterior edge of the interventricular septum and was monolocular with a 5-mm diameter. The cystic wall was not associated with cartilage or the smooth muscle layer, and was lined by ciliated respiratory epithelium. Read More

    Injury Mortality in Individuals With Autism.
    Am J Public Health 2017 May 21;107(5):791-793. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
    All of the authors are with the Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY. Guohua Li is also with the Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons, New York.
    Objectives: To examine epidemiological patterns of injury fatalities in individuals with a diagnosis of autism.

    Methods: We identified individuals with a diagnosis of autism who died between 1999 and 2014 by screening causes of death in the multiple cause-of-death data files in the National Vital Statistics System based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, code F84.0. Read More

    Diatoms in drowning cases in forensic veterinary context: a preliminary study.
    Int J Legal Med 2017 Mar 17. Epub 2017 Mar 17.
    Institute of Public Health, Section of Legal Medicine, Università Cattolica S.Cuore, L.go F. Vito 1, 00168, Rome, Italy.
    In this preliminary study, a digestive method used in forensic context to extract diatoms has been applied in organs taken from ten wildlife animals belonging three species of mammals (a deer, a roe and five otters) and one species of birds (two magpies). Only four carcasses were recovered from aquatic environments (bath trough for animals, bathtub irrigation, river) and only in three cases out of ten that the cause of death was ruled out as drowning. In seven cases, the death was due to other causes: gunshot injuries for one otter, blunt trauma for a magpie, and traumatic injuries followed by motor vehicle collision in other four otters and a roe. Read More

    The Neoarchaean surficial sulphur cycle: An alternative hypothesis based on analogies with 20th-century atmospheric lead.
    Geobiology 2017 May 16;15(3):385-400. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Department of Geology, School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    We revisit the S-isotope systematics of sedimentary pyrite in a shaly limestone from the ca. 2.52 Ga Gamohaan Formation, Upper Campbellrand Subgroup, Transvaal, South Africa. Read More

    Soldier Readiness Processing: Time for a New Paradigm in Managing Musculoskeletal Injuries After Deployment?
    Mil Med 2017 Mar;182(3):e1569-e1574
    Madigan Army Medical Center, Building 9040, Fitzsimmons Drive, JBLM, Tacoma, WA, 98391.
    Background: The drowning impact that musculoskeletal injuries (MSI) have on Soldier readiness, deployability, and escalating health care costs is growing. These injuries are associated with approximately 25 million lost duty days each year. The need to curb costs and improve efficacy and efficiency of health care delivery is pressing. Read More

    Pediatric cardiac arrest due to drowning and other respiratory etiologies: Neurobehavioral outcomes in initially comatose children.
    Resuscitation 2017 Jun 6;115:178-184. Epub 2017 Mar 6.
    University of Michigan, United States.
    Aim: To describe the 1-year neurobehavioral outcome of survivors of cardiac arrest secondary to drowning, compared with other respiratory etiologies, in children enrolled in the Therapeutic Hypothermia after Pediatric Cardiac Arrest Out-of-Hospital (THAPCA-OH) trial.

    Methods: Exploratory analysis of survivors (ages 1-18 years) who received chest compressions for ≥2min, were comatose, and required mechanical ventilation after return of circulation (ROC). Participants recruited from 27 pediatric intensive care units in North America received targeted temperature management [therapeutic hypothermia (33°C) or therapeutic normothermia (36. Read More

    Diagnosis of drowning: Electrolytes and total protein in sphenoid sinus liquid.
    Forensic Sci Int 2017 Apr 24;273:102-105. Epub 2017 Feb 24.
    Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office, Tokyo Metropolitan Government, Tokyo, Japan.
    In this study, electrolyte (sodium (Na), chlorine (Cl), and magnesium (Mg)) and total protein (TP) concentrations and volume of liquid in the sphenoid sinus were examined to determine their usefulness to elucidate whether drowning occurred in freshwater or seawater. We examined 68 cases (seawater drowning group: 27 cases, freshwater drowning group: 21 cases, non-drowning group: 20 cases). There was a significant difference in Na, Cl, Mg, and TP concentrations of liquid in the sphenoid sinus among the three groups (seawater drowning, freshwater drowning, and non-drowning groups). Read More

    Drowning deaths between 1861 and 2000 in Victoria, Australia.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Mar 21;95(3):174-181. Epub 2016 Nov 21.
    Department of Forensic Medicine, Monash University, 65 Kavanagh Street, Southbank, Victoria, 3006 Australia .
    Objective: To identify the long-term patterns of drowning mortality in the state of Victoria, Australia, and to describe the historical context in which the decrease occurred.

    Methods: We obtained data on drowning deaths and population statistics from the Australian Bureau of Statistics and its predecessors for the period 1861 to 2000. From these data, we calculated drowning death rates per 100 000 population per year, by gender and age. Read More

    Epidemiology of drowning deaths in the Philippines, 1980 to 2011.
    Western Pac Surveill Response J 2016 Oct-Dec;7(4):1-5. Epub 2016 Nov 8.
    Department of Health Promotion and Education, College of Public Health, University of the Philippines Manila.
    Drowning kills 372 000 people yearly worldwide and is a serious public health issue in the Philippines. This study aims to determine if the drowning death rates in the Philippine Health Statistics (PHS) reports from 1980 to 2011 were underestimated. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted to describe the trend of deaths caused by drowning in the Philippines from official and unofficial sources in the period 1980 to 2011. Read More

    Fatal accidents at work in agriculture associated with alcohol intoxication in Lower Silesia in Poland.
    Med Pr 2017 Feb 17;68(1):23-30. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Wroclaw Medical University / Uniwersytet Medyczny we Wrocławiu, Wrocław, Poland (Faculty of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical Law Unit / Wydział Lekarski, Katedra Medycyny Sądowej, Zakład Prawa Medycznego).
    Background: Determining the prevalence of alcohol intoxication and the level of intoxication in victims of fatal occupational accidents is necessary to improve work safety. The circumstances of the accident and the time between alcohol consumption and death are important factors.

    Material And Methods: A retrospective review of 18 935 medico-legal autopsy reports and toxicological reports performed in the Department of Forensic Medicine at the Wroclaw Medical University, Poland, in the years 1991-2014. Read More

    Habituation of the cold shock response is inhibited by repeated anxiety: Implications for safety behaviour on accidental cold water immersions.
    Physiol Behav 2017 May 24;174:10-17. Epub 2017 Feb 24.
    University of Portsmouth, Extreme Environments Laboratory, Department of Sport and Exercise Science, Spinnaker Building, Cambridge Road, Portsmouth, UK. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Accidental cold-water immersion (CWI) triggers the life-threatening cold shock response (CSR) which is a precursor to sudden death on immersion. One practical means of reducing the CSR is to induce an habituation by undergoing repeated short CWIs. Habituation of the CSR is known to be partially reversed by the concomitant experience of acute anxiety, raising the possibility that repeated anxiety could prevent CSR habituation; we tested this hypothesis. Read More

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