5,568 results match your criteria Drowning


Calculating the economic burden of fatal drowning in Australia.

J Safety Res 2018 Dec 21;67:57-63. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Royal Life Saving Society - Australia, Broadway, NSW, Australia.

Background: Aquatic activities provide physical and social benefits, while the risk of drowning generates countervailing social costs. Drawing on estimates of fatal drowning gathered by Royal Life Saving Society - Australia, this paper outlines a method for estimating the economic burden attributable to fatal drowning.

Methods: This study estimated the burden of fatal drowning by combining Value of a Statistical Life Year (VSLY), hospitalization, productivity and emergency services costs. Read More

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December 2018

Tongue position and its relation to the cause of death and sequential stages of body decomposition observed during 608 forensic post-mortems.

Int J Legal Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Statistics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

The purpose of this study was to document tongue position and its relation to the cause of death and sequential stages of body decomposition, as observed during the routine forensic pathological examination of bodies. The sample of 608 included all bodies examined by the first and third authors during the period April 2016 to September 2016. Tongue position was recorded in all cases where position of the tongue could be visually determined. Read More

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December 2018

Estimating drowning mortality in Tanzania: a systematic review and meta-analysis of existing data sources.

Inj Prev 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Centre for Maternal Adolescent Reproductive and Child Health (MARCH), London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: The WHO advocates a 7-step process to enable countries to develop and implement drowning prevention strategies. We sought to assess, using existing data sources, the drowning situation in Tanzania as a first step in this process.

Methods: We searched for data on causes of death in Tanzania by reviewing existing literature and global datasets and by in-country networking. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

A new look at survival times during cold water immersion.

J Therm Biol 2018 Dec 18;78:100-105. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Laboratory for Exercise and Environmental Medicine, 108 Frank Kennedy, Faculty of Kinesiology and Recreation Management, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3T 2N2.

This paper presents an expanded dataset for survival times during cold water immersion. In 1946, the first set of human data for cold water survival was derived from the US Navy medical reports during WWII. Although this is the largest and most widely used data source, it has only 23 data points and immersion times are less than 5. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Drowning in ethics for low-risk data: is this best for patients?

BJU Int 2018 Nov;122 Suppl 5

Department of Surgery, Austin Hospital and Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic., Australia.

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November 2018
4 Reads

The complex contains a single gene that controls bristle development in the semi-aquatic bugs.

Proc Biol Sci 2018 Nov 28;285(1892). Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5242, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 46 allée d'Italie, 69364 Lyon, France

The semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera, Gerromorpha) conquered water surfaces worldwide and diversified to occupy puddles, ponds, streams, lakes, mangroves and even oceans. Critical to this lifestyle is the evolution of sets of hairs that allow these insects to maintain their body weight on the water surface and protect the animals against wetting and drowning. In addition, the legs of these insects are equipped with various grooming combs that are important for cleaning and tidying the hair layers for optimal functional efficiency. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Understanding the full burden of drowning: a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of fatal and non-fatal drowning in Australia.

BMJ Open 2018 Nov 24;8(11):e024868. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Royal Life Saving Society-Australia, Broadway, New South Wales, Australia.

Objectives: The epidemiology of fatal drowning is increasingly understood. By contrast, there is relatively little population-level research on non-fatal drowning. This study compares data on fatal and non-fatal drowning in Australia, identifying differences in outcomes to guide identification of the best practice in minimising the lethality of exposure to drowning. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Status of drowning in Nepal: A study of central police data.

F1000Res 2018 14;7:576. Epub 2018 May 14.

Centre for Child and Adolescent Health, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK.

:  Drowning is a serious and mostly preventable injury-related cause of death. Low-and-middle income countries represent over 90% of total drowning deaths worldwide. There is lack of epidemiological studies of drowning in Nepal. Read More

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May 2018
2 Reads

Fatal drowning in the Western Cape, South Africa: a 7-year retrospective, epidemiological study.

Inj Prev 2018 Nov 24. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Violence, Injury and Peace Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council-University of South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa.

Introduction: Drowning is a neglected public health threat in low-income and middle-income countries where the greatest drowning burden is observed. There is a paucity of drowning surveillance data from low-resource settings, particularly in Africa. Understanding local epidemiological factors will enable the development of context-specific drowning prevention initiatives and the appropriate allocation of resources. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Application of Specific Fragment Length Polymorphism of Algae rDNA in Identification of Drowning Cases.

Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2018 Oct 25;34(5):516-519. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Institute of Criminal Science and Technology, Nanjing Public Security Bureau, Nanjing 210012, China.

Objectives: To identify the drop-off location of victims in drowning cases, and confirm whether it is a fatal drowning or the victim is thrown into the water after death by detecting part of 5.8S sequence and second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) (5.8S+ITS2) of diatom rDNA in water and organs. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Can pulmonary foam arise after postmortem submersion in water? An animal experimental pilot study.

J Forensic Leg Med 2018 Nov 10;61:40-44. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Amsterdam Public Health Service, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

It is difficult to differentiate drowning from postmortem submersion. Pulmonary foam can be found in bodies retrieved from water. It is unknown whether foam is a result of drowning or if it also forms after postmortem submersion. Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

Pediatric and adolescent injury in aquatic adventure sports.

Res Sports Med 2018 ;26(sup1):20-37

a Injury Monitoring and Prevention , Divers Alert Network , Durham , NC , USA.

Drowning is a leading cause of death in children. Each year there are thousands of injuries in children, some fatal, associated with aquatic adventure sports. Personal water craft rapidly accelerate children to high velocities, as does being towed behind boats on skis or tubes, whereupon children have no control of their speed or direction. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

The effect of bi-annual community-directed treatment with ivermectin on the incidence of epilepsy in onchocerciasis endemic villages in South Sudan: a study protocol.

Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Nov 14;7(1):112. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, Kinsbergen Centrum, Doornstraat 331, 2610, Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: Nodding syndrome (NS) is a devastating epileptic illness of unknown aetiology mainly affecting children 5-15 years of age. Head nodding distinguishes NS from other forms of epilepsy. Other manifestations of the illness include mental and physical growth retardation. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Effects of postmortem positional changes on conjunctival petechiae.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2018 Nov 3. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Department of Legal Medicine, Osaka City University Medical School, Asahi-machi 1-4-3, Abeno, Osaka, 545-8585, Japan.

The present study aimed to determine whether postmortem period, physical constitution, cause of death, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation are associated with positional changes in the postmortem appearance of conjunctival petechiae. We retrospectively investigated serial forensic autopsies from 6 h to 6 days postmortem (n = 442; male, 303; female, 139; median age, 62 years; range, 0-100 years). The causes of death were sharp instrument injury, blunt force trauma, fire, intoxication, asphyxia, drowning, hypothermia, hyperthermia, acute heart failure, and natural causes. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Epidemiology of alcohol-related unintentional drowning: is post-mortem ethanol production a real challenge?

Inj Epidemiol 2018 Nov 1;5(1):39. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Biomedicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Turku, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, 20520, Turku, Finland.

Background: Post-mortem (PM) ethanol production may hamper the interpretation of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in victims of drowning. Different exclusion criteria (e.g. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

[Temporal pattern of postmortem color changes in the pupil region of the cornea in rabbits].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2018 Sep;38(10):1266-1269

Department of Forensic Medicine, Criminal Investigation Police University of China, Shenyang 110035, China.

Objective: To explore the temporal pattern of postmortem color changes in the pupil region of the cornea for noninvasive estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI).

Methods: Two rabbit models of air embolism and drowning were established in a dark room at a temperature of 20 ℃ with a relative humidity of 30%. The corneal images of the rabbits were acquired using a digital camera at two-hour intervals within 72 h after death. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

Applying a developmental lens to examine injury mortality in young people in Australia, 2001-2013.

Health Promot J Austr 2018 Oct 25. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Australian Institute of Health Innovation, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Issue Addressed: As injuries are preventable, understanding the age profile of specific injury mechanisms is critical for developing injury prevention strategies. This study examined the profile and temporal trends of injury mortality of young people aged ≤24 years in Australia across developmental life stages.

Method: A retrospective analysis of injury deaths of young people aged ≤24 years was conducted using closed cases from the National Coronial Information System during 2001-2013. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Vanishing racial disparities in drowning in Florida.

Inj Prev 2018 Oct 23. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department of Sociology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Objectives: To examine the change in the racial disparity in drowning in Florida from 1970 to 2015 and to analyse the contextual factors associated with white, black and Hispanic drowning rates in Florida from 2007 to 2015.

Methods: Our outcome variable is county-level annual drowning rates by race, ethnicity, sex and age group. We computed county-level contextual data, including emergency weather events, temperature, extreme weather, number of pools, quality of pools, coastline, swimming participation rates and prominent black competitive swim teams. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Extracorporeal life support in the emergency department: A narrative review for the emergency physician.

Resuscitation 2018 Dec 15;133:108-117. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71103, USA.

Background: Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) describes the use of blood perfusion devices to provide advanced cardiac or respiratory support. Advances in percutaneous vascular cannula insertion, centrifugal pump technologies, and the miniaturization of extracorporeal devices have simplified ECLS. The intention of this discussion is to review the role of ECLS as a potential rescue method for emergency department (ED) clinicians in critical clinical scenarios and to focus on the prerequisites for managing an ECLS program in an ED setting. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

Prognostic value of continuous electroencephalography in children undergoing therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest: A pilot study.

Neurophysiol Clin 2018 Oct 12. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Division of pulmonary and critical care, department of pediatrics, faculty of medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand.

Objective: To determine the prognostic value of continuous electroencephalography (EEG) in children undergoing therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest.

Method: We retrospectively reviewed medical records and continuous EEG of all patients undergoing therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest from November 2013 to September 2016. Demographic, clinical data and immediate complications were collected. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

The characteristics of all-terrain vehicle (ATV)-related deaths: A forensic autopsy data-based study.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2018 12 11;14(4):509-514. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Ave SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Using forensic autopsy-based data from a regional medical examiner office in the midwestern U.S. with a mixed small urban-rural population, we describe the characteristics of all-terrain vehicle (ATV)-related deaths occurring between 2000 and 2018. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

The association between school holidays and unintentional fatal drowning among children and adolescents aged 5-17 years.

J Paediatr Child Health 2018 Oct 9. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Royal Life Saving Society - Australia, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Aim: Children aged 5-17 years in Australia have one of the lowest unintentional fatal drowning rates. One possible explanation is the protective effect of formal schooling, reducing leisure time for exposure to water hazards. We examine differences in frequency and circumstances of drowning deaths in this age group between school holidays and school days in Australia. Read More

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October 2018

Apostle Islands National Lakeshore: A Review of Search and Rescue and Emergency Medical Services Operations, 2006-2015.

Wilderness Environ Med 2018 Dec 4;29(4):463-470. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Colorado, Denver, CO (Dr Young).

Introduction: Apostle Islands National Lakeshore (APIS) lies at the northern tip of Wisconsin and is home to a network of 21 islands along Lake Superior. The goal of this report is to investigate search and rescue (SAR) and emergency medical services (EMS) trends at APIS in an effort to improve visitor safety and resource allocation.

Methods: This study is a retrospective analysis reviewing APIS SAR reports and annual EMS summary reports from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2015. Read More

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December 2018
9 Reads

: An Emerging Fatal Cause of Fungal Abscess and Ventriculitis after Near-drowning.

Asian J Neurosurg 2018 Jul-Sep;13(3):792-796

Department of Neurosurgery, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Herein, we describe a fatal case of central nervous system (CNS) pseudallescheriasis following near-drowning. A 13-year-old boy, who had been successfully resuscitated after near-drowning, presented with a transient episode of mental confusion during a hospital stay after recovering from severe aspiration pneumonia and respiratory failure. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the brain showed a small brain abscess in the left basal ganglia and ventriculitis in the left lateral ventricle. Read More

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October 2018
12 Reads

Update: Accidental drownings and near drownings, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2013-2017.

MSMR 2018 Sep;25(9):15-19

Service members are at risk for unintentional drownings or near drownings during training, occupational activities, and off-duty recreation. During 2013-2017, there were 359 incident accidental drowning episodes (includes drownings and near drownings) for a crude rate of 5.7 cases per 100,000 person-years. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Automated External Defibrillator Application Before EMS Arrival in Pediatric Cardiac Arrests.

Pediatrics 2018 Oct;142(4)

Division of Pediatric Cardiology,

Background: Little is known about the predictors of pre-emergency medical service (EMS) automated external defibrillator (AED) application in pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. We sought to determine patient- and neighborhood-level characteristics associated with pre-EMS AED application in the pediatric population.

Methods: We reviewed prospectively collected data from the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival on pediatric patients (age >1 to ≤18 years old) who had out-of-hospital nontraumatic arrest (2013-2015). Read More

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October 2018
7 Reads

The impact and understanding of childhood drowning by a community in West Bengal, India, and the suggested preventive measures.

Acta Paediatr 2018 Sep 25. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

The George Institute for Global Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Aim: Our aim was to improve our understanding of the contextual factors contributing to child drowning in rural West Bengal, India.

Methods: This 2017 study used interviews, focus groups and observations and the participants included community leaders, household heads, parents and children aged 7-17 years from three remote villages. They included adults and children who had been directly affected by the loss of family members or friends. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

Sediment starvation destroys New York City marshes' resistance to sea level rise.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 10 24;115(41):10281-10286. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY 10025.

New York City (NYC) is representative of many vulnerable coastal urban populations, infrastructures, and economies threatened by global sea level rise. The steady loss of marshes in NYC's Jamaica Bay is typical of many urban estuaries worldwide. Essential to the restoration and preservation of these key wetlands is an understanding of their sedimentation. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Bathtub drowning mortality among older adults in Japan.

Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot 2018 Sep 21:1-5. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

c NCKU Research Center for Health Data and Department of Public Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University , Tainan , Taiwan.

We examined the bathtub drowning mortality among older adults in Japan. Mortality data from Japan and 30 other Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries were extracted from World Health Organization Cause of Death Query Online. During 2012-2014, unintentional drowning mortality rates in Japan were 9. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Benefits of Computed Tomography in Reducing Mortality in Emergency Medicine.

Open Med (Wars) 2018 14;13:394-401. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Department of Public Health, Health Management and Policy, Nara Medical University, Nara, Japan.

Performing accurate diagnosis using computed tomography (CT) in emergency medicine may reduce mortality rates in various diseases. In this observational, correlational and cross-sectional study, we conducted multiple regression analyses to investigate the relationship between CT utilization rates and mortality. In addition, we estimated the annual net profits from CT to show the profitability of introducing a CT system in each Japanese prefecture. Read More

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September 2018
5 Reads

Selfies: A boon or bane?

J Family Med Prim Care 2018 Jul-Aug;7(4):828-831

Community and Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Background: Selfie deaths have become an emerging problem and we performed this study to assess the epidemiology of selfie-related deaths across the globe.

Subject And Methods: We performed a comprehensive search for keywords such as "selfie deaths; selfie accidents; selfie mortality; self photography deaths; koolfie deaths; mobile death/accidents" from news reports to gather information regarding selfie deaths.

Results: From October 2011 to November 2017, there have been 259 deaths while clicking selfies in 137 incidents. Read More

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September 2018
5 Reads

[Pre-travel advice for the Hungarian pilgrims of El Camino. Travel risks and instructions].

Authors:
Péter Felkai

Orv Hetil 2018 Sep;159(38):1535-1542

Belgyógyászati Intézet, Anyagcsere-betegségek Tanszék, Utazásorvostani Tanszéki Csoport, Debreceni Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar Debrecen.

The Way of St. James (El Camino) is getting more and more popular. Analysis of the age groups of the pilgrims shows that the number of young pilgrims (30< years) is decreasing, but the number of middle-aged people (30-60 years) is slightly increasing, while the number of elderly people (>60 years) has considerably increased. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

[« Doctor, my child swallowed water, can he die from dry drowning ? » An update on drowning in 2018].

Rev Med Suisse 2018 Sep;14(617):1565-1567

Fondation Urgences Santé (FUS), Rue Dr César-Roux 29, 1005 Lausanne.

Drowning is a significant and neglected public health problem mostly affecting young children. The definition of drowning has recently been modified and the notions of « dry drowning », « secondary drowning » and « near drowning » are no longer accepted or used. However, recent articles in the media describing dry drowning of children have been reported. Read More

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September 2018
6 Reads

[Near-drowning associated Aeromonas pneumonia].

Rev Mal Respir 2018 Nov 13;35(9):959-962. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Service de pneumologie et oncologie thoracique, CHU de Caen, centre régional de compétence des HTAP sévères, 14033 Caen, France.

Introduction: Aeromonas pneumonia associated with near-drowning, though uncommon, is serious and a major morbidity factor for patients.

Clinical Case: A healthy 30-year-old man nearly drowned in a pound. He was admitted to the medical intensive care unit and required intubation and mechanical ventilation. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Risk of drowning in people with Parkinson's disease.

Mov Disord 2018 Sep 12;33(9):1507-1508. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Lisbon, Portugal.

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September 2018
3 Reads

A Case of Near-Fatal Drowning Caused by an Attack from a Wild Boar.

Wilderness Environ Med 2018 Dec 9;29(4):549-551. Epub 2018 Sep 9.

Department of Acute Critical Care Medicine, Shizuoka Hospital, Juntendo University, Shizuoka, Japan.

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December 2018
2 Reads

Long-term change in bioconstruction potential of Maldivian coral reefs following extreme climate anomalies.

Glob Chang Biol 2018 12 12;24(12):5629-5641. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

DiSTAV, Department of Earth, Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

Global climate change has increased the frequency and intensity of extreme heat anomalies and consequent mass coral bleaching events. Long-term dynamics of hard coral cover, bioconstruction potential, carbonate deposition, and reef accretion was monitored over a 20-year period on Maldivian coral reefs in order to investigate the effects of high-temperature anomalies on coral reef accretion and their recovery potential. Changes experienced by shallow reefs between 1997 and 2017 were evaluated by considering five different bioconstructional guilds and the BioConstruction Potential index (BCP), a proxy for the constructional capacity of reefs. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Forensic thanatology and the pink tooth phenomenon: From the lack of relation with the cause of death to a potential evidence of cadaveric decomposition in dental autopsies - Case series.

Forensic Sci Int 2018 Oct 18;291:e8-e12. Epub 2018 Aug 18.

Department of Forensic Anthropology and Odontology, Scientific State Police, Goiania, Brazil; Department of Forensic Odontology, Federal University of Goias, Goiania, Brazil.

Forensic thanatology comprises the investigation of every phenomenon related to death performed through cadaveric exams. The pink tooth phenomenon (PTP) emerges as a thanatological finding registered during medical or dental autopsy. The PTP consists of a reddish or pink coloration caused in the teeth by the penetration of pulpal hemoglobin in the dentinal tubules. Read More

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October 2018
9 Reads

Clinical characteristics of elderly drowning patients.

Am J Emerg Med 2018 Aug 29. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Department of Emergency Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Purpose: Drowning is one of the major causes of traumatic death. The impact of drowning in the elderly and patients who were not elderly will be different because of physiological differences. We wanted to analyze the clinical differences such as mortality, incidence rate of complications, degree of hypothermia and rate of cardiac arrest between elderly and adult drowning patients. Read More

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August 2018
9 Reads

Drowning Management.

Mil Med 2018 Sep;183(suppl_2):172-179

Joint Trauma System, 3698 Chambers Pass, Joint Base San Antonio, Fort Sam Houston, TX.

Highly skilled swimmers and aquatically adaptable service members such as U.S. Navy Divers, Sea, Air and Land (SEAL) Teams, and Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) technicians, die every year from drowning. Read More

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September 2018
3 Reads

The forensic spleen: Morphological, radiological, and toxicological investigations.

Forensic Sci Int 2018 Oct 18;291:94-99. Epub 2018 Aug 18.

Department of Forensic Pathology, LabPLUS, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland 1148, New Zealand.

The spleen is infrequently investigated in forensic pathology routine. Thorough examinations are performed in very specific situations such as splenic trauma (including iatrogenic trauma from cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempts), anaphylaxis-related deaths, drowning and sepsis. The purpose of this review article is to provide a general overview of available literature focusing on a few selected splenic diseases as well as available forensic investigation techniques performed on the spleen in order to summarize the most frequent situations of forensic interest in which this routinely unexplored organ may merit more extensive examination. Read More

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October 2018
8 Reads

The predictive ability of childhood animal cruelty methods for later interpersonal crimes.

Behav Sci Law 2018 Aug 31. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Tennessee Bureau of Investigation, Nashville, TN, USA.

Research on the topic of childhood animal cruelty methods and their link to interpersonal violence is sparse. Most of the studies that do exist focus only on the frequencies of different methods of childhood animal cruelty. Only two studies to date have examined the predictive nature of these methods for later violence toward humans. Read More

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August 2018
13 Reads